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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-70820-3 - Physics for the IB Diploma, Fifth Edition K. A. Tsokos Frontmatter More information

Physics for the IB Diploma

Fifth edition

K. A. Tsokos

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-70820-3 - Physics for the IB Diploma, Fifth Edition K. A. Tsokos Frontmatter More information

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS

Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521708203 First, second and third editions © K. A. Tsokos 1998, 1999, 2001 Fourth edition © Cambridge University Press 2005 Fifth edition © Cambridge University Press 2005, 2008 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published by K. A. Tsokos 1998 Second edition 1999 Third edition 2001 Fourth edition published by Cambridge University Press 2005 Fifth edition 2008 5th printing with corrections 2009 Printed in the United Kingdom by Latimer Trend A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-0-521-70820-3 Paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables and other factual information given in this work are correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce photographs:

76, 526(t), 644 Science Photo Library; 89 Harold Edgerton/Science Photo Library; 255, Bettmann/CORBIS; 256 Reuters; 276 Sheila Terry/Science Photo Library; 315 Richard Megna/Science Photo Library; 400 (Francis Simon), 403 (Segre Collection), 526(b), 725 (Physics Today Collection) American Institute of Physics/Science Photo Library; 464(l) Robert Gendler/Science Photo Library; 464(r) John Walsh/Science Photo Library; 492, 535c Anglo-Australian Observatory/David Malin Images; 535a, b NOAO/Science Photo Library; 733 Stanford Linear Accelerator Center/Science Photo Library; 737a CERN PHOTO/ Frédéric Pitchal/Sygma/CORBIS; 737b David Parker/Science Photo Library; 741 Goronwy Tudor Jones/University of Birmingham/Science Photo Library; 742 CERN/Science Photo Library; 747 Klaus Guldbranden/Science Photo Library

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-70820-3 - Physics for the IB Diploma, Fifth Edition K. A. Tsokos Frontmatter More information

Contents

Preface A note to the reader xi xii 2.2 Motion with constant acceleration ­ Core Acceleration Measuring speed and acceleration More on graphs The concept of force ­ Core Forces and their direction Hooke's law Newton's first law ­ Core Newton's first law Equilibrium Newton's second and third laws ­ Core Newton's second law The inclined plane Newton's third law Linear momentum ­ Core The concept of momentum Impulse The law of conservation of momentum Proof of momentum conservation Two-dimensional collisions Work, energy and power ­ Core Work done by a force Gravitational potential energy The work­kinetic energy relation Conservation of energy Frictional forces Power Kinetic energy and momentum The problem of least time Circular motion ­ Core Circular motion and centripetal acceleration Centripetal forces Angular momentum

Part I Core and AHL

Topic 1: Physics and physical measurement

1.1 The realm of physics ­ Core Orders of magnitude and units Fundamental interactions Uncertainties and errors ­ Core Errors of measurement Significant digits Line of best fit Mathematical and graphical techniques ­ Core Multiplicative changes Straight-line graphs Getting a linear graph Interpreting graphs Sine curves Making assumptions Vectors and scalars ­ Core Vectors Multiplication of a vector by a scalar Addition of vectors Subtraction of vectors Components of a vector uncertainties ­ Core Logarithmic functions Propagation of errors

1

2

2 2 5 8 8 11 12 14 14 15 16 17 18 18 21 21 22 22 24 25 31 31 33 2.3

48 48 54 56 63 64 67 69 69 70 76 77 82 83 87 87 89 91 93 95 99 99 102 103 104 107 108 110 112 119 119 122 123

2.4

1.2

2.5

1.3

2.6

1.4

2.7

1.5 Graphical analysis and

Topic 2: Mechanics

2.1 Kinematic concepts ­ Core Displacement and velocity Frames of reference Graphs for uniform motion

38

38 38 42 44

2.8

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iv Contents

2.9

The law of gravitation ­ Core Newton's law of gravitation Gravitational field strength

127 127 129 132 132 134 138 142 143 145 146 149 151

4.2

2.10 Projectile motion ­ AHL Parabolic motion Launch at an arbitrary angle Effect of air resistance forces 2.11 Motion in a gravitational field ­ AHL Gravitational potential energy Escape velocity Orbital motion Equipotential surfaces The binary star system

