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MNL1-EB/May 2010

Index

A

AAS. see Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) Abiotic degradation, 265 Absorptivity, ultraviolet petroleum waxes, 254, 257 rubber oils, 227 Accelerated rust tests, lubricating greases, 245 Accepted reference value (ARV), defined, 301 Accumulation processes, 266, 269 Accumulation properties, 264­269 Accuracy, in standard test method data quality assurance, 302 Acidity denatured fuel ethanol, 23 Ed75-Ed85, 24 M70-M85, 26 Acidity test, white mineral oils, 186 Acid number automotive engine oils, 219 biodiesel fuel, 29, 57, 62 diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 49 Additives anti-icing, aviation fuels, 101, 103 automotive engine oils, 214­215 automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 9­10 jet fuels, 97­103 PDR, in aviation fuels, 102­103 thermal stability improver, aviation fuels, 102 Adhesion, petroleum waxes, 257­258 Ad Hoc Crude Oil Quality Task Force, 107 Adsorption, 264 AFNOR. see Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR) Air atomizing, 34 Air compressor oils, 208 Aircraft turbine engine lubricants, oxidation stability, 153 Air pollution, requirements, petroleum solvents, 174 Air reactivity, carbon, 132 Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, 19, 21 Alcohol control, biodiesel fuel, 57, 62 Algae, tests with, 271, 272, 276 Aliphatics, 175 All-level sample, 136 Alternative fuels program, fuel oxygenates, 18­19 Aluminum soap greases, 230­232 American civil jet fuels, 89­91 American military jet fuels, 88­89 Aniline point base oils, 194 hydrocarbon solvents, 180 mixed, hydrocarbon solvents, 180 rubber oils, 227 white mineral oils, 185 Anodes, electrical resistivity, 132 Anti-icing additives, in aviation fuels, 101, 103 Antiknock Index, 4 Antiknock rating, 4­5 aviation gasoline, 81, 83 gasoline, 307 316

Copyright © 2010 by ASTM International www.astm.org

Antioxidants, in aviation fuels, 100, 103 Antiwear/antioxidant additives, automotive engine oils, 214 API GL-5, 205 API gravity crude oils, 107 fuel oil, 71 lubricating oils, 200 white mineral oils, 187 Apparent viscosity, lubricating greases, 236 Appearance denatured fuel ethanol, 23 MTBE, 27 Aquatic toxicity tests, acute methods, 271 Aromatic hydrocarbons, poly-nuclear, 311­312 Aromaticity, diesel fuel, 37 Aromatic(s), 175­176 diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 46 jet fuels, 309 ARV. see Accepted reference value (ARV) Ash content aromatic and poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 311 biodiesel fuel, 57 crude oils, 111 diesel fuels, 36, 49 fuel oils, 40, 66, 73 heavy, 313 gas turbine fuel, 38 manufactured carbon and graphite, 132 nonaviation gas turbine fuel, 49 petroleum coke, 130 petroleum products and lubricants, 285 pitch, 132 sulfated biodiesel fuel, 28­29, 60 fuel, 57 petroleum products and lubricants, 285 Asphaltenes, crude oils, 111, 112 Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR), 1 ASTM Biodiesel Task Force, history, 54­56 ASTM C559, 126, 132 ASTM C560, 127, 133 ASTM C561, 126, 132 ASTM C562, 128, 133 ASTM C565, 127, 133 ASTM C611, 128, 133 ASTM C625, 128, 133 ASTM C651, 127, 134 ASTM C662, 133 ASTM C695, 127, 133 ASTM C709, 129 ASTM C714, 130, 134 ASTM C747, 128, 133 ASTM C748, 127, 133 ASTM C749, 127, 133, 134 ASTM C769, 128, 134 ASTM C781, 128, 134 ASTM C783, 129, 134

INDEX

317

ASTM C808, 127, 134 ASTM C816, 129, 135 ASTM C838, 126, 132 ASTM C886, 127, 133 ASTM C1025, 135 ASTM C1039, 126, 132 ASTM C1075, 128 ASTM C1179, 128, 135 ASTM C2415, 126 ASTM D02, 299, 302, 303 ASTM D02:1347, 13, 31 ASTM D5, 115, 116, 119 ASTM D36, 115, 116, 119 ASTM D56, 45, 51, 68, 72, 78, 104, 178, 179, 181 ASTM D61, 129, 132 ASTM D71, 126 ASTM D74, 202 ASTM D86, 14, 31, 36, 38, 42, 51, 61, 68, 78, 104, 168, 171, 178, 179, 181, 186, 188, 307, 309­311, 313 ASTM D87, 254, 258 ASTM D92, 178, 181, 186, 188, 193, 195, 200, 208, 227, 228, 233, 254, 259 ASTM D93, 28, 31, 36, 38, 40, 45, 51, 58, 61, 62, 66, 78, 94, 104, 178, 181, 186, 188, 193, 195, 200, 208, 227, 228, 254, 259, 311­313 ASTM D94, 254 ASTM D95, 40, 66, 73, 78, 156, 160, 163, 201, 208, 247, 254, 312, 313 ASTM D96, 66 ASTM D97, 38, 41, 43, 51, 67, 78, 109, 112, 119, 187, 188, 193, 195, 199, 200, 208, 227, 228, 312, 313 ASTM D127, 254, 258 ASTM D128, 247 ASTM D129, 36, 40, 47, 51, 61, 66, 78, 107, 120, 208, 247, 286, 289, 312 ASTM D130, 14, 28, 31, 36, 41, 51, 57, 61, 63, 66, 68, 78, 96, 104, 168, 171, 180, 182, 205, 209, 307­309, 311, 313 ASTM D156, 68, 78, 97, 104, 178, 179, 182, 186, 188, 254, 259, 309, 313 ASTM D187, 68, 77, 79 ASTM D189, 29, 31, 51, 63, 110, 120, 195 ASTM D216, 168, 171 ASTM D217, 233, 235, 247, 248 ASTM D235, 181 ASTM D240, 47, 51, 79, 104 ASTM D268, 182 ASTM D287, 79, 107, 120, 187, 188, 200, 254, 255 ASTM D322, 201, 209 ASTM D323, 14, 84, 104, 110, 112, 114, 120, 171, 307, 313 ASTM D324, 95 ASTM D341, 109, 120, 199, 209 ASTM D381, 8, 14, 23, 25, 26, 28, 31, 84, 104, 156, 162, 307­309 ASTM D396, 17, 31, 38, 51, 55, 59, 65, 72, 74, 78, 154, 157, 158, 159 ASTM D445, 28, 31, 36, 38, 40, 42, 51, 57, 61, 63, 66, 68, 72, 79, 104, 109, 112, 115, 120, 181, 187, 188, 193, 198, 209, 216, 222, 227, 228, 233, 254, 258, 309, 311­313 ASTM D447, 188 ASTM D471, 247 ASTM D473, 40, 66, 79, 112, 114, 120, 156, 160, 163, 311, 313 ASTM D477, 186 ASTM D482, 36, 38, 40, 51, 61, 66, 79, 120, 254, 285, 286, 289, 311­313

ASTM D482-07, 195 ASTM D483, 187, 188 ASTM D524, 29, 31, 37, 38, 40, 61, 63, 66, 79, 110, 120, 311, 313 ASTM D524-04, 195 ASTM D525, 8, 14, 152, 153, 162, 307, 308, 313 ASTM D565, 185, 188 ASTM D566, 237, 238, 247, 248 ASTM D567, 199 ASTM D611, 104, 115, 178, 180, 182, 185, 188, 194, 195, 226, 227, 233 ASTM D612, 254, 260 ASTM D613, 29, 31, 36, 41, 51, 57, 58, 61, 63, 310, 311, 313 ASTM D664, 29, 31, 57, 61, 63, 112, 114, 118, 120, 195, 219, 222 ASTM D665, 14, 206, 207, 209 ASTM D721, 254, 256, 259 ASTM D808, 209, 247, 286, 288, 289 ASTM D811, 209 ASTM D841, 181 ASTM D843, 181 ASTM D847, 183 ASTM D848, 178, 182 ASTM D849, 178, 180, 182 ASTM D850, 178, 179, 181 ASTM D852, 181 ASTM D853, 182 ASTM D873, 8, 14, 84, 104, 152, 155, 159, 161, 162, 307, 308, 313 ASTM D874, 29, 31, 57, 63, 209, 285, 286, 289 ASTM D877, 186, 188 ASTM D891, 31, 178, 181 ASTM D892, 195, 206, 207, 209 ASTM D893, 202, 209 ASTM D909, 104 ASTM D910, 81, 82­83, 86, 101, 103, 161 ASTM D925, 227, 228 ASTM D937, 254, 258 ASTM D938, 254, 258 ASTM D942, 153, 162, 237, 240, 241, 248 ASTM D943, 153, 162, 191, 206, 207, 209 ASTM D972, 227, 228, 248 ASTM D974, 29, 31, 51, 63, 104, 208, 254 ASTM D975, 17, 28, 31, 36, 39, 42, 51, 54­56, 58, 59, 63, 154­155, 157, 158, 159, 292, 310 ASTM D976, 29, 31, 37, 42, 51, 61, 63, 115, 310 ASTM D1015, 181 ASTM D1016, 182 ASTM D1018, 286, 288, 290 ASTM D1025, 169, 172 ASTM D1070, 170 ASTM D1072, 165, 170 ASTM D1078, 178, 179, 181 ASTM D1089, 169, 172 ASTM D1091, 209, 286, 289, 291 ASTM D1092, 236, 248 ASTM D1093, 183 ASTM D1094, 85, 104, 156, 161, 162 ASTM D1133, 178, 179, 182 ASTM D1142, 165, 170 ASTM D1148, 227, 228 ASTM D1152, 31 ASTM D1157, 172

