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CENTRAL FUTUROS: TIRADENTES

STUDIO SANGUE BOM GSAPP ­ Advanced Studio VI Studio Critic: Cultural Coordinator: Specialized Support: Keith Kaseman Raul Correa-Smith Nico Weiss SPRING 2011 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

OVERVIEW

Unique in the nature, magnitude, complexity, profundity, and diversity built into its infinite intensities and cultural varieties, Rio de Janeiro is both truly amazing and impossible to suitably describe. While current speculation levels still vary greatly with respect to which potential projects and projections will ultimately come to fruition in Rio, significant transformation to its deep fabric is inevitable. With the World Cup of Soccer coming to Brazil in 2014, and the Summer Olympic Games to be hosted by Rio in 2016, in conjunction with Brazil's upward trend towards positive economic development and expanded geopolitical influence, Rio has never been better poised to leverage its distinctive potential against its intrinsic urgencies than it is at this moment. Though how Rio's myriad challenges, constraints, conflicts, forces, ambitions and interests ultimately interweave over time is yet to be determined, the one sure thing is that the complexity in play is uniquely perplexing at almost every level. Specifically geared to inject high levels of architectural imagination and experimentation into the ongoing and varied discourses in Rio de Janeiro regarding its spatial potentials at impactful scales, this studio will navigate a multitude of operational modes in an effort to cultivate questions which would otherwise not be raised, and develop architectural evidence that constructively points to spatial futures not yet imagined for Rio.

STUDIO SANGUE BOM*

CENTRAL FUTUROS: TIRADENTES is the third iteration of Studio Sangue Bom, an ongoing series of crossequatorial studio and exchange cycles that were launched in the Spring 2009 semester through efforts in the studio entitled CONCEICÃO HILL: STEALTHY DEMONSTRATIONS. Our focus then was on an incredibly unique and the oldest neighborhood in Rio, perched on a hill downtown. With a strong bias towards an elegant uncertainty between inside and outside, in cultural, spatial, geometric, programmatic, social and operational terms, the fundamental question in the studio was two-fold. What can we deliver from the outside in, and how can we mix the two? Our pursuit was incalculably well received by the broad range of Cariocas that we came in contact with, especially as our neighborhood of focus, along with the surrounding districts of downtown Rio, proves to be the zone of the city whose future potentials are most in flux. Engagement with a broad range of city officials, architecture and planning faculty and students at PUC-Rio, favela advocates, artists, musicians, NGO leaders, local architects and others sparked productive dialogue through which numerous issues and opportunities for further discourse emerged. Conversations sparked and knowledge gained through this exchange drove not only the radical readjustment, complete repositioning, and / or refinement of each studio project, but also initiated a flurry of activity that extended beyond the semester. After having deployed our musically rich and Rio-flavorful installation, SANGUE BOM ISLAND, at the GSAPP YearEnd-Show in May 2009, a team of special forces (located in Philadelphia, New York and Rio) collaborated to curate, fabricate, deliver and install an exhibition of the Spring 2009 studio's work in Rio, intent on setting up an atmosphere conducive to spark*** conversation and imagination across a broad spectrum of minds. bath In late August, 2009, RIO FAISCAS**** wove studio work (models, constructs, drawings, images, hypothetical LP covers), a newly fabricated spatial furniture and toy system (fabricated in GSAPP Avery Digital Fabrication Lab), neon fixtures (by Thereza Simões, artist), along with a percussionist, 3 DJ's and one MC, into such an event, attracting a wide spectrum of visitors (most of whom were not architects!). Further, this event also signified the inaugural demonstration of what FAISCAS (www.faiscas.org, a collaborative exchange channel between NYC and Rio launched by Keith Kaseman and Raul Correa-Smith in May 2009) is all about.