Travelling-wave characteristics ­ Core What is a wave? Transverse and longitudinal waves Wave pulses Travelling waves Wavefronts Wave phenomena I: reflection and refraction ­ Core The principle of superposition Reflection and refraction of waves Huygens' principle Wave phenomena II: diffraction and interference ­ Core Diffraction Interference The Doppler effect ­ AHL /

216 216 217 218 218 224 228 228 231 234 238 238 240 244 244 251 251 255 259 259 261 267 267 271 271 272 273 274 275 276

4.3

4.4

Topic 3: Thermal properties of matter 158

3.1 Thermal concepts ­ Core Temperature Heat as energy The atomic model of matter Thermal properties ­ Core Specific heat capacity Change of state Measuring specific heats Evaporation The kinetic theory of gases Ideal gases ­ AHL Pressure The Boyle­Mariotte law The volume­temperature law The pressure­temperature law The equation of state Thermodynamics ­ AHL Internal energy Work done on or by a gas The first law of thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics Degradation of energy 158 158 159 160 163 163 165 167 168 169 174 174 175 176 177 178 183 183 184 187 189 192 4.5

SL Option A

The Doppler effect 4.6 Standing waves ­ AHL / SL Option A Standing waves on strings and tubes Resonance and the speed of sound Diffraction ­ AHL / SL Option A Diffraction Single-slit diffraction Resolution ­ AHL / SL Option A The Rayleigh criterion Polarization ­ AHL / SL Option A What is polarization? Malus's law Polarizers and analysers Polarization by reflection Optical activity Practical applications of polarization

3.2

4.7

3.3

4.8 4.9

3.4

Topic 5: Electricity and magnetism

5.1 Electric charge ­ Core Properties of electric charge Coulomb's law for the electric force Electric field and electric potential ­ Core Electric field Electric potential The electronvolt

280

280 280 285 289 289 292 295

Topic 4: Oscillations and waves

4.1 Simple harmonic motion ­ Core Oscillations Kinematics of simple harmonic motion Energy in simple harmonic motion Damping Forced oscillations and resonance

195

195 195 196 204 207 208 5.2

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Contents v

5.3

Electric field and electric potential ­ AHL Electric fields Electric potential and energy Equipotential surfaces The connection between electric potential and electric field Similarities between electricity and gravitation Electric current and electric resistance ­ Core Electric current Electric resistance Electric power Electric circuits ­ Core Emf Simple electric circuits Ammeters and voltmeters Sensors based on the potential divider Magnetic fields ­ Core Magnetic field The magnetic force on a current The magnetic force on a moving charge Ørsted's discovery The force between two current-carrying wires Electromagnetic induction ­ AHL A wire moving in a magnetic field Faraday's law Lenz's law Faraday's disc Alternating current ­ AHL The AC generator Power in AC circuits The transformer Transformers and power transmission

299 299 300 304 305 306

The Rutherford model of the atom The Bohr model Nuclear structure The forces within the nucleus 6.2 Radioactivity ­ Core The nature of alpha, beta and gamma radiations Radioactive decay equations The law of radioactive decay Nuclear reactions ­ Core The unified mass unit The mass defect and binding energy Nuclear reactions Nuclear fission Nuclear fusion Interactions of matter with energy ­ AHL / SL Option B The photoelectric effect De Broglie's wavelength Quantum theory and the uncertainty principle ­ AHL / SL Option B Atomic spectra The `electron in a box' model The Schrödinger theory The Heisenberg uncertainty principle Nuclear physics ­ AHL / SL Option B Scattering experiments and distance of closest approach The mass spectrometer Beta decay and the neutrino Nuclear energy levels The radioactive decay law

369 369 370 371 373 373 376 377 380 380 381 384 385 385 389 389 394 398 398 399 400 402 407 407 408 409 410 411

5.4

6.3 310 310 312 314 318 318 320 325 327 336 336 338 339 341 343 350 350 351 354 356 360 360 361 363 365 6.4

5.5

6.5

5.6

6.6

5.7

5.8

Topic 7: Energy, power and climate change

7.1 Energy degradation and power generation ­ Core Degradation of energy Electricity production Energy sources Fossil fuels Nuclear power Solar power Hydroelectric power Wind power Wave power