318

INDEX

ASTM D1160, 30, 31, 57, 63, 79, 113, 120, 186, 188, 256, 259 ASTM D1193, 31 ASTM D1209, 178, 179, 182 ASTM D1217, 181 ASTM D1218, 115, 182, 188, 227, 228 ASTM D1250, 79, 120, 182 ASTM D1262, 248 ASTM D1263, 240, 248 ASTM D1264, 245, 248 ASTM D1265, 166, 171, 172 ASTM D1266, 8, 14, 25, 27, 29, 31, 47, 51, 63, 68, 74, 79, 84, 104, 168, 171, 182, 286, 289, 291 ASTM D1267, 166, 171, 306, 313 ASTM D1298, 14, 38, 41, 51, 67, 79, 95, 104, 107, 112, 119, 168, 171, 181, 187, 188, 195, 200, 222, 227, 228, 254, 259, 307, 309, 311­313 ASTM D1310, 178 ASTM D1317, 209, 247, 286, 289 ASTM D1318, 286, 289, 293, 296 ASTM D1319, 14, 37, 46, 51, 61, 104, 182, 306, 307, 309, 313 ASTM D1321, 254, 258 ASTM D1322, 76, 79, 94, 104, 115, 288, 309, 313 ASTM D1343, 178, 180, 181 ASTM D1353, 181 ASTM D1364, 183 ASTM D1368, 286, 289 ASTM D1401, 161, 206, 207, 209 ASTM D1402, 248 ASTM D1403, 234, 235, 248 ASTM D1404, 246, 248 ASTM D1405, 79, 104 ASTM D1465, 254, 260 ASTM D1478, 236, 249 ASTM D1492, 178, 180, 182, 192 ASTM D1493, 181 ASTM D1500, 191, 195, 200, 209, 227, 228, 254, 259 ASTM D1548, 286, 289, 293, 296 ASTM D1550, 169, 172 ASTM D1552, 47, 51, 74, 79, 104, 107, 119, 129, 131, 286, 289, 291, 313 ASTM D1555, 181 ASTM D1613, 23, 24, 26, 31 ASTM D1627, 313 ASTM D1655, 89, 92, 93, 94, 97, 100, 103, 156, 158, 308, 309 ASTM D1657, 167, 171, 306 ASTM D1660, 154 ASTM D1685, 182 ASTM D1688, 23, 25, 31 ASTM D1720, 178, 180, 182 ASTM D1740, 94, 104, 288 ASTM D1741, 248 ASTM D1742, 239, 249 ASTM D1743, 244, 249 ASTM D1744, 309, 313 ASTM D1747, 227, 228 ASTM D1796, 30, 31, 36, 38, 63, 156, 158, 160, 163 ASTM D1826, 165, 170 ASTM D1831, 235, 247, 249 ASTM D1832, 254, 257, 260 ASTM D1833, 254, 259 ASTM D1834, 260 ASTM D1835, 166, 167, 306 ASTM D1836, 181

ASTM D1837, 166, 171 ASTM D1838, 167, 171, 306, 313 ASTM D1840, 94, 104, 115 ASTM D1945, 165, 170 ASTM D1947, 206, 209 ASTM D1988, 170 ASTM D2007, 189, 190, 226, 228 ASTM D2008, 182, 190, 227, 228, 254, 257, 260 ASTM D2015, 313 ASTM D2068, 44, 51, 157, 158, 162 ASTM D2069, 36, 154, 155 ASTM D2070, 154, 162, 207 ASTM D2112, 153, 162 ASTM D2140, 190, 225, 228 ASTM D2156, 76, 79 ASTM D2157, 76, 79 ASTM D2158, 167, 170, 171, 306, 313 ASTM D2161, 79, 109, 119, 258 ASTM D2163, 168, 169, 171, 306, 313 ASTM D2226, 225, 226, 228 ASTM D2240, 247 ASTM D2265, 237, 238, 247, 249 ASTM D2266, 242, 243, 249 ASTM D2268, 182 ASTM D2269, 187, 188 ASTM D2270, 193, 195, 199, 209 ASTM D2271, 209 ASTM D2272, 153, 162, 192, 209 ASTM D2274, 45, 51, 63, 75, 79, 153, 155, 311­313 ASTM D2276, 7, 14, 97, 104, 157, 158, 159, 162 ASTM D2308, 182 ASTM D2318, 127, 131 ASTM D2319, 129, 131 ASTM D2320, 126 ASTM D2359, 181 ASTM D2360, 182 ASTM D2384, 169, 172 ASTM D2386, 68, 78, 79, 94, 104, 115, 309, 310, 313 ASTM D2392, 104 ASTM D2415, 131 ASTM D2416, 126, 131 ASTM D2420, 167, 171 ASTM D2421, 171 ASTM D2422, 209 ASTM D2423, 254, 260 ASTM D2425, 46, 51, 309, 311, 313 ASTM D2426, 172 ASTM D2427, 168, 169, 171 ASTM D2497, 171 ASTM D2500, 37, 43, 51, 57, 61, 63, 79, 181, 186, 188, 193, 195, 199, 209, 228, 254, 311­313 ASTM D2501, 228 ASTM D2503, 259 ASTM D2504, 169, 171 ASTM D2505, 169, 171 ASTM D2509, 242, 249 ASTM D2534, 254, 260 ASTM D2547, 286, 289 ASTM D2549, 189­191, 309 ASTM D2569, 130 ASTM D2593, 169, 172 ASTM D2595, 237, 249 ASTM D2596, 242, 243, 249

INDEX

319

ASTM D2597, 171 ASTM D2598, 166, 167, 168, 171, 306, 313 ASTM D2599, 286, 289 ASTM D2602, 201, 209, 219, 222 ASTM D2619, 207, 209 ASTM D2622, 8, 14, 25, 27, 31, 36, 40, 47, 51, 61, 63, 66, 74, 79, 84, 104, 107, 119, 192, 286, 289, 291, 295, 307, 308, 313 ASTM D2624, 37, 96, 101, 104, 309, 310, 313 ASTM D2638, 126, 130 ASTM D2669, 254, 258 ASTM D2670, 209 ASTM D2699, 4, 14, 168, 171, 307, 313 ASTM D2700, 4, 14, 83, 104, 168, 171, 307, 313 ASTM D2709, 7, 14, 30, 31, 36, 38, 40, 44, 51, 57, 61, 63, 66, 73, 79, 156, 158, 160, 163 ASTM D2710, 178, 180, 182, 192, 195 ASTM D2711, 209 ASTM D2712, 171 ASTM D2713, 167, 170, 171 ASTM D2764, 127 ASTM D2770, 189 ASTM D2774, 162 ASTM D2782, 209 ASTM D2783, 209 ASTM D2784, 167, 169, 171, 172, 286, 289, 291, 306, 313 ASTM D2785, 286, 289 ASTM D2786, 189, 191 ASTM D2880, 39, 51, 63, 154, 155, 157, 158, 159, 292 ASTM D2885, 14, 307 ASTM D2887, 42, 51, 78, 79, 104, 111, 119, 181, 186, 188, 193, 195, 259, 311, 312, 314 ASTM D2892, 112, 113, 114, 119 ASTM D2893, 209 ASTM D2896, 114, 183, 202, 209, 219 ASTM D2982, 201, 209 ASTM D2983, 194, 209 ASTM D3104, 129, 131 ASTM D3116, 286, 289 ASTM D3117, 29, 31, 43, 51, 63 ASTM D3119, 209 ASTM D3120, 8, 14, 25, 27, 29, 31, 47, 63, 178, 180, 182, 286, 289, 291 ASTM D3182, 247 ASTM D3193, 181 ASTM D3227, 14, 68, 79, 96, 104, 286, 289, 291, 307­309, 314 ASTM D3228, 111, 119, 286, 289, 290 ASTM D3228-08, 191 ASTM D3229, 286, 289 ASTM D3230, 108, 119, 286, 290, 291 ASTM D3231, 14, 25, 286, 289, 291 ASTM D3234, 260 ASTM D3235, 254, 256, 259 ASTM D3236, 254, 258 ASTM D3237, 7, 14, 286, 289, 293, 296 ASTM D3238, 190, 225, 228 ASTM D3239, 189, 191 ASTM D3240, 97, 104, 157, 162 ASTM D3241, 104, 154, 162, 309, 310, 314 ASTM D3242, 29, 32, 63, 96, 309, 314 ASTM D3244, 300, 302, 303 ASTM D3245, 73

ASTM D3246, 169­171, 286, 289, 291 ASTM D3257, 182 ASTM D3278, 179 ASTM D3279, 111, 119 ASTM D3336, 237, 241, 249 ASTM D3337, 237, 241, 249 ASTM D3338, 95, 309, 310, 314 ASTM D3339, 191 ASTM D3340, 286, 289, 293, 296 ASTM D3341, 7, 14, 100, 104, 286, 289, 293, 296 ASTM D3343, 104 ASTM D3344, 254, 260 ASTM D3348, 7, 14, 286, 289, 293, 296 ASTM D3427, 207 ASTM D3428, 248 ASTM D3431, 286, 289, 290 ASTM D3461, 129, 131 ASTM D3505, 32, 181 ASTM D3521, 254 ASTM D3522, 254 ASTM D3524, 201 ASTM D3525, 201 ASTM D3527, 232, 237, 240, 241, 249 ASTM D3539, 178, 179 ASTM D3588, 165, 170 ASTM D3605, 286, 289, 293 ASTM D3606, 9, 14, 307 ASTM D3699, 67, 76, 78, 154, 157, 159 ASTM D3700, 166, 171 ASTM D3701, 94, 104, 286, 288, 290 ASTM D3703, 8, 14, 104 ASTM D3704, 243, 249 ASTM D3708, 254 ASTM D3710, 6, 14 ASTM D3734, 181 ASTM D3735, 181 ASTM D3797, 182 ASTM D3798, 182 ASTM D3828, 28, 32, 45, 51, 63, 72, 78, 79, 94, 104, 179, 181, 309, 314 ASTM D3829, 201, 217 ASTM D3831, 7, 14, 286, 289, 293, 296 ASTM D3941, 45, 51 ASTM D3944, 254, 258 ASTM D3948, 104, 158, 162, 309, 314 ASTM D3978, 272, 276, 277 ASTM D4006, 108­109, 119 ASTM D4007, 108, 119 ASTM D4045, 8, 14, 27, 32, 178, 180, 182, 286, 289, 291 ASTM D4047, 286, 289, 291 ASTM D4048, 244, 249 ASTM D4049, 248 ASTM D4052, 14, 32, 51, 79, 94, 95, 105, 178, 181, 187, 188, 195, 227, 228, 307, 309, 311, 312, 314 ASTM D4053, 9, 14 ASTM D4054, 99, 105 ASTM D4055, 202 ASTM D4057, 11, 14, 32, 63, 105, 117, 119, 136, 150, 161, 163, 178, 182, 284 ASTM D4072, 127, 131 ASTM D4077, 181 ASTM D4084, 165, 170 ASTM D4170, 243, 249