Fully charged with new depths of insight and fresh sets of collaborative potentials, Studio Sangue Bom launched into its second iteration in the Spring of 2010, in a studio entitled MADE FOR RIO: OPERATIONAL ARMATURES. Shifting our focus to Praca Tiradentes, an incredibly charged plaza in the heart of downtown Rio, this studio operated through three distinct chapters of work. First, as a direct cultural exchange through experimental participation, studio members collaborated with Rio-based and world renowned artist Sérgio Cezar to produce a collection of IMAGINATION VESSELS, coupling advanced spatial explorations with Sérgio's Carioca insight, collection of microgarbage, and fluid production techniques. Second, in a 3-week flurry of studio activity, a robust and diverse catalog of spatial potentials for thick public space on small prototypical sites around Praca Tiradentes was developed and delivered to Rio, for STUDIO-X RIO POP-UP 2, an exhibition at Museu de Arte Museu (MAM) entitled FEITO PRO RIO. Over a hundred physical models and approximately 200 square-feet of printed material produced by Studio Sangue Bom served as the conduit through which countless thoughts, questions and conversations were excitedly sparked. Live music and delicious refreshments rounded out the public atmosphere at the opening event, which was both enjoyed and charged by an incredibly diverse array of friends, colleagues, special guests and curious wanderers. Lastly, the third operational chapter of MADE FOR RIO: OPERATIONAL ARMATURES focused on highly speculative potentials to re-think Praca Tiradentes itself. Working in teams of four, studio participants collaborated on large-scale projects for public amplification in the plaza, in response to knowledge and curiosities gained through our immersive reconnaissance in Rio. Efforts culminated in a final review at STUDIO-X NY in which we were joined by numerous Brazilian guests who were in New York to participate in GSAPP BRAZIL WEEK, a week-long series of symposia, lectures, discussions and mixers sparked by Dean Wigley in light of the immensely positive exchange alliance between GSAPP and Brazil, which is now in full gear: STUDIO-X RIO will soon be fully operational in its debut (and spatially rich) space, in the heart of Rio on Praca Tiradentes. All of this serves us with an incredibly unique springboard from which we will iteratively jump, simply attempting to collaboratively and fully flex our minds with those of our current (and future) friends and allies in Rio, sparking new threads to weave ideas well into the distant future. Ultimately, the point of this studio is not to solve problems, but rather identify, invent, suggest, cultivate, refine, develop and deliver versions of an architectural imagination for Rio, in the myriad ways that only we, Studio Sangue Bom, can. Through heightened intelligence and rigorous agility, we will convey a wide array of ideas, constructs and projects through multiple dissemination channels, actively engaging the extensive and ever-growing list of key Cariocas**, NGOs, institutions and organizations we are privileged to work with across the cultural, academic, professional, activist and civic spectrum in Rio. While the details, logistics and schedule are currently in development, work produced in this studio will ultimately be exhibited at Studio X Rio.

* ** *** **** Sangue Bom = "Good Blood" Carioca = Rio Local / Native / Citizen Faiscas = Sparks See www.faiscas.org for more on RIO FAISCAS

RIO DE JANEIRO

Rio de Janeiro's history begins in 1502 when the Portuguese first landed on its Bay of Guanabara. One of the Seven Wonders of the World, it is hard to imagine the sensory impact the Portuguese must have felt upon embarking on what, at the time, was surely a true adventure. Though the bay is one of the safest harbors in the world, the surrounding geographic context with great mountains, hills and swamps posed its challenges on settlement since the beginning. In the five hundred years since its occupation the second largest city in Brazil was to emerge and greatly change the character of this place, the sheer magnitude and sublimity of the landscape though still able to trigger glimpses of a time when nature prevailed unthreatened by the demands of its population. Today, two of the largest national parks in an urban setting in the world are in Rio, guaranteeing that a significant portion of its mountains remain green and uninhabitable. In 1808 the Portuguese crown, fleeing from Napolean's invasion of Portugal, established the seat of their empire in Rio de Janeiro and immediately opened up the it's ports, initiating a period of great transformation, modernization and expansion of the city. Throughout the 19th and 20th century most markedly, massive migrations from around the country and from Africa and Europe posed great demands to a city never quite able to cope with the inevitable