415

415 415 417 417 418 420 423 425 427 428

Topic 6: Atomic and nuclear physics

6.1 The atom and its nucleus ­ Core The discovery of the nuclear atom Consequences of the Rutherford (Geiger­Marsden) experiment

367

367 367 368

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-70820-3 - Physics for the IB Diploma, Fifth Edition K. A. Tsokos Frontmatter More information

vi Contents

7.2

The greenhouse effect and global warming ­ Core The black-body law Solar radiation The greenhouse effect Global warming Sea level Effects of global warming on climate

A5 434 434 436 438 444 447 448 A6

Resolution ­ SL Polarization ­ SL

481 481

SL Option B ­ Quantum physics

B1 B2 Quantum physics ­ SL Nuclear physics ­ SL 482 482

SL Option C ­ Digital technology

C1 Analogue and digital signals ­ SL Data capture and imaging using CCDs ­ SL Electronics ­ SL The mobile phone system ­ SL 483 483 484 484

Topic 8: Digital technology

8.1 Analogue and digital signals ­ AHL / SL Option C / SL and HL Option F Binary numbers Analogue and digital signals Compact disks Other storage devices Advantages of digital storage Digital imaging with charge-coupled devices ­ AHL / SL Option C Capacitance The charge-coupled device CCD imaging characteristics Medical uses of CCDs 454 454 455 458 459 461 463 463 464 466 467

C2 C3 C4

8.2

SL Option D ­ Relativity and particle physics

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 Introduction to relativity ­ SL Concepts and postulates of special relativity ­ SL Relativistic kinematics ­ SL Particles and interactions ­ SL Quarks ­ SL 485 485 485 486 486

Part II Options

The content of Options A­D (except Option A1) is identical to that in the appropriate chapter in the Core and AHL material, to which the reader is referred (details are given in the text).

471

SL and HL Option E ­ Astrophysics

E1 Introduction to the universe ­ SL and HL The solar system Beyond the solar system The motion of the stars Stellar radiation ­ SL and HL The energy source of stars Luminosity Black-body radiation Stellar spectra The Hertzsprung­Russell diagram Types of stars Stellar objects ­ SL and HL The parallax method Absolute and apparent magnitudes Spectroscopic parallax The Cepheids 487 487 489 491 494 494 495 496 498 499 500 506 506 507 510 511

SL Option A ­ Sight and wave phenomena

A1 The eye and sight ­ SL The structure of the human eye Depth of vision Accommodation Scotopic and photopic vision Colour Colour blindness Colour addition Colour subtraction Perception of colour and light The Doppler effect ­ SL 472 472 473 474 474 475 476 476 477 478 480 480 480

E2

E3

A2

A3 Standing waves ­ SL A4 Diffraction ­ SL

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-70820-3 - Physics for the IB Diploma, Fifth Edition K. A. Tsokos Frontmatter More information

Contents vii

E4

Cosmology ­ SL and HL Olbers' paradox The expanding universe The Big Bang: the creation of space and time The development of the universe Stellar evolution ­ Extension HL Nucleosynthesis Evolutionary paths and stellar processes Pulsars and quasars Galaxies ­ Extension HL Types of galaxy Galactic motion Hubble's law The evolution of the universe

514 514 516 517 517 521 521 525 529 533 533 536 537

F4

E5

Channels of communication ­ SL and HL Copper wires Wire pairs Coaxial cables Optic fibres Radio waves Microwave transmission through free space Satellite communications Electronics ­ Extension HL The operational amplifier (op-amp) The non-inverting amplifier Reshaping digital pulses ­ the Schmitt trigger The mobile phone system ­ Extension HL

574 574 575 575 575 576 577 578 584 584 588 590 596

F5

E6

F6 539

SL and HL Option F ­ Communications

F1 Radio communication ­ SL and HL Modulation Amplitude modulation (AM) Frequency modulation (FM) Comparing AM and FM The AM radio receiver Analogue and digital signals ­ SL and HL Binary numbers Analogue and digital signals Bit rate of a digital signal The transmission and reception of digital signals Time division multiplexing The advantages of digital communication Optic fibre transmission ­ SL and HL Total internal reflection Optical fibres Dispersion Attenuation Detection Noise Regeneration 544 544 546 548 550 550 554 554 554 554 557 558 558 562 562 564 565 567 569 570 571