320

INDEX

ASTM D4171, 101, 103 ASTM D4172, 209 ASTM D4176, 27, 32, 44, 97, 105, 157, 158, 162 ASTM D4177, 11, 14, 30, 32, 63, 117, 120, 140, 143, 150, 161, 163, 182, 284 ASTM D4289, 194, 232, 246, 249 ASTM D4290, 232, 237, 240, 249 ASTM D4291, 201 ASTM D4292, 126, 130 ASTM D4293, 209 ASTM D4294, 8, 14, 29, 32, 47, 51, 63, 74, 79, 105, 107, 112, 114, 120, 192, 286, 289, 291, 295, 314 ASTM D4296, 129 ASTM D4304, 152 ASTM D4305, 94, 105 ASTM D4306, 11, 14, 30, 32, 105, 139, 150, 162, 163 ASTM D4308, 37, 96, 105 ASTM D4310, 153, 162, 206, 209 ASTM D4312, 127, 131 ASTM D4367, 182 ASTM D4377, 109, 120, 156, 160, 163 ASTM D4418, 51, 154, 159, 162, 163 ASTM D4419, 254, 260 ASTM D4422, 126, 130 ASTM D4423, 172 ASTM D4424, 172 ASTM D4425, 240, 249 ASTM D4485, 221, 222 ASTM D4492, 182 ASTM D4529, 95, 105, 309, 310, 314 ASTM D4530, 29, 57, 63, 111, 112, 114, 120, 195 ASTM D4539, 37, 43, 51, 61 ASTM D4616, 129, 131 ASTM D4625, 45, 51, 58, 154­155, 162 ASTM D4628, 286, 289, 293 ASTM D4629, 111, 120, 192, 195, 286, 289, 290 ASTM D4636, 153, 162, 192 ASTM D4683, 216, 222 ASTM D4683-04, 193 ASTM D4684, 193, 217, 218, 222 ASTM D4693, 232, 237, 249 ASTM D4715, 126, 131 ASTM D4734, 181 ASTM D4735, 182 ASTM D4737, 29, 32, 42, 51, 58, 63, 310 ASTM D4739, 202, 219, 222 ASTM D4740, 76, 79, 118, 120, 162, 163 ASTM D4741, 193 ASTM D4742, 153, 162, 191 ASTM D4746, 127 ASTM D4756, 131 ASTM D4805, 290 ASTM D4806, 13, 16, 22, 23, 24, 31, 308 ASTM D4807, 108, 120 ASTM D4808, 287, 288 ASTM D4809, 95, 105, 309, 310, 314 ASTM D4810, 165, 170 ASTM D4814, 3­10, 13, 26, 28, 31, 86, 87, 156, 159, 307 ASTM D4815, 9, 14, 26, 32, 290, 307, 308, 314 ASTM D4840, 117, 120 ASTM D4860, 44, 51, 158, 162 ASTM D4864, 171 ASTM D4865, 63, 96, 105

ASTM D4868, 47, 51, 75 ASTM D4870, 118, 120, 160, 163 ASTM D4871, 191 ASTM D4888, 165, 170 ASTM D4892, 126 ASTM D4893, 130 ASTM D4927, 192, 287, 289, 291, 295 ASTM D4928, 109, 112, 114, 120, 163 ASTM D4929, 111, 112, 114, 120, 287­289 ASTM D4930, 126 ASTM D4931, 128 ASTM D4950, 232, 237, 242, 243, 247, 249 ASTM D4951, 30, 32, 57, 63, 287, 289, 291, 295 ASTM D4952, 14, 79, 96, 105, 180, 182, 187, 188, 287, 289, 291, 307, 308, 314 ASTM D4953, 14, 26, 28, 32, 105, 168, 171, 307, 314 ASTM D4984, 165, 170 ASTM D5001, 96, 100, 105, 309, 310, 314 ASTM D5002, 107, 112, 114, 120 ASTM D5003, 127 ASTM D5004, 126, 130 ASTM D5006, 101, 105 ASTM D5018, 130 ASTM D5056, 127, 130, 287, 289, 293 ASTM D5059, 7, 14, 25, 27, 32, 100, 105, 287, 293, 295, 296 ASTM D5060, 182 ASTM D5119, 221, 222 ASTM D5133, 217, 222 ASTM D5134, 113, 114, 120 ASTM D5136, 181 ASTM D5159, 289 ASTM D5182, 209 ASTM D5184, 287, 289, 293, 295 ASTM D5185, 110, 120, 202, 287, 289, 291, 295 ASTM D5186, 46, 51, 309, 311, 314 ASTM D5187, 126 ASTM D5188, 14 ASTM D5190, 5, 14, 26, 32, 84, 105, 168, 171, 307 ASTM D5191, 5, 14, 26, 32, 84, 105, 110, 120, 168, 171, 307, 314 ASTM D5194, 183 ASTM D5234, 171 ASTM D5236, 113 ASTM D5273, 171 ASTM D5274, 172 ASTM D5291, 115, 120, 192, 287­290 ASTM D5292, 46, 51 ASTM D5293, 193, 217, 219, 222 ASTM D5302, 220, 222 ASTM D5303, 171 ASTM D5304, 45, 51, 76, 79, 155, 162 ASTM D5305, 168, 171, 306, 314 ASTM D5306, 207 ASTM D5307, 112, 120 ASTM D5384, 287­289 ASTM D5386, 178, 179, 182 ASTM D5399, 182 ASTM D5430, 32 ASTM D5438, 249 ASTM D5441, 27, 32 ASTM D5442, 254, 259 ASTM D5443, 314

INDEX

321

ASTM D5452, 63, 105, 157, 158, 159, 162, 309, 314 ASTM D5453, 8, 14, 29, 32, 36, 47, 51, 57, 60, 61, 63, 79, 105, 178, 180, 183, 287, 289, 291, 306­308, 311, 314 ASTM D5454, 165, 170 ASTM D5481, 193 ASTM D5482, 5, 15 ASTM D5483, 191, 212, 219, 222, 241 ASTM D5500, 12, 15 ASTM D5501, 23, 32 ASTM D5502, 126, 131 ASTM D5504, 165, 170 ASTM D5533, 222 ASTM D5534, 209 ASTM D5580, 9, 15, 32, 307, 314 ASTM D5598, 12, 15 ASTM D5599, 9, 15 ASTM D5600, 128, 130, 287, 289, 291, 295 ASTM D5621, 207 ASTM D5622, 287, 289, 290 ASTM D5623, 178, 180, 183 ASTM D5706, 244, 249 ASTM D5707, 244, 249 ASTM D5708, 110, 112, 114, 120, 287, 289, 295 ASTM D5709, 129 ASTM D5762, 111, 112, 114, 120, 192, 287, 289, 290 ASTM D5769, 9, 15 ASTM D5771, 43, 51, 181 ASTM D5772, 43, 51, 181 ASTM D5773, 29, 32, 43, 51, 63, 115, 181 ASTM D5776, 178, 180, 182, 192 ASTM D5797, 13, 16, 25, 26, 31 ASTM D5798, 13, 16, 21­22, 23, 24, 31 ASTM D5799, 172 ASTM D5800-08, 193 ASTM D5808, 183 ASTM D5842, 11, 15, 30, 117, 120, 139, 150 ASTM D5844, 222 ASTM D5845, 9, 15 ASTM D5853, 109, 112, 114, 120 ASTM D5854, 11, 15, 31, 32, 117, 121, 138, 150 ASTM D5863, 110, 112, 121, 287, 289, 293 ASTM D5864, 194, 267, 277 ASTM D5901, 79, 105, 309, 310, 314 ASTM D5917, 182 ASTM D5949, 43, 51, 79 ASTM D5950, 43, 51, 79, 193, 228 ASTM D5969, 245, 249 ASTM D5972, 79, 94, 105, 309, 310, 314 ASTM D5983, 13, 17, 27, 31 ASTM D5985, 43, 51, 79, 193 ASTM D5986, 9, 15 ASTM D6006, 194, 209, 277 ASTM D6045, 97, 178, 179, 182 ASTM D6046, 207, 209 ASTM D6069, 183 ASTM D6074, 190 ASTM D6078, 46, 51 ASTM D6079, 37, 46, 52, 61, 312 ASTM D6080, 207 ASTM D6081, 277 ASTM D6097, 311 ASTM D6120, 129, 132 ASTM D6138, 249

ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM ASTM

D6139, D6158, D6159, D6184, D6185, D6201, D6202, D6212, D6217, D6227, D6228, D6229, D6293, D6296, D6299, D6300, D6304, D6313, D6334, D6352, D6353, D6354, D6371, D6374, D6376, D6377, D6378, D6379, D6384, D6417, D6421, D6422, D6423, D6424, D6426, D6428, D6443, D6444, D6445, D6446, D6447, D6448, D6450, D6468, D6469, D6470, D6481, D6547, D6550, D6557, D6558, D6559, D6560, D6584, D6595, D6615, D6616, D6628, D6667, D6708, D6728, D6729, D6730,

267, 277 207 171 239, 240, 249 247, 249 12, 15 222 180 44, 52, 63, 159, 162 85, 86, 103, 156 165 182 9, 15 9, 15 303 63, 299, 300, 302, 303 97, 105, 160, 163, 178, 311, 314 180 8, 15, 287, 289, 291, 295 193 129 129 37, 61 130 128, 130 110, 112, 114, 121 5, 15 105, 309, 314 277 193 12, 15 308 23, 24, 32 85 44, 52, 158, 162 52, 180 287, 289, 291, 295 287, 289, 295 8, 15, 287, 289, 291, 295 105 8, 15 78 28, 32, 63, 181 44, 154, 162, 311, 314 15, 63, 73, 79, 97, 105, 155, 159, 160, 162 108, 112, 114, 121, 287, 290, 291 287, 289, 295 209 9, 15, 32 222 128, 132 128, 132 111, 112, 115, 121, 161, 163 30, 32, 56, 57, 63 287, 289 103 193 170 167, 168, 171, 287, 289, 291 303 157, 163, 287, 289 9, 15 9, 15, 307