consequences of such. In 1900 the city of Rio had a population estimated at 650-800 thousand (NYC and its five boroughs with 3.5 million at the time by comparison) which by now has grown to 6.5 million in the city proper, in an extended and continuous urban fabric home to over 12 million people. This rapid growth was first truly dealt with, by the government, in the early 1900's, with the then newly elected mayor Pereira Passos, a visionary engineer-turned-politician who, greatly inspired by Houssman's Paris, was responsible for initiating major infrastructural projects aimed at sanitizing, beautifying and opening up new avenues of significant impact to the city's future. This included razing two densely populated hills (the first Portuguese colonial settlements) and served to construct two huge landfills along its shores, were a constant in Rio through to the late 1960's. But while these massive infrastructural improvements were most certainly beneficial to deal with what was to become of one of the largest cities in the world, they also brought about a dismemberment of the rich fabric of its old downtown colonial fabric. The fast rise of the automobile catalyzed by the new avenues and tunnels provided the impetus to move out of the city's center to the now famous beach neighborhoods of Copacabana and Ipanema (farm land up until the early 1900's), and an emptying out of the heart of the former colonial city took place steadily, leaving it to function primarily as the city's business and commercial district, emptied out of much of the cultural richness it once enjoyed. Slums, unintended consequences of both a haste to demolish sections of the city's center without proper resettlement, in addition to the continuous migrations and a general lack of planning for housing have resulted in the emergence of over 1,000 favelas and a large percentage of the population living within differing states of civil rights and responsibilities. Also of significant, negative, impact to the city was the transfer of the country's capital to Brasilia in 1960 as well as the shifting of economic power to a new (relative to Rio) and entrepreneurial city only 500km away, Sao Paulo. With these political and economic losses combined with the shifting interest away from the city's center towards the attractive regions of Zona Sul, Centro began losing its strength as a cultural hub, culminating in the abandonment of thousands of buildings of significant historical value left crumbling to ruins. Yet, despite this cultural drain, much of Centro's transgressive cultural energy remained. And though the emerging neighborhoods of Zona Sul were to develop their unique and vibrant flavor so tied to the Carioca's lifestyle (overlooking the most beautiful beaches in an urban setting in the world) there is no cultural equivalent charge to that which is both latent and active to this day in Centro. In addition to the geographically fortunate area of Zona Sul, another area of greater size was to quickly expand as well. The neighborhoods of Zona Norte, located behind the back drop mountains of Zona Sul were the manufacturing hub of the city, and with the ascent of Sao Paulo as leading economic power, which combined with a lack of proper planning, have transformed it one of the lowest quality of life regions in the country. In a city with the largest urban forest in the world, Zona Norte by contrast has one of the lowest tree and park densities. The culmination of neglect and abandonment of Rio's downtown was perhaps most significant in the 70's and early 80's, a period of great financial and political turmoil in Brazil in general and in Rio specially. Beginning in the late 80's and early 90's though, a cultural re-awakening began to slowly manifest itself in certain areas of downtown, spurred both by bottom-up curiosity of the more adventurous Cariocas and by city sponsored initiatives. A `Cultural Corridor' area was established by city officials, whereby property taxes were exempted in exchange for the preservation of its historic buildings, while also promoting new cultural spaces for exhibitions, films, etc. Somewhat simultaneously an area called Lapa, formerly a place for marginalized cultural expression, re-emerged on its own, fed by an insurgence of musicians looking for alternative spaces with ease of transportation, and its ascent was so successful that, 20 years later, this area is now considered Rio's music Mecca. Most recently, with the newly elected (two years ago) mayor and an unprecedented political alignment across state and federal government a major urban revitalization project is underway at the city's old and derelict ports. This major revitalization strategy for the Ports which includes re-zoning the area, adding museums to the historic fabric and rerouting an overpass underground. The recent discovery of vast oil fields off the coast of Rio will certainly assist in implementing this and other ambitious projects slated for Rio in the next decade. The announcement last year of Rio de Janeiro to become the host city for the 2016 Olympics will now accelerate all of the above initiatives even more, and it is unquestionable to say that Rio has not been so poised for the potential of positive change as in many decades. A planned extension of its limited subway network, improvements to its airport, new housing and all that is demanded of a city in order to host the biggest event in the globe are either underway or soon to start. Of great concern to the success of these events is the extent to which the city will be able to mitigate and significantly reduce the levels of violent crime so prevalent in the daily lives of Cariocas. In the last couple of years a