SL and HL Option G ­ Electromagnetic waves

G1 Light ­ SL and HL The speed of light Electromagnetic waves Properties of EM waves The laser Optical instruments ­ SL and HL Lenses Optical instruments Lens aberrations Interference and diffraction ­ SL and HL Two-source interference Young's two-slit experiment Intensity in two-slit interference Multiple-slit diffraction The diffraction grating X-rays ­ Extension HL The production of X-rays X-ray diffraction Thin-film interference ­ Extension HL Parallel films Thin air wedges Measuring small distances 598 598 599 601 603 607 607 617 620 624 624 626 628 629 631 634 634 635 640 640 641 642

G2

F2

G3

F3

G4

G5

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-70820-3 - Physics for the IB Diploma, Fifth Edition K. A. Tsokos Frontmatter More information

viii Contents

HL Option H ­ Special and general relativity

H1 The principle of special relativity ­ HL Frames of reference The speed of light The principle of special relativity H2 The effects of special relativity ­ HL Time dilation Length contraction Addition of velocities H3 Consequences of and evidence for special relativity ­ HL Relativistic energy Evidence for special relativity The Michelson­Morley experiment The constancy of the speed of light H4 Relativistic mechanics ­ HL Momentum and energy (momenergy) A point about units A free electron cannot absorb (or emit) a photon H5 General relativity ­ HL The principle of equivalence The tests of general relativity The structure of the theory Black holes Time dilation in general relativity 644 645 647 648 652 652 657 659 663 663 666 667 669 671 671 673 674 677 677 680 682 683 685

I3

Radiation in medicine ­ HL Biological effects of radiation and dosimetry Radiation therapy

712 712 716

HL Option J ­ Particle physics

J1 Particles and interactions ­ HL Particles and antiparticles The elementary particles Quantum numbers Antiparticles Spin The Heisenberg uncertainty principle for time and energy Virtual particles Interactions and exchange particles Feynman diagrams The range of an interaction Detectors and accelerators ­ HL The need for high energies Resolution Accelerators Synchrotron radiation Available energy Detectors Quarks and leptons ­ HL Hadrons ­ baryons and mesons Baryon number Strangeness The spin of hadrons Colour Gluons Confinement The interaction between nucleons Quarks, leptons and the standard model Lepton number The Higgs particle Experimental evidence for the standard model ­ HL Gell-Mann's prediction of the omega-minus The direct evidence for quarks Asymptotic freedom The discovery of the Z0 and neutral currents 718 718 719 720 720 721 722 723 723 725 728 731 731 732 733 738 738 740 746 746 748 748 749 749 750 751 752 752 753 753 758 758 758 761 761

J2

J3

HL Option I ­ Biomedical physics

I1 The functioning of the ear ­ HL The ear Intensity of sound Hearing defects Medical imaging ­ HL Properties of radiation X-ray imaging Other imaging techniques Ultrasound Diagnostic uses of radioactive sources 690 690 693 697 700 700 702 705 707 709

J4

I2

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Contents ix

J5

Cosmology and strings ­ HL The Boltzmann equation Matter and antimatter Strings

764 764 765 766

3

Astronomical data

780 781 782

4 Some important mathematical results 5 Nobel prize winners in physics

Physics and the theory of knowledge (TOK) ­ SL and HL Appendices

1 Physical constants

770

Answers to questions Glossary of selected terms

788 819 832

777 778

Index

2 Masses of elements and selected isotopes

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-70820-3 - Physics for the IB Diploma, Fifth Edition K. A. Tsokos Frontmatter More information

For Alexios and Alkeos

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-70820-3 - Physics for the IB Diploma, Fifth Edition K. A. Tsokos Frontmatter More information