322

INDEX

ASTM D6731, ASTM D6732, ASTM D6733, ASTM D6744, ASTM D6745, ASTM D6748, ASTM D6751, 159, 160 ASTM D6791, ASTM D6792, ASTM D6811, ASTM D6812, ASTM D6813, ASTM D6822, ASTM D6824, ASTM D6837, ASTM D6849, ASTM D6890, ASTM D6891, ASTM D6897, ASTM D6920, ASTM D6969, ASTM D6970, ASTM D6973, ASTM D6974, ASTM D6984, ASTM D6985, ASTM D7039, ASTM D7040, ASTM D7041, ASTM D7059, ASTM D7060, ASTM D7061, ASTM D7096, ASTM D7111, ASTM D7112, ASTM D7153, ASTM D7154, ASTM D7157, ASTM D7169, ASTM D7170, ASTM D7171, ASTM D7212, ASTM D7219, ASTM D7220, ASTM D7224, ASTM D7260, ASTM D7261, ASTM D7280, ASTM D7301, ASTM D7303, ASTM D7318, ASTM D7319, ASTM D7320, ASTM D7321, ASTM D7328, ASTM D7342, ASTM D7343, ASTM D7344, ASTM D7345, ASTM D7371, ASTM D7375, ASTM D7451,

277 287, 289, 293­294, 296 9, 15 130, 132 130, 132 155, 162 17, 28, 31, 50, 53, 55, 56, 59, 60, 65, 79, 153, 127, 130 297, 303 154, 162 85 209 107, 121, 150 158, 163 221, 222 171 29, 32, 63, 310, 311, 314 222 166, 171 8, 15, 287, 289, 291 129 129 207 155, 159, 163 220, 222 159 8, 15, 63, 287, 289, 291, 295 287, 289, 291, 295 287, 290, 291 111, 121 161, 163 161, 163 6, 15 287, 289, 291, 295 118, 121, 161, 163 94 94 118, 121, 161, 163 112, 113, 115, 121 310, 311, 314 287, 288, 290 287, 289, 291, 295 130, 135 287, 289, 291, 295 158 287, 289, 295 158, 163 127, 131 130, 135 248, 249, 287, 289, 295 23, 32, 287, 290, 292 23, 25, 27, 32, 287, 290, 292 220, 222 159, 163 23, 25, 27, 32, 288, 290, 292 246, 249 288, 289, 295 6, 15, 178, 179, 181 6, 15, 178, 179, 181 61 178 157, 161, 163

ASTM D7454, 126, 130 ASTM D7455, 284, 288 ASTM D7462, 153, 162 ASTM D7463, 155, 159, 163 ASTM D7464, 155, 159, 162, 163 ASTM D7467, 17, 28, 31, 54, 60, 154 ASTM D7482, 288, 289 ASTM D7501, 29, 32, 159, 163 ASTM D7525, 153, 162 ASTM D7545, 153, 162 ASTM D54443, 307 ASTM D02.CS92, 303 ASTM D02.CS94, 300 ASTM D02.G.7, 233 ASTM E203, 22, 25, 27, 32, 183 ASTM E456, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303 ASTM E659, 181 ASTM E691, 303 ASTM E724, 274, 277 ASTM E729, 269, 273, 275, 277 ASTM E857, 277 ASTM E895, 265, 277 ASTM E896, 265, 277 ASTM E1022, 269, 277 ASTM E1023, 269, 277 ASTM E1064, 28, 32, 178, 183 ASTM E1147, 264, 277 ASTM E1148, 264, 277 ASTM E1191, 277 ASTM E1192, 274, 277 ASTM E1193, 277 ASTM E1194, 264, 277 ASTM E1195, 264, 277 ASTM E1218, 272, 276, 277 ASTM E1241, 275, 277 ASTM E1242, 269, 277 ASTM E1279, 268, 277 ASTM E1295, 274, 277 ASTM E1367, 273, 277 ASTM E1415, 272, 277 ASTM E1439, 277 ASTM E1440, 274, 277 ASTM E1463, 273, 278 ASTM E1498, 272, 278 ASTM E1562, 274, 278 ASTM E1563, 274, 278 ASTM E1598, 273, 278 ASTM E1611, 274, 278 ASTM E1625, 268, 278 ASTM E1676, 269, 278 ASTM E1688, 269, 278 ASTM E1706, 274, 278 ASTM E1720, 267, 278 ASTM E1798, 268, 278 ASTM E1841, 273, 278 ASTM E1847, 269 ASTM E1913, 272, 278 ASTM E1963, 273, 278 ASTM E2170, 278 ASTM International, described, 1 ASTM PS121, 56 ASTM STP 512A, 205 ATF specifications, history, 206

INDEX

323

Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), in petroleum products and lubricants, 292­293 Atomic fluorescene spectrometry, in petroleum products and lubricants, 294 Atomizing air, 34 pressure, 34 ATSM STP 1468, 110 Automatic sampler, 144 Automatic sampling, 143­147. see also Sampling, automatic Automatic sampling system, 144 Automatic transmission fluids, 205 Automotive engine oils, 200­202, 210­222 additives, 214­215 ASTM test methods, 222 Bench test methods, 215­216 chemical tests, 219­221 evolution, 210­211 functions, 211, 214­215 future issues, 221­222 high-temperature, high-load conditions, 211­212 oxidation stability, 153 performance tests, 220 physical tests, 216­219 properties, 200­201 Scanning Brookfield Technique, 217 service types city driving, 212 comparison, 212­214 effects of, 211­214 freeway driving, 211 short-trip driving, 212 standard tests, future directions, 222 test methods, development, 221 used, examination, 201­202 Automotive (motor) gasoline, use in aircraft, 86­87 Automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 3­15 additives, 9­10 antiknock rating, 4­5 ASTM specifications, 13­15 composition, 10­11 contamination, 7 density, 8­9 deposit control additive requirements, 12 distillation, 5­6 driveability index, 6 gasoline-oxygenate blends, 12­15. see also Gasoline­ oxygenate blends grades, 4 gum and stability, 8 hydrocarbon composition, 9 lead content, 7 manganese content, 7 oxygenated fuel programs, 11­12 oxygenate(s), 9 performance, 6­7 phosphorus content, 7 properties, 7­10 reformulated, 11­12 relative density, 8­9 renewable fuel standard, 12 rust and corrosion, 9 sampling procedures, 11

silver corrosion, 9 sulfur content, 7­8, 11 U.S. legal requirements, 10­12 vapor-liquid ratio, 6 vapor pressure, 5 volatility, 5­7, 11 workmanship, 7 Aviation fuels, 80­105, 308 additives, 97­103 additive test, 103 anti-icing additives, 101, 103 antioxidants, 100, 103 ASTM/IP test methods, 104­105 ASTM specifications, 103 automotive gasoline, 86­87 biocides, 102, 103 color dyes, 100, 103 conductivity improver additive, 101, 103 corrosion inhibitors, 100­101, 103 fuel system icing inhibitors, 101, 103 gasoline, 80­87. see also Aviation gasoline historical development, 80 ignition control additive, 103 leak detector, 101­102, 103 lubricity improvers, 100­101, 103 metal deactivator, 100, 103 nonspecification additives, 102 oxidation stability, 152 PDR additive, 102­103 sampling, 97 static dissipator additive, 101, 103 synthetic, 308 TEL, 100 thermal stability improver additive, 102 turbine, 87­97. see also Jet fuels Aviation gasoline, 80­87 antiknock properties, 81, 81­83 characteristics and requirements, 81­85 composition and manufacture, 80 current specifications, 81 density, 84 energy, 84 freezing point, 84 international specification grades, 81 specifications, 80­81 storage stability, 84 sulfur content, 84 unleaded, 85 volatility, 83­84 water reaction, 84­85 Aviation turbine fuels, 87­97. see also Jet fuels

B

Ball bearings lubricating greases, 236­237 at elevated temperatures, 241 small, lubricating greases, 241­242 Ball Rust Test, automotive engine oils, 220 Base number, automotive engine oils, 219 Base oils, 189­195 aniline point, 194 ASTM/IP lubricant test methods, 195 ASTM tests, 190

324

INDEX

biological properties, 194­195 characterization methods, 190­195 composition, 189 evaporative loss/volatility characteristics, 192­193 international standards, 195 miscellaneous properties, 195 nitrogen compounds in, 192 olefins, 192 oxidation, 191­192 pour point and rheology, 193­194 refining, 189­190 rubber compatibility, 194 solvency, 194 spectrometric identification, 190­191 sulfur compounds, 192 Beaker sampling, 140­141 Bench test methods, automotive engine oils, 215­216 Benzene, 176 Bias(es) defined, 301 relative, in standard test method data quality assurance, 302 in standard test method data quality assurance, 300­302 Biocides, aviation fuels, 102, 103 Biodegradation, 265­266 Biodiesel fuel, 28­30, 53­64 alternative, 50 ASTM specifications, 63­64 blend specifications, 59­60 characteristics, 60 defined, 55 described, 55 in heating fuels, 65 standards, 57­59 sulfated ash, 60, 63 Biodiesel reaction, 55­56 Biofilms, 159 Biological properties, base oils, 194­195 Block penetration, lubricating greases, 235 Boiling point distribution crude oils, 111­112 petroleum waxes, 254, 256 Boring sample, 136 Bottle sampling, 140­141 Bottom sample, 136 Brinelling, false, 243 British military fuels, 87­88 Bromine index, hydrocarbon solvents, 180 Bulk density, manufactured carbon and graphite, 132 Burner fuel, 65­79 lubricating oil as, 68 Burning equipment, 69­71 domestic heating oil burners, 69­70 kerosine burners, 69 residual oil, 70­71 Burning oils, long-time, burning test for, 77 Burn quality, kerosine, 68 Butadiene, 169 Butane, 165­166 commercial, 166 Butane/commerical propane mixtures, 166 Butylene concentrates, 169

