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Classification Taxonomy (P495-497) Binomial nomenclature o Developed by Linnaeus o Every organism is identified by a two part name; genus and specific epithet (humans = Homo sapiens) These are always written in italics with the first word capitalized and the second lower case (two most specific organization categories) Genus = highly related but do not always interbreed Species = individuals that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring o Made up of 5 kingdoms: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Domain Broadest category Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Most Specific category

Domains New classification category recently instated Allows for the grouping of kingdoms that share similar basic characteristics Bacteria Membrane bound organelles Peptidoglycan in cell walls Introns No Yes No Archaea No No Yes Eukaryotes Yes No Yes

Kingdoms Monera Ch27­ single celled prokaryotes o Lack membrane bound organelles (no internal membranes) o Can be aerobic and anaerobic (have various nutritional modes P538-539) o Important decomposers (big role in nutrient cycling) o Major cause of disease P545-546 HIV, Tuberculosis, Lyme disease, Salmonella, Anthrax, Leprosy o Often form symbiotic relationships P545

mutualism = both benefit commensalism = one benefits other is not harmed parasitism = one benefits other is harmed o Used in bioremediation P546 o Ex: bacteria, blue-green algae, viruses, and Archaea (sometimes in a separate kingdom) Archaea ­ live in extremely harsh environments (thermophiles, halophiles, methanogens P541-544) Protista Ch28­ consists of a wide variety of eukaryotic organisms because they cannot be classified elsewhere o Includes singled celled and primitive multicellular organisms o Can be autotrophs or heterotrophs o Can be mobile through cilia, flagella, pseudopodia, or contractile vacuoles o Have a wide range of physical forms (may use alternation of generations) o Ex: amoeba, paramecium, euglena, diatoms, golden algae, brown algae (edible seaweeds), slime molds, red algae (seaweeds), green algae (some are seaweeds), pond scum o Major cause of disease and environmental misfortune Giardia P552 (death by diarrhea), Trichomonas P553 (vaginal infection), Trypanosoma P553-554 (African sleeping sickness), Malaria P555, Dysentery P564 Red Tide P555- due to Dinoflagellates (chokes out all the fish) Potato blight P558 ­ turns stalk and stem to black slime (Irish Famine of the 19th century) Fungi Ch31­ heterotrophic eukaryotes o Perform extracellular digestion (secrete hydrolytic enzymes outside of the body onto a food source then absorb the nutrients by diffusion) o Important decomposers in the ecosystem (grow virtually anywhere) o Have cell walls made of chitin (also found in insect exoskeletons) o Basic body structure Hyphae ­ network of tiny filaments, site of spore production (the part you see) Mycelium ­ filamentous mass that infiltrates the substrate, feeding apparatus that maximizes surface area ratio (root-like system you don't see) can spread for miles in some cases (fairy ring) o Ex: yeast (single celled), molds, mushrooms, lichens (smybionts), puffballs o Can cause severe medical conditions Ringworm, athletes foot, lung conditions (black mold BAD), vaginal infections (usually yeast), smut on corn Ergotism ­ affects rye, if consumed can cause gangrene, nervous spams, burning sensations, and hallucinations (ergots produce lysergic acid ­ the raw material in LSD) o Have many uses in the pharmaceutical and food industries

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Plantae ­ autotrophic eukaryotes o Much More Later Animalia ­ Heterotrophic, multicellular eukaryotes o Most reproduce sexually with a dominant diploid stage o 9 main phyla: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata o Much More Later

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Germ Layers (Classification by development) Embryos early in gestation form a ball-like mass of cells (blastula) comprised of specialized layers (these are the initial stages of major tissues) o Ectoderm ­ develops into the skin and nervous system o Endoderm ­ develops into the viscera and digestive system o Mesoderm ­ develops into blood and bone Primitive animals that lack the mesoderm layer are referred to as diploblastic More advanced animals containing all three are called triploblastic

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Symmetry (Classification by appearance) Bilateral - body form where a central longitudinal plane divides the body into equal but opposite halves (each side mirrors the other = balanced) o Usually advanced animals with a developed head region o Ex. Mammals Radial - body form with may equal parts radiating outward from a central point line the spokes of a wheel o Ex. Most Cnidarians (jelly fish) Asymmetry - no symmetry, amorphous o Ex. Sponges