Preface

Physics is a fundamental science, and those who study it will gain an understanding of the basic laws that govern everything from the very small subatomic to the very large cosmic scale. The study of physics provides us with an unparalleled power of analysis that is useful in the study of the other sciences, engineering and mathematics, as well as in daily life. This fifth edition of Physics for the IB Diploma follows the previous edition, but contains material for the new syllabus that will be examined for the first time in May 2009. It covers the entire International Baccalaureate (IB) syllabus, including all options at both standard level (SL) and higher level (HL). It includes a chapter on the role of physics in the theory of knowledge (TOK), along with many discussion questions for TOK. Each chapter opens with a list of objectives, which include the important formulae that will be covered in that chapter. The questions at the end of each chapter have been increased, and there are answers at the end of the book for all those involving calculation (and for some others too). Part I of the book covers the core material and the additional higher level (AHL) material. The title and running heads of each chapter clearly indicate whether the chapter is part of the core or AHL. Part II covers the optional subjects. There are now four options that are available to SL students only (Option A, Sight and wave phenomena; Option B, Quantum physics; Option C, Digital technology; and Option D, Relativity and particle physics). The material for these is the same as the corresponding AHL material, and so these four SL options are neither repeated nor presented separately (except for one chapter, Option A1, The eye and sight, which is not part of the AHL core). Three options (Option E, Astrophysics; Option F, Communications; and Option G, Electromagnetic waves) are available to both SL and HL students. Finally, there are three options (Option H, Special and general relativity; Option I, Biomedical physics; and Option J, Particle physics) that are available to HL students only. The division of this book into chapters and sections usually follows quite closely the syllabus published by the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO). This does not mean, however, that this particular order should be followed in teaching. Within reason, the sections are fairly independent of each other, and so alternative teaching sequences may be used. It must also be stressed that this book is not an official guide to the IB syllabus, nor is this book connected with the IBO in any way. The book contains many example questions and answers that are meant to make the student more comfortable with solving problems. Some are more involved than others. There are also questions at the end of each chapter, which the student should attempt to answer to test his or her understanding. Even though the IB does not require calculus for physics, I have used calculus, on occasion, in the text and in the questions for the benefit of those students taking both physics and mathematics at higher level. They can apply what they are learning in mathematics in a concrete and well-defined context. However, calculus is not essential for following the book. It is assumed that a student starting a physics course at this level knows the basics of trigonometry and is comfortable with simple algebraic manipulations.

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Cambridge University Press 978-0-521-70820-3 - Physics for the IB Diploma, Fifth Edition K. A. Tsokos Frontmatter More information

xii Preface

In many questions and examples I have not resisted the temptation to use 10 m s-2 as the numerical value of the acceleration due to gravity. I have also followed the conventions of symbols used by the IBO in their Physics Data Booklet, with one major exception. The Data Booklet uses the symbol s for displacement. Almost universally, the symbol s is reserved for distance, and so s stands for distance in this book, not displacement. Also, I have chosen to call initial velocities, speeds, etc. by v0 rather than the IBO's u. I wish to thank my wife, Ellie Tragakes, for her great help and support. I am indebted to fellow teacher Wim Reimert for his careful reading of the book and his extensive comments that have improved the book ­ I thank him sincerely. I would like to thank Geoff Amor, who has edited the new material for the fifth edition, implemented my changes, and made many suggestions for its improvement. K. A. Tsokos Athens May 2007

Important results, laws, definitions and significant formulae

Particularly important material, such as important results, laws, definitions and significant formulae, appear in a shaded box.

Example questions

These occur in nearly all of the chapters. They are indicated by the heading `Example question(s)' and all have a full answer. It is a good idea to attempt to solve these problems before reading the answers. There are over 500 such example questions in this book.

Material for higher level students

This material is highlighted in a shaded box that is labelled `HL only'.

Material that is outside the IB syllabus

Some material is included that is outside the IB syllabus and will not be examined in the IB exams. It is included here for two reasons. The first is that I believe that it clarifies syllabus material and in some cases it does so in essential ways. The second is that it gives the interested student a more rounded view of the subject that is not bounded by the rigid syllabus content. Such material is highlighted in a shaded box that is labelled `Supplementary material'. There is also a small amount of other similar material with different labels.

A note to the reader

The main text of each chapter contains a number of different features, which are clearly identified by the use of headings or by other typographical means, as outlined below.

Questions Learning outcomes/objectives

These are provided as bullet lists at the beginning of each chapter, and indicate what you will have learned or be able to do when you have finished studying the chapter. Each chapter ends with a set of numbered questions. Answers to all those that involve calculation are given at the end of the book. Answers are also provided for some other questions where it is useful for students to be able to check their answers.

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