C

Calcining, 124 Calcium content biodiesel fuel, 30, 57, 62 diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 49­50 Calcium soap greases, 231, 232 Capacity table, 147 Carbon artificial, manufacturing methods, 125 cathode, materials, 132 described, 123 electrode, linear thermal expansion, 132 graphitization process, 125 manufactured materials, 132­135 methods, 125 test methods, 125­135 Carbon anodes, 124 Carbon artifacts, 124 Carbon hydrogen nitrogen (C-H-N), in petroleum products and lubricants, 285, 288 Carbonizable substance, petroleum waxes, 254, 257 Carbon residue biodiesel fuel, 29, 57, 60, 61 crude oils, 110­111, 112 diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 48­49 fuel oil, 73­74 Ramsbottom. see Ramsbottom carbon residue Cathode carbon, materials, 132 CEN (European Committee for Standardization), 1 Centrifuge test, lubricating greases, 240 Cetane index, 310­311 diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 42 diesel fuel, 37 Cetane number, 310­311 biodiesel fuel, 29, 57, 60, 61 diesel fuels, 36, 41­42 nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 41­42 Characterization factor, crude oils, 109 Chemical analysis, manufactured carbon and graphite, 133 Chemical properties, petroleum waxes, 255­257 Chemical tests, automotive engine oils, 219­221 Chloride, ionic ED75-ED85, 25 M70-M85, 27 Chloride ion content, denatured fuel ethanol, 23 Chlorine, in petroleum products and lubricants, 288 Chromatography, ion, in petroleum products and lubricants, 296­297 City driving, automotive engine oils effects on, 212 Clean Air Act, 290 Clean Fleets Program, 18­19 Cleanliness ASTM/IP standards, 162­163 diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 44 liquid fuels, 151­163. see also Liquid fuels miscellaneous properties, 161 Clearance sample, 136 Cloud point aromatic and poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 312 biodiesel fuel, 29, 57, 61

INDEX

325

diesel fuels, 37, 43 fuel oil, 73 lubricating oils, 199 nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 43 rubber oils, 227­228 white mineral oils, 185­186 Coke, petroleum. see Petroleum coke Coking value, pitch, 131 Cold-cranking simulator, automotive engine oils, 219 Cold filter plugging point, diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 43 Cold soak filterability, biodiesel fuel, 29, 57 Color hydrocarbon solvents, 179 kerosine, 68, 78 lubricating oils, 200 petroleum waxes, 254, 255 rubber oils, 227 Saybolt, 68 white mineral oils, 186 Color dyes, in aviation fuels, 100 Combustion characteristics, diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 41­42 Combustion process diesel, 33­35 nonaviation gas turbine, 34­35 Combustion quality, jet fuels, 94 Combustion values, heat of, conversion factors, 47 Commercial butane, 166 Commercial propane, 166 Commercial propane/butane mixtures, 166 Committee D02 on Petroleum Products and Lubricants, 1 Compatibility ASTM/IP standards, 163 crude oils, 118 elastomer, lubricating greases, 246­247 lubricating greases, 247 with system materials, jet fuels, 96 Complex mixture toxicity, "difficult materials," 270 Complex soap greases, 231, 232 Composite spot sample, 136 Composition automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 10­11 gasoline, 306­307 jet fuels, 309 liquefied petroleum gases, 168, 306 Comprehensive assay, crude oils, 112­116 Compressive strength, manufactured carbon and graphite, 133 Conductivity diesel fuel, 37 electrical, jet fuels, 96 jet fuels, 310 Conductivity improver additive, in aviation fuels, 101, 101­102 Cone penetration, lubricating greases, 233­234 Consistency, lubricating greases, 233 Consistency stability, lubricating greases, 235 Contamination ASTM/IP standards, 162­163 automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 7 jet fuels, 96­97 lubricating greases, 246

microbial, fuel oil, 76 test methods, 155­159 Copper content denatured fuel ethanol, 23 Ed75-Ed85, 25 Copper corrosion biodiesel fuel, 29, 57 diesel fuel, 36 fuel oil, 41 fuel oils, 66 kerosine, 68 liquefied petroleum gases, 167, 306 lubricating greases, 244 MTBE, 28 CO2 reactivity, carbon, 132 Core sample, 137 Core sampling, 142­143 manufactured carbon and graphite, 134 Corrosion copper. see Copper corrosion fuel oil, 75 jet fuels, 96 kerosine, 78 lubricating greases, 244­246 metal, gasoline-oxygenate blends, 13 rust and, 9 silver, 9 Corrosion inhibitors, in aviation fuels, 100­101, 103 Crude oils, 106­121, 164 API gravity, 107 ash content, 111 asphaltenes, 111, 112 ASTM/UOP standards, 119­121 boiling point distribution, 111­112 carbon residue, 110­111, 112 characterization factor, 109 future needs in, 118­119 compatibility, 118 composition, 106 comprehensive assay, 112­116 distillate fuel oil, 116 economics, 106 fluidity, 109 as fuel, 117­118 gas, 113 H2S in, 119 inspection assays, 106­112 kerosine, 116 methanol content, 111, 112 naphtha fractions, 113, 116 organic halides, 111 pour point, 109 referee test methods, 116­117 residua, 116 salt content, 108, 112 sample collection, 119 sampling, 117, 119 sediment content, 108­109, 112 sulfur content, 107­108, 112 total acid number, 110, 112 total nitrogen content, 111, 112 trace elements, 109­110, 112 vacuum gas oil fractions, 116

326

INDEX

vapor pressure, 110, 112 viscosity, 109 water content, 108­109, 112 Crude petroleum, sampling, 139 Cycloparaffins, 175

D

Defoamers, automotive engine oils, 215 Denaturant(s), denatured fuel ethanol, 22 Density aromatic and poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 312 automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 8­9 aviation gasoline, 84 biodiesel fuel, 62 bulk, manufactured carbon and graphite, 132 carbon, 131 fuel oil, 41, 67, 71 fuel oxygenates, 30 gasoline, 307 gas turbine fuel, 38 jet fuels, 95 liquefied petroleum gases, 167, 306 petroleum coke, 130 petroleum waxes, 254, 255 relative. see Relative density static measurement, 149 white mineral oils, 187 Deposit control additive requirements, automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 12 DERD 2452, 88 DERD 2454, 88 DERD 2486, 88 DERD 2494, 87 DERD 2498, 88 Desorption, 264 Detergents, automotive engine oils, 214 Deutsches Institut fur Normung (DIN), 1 ¨ Diamond, structure of, 123, 124 Dielectric breakdown voltage, white mineral oils, 186 Diesel engines, 33 alternative fuels, 50 ash content, 49 ASTM standards, 51­52 carbon residue, 48­49 characteristics and specifications, 35­40 combustion process, 33­35 marine, 33­52 standards, 51­52 properties and tests, 40­50 range, 34 total sulfur, 47­48 Diesel fuel oils, 310­311 cetane index and number, 310­311 requirements, 36­37 Diesel fuel(s) red-dyed, 48 specifications, 37­39 Diesel knock, 34 "Difficult materials" characteristics, 270 complex mixture toxicity, 270 low solubility, 270 Diffusivity, thermal, manufactured carbon and graphite, 134

Dilution ratio in nitrocellulose solutions, hydrocarbon solvents, 180 DIN 51.5681, 193 DIN 51802, 245 DIN. see Deutsches Institut fur Normung (DIN) ¨ Diolefins, 168­169 Dipper sample, 137 Dispersants, automotive engine oils, 214 Dissociation constant, 264 Dissolved water, 137 Distillate fuel oils crude oils, 116 oxidation stability, 153 Distillate heating fuels, transportation of, 68­69 Distillate products, sampling, 140 Distillation aromatic and poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 312 automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 5­6 fuel oil, 74­75 gas turbine fuel, 38 hydrocarbon solvents, 179 kerosine, 78 Distillation profile, jet fuels, 309­310 Distillation range, white mineral oils, 186 Distillation temperature biodiesel fuel, 61 diesel fuel, 36 fuel oils, 40, 66 kerosine, 68 Doctor test, kerosine, 78 Domestic heating oil, 67­68 performance evaluation, 76 Domestic heating oil burners, 69­70 Drain sample, 137 Driveability index, automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 6 Dropping point, lubricating greases, 238 Dye(s), color, in aviation fuels, 100

E

EI. see Energy Institute (EI) Elasticity, moduli of, manufactured carbon and graphite, 133­134 Elastomer compatibility, lubricating greases, 246­247 Elastomer(s), gasoline-oxygenate blends and, 13 Electrical conductivity, jet fuels, 96 Electrical resistivity, manufactured carbon and graphite, 132 Electrode carbon, linear thermal expansion, 132 elete 4834, STM D381, 313 EMCOR Grease Test, 245 Emissions, jet fuels, 94­95 Emulsion, sample, 137 EN 14 112, 153­154 EN 14110, 57, 64 EN 14112, 32, 57, 61, 64 EN 14538, 30, 32, 57, 64 Energy, specific aviation gasoline, 84 jet fuels, 310 Energy Institute (EI), 1 Engine fuel, automotive spark-ignition, 3­15. see also Automotive spark-ignition engine fuel Engine oils, automotive. see also Automotive engine oils automotive, 200­202, 210­222