dozen or so favelas have been `pacified' (the plan has been named UPP, Pacifing Police Units) via a well orchestrated, though yet to be played out, city plan, which in addition to major civic projects will hopefully improve the lives of the million plus people living in these areas. It could very well prove to be a turning point in a city plagued by a complete lack of security and control. Run by parallel systems of power, the favelas are controlled by druglords or militias (made up mostly of cops either retired or still active), and as such they have set and dominated the terms for the population living in the slums of Rio. With the `pacification' strategy initiated two years ago the city hopes to eventually re establish its police presence in all favelas. Towards the end of 2010 a major operation carried out as a joint effort between the police (local and federal) and the military occupied the up to then most feared and largest group of interconnected favelas, called Complexo do Alemao. The operation was deemed a huge success, with the approval of a great majority of citizens across the spectrum, though much abuse has been reported on the part of the police's broad range of permissions to carry out their mission. These operations indicate a paradigm shift of which its ramifications are yet to be fully understood, but the sense of general optimism on this front is being felt for the first time by many Cariocas. The preparations for the Olympics and World Cup are certain to boost much needed improvements to the city, but some areas will benefit more than others from such. Much attention has been given to the West Zone, an area far from the center and the city's most rapidly developed in the last three decades. In the West Zone the neighborhood of Barra da Tijuca, an expansive beach fronted area built on sand dunes and marshes mostly, and home for some of the wealthiest in the city, will be the central location for the Olympics. Zona Norte, the other primary node for the Olympic games, is also receiving a great deal of focus and will tangibly benefit from major urban and infrastructural improvements already in motion. However, this outward expansion, improvement and densification leaves the fate of Rio Centro yet to be determined. Primary focus and speculation on the future of Rio Centro continues to orbit around its Port area, the potential ripples still in high flux. While these large scale urban implementations are taking place throughout Rio our mission is not engage with them directly. Developing spatial difference through well thought out scenarios for living in this historically rich metropolitan center, our aim is to show, through architecture's vocabulary, that regardless of the outcomes caused by such urban implementations it is through these models of living that radical change can take place and offer not just a revitalization, but new vital ways of living and working downtown. With an immense congestion issue at hand and major infrastructural deficiencies the most sustainable act may be to approach these scenarios head on, simply yet elegantly and thoughtfully proposing living in the incredibly rich fabric of downtown.

TIRADENTES SQUARE

An area of particular significance to Centro's history is Praca Tiradentes, our Studio's focus this semester. Situated at the heart of an incredibly vibrant district of downtown Rio, by day the square is primarily activated by the flow of pedestrians cutting through its void amidst the hustle and bustle of the working day. Every night, however, its presence as a true void was switched on, when its perimeter gates were closed, thus preventing access to the square. Very recently, and to be taken as a super positive signal coming from the City of Rio, the expansion of Tiradentes Square (currently under construction) includes the removal of this gate and also lessens bus and automobile flows at three of its key edges. Named after one of Brazil's most venerated heroes, the first and only to publicly defend the abolition of Brazil from Portugal and to be cruelly murdered for it only blocks away from the Square, it's historical significance spans nearly the entire formation of the city of Rio de Janeiro. From one of its theaters its first Constitution was signed, and as the country began to culturally engage itself with the outside (with the French at the helm), Praca Tiradentes became the center of it all, a cradle of what was most modern in culture, a receptor for all that was new and fashionable abroad. As the city's main stage shifted to conform to the newly envisioned urban transformation of Rio in the 1900's, the bohemian tradition which included attending its theaters, cafes, billiards, bookstores, bars and brothels became increasingly a place of alternative and marginalized opinion, where intellectuals, artists, musicians and free spirits would gather for all manifestations of thought and behavior, from planning revolutions to visiting its many brothels.