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Internal arrangement Coelom ­ a true, fluid-filled body cavity completely lined with mesoderm tissue o Provides space for organ systems o Develops after blastula formation Protostome ­ mouth forms first from the blastopore Primitive Ex. Annelids, mollusks, and arthropods Deuterostome ­ anus forms first from the blastopore Advanced Ex. Chordates, echinoderms

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Acoelmate ­ triploblastic with solid bodies o Has no cavity between digestive tract and outer body wall o Ex. Platyhelminthes Pseudocoelmate - the body cavity is only partly lined by mesoderm tissue o Ex. Nematodes

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Kingdom Animalia Phylums Porifera ­ Sponges (Latin "porous") o No true tissues o Massive colony of cells that display a small amount of specialization in loosely arranged layers o Sessile (do not move) o Can have various body forms o Filter feeders that draw water into a central cavity called the spongocoel Choanocytes ­ (collar cells) line the internal body cavity and circulate water using flagella Spicules ­ tiny filaments that make up the skeletal structure of a spone o may be made of silica or calcium o used in conjunction with spongin (collagen) Amoebocytes ­ play roles in reproduction, food distribution to nonfeeding cells, and formation of spicules Cnidarians ­ Jelly fish (Greek "nettle" to cause stinging pain sensations) o Radial symmetry with various shape accents o Body plan: polyp (hydra ­ stuck to surface), or medusa (free floating jelly fish) o Diploblastic Gastrovascular cavity ­ site of extracellular digestion Cnidocytes ­ stinging cells Nematocysts ­ stingers (barbs) that deliver neurotoxins o Ex. Hydra, jelly fish, sea anemones, coral Platyhelminthes ­ Flatworms (Greek platy "flat", helminth "worm") o Protostome o Acoelmate ­ triploblastic with bilateral symmetry o Have anterior (Latin "before") and posterior (Latin "after") designations with eyespots on the head o Extremely flat body plan Cells are in direct or close contact with the environment o Most are parasitic o Ex. Planarians, tape worms, liver flukes (sushi issues) Nematodes ­ Roundworms (Greek nema "thread", ode "like")

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o Bilateral symmetry o Psuedocoelom ­ transports nutrients and body fluids (no circulatory system) Acts as a hydrostatic skeleton (facilitates movement by hydraulics) o Many are parasitic o Ex. Elephantitiasis (uncooked beef), Trichinosis (uncooked pork) Annelida ­ Segmented worms (Latin anellus "little ring") o Protostome Coelmates o Have nephridia on each segment to remove urea (nitrogen waste) o Closed circulatory system with a heart made up of 5 pairs of aortic arches o Respiratory gases diffuse through moist skin (slimy) o Uses blood with hemoglobin o Hermaphrodites that do not self fertilize o Ex. Earthworm, leach Mollusca ­ Soft bodied (Latin mollis "soft") o Protostome coelmates o The soft body is protected by a shell in many species o Bilateral body plan includes head, foot, visceral mass, and mantle (part that attaches to the shell if there is one) Radula ­ tooth-bearing strap-like tongue organ used for rasping while feeding Open circulatory system with blood filled spaces called hemocoels Most have gills and nephridia Ex. Squid, octopuses, slugs, snails, and claims Echinoderms ­ Sea stars and sea urchins (Latin "spiny skinned") o Deuterostome coelmates o Most are sessile o Bilateral as an embryo, radial symmetry displayed in adult o Reproduces by fragmentation and regeneration o Hard exoskeleton expands as the animal grows, does not have to be replaced Chordates ­ all that have a notochord ­ advanced animals (Latin chorda "cord") o Deuterostome coelmates o Notochord ­ a flexible rod that runs the length of the body, acts as a flexible axis Becomes the vertebral column in many species Important for muscle attachment o Have hollow dorsal nerve cords o Ex. Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals Birds and mammals are hemotherms (warm blooded)

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Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Chordata, Class Mammalia Mothers nourish offspring with milk from mammary glands (various sizes and locations) Are hemeotherms Have hair or fur Placental mammals ­ young completes development internally in a uterus and are attached to the mother through a placenta (gas and nutrient exchange) (humans) Marsupials ­ young completes development in a pouch that houses the mothers teats or mammary glands (kangaroo) Monotremes ­ egg-laying mammals, young obtain nutrients from egg yolk then from mammary glands after hatching (platypus)

Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Chordata, Class Mammalia, Order Primates Have dexterous hands with opposable thumbs Front facing eyes that are set close together (enhance face-to-face social engagement and depth perception) Have extended nurturing periods for offspring Develop nails in the place of claws

Human Classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: sapiens

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