INDEX

327

gas, 204 industrial and railway, 203 marine diesel, 202 EN 116-IP 309, 44 Entrained water, 137 Environment, fuel use effects on, 65­67 Environmental characteristics. see also Environmental testing methods abiotic degradation, 265 accumulation processes, 266, 269 adsorption/desorption, 264 biodegradation, 265­266 chemical structure, 263 dissociation constant, 264 exposures, 269 general contamination, 263 Henry's Law constant, 264 octano/water partition coefficient, 263­264 persistence and accumulation properties, 264­269 physical properties, 263­264 PMNs, 261 product registration, 261­263 regulated discharge, 263 standardized tests, 269 toxicological properties, 269 transformation processes, 264­265 uses, 261­263 vapor pressure, 264 volatility, 270 water solubility, 264 Environmental testing methods, 261­281. see also Environmental characteristics "difficult materials", 270 standardized toxicity procedures, 271­276 EPA 830.2210, 265 EPA 830.2310, 265 EPA 830.5270, 265 EPA 830.7370, 264, 280 EPA 830.7550, 264, 280 EPA 830.7560, 280 EPA 830.7570, 264, 280 EPA 830.7840, 264, 280 EPA 830.7860, 264, 280 EPA 830.7950, 264, 280 EPA 835.2110, 265, 280 EPA 835.2130, 265, 280 EPA 835.2210, 281 EPA 835.2310, 281 EPA 835.3100, 281 EPA 835.3110, 266, 267, 281 EPA 835.3120, 268, 281 EPA 835.3170, 268, 281 EPA 835.3180, 281 EPA 835.3200, 268, 281 EPA 835.3210, 268, 281 EPA 835.3300, 268, 281 EPA 835.3400, 281 EPA 835.5045, 268, 281 EPA 835.5270, 281 EPA 850.1010, 273, 281 EPA 850.1020, 281 EPA 850.1025, 281 EPA 850.1035, 273, 281

EPA 850.1045, 281 EPA 850.1055, 274, 281 EPA 850.1075, 275, 281 EPA 850.1085, 281 EPA 850.1300, 274, 281 EPA 850.1350, 274, 281 EPA 850.1400, 275, 281 EPA 850.1500, 281 EPA 850.1710, 269, 281 EPA 850.1730, 269, 281 EPA 850.1735, 274, 281 EPA 850.1740, 273, 281 EPA 850.1790, 274, 281 EPA 850.2100, 281 EPA 850.2200, 281 EPA 850.2300, 281 EPA 850.4100, 273, 281 EPA 850.4150, 273, 281 EPA 850.4200, 273, 281 EPA 850.4225, 273, 281 EPA 850.4230, 273, 281 EPA 850.4250, 281 EPA 850.4300, 281 EPA 850.4400, 272, 281 EPA 850.5400, 272, 276, 281 EPA 850.6200, 273, 281 EPA 850.6800, 281 EPS I/RM/9, 278 EPS I/RM/10, 278 EPS I/RM/11, 278 EPS I/RM/12, 278 EPS I/RM/13, 278 EPS I/RM/14, 278 EPS I/RM/21, 278 EPS I/RM/22, 278 EPS I/RM/24, 278 EPS I/RM/25, 278 EPS I/RM/26, 278 EPS I/RM/27, 278 EPS I/RM/28, 278 EPS I/RM/30, 278 EPS I/RM/32, 278 EPS I/RM/33, 278 EPS I/RM/34, 278 EPS I/RM/35, 278 EPS I/RM/37, 278 Ethane, 165 Ethanol, 16 fuel, 21­25. see also Fuel ethanol Ether(s) gasoline, 308 petroleum, 176 Ethylene, 168­169 EU14538, 30 European Committee for Standardization (CEN), 1 Evaporation loss lubricating greases, 238 lubricating oils, test method, 238 rubber oils, 227 Evaporation rate, hydrocarbon solvents, 179 Evaporative loss/volatility characteristics, base oils, 192­193 Exposures, 269

328

INDEX

Extreme pressure and wear, lubricating greases, 242 Extreme pressure Timken method, 242

F

False brinelling, 243 Fast sample loop, 144 Fat(s), fatty acid chains in, 58 Fatty acid chains, in fats and oils, 58 Federal tax incentives, fuel oxygenates, 21 Fire point fuel oil, 71­72 lubricating oils, 200 white mineral oils, 186 Fischer-Tropsch technology, 303­304 Fish, tests with acute methods, 275, 276 chronic methods, 275, 276 Flash point, 254, 255 biodiesel fuel, 28, 57, 61 diesel fuels, 36, 45 fuel oils, 40, 66, 71­72 gas turbine fuel, 38 hydrocarbon solvents, 179 kerosine, 68, 78 lubricating oils, 200 nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 45 rubber oils, 227 white mineral oils, 186 Flexural strength, using four-point loading, manufactured carbon and graphite, 134 Floating roof adjustment, 147 Floating roof sample, 137 Flow properties, lubricating greases, 236 Flow proportional sample, 137, 144 Flow test, low-temperature, diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 43 Fluidity, crude oils, 109 Fluorescence, white mineral oils, 186 Food grade wax, criteria, 256­257 Four-ball test, lubricating greases, 242­243 Four-point bending, modulus of rupture in, manufactured carbon and graphite, 135 Free glycerin, biodiesel fuel, 29­30, 57, 62 Free water, 137 Freeway driving, automotive engine oils effects on, 211 Freezing point aviation gasoline, 84 jet fuels, 310 kerosine, 68, 78 Fretting wear, lubricating greases, 243 Friction and wear, manufactured carbon and graphite, 134 Fuel ethanol, 21­22 denatured, 22­23 for blending with gasoline, 22­23 Ed75-Ed85, 23­25 Fuel methanol, M70-M85, 25­27 Fuel oil(s) API and specific gravity or density, 71 ash content, 73 ASTM/IP standards, 78­79 ASTM specifications, 78 burner, 65­79 carbon residue, 73­74

classification and specifications, 71 cloud point, 73 corrosion, 75 described, 65 diesel, 310­311 distillate, 74­75 crude oils, 116 oxidation stability, 153 distillate heating fuels, transportation of, 68­69 domestic heating oils, 67­68 environmental effects, 65­67 flash and fire point, 71­72 heat content, 75 heating, 65­79 heavy, 69, 312­313 sampling, 139 kerosine, 67 laboratory tests, 71­76 lighting, 65­79 microbial contamination, 76 nitrogen, 75 pour point, 72­73 properties and tests, 40­50. see also Diesel engines; Gas turbine(s), nonaviation requirements, 40­41, 66­67 residual, 69 sediment content, 73 stability, 75­76 sulfur content, 74 viscosity, 72 water content, 73 Fuel oxygenates, 16­32 ASTM specifications, 31­32 biodiesel fuel, 28­30 density, 30 EN test methods, 32 ethanol, 21­22. see also Fuel ethanol federal tax incentives, 21 government regulations, 17­21 Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, 19, 21 alternative fuels program, 18­19 Clean Fleets Program, 18­19 Internal Revenue Service, 10, 21 reformulated gasoline, 17 renewable fuels standard, 17­18 methanol, 25­27 MTBE, 27­28 programs, automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 11­12 relative density, 30 sampling procedures, 30­31 state biofuel mandates, 8 Fuel(s) automotive spark­ignition. see also Automotive spark­ignition engine fuel aviation, 80­105, 308. see also Aviation fuels aviation turbine, 87­97 aviation turbine. see also Jet fuels biodiesel, 28­30 burner, 65­79 crude oils as, 117­118 diesel red-dyed, 48 specifications, 37­39

INDEX

329

engine, automotive spark-ignition, 3­15 gaseous, 164­172. see also Gaseous fuels heating biodiesel allowance in, 65­79 distillate, 68­69 jet, 87­97. see also Jet fuels for land, 33­52 ASTM standards, 51­52 liquid. see Liquid fuels liquid, synthetic. see also Synthetic liquid fuels synthetic, 304­314 residual, compatibility, 160­161 Fuel(s). see also specific types Fuel system icing inhibitors, in aviation fuels, 101, 103 Functional properties, petroleum waxes, 257

G

Gage tape and bob, 147 Gas-cooled nuclear reactors, high-temperature, manufactured carbon and graphite, 134 Gas engine oils, 204 Gaseous fuels, 164­172 ASTM specifications, 170 test methods, 170 Gas(es) crude oils, 113 liquefied refinery, 164 natural, 164, 168 primary uses, 165 petroleum, liquefied, 165­168, 306­308. see also Liquefied petroleum gases refinery, liquefied, 164 Gasoline, 306­308 antiknock rating, 307 automotive, use in aircraft, 86­87 aviation, 80­87. see also Aviation gasoline composition, 306­307 defined, 3 density, 307 ethers, 308 oxidation stability, 152 oxygenates, 308 reformulated, 4 fuel oxygenates, 17 sampling, 140 stability, 308 sulfur content, 308 volatility, 307 water tolerance, 308 Gasoline-oxygenate blends automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 12­15 compatibility with plastics and elastomers, 13 defined, 3, 16 metal corrosion, 13 sampling, 12 test methods, 13, 22 water tolerance, 13 Gas-turbine lubricants, 203­204 Gas turbine(s) ash content, 49 carbon residue, 48­49 nonaviation, 33

ASTM standards, 51­52 combustion process, 34­35 properties and tests, 40­50 specifications, 39­40 total sulfur, 48 Gear oils, 204­205 Gelation, automotive engine oils, 217 Gelation Index, 217 Glycerin free, biodiesel fuel, 29­30, 57, 62 total, biodiesel fuel, 30, 57, 62 Grab sample, 137 Grain stability, petroleum coke, 130 Graphite artificial, manufacturing methods, 125 crystal structure of, 124 described, 123 graphitization process, 125 impervious, pipe and threading, 133 isotropic and near-isotropic nuclear, standard specification for, 135 manufactured, materials, 132­135 nuclear, suitable for components subjected to low neutron irradiation dose, 135 pyrolytic, manufacturing methods, 125 test methods, 125­135 Graphite furnace, in petroleum products and lubricants, 293­294 Graphitization process, 125 Gravity, white mineral oils, 187 Grease(s) described, 229 lubricating, 229­250. see also Lubricating greases organo-clay, 231, 232 soap. see specific types Grease sample, 137 Gum content automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 8 solvent washed, MTBE, 27­28 solvent washed and unwashed Ed75-Ed85, 24 M70-M85, 26 Gum inhibitors, in aviation fuels, 100

H

Halide(s), organic, crude oils, 111 Hardness, petroleum waxes, 254, 255 Heat, specific, jet fuels, 95 Heat content diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 46­47 fuel oil, 75 Heating fuels biodiesel allowance in, 65­79 distillate, transportation of, 68­69 Heating oil burners, domestic, 69­70 Heating oil(s), domestic, 67­68, 76 Heat of combustion, jet fuels, 95 Heat of combustion values, conversion factors, 47 Heat resistance, lubricating greases, 237 Heavy fuel oils, 69, 312­313 sampling, 139 Heavy fuel(s), compatibility of, test methods, 160­161 Helium, 169