Praca Tiradentes, now undergoing a much delayed revitalization plan, is the area in Rio selected by the Ministry of Culture due this historical significance, and though change is occurring as a result, even if slowly, this Studio will address the potential sparks resulting from spatially articulated demonstrations of living through an array of vacant sites, some of which still retaining their historic facades. The wealth of spatial intricacies latent in this area will serve to boost newly-imagined futures that are inherent to both its past and present conditions. Our challenge will be to propagate the notion of living in the heart of Centro, through a wide variety of accommodation models, especially in anticipation of the World Cup and Olympics. Lastly, and amazingly, Studio-X Rio is located on one of the oldest houses facing Praca Tiradentes, the former home of Brazil's greatest opera singer, Bidu Sayao.

STUDIO OPERATIONS:

MISSION: PROGRAM: SITES: Tiradentes Futures Living Potentials 12 Vacant Lots / Shells near Praca Tiradentes

Studio Sangue Bom will methodically develop a deluge of spatial, inhabitable tactics, from and through which architectural strategies will be articulated and broadcast. Our vigorous pursuit of new forms of living will serve as the primary fuel through which new architectural charges for Tiradentes will emerge, with strategic models for requalification of its public fabric, and therefore urban policy, our ultimate ambition. We will both tap into diverse models for living inherent to Rio and import accommodation practices from the outside thus developing ingredients with which we may spark new mixes.

CULTURAL CAPTIVATION

(Week 1)

We will kick the semester off by spending a week listening to music, exploring online links, and watching films, documentaries and videos about Rio. We will then hold a Saturday studio session (January 29) to discuss participants' documented spatial observations and learn much more about Rio through a comprehensive overview by Raul Smith. While dozens of movies will be watched and referenced throughout the semester, a mandatory viewing list will be provided for our first week.

SITE ANALYSES: ENVELOPE + CIRCULATION POTENTIALS

(Weeks 2&3)

Working in teams of 2 for 2 weeks, Grasshopper will be utilized to analyze our 12 sites (each team analyzes 2) in terms of envelope spectra and circulation scenarios, culminating in a coherent and comprehensive catalog as a studio resource from which we will launch into spatial explorations throughout the whole semester.

ACCOMODATION RESEARCH

(Weeks 2&3)

Augmenting the documentation produced through the week of CULTURAL CAPTIVATION, studio participants will individually dedicate time (in parallel with SITE ANALYSES efforts) to spatially describe various models of accommodation and living throughout the world, thus adding to our collective catalog of spatial interests and ambitions.

GET TO WORK!

(Weeks 4-6)

With all of the above at your disposal, this 3-week burst of fanatical rigor will be solely focused on developing collections of accommodation scenarios, played out through space across our sites. Each individual participant will focus on 4 sites minimum, flexing operable constructs and strategies into a wide array of articulate potentials. Physical models, Grasshopper constructs and baked / refined Rhino models will all be in parallel and / or intertwined play during this chapter of work (and for the rest of the semester). User profiles will be identified, fabricated and mixed throughout this phase, fueling the diversity of the living mixes demonstrated through spatial constructs. Spatial and geometric refinement will occur at the scale of inhabitation / occupational mixes; organizational options will be explored and

refined at the scale of flexed site envelopes. Drawing templates, standards and types will cohere the total body of work, as this will be what we bring to Rio for our mid-review.

RIO IMMERSION

NOTE: Due to the conflict between standard Kinne travel dates and Carnival in Brazil (when "work" is the last thing on anyone's mind, and therefore impossible to logistically contend with), our trip to Rio coincides with Spring Break. Swapping these weeks, our official studio engagement in Rio will take place from March 13 through March 19. We will immerse ourselves into multiple versions of Rio's vibrant atmosphere, gaining invaluable insight from its rich cultural, spatial, material and social mix, thus constructing an enriched platform from which we will launch into the second half of the semester. We will engage with and be joined by an expansively diverse group of people during our time in Rio, all of whom are heavily invested in the city's future. Further, our primary intent is to exchange an incalculably wide range of ideas with all of our allies, in numerous settings. Given the breadth and density of our itinerary, coupled with the studio's mission, members of Studio Sangue Bom can expect to have one of the most culturally enriching weeks ever experienced. All of this will provide fuel for our final approach to the semester, where we will re-calibrate our operations into a new format and expanded thrust. For this, we will jump up in both scale and scope, turbocharging the momentum we will have built up to this point. NOTE: While Rio is with no doubt an amazingly beautiful city, it is also among the most dangerous in the world in real terms. As such, we will explore the city primarily as a group (and never solo), closely following a set of protocols and practices that have been developed specifically for our journey. To be discussed further and at length in studio, these protocols are geared to facilitate our safe and prudent attainment of the sangue bom frequency which we will surely feel and enjoy as it radiates throughout Rio.

MID-REVIEW: ROUNDTABLE @ STUDIO-X RIO (TUESDAY, MARCH 15)

(March 15) ­ See "RIO IMMERSION for travel dates.

EXPAND, PROJECT & REFINE

(Remainder of Semester)

Boosted by the knowledge gained from our immersion in Rio, we will expand the focus, reach and expected levels of refinement with new priority placed on the requalification of public space at the localized urban scale. In other words, larger scenarios comprised of multiple sites / projects working in relation to each other across Tiradentes will be iteratively developed and tested. Inventive notational techniques will be constructed using Grasshopper in order to document projective occupational behaviors / tendencies per woven scenario. Each participant will flex numerous scenarios, each version producing a graphically intelligible spatial signature (consider "potential x-rays", for example). At the same time, incredibly high levels of architectural resolution will be sought through the matrix of possibilities generated along the way. Urban scenarios, documented projections and instances of incredibly high levels of architectural resolution ­ this is the general mandate through which we will explore and demonstrate a radical normative for life in Tiradentes.

TOOLS

Studio participants will flex all digital, physical, CNC, parametric, automation, animation, visualization, analytical, and low-tech tools currently in their arsenal, with Rhino and Grasshopper set as our common platforms. Hundreds of digital and physical constructs will be produced in this studio, in conjunction with a multitude of drawings, models, diagrams, maps, schedules, catalogs, images and other propaganda. Of course, all forms of exploration and communication are expected to be executed at the highest levels of resolution possible and / or appropriate for any particular task at hand. Each participant's produced body of evidence will range from super-loose to ultra-tight.

PLEASE NOTE:

Participants who are not familiar with Grasshopper need not worry, with the understanding that the only way to learn how to operate any new tool is through self-initiated diligence and rigorous practice. While an extensive yet pointed Grasshopper tutorial will be provided (by Keith Kaseman) to kick the semester off, technical support will primarily be in the form of self-motivated and collective investigation / exploration through online resources, ambient GSAPP knowledge. This collaborative approach will surely prove to be productive, especially as the studio will utilize Grasshopper towards specific goals throughout the semester, with abundant guidance throughout the ride.

SCHEDULE

TYPICAL WEEK Keith Kaseman: Nico Weiss: Raul Correa Smith: RIO TRAVEL: MIDREVIEW: FINAL REVIEW: M& F 1-7pm M or F + W, 2-6pm Periodic Saturday sessions ­ January & February. March 13-19 (See "RIO IMMERSION", above) March 15, 2011 (Rio) April 29, 2011 (NY)

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