330

INDEX

Henry's Law constant, 264 Heptane, 176 Hexane, 176 Hi-flash solvent naphtha, 178 Highly refined oils, oxidation stability, 153 High-temperature high-load conditions, automotive engine oils effects on, 211­212 high shear rate viscosity, automotive engine oils, 216 High-temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors, manufactured carbon and graphite, 134 High-temperature stability, jet fuels, 95 H2S, in crude oils, 119 HTFT product slate, 305 Hydraulic oils, 206­207 oxidation stability, 153 Hydride generation, in petroleum products and lubricants, 294 Hydrocarbon composition, automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 9 Hydrocarbon custody transfer transaction, 136 Hydrocarbon(s) aliphatics, 175 aromatics, 175­176 poly-nuclear, 311­312 poly-nuclear aromatic, 311­312 cycloparaffins, 175 Ed75-Ed85, 24 light, 164­172 ASTM specifications, 170 test methods, 170 M70-M85, 26 naphthenes, 175 olefins, 176 paraffinic, 311 types, 175­176 Hydrocarbon solvents. see also Petroleum solvents aniline point, 180 ASTM specifications/test methods, 181 Bromine index, 180 color, 179 commercial, 176­178 dilution ratio in nitrocellulose solutions, 180 distillation, 179 evaporation rate, 179 flash point, 179 Kauri butanol value, 179­180 mixed aniline point, 180 sampling, 178 specific gravity, 178­179 sulfur content, 180 test methods, 178­181 types, 176­178 viscosity of nitrocellulose solutions, 180 Hydrogen, in petroleum products and lubricants, 288 Hydrolysis, 265

I

Ignition characteristics, diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 41­42 Ignition control additive, in aviation fuels, 103 Inductively coupled plasma­atomic emission spectrometry, in petroleum products and lubricants, 294­295

Ink oils, 178 Inorganic species, in petroleum products and lubricants, 283­298 analytical methods in determination of, 283­284 future prospects, 297­298 quality assurance of results, 297 sample preparation in determination of, 284­295 Inspection assays, crude oils, 106­112 Inspection data, jet fuels, 97 Institute of Petroleum, 1 Intermediate conditions, defined, 299 Intermediate container, 138 Internal Revenue Service, 10, 21 International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1 International standard specifications, jet fuels, 92­93 Invertebrates, tests with acute methods, 273­273, 276 chronic methods, 274­275, 276 Ion chromatography, in petroleum products and lubricants, 296­297 Ionic chloride ED75-ED85, 25 M70-M85, 27 IP 1, 79 IP 2, 103, 188, 195 IP 4, 79, 195, 286 IP 10, 68, 79 IP 11, 78 IP 12, 79, 104 IP 13, 31, 195 IP 14, 31, 79, 195 IP 15, 78, 188, 195, 199, 200, 208, 228 IP 16, 94, 104 IP 17, 104, 254 IP 19, 208 IP 23, 201, 209 IP 30, 96, 105, 287 IP 34, 78, 94, 104, 181, 186, 188, 195, 200, 208, 227, 228, 254 IP 35, 208 IP 36, 181, 186, 188, 195, 200, 208, 227, 254 IP 40, 8, 14, 152, 162 IP 50, 248 IP 53, 79, 160, 163 IP 54, 78 IP 55, 254, 258 IP 57, 78, 94, 104 IP 61, 78, 208, 286 IP 63, 79 IP 69, 84, 104 IP 71, 31, 72, 104, 187, 188, 195, 209, 228, 254, 258 IP 73, 199 IP 74, 78, 160, 163, 201, 208 IP 76, 254, 258 IP 79, 206, 209 IP 84, 32 IP 101, 171 IP 107, 8, 14, 31, 84, 104, 182, 286 IP 110, 208 IP 111, 208 IP 114, 208 IP 117, 208 IP 118, 209, 286 IP 119, 104

INDEX

331

IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP IP

120, 123, 131, 132, 133, 135, 136, 138, 139, 142, 143, 146, 148, 149, 154, 156, 157, 158, 160, 163, 166, 170, 175, 176, 177, 179, 183, 185, 191, 192, 194, 196, 200, 215, 216, 219, 220, 224, 225, 226, 228, 232, 234, 236, 237, 239, 243, 248, 264, 270, 274, 276, 289, 299, 303, 308, 310, 323, 336, 338, 342, 354, 356,

208 78, 104, 168, 171, 181, 188 8, 31, 84, 104, 157, 162, 163 238, 248 254, 258 14, 206, 209 254 14, 84, 104, 152, 162 31, 104, 209 153, 162, 248 163 195, 206, 209 208 286 14, 31, 84, 96, 104, 168, 171, 182, 205, 209 14, 104, 182 209 254, 256, 259 14, 79, 95, 104, 168, 171, 181, 188, 195, 200, 228, 254 31, 202, 208, 286 209 104 209 209 195 254, 258 248 254, 259 168, 171 79, 200 169, 172 195, 228, 254, 258 79, 182 248 7, 14, 104, 162 79, 186, 188, 195, 199, 209, 254 245 104 104 195, 199, 209 7, 14, 105, 286 205 205 4, 14, 83, 104, 168, 171 4, 14, 168, 171 249 286 286 169, 171 104 96, 104 202, 209 85, 104 195 94, 104 286 248 95, 104, 154, 162 105, 286 94, 104, 286 14, 96, 104, 286 96 160, 163

IP 360, 14 IP 365, 14, 95, 105, 188, 195, 228 IP 373, 286 IP 375, 160, 163 IP 378, 155, 162 IP 379, 195, 286 IP 381, 95, 105 IP 386, 163 IP 388, 153, 162 IP 394, 84, 105 IP 406, 195 IP 407, 287 IP 413, 286 IP 415, 159, 162 IP 422, 94, 105 IP 423, 105, 158, 162 IP 424, 105 IP 428, 286 IP 434, 105 IP 435, 94, 105 IP 438, 105 IP 447, 84, 104 IP 528, 94 IP 529, 94 IP 531, 287 IP 532, 287 IP 540, 104 IP 16591, 286 Irradiation results, reporting, manufactured carbon and graphite, 133 ISO. see International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ISO 2083, 286 ISO 3012, 286 ISO 3448, 198, 199 ISO 3830, 286 ISO 3987, 286 ISO 4259, 300, 302, 303 ISO 4260, 286 ISO 4265, 286 ISO 5275, 287 ISO 6245, 286 ISO 6341, 273, 278 ISO 6743-9, 248 ISO 7346-1, 275, 279 ISO 7346-2, 275, 279 ISO 7346-3, 275, 279 ISO 7827, 267, 279 ISO 8192, 279 ISO 8217, 36, 38 ISO 8691, 286 ISO 8692, 272, 276, 279 ISO 8754, 286 ISO 9408, 267, 279 ISO 9439, 267, 279 ISO 9887, 268, 279 ISO 9888, 268, 279 ISO 10229, 275, 279 ISO 10253, 272, 276, 279 ISO 10478, 287 ISO 10634, 279 ISO 10706, 274, 279 ISO 10707, 267, 279

332

INDEX

ISO 10708, 267, 279 ISO 11266, 279 ISO 11268-1, 273, 279 ISO 11268-2, 275, 279 ISO 11268-3, 275, 279 ISO 11269-1, 279 ISO 11269-2, 279 ISO 11733, 268, 279 ISO 11734, 268, 279 ISO 12890, 275, 279 ISO 13737, 235 ISO 14236, 279 ISO 14239, 268 ISO 14442, 279 ISO 14593, 268, 279 ISO 14669, 274, 279 ISO 15522, 280 ISO 16221, 280 Isokinetic sampling, 144 ISO TC28 WG2, 300 ISO/TR 15462, 280 Isotropic graphite, standard specification for, 135 ISO VG 2, 198 ISO VG 1500, 198

storage stability, 95 synthetic analysis, 309 commercial use as jet A-1, 308­309 thermal stability, 310 trace properties, 95 volatility, 93­94 water retention, 97 JIS. see Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS)

K

Kauri butanol value, hydrocarbon solvents, 179­180 Kerosene, 178 Kerosine, 65­66 burner selection, 76 burning characteristics, 76­77 burning test for long-time burning oils, 77 color, 78 crude oils, 116 defined, 65 laboratory tests, 78 performance evaluation, 76 requirements, 68 standard burning tests, 77 Kerosine burners, 69 Kinematic viscosity biodiesel fuel, 57 diesel fuel, 36 fuel oils, 40, 66 gas turbine fuel, 38 kerosine, 68

J

Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS), 1 Jet A-1, synthetic jet fuel for commercial use as, 308­309 Jet fuels, 87­97 American civil, 89­91 American military, 88­89 aromatics, 309 British military, 87­88 bulk properties, 93 combustion quality, 94 compatibility with system materials, 96 composition, 93, 309 conductivity, 310 contaminants, 96­97 corrosion, 96 density, 95 distillation profile, 309­310 electrical conductivity, 96 emissions, 94­95 freezing point, 310 high temperature stability, 95 inspection data, 97 international standard specifications, 92­93 low temperature properties, 94 lubricity, 96, 310 manufacture, 92­93 miscellaneous properties, 97 for nonconventional aircraft, 93 nonconventional sources of, 93 requirements, 90 Russian, 91 semisynthetic analysis, 309 commercial aviation turbine fuel, 308 separating properties, 97 specification requirements, 93­97 specific energy, 310 specific heat, 95

L

Lacquer diluent, 176 Land, fuels for, 33­52 Lead content automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 7 diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 49­50 Ed75-Ed85, 25 M70-M85, 27 in petroleum products and lubricants, 293 Leak detector, in aviation fuels, 101­102, 103 Legal requirements, automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 10­12 Light hydrocarbons, 164­172 ASTM specifications, 170 test methods, 170 Liquefied petroleum gas cylinders, percent fill of, 168 Liquefied petroleum gases, 165­168, 306­308 composition, 168, 306 copper corrosion, 167, 306 density, 167, 306 gasoline, 306­308 odorization, 168 relative density, 167 residue, 167 sampling, 166 sulfur content, 167, 306 vapor pressure, 166 volatility, 166­167, 306 water content, 167 Liquefied refinery gas, 164 Liquid fuels

INDEX

333

natural gas, 164 sediment content, 160 stability and cleanliness, methods for assessing, 151­163 synthetic, 304­314. see also Synthetic liquid fuels water content, 160 Lithium soap greases, 231, 232 Lower sample, 138 Low shear rate viscosity, automotive engine oils, 216­217 Low-temperature flow test, diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 43 Low-temperature penetration, lubricating greases, 235 Low-temperature torque, lubricating greases, 236­237 Low-temperature viscometry, automotive engine oils, 217 LTFT product slate, 305 Lubricant additive compounds, performance properties, 283­284 Lubricant base oils, 189­195. see also Base oils Lubricant(s) aircraft turbine engine, oxidation stability, 153 functions, 229 gas-turbine, 203­204 inorganic species in, 283­298 Lubricating greases, 229­250 accelerated rust tests, 245 aluminum soap greases, 230­232 apparent viscosity, 236 ASTM/IP standards, 248­249 ball bearings, 236­237 at elevated temperatures, 241 block penetration, 235 calcium soap greases, 231, 232 characteristics, 230­232 chemical analysis, 247­248 classification and specifications, 232­233 compatibility, 247 complex soap greases, 231, 232 composition, 229­230 cone penetration, 233­234 consistency, 233 consistency stability, 235 contamination, 246 copper corrosion, 244 corrosion, 244­246 described, 229 discontinued standards, 248 dropping point, 238 elastomer compatibility, 246­247 evaporation loss, 238 extreme pressure and wear, 242 flow properties, 236 four-ball test, 242­243 fretting wear, 243 heat resistance, 237 international standards, 248­251 leakage from wheel bearings, 240 lithium soap greases, 231, 232 low-temperature penetration, 235 low-temperature torque, 236­237 NLGI consistency numbers, 235 oil separation, 239 organo-clay greases, 231, 232 oscillating motion, 243­244 oscillating wear tests, 244

oxidation stability, 153, 240­244 PDSC oxidation test, 241 polyurea, 231, 232 prolonged worked penetration, 235 raw materials, 230 roll stability, 235­236 rust prevention, 244­245 selection, 230 in small bearings, 241­242 sodium soap greases, 231, 232 test methods, 233­240 Timken method, 242 undisturbed penetration, 235 unworked penetration, 234 water effects, 245 water spray-off, 246 water washout, 245 wear preventive characteristics, 243 wheel bearing grease life, 242 worked penetration, 234 Lubricating oils, 196­208 air compressor, 208 API gravity, 200 ASTM/IP standards, 208­209 automatic transmission fluids, 205 automotive engine, 200­202 as burner fuel, 69 cloud point, 199 color, 200 composition, 198 evaporation loss, test method, 238 flash and fire points, 200 function, 197 gas engine, 204 gas-turbine, 203­204 gear, 204­205 general properties, 198­200 hydraulic, 206­207 industrial and railway engine, 203 machine tool tableway, 208 manufacture, 198 marine diesel engine, 202 pour point, 199­200 quality assessment, 197­198 refrigerator compressor, 208 relative density, 200 significance of tests, 198 specifications and procedures, 201 specific gravity, 200 steam cylinder, 208 steam-turbine, 205­206 viscosity, 198­199 viscosity index, 199 wear metals, 285 Lubricity aromatic and poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 312 aviation fuels, 103 in aviation fuels, 100­101 biodiesel fuel, 62 diesel fuels, 37, 45­46 jet fuels, 96, 310 nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 45­46 Luminosity, M70-M85, 26

334

INDEX

M

Machine tool tableway lubricating oils, 208 Magnesium content, biodiesel fuel, 30, 57, 62 Manganese content automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 7 petroleum products and lubricants, 293 Manual sampling, 136­143 Marine custody transfer, sampling, 140 Marine diesel engine oils, 202 Marine diesel engines, 33­52 ASTM standards, 51­52 Melting point, petroleum waxes, 255 Mercaptan sulfur, kerosine, 68, 78 Mercury, in petroleum products and lubricants, 288 Mesophase, pitch, 131 Metal corrosion, gasoline-oxygenate blends, 13 Metal deactivator, in aviation fuels, 100, 103 Metal(s) petroleum coke, 130­131 in petroleum products and lubricants, 292 wear, in lubricating oils, 285 Methanol, fuel, 25­27 Methanol content crude oils, 111, 112 M70-M85, 25 MTBE, 28 Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), 16 blending with gasoline, 27­28 Microbial contamination fuel oil, 76 test methods, 159­160 Middle sample, 138 Middle spot sample, 138 MIL-DTL-25524, 88 MIL-DTL-38219, 88 MIL-DTL-81383, 94 MIL-DTL-83133, 88, 89, 102 MIL-DTL-83133E, 288 MIL-DTL-16884K, 288 MIL-DTL-5624U, 288 MIL-F-7914, 88 MIL-F-5624B, 88 MIL-F-1688-J, 292 MIL-J-25656, 88 MIL-L-2105D, 205 MIL-PRF-7808, 203 MIL-PRF-23699, 203 MIL-PRF-25017, 101 MIL-T-5616, 88 Mineral oils oxidation stability, 153 white, 184­188. see also White mineral oils Mineral spirits, 176­177 Minimum pipeline velocity, 144 Mini-rotary viscometer, automotive engine oils, 217­219 Modulus of rupture in four-point bending, manufactured carbon and graphite, 135 Moisture, manufactured carbon and graphite, 133 Molecular weight, petroleum waxes, 254, 256 Motion, oscillating, lubricating greases, 243­244 MPMS 2, 150 MPMS 3, 150 MPMS 7, 150

MPMS 8.1, 150 MPMS 8.2, 150 MPMS 8.3, 150 MPMS 8.4, 150 MPMS 9, 150 MPMS 10, 150 MPMS 12, 150 MTBE. see Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) Multiple tank composite sample, 138

N

Naphtha fractions, crude oils, 113, 116 Naphtha(s) hi-flash solvent, 178 VM&P, 176 Naphthenes, 175 Natural gas, 164, 168 primary uses, 165 Natural gas liquids (NGLs), 164 Natural rubber, 224 Near-isotropic graphite, standard specification for, 135 NFT 60-171, 248 NGLs. see Natural gas liquids (NGLs) Nitrocellulose solutions dilution ratio in, 180 viscosity of, 180 Nitrogen compounds, in base oils, 192 Nitrogen content crude oils, 111, 112 fuel oil, 76 petroleum products and lubricants, 290 NLGI consistency numbers, lubricating greases, 235 Nonaquatic toxicity tests, chronic methods, 276­277 Nuclear graphite, suitable for components subjected to low neutron irradiation dose, 135 Nuclear reactors, gas-cooled, high-temperature, 134

O

Octano/water partition coefficient, 263­264 Odor petroleum solvents, 174 petroleum waxes, 254, 256 white mineral oils, 186 Odorization, liquefied petroleum gases, 168 OECD 101, 280 OECD 102, 280 OECD 103, 280 OECD 104, 264, 280 OECD 105, 264, 280 OECD 106, 264, 280 OECD 107, 264, 280 OECD 111, 265, 280 OECD 112, 264, 280 OECD 117, 264, 280 OECD 121, 264, 280 OECD 201, 272, 276, 280 OECD 202, 273, 280 OECD 203, 275, 280 OECD 204, 275, 280 OECD 205, 280 OECD 206, 280 OECD 207, 273, 280 OECD 208, 280

INDEX

335

OECD 209, 280 OECD 210, 275, 280 OECD 211, 280 OECD 212, 280 OECD 215, 280 OECD 218, 280 OECD 219, 280 OECD 221, 280 OECD 301, 266, 280 OECD 302, 280 OECD 303, 280 OECD 304, 280 OECD 305, 269, 280 OECD 306, 267, 280 OECD 307, 280 OECD 308, 280 OECD 309, 280 OECD 310, 280 OECD 311, 280 OECD 301A, 267 OECD 302A, 268 OECD 303A, 268 OECD 304A, 268 OECD 301B, 267 OECD 302B, 268 OECD 301C, 267 OECD 302C, 267 OECD 301D, 267 OECD 310E, 267 OECD 301F, 267 Official sample, 138 Oil content, petroleum waxes, 254, 256 Oil-extended rubber, 224­225 Oil(s). see also Heating fuel(s); Heating oils; specific types, e.g., Fuel oil(s) air compressor, 208 automotive engine, oxidation stability, 153 burning, long-time, 77 crude, 106­121. see also Crude oils engine. see Engine oils fatty acid chains in, 58 gas engine, 204 gear, 204­205 highly refined, oxidation stability, 153 hydraulic, 6­207 oxidation stability, 153 ink, 178 lubricating, 197­209. see also Lubricating oils machine tool tableway lubricating, 208 marine diesel engine, 202 mineral oxidation stability, 153 white, 184­188. see also White mineral oils petroleum, for rubber, 224­228. see also Rubber oils refrigerator compressor, 208 rubber, 224­226. see also Rubber oils steam cylinder, 208 steam-turbine, 205­206 oxidation stability, 153 used, analysis, 283 Oil separation, lubricating greases, 239 Olefins, 168­169, 176 in base oils, 192

OPL 68/251, 101 OPL 25017, 101 Organic halides, crude oils, 111, 112 Organo-clay greases, 231, 232 Oscillating motion, lubricating greases, 243­244 Oscillating wear tests, lubricating greases, 244 Outlet sample, 138 Oxidation, base oils, 191­192 Oxidation induction time, automotive engine oils, 219 Oxidation mass loss, manufactured carbon and graphite, 135 Oxidation stability biodiesel fuel, 30, 62 diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 45 lubricating greases, 240­244 test methods, 152­154 Oxygen, in petroleum products and lubricants, 290 Oxygenated fuel programs, automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 11­12 Oxygenate(s) automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 9 defined, 3, 16 fuel, 16­32. see also Fuel oxygenates gasoline, 308

P

Paraffinic hydrocarbons, 311 PDR additive, in aviation fuels, 102­103 PDSC oxidation test, lubricating greases, 241 Penetration block, lubricating greases, 235 cone, lubricating greases, 233­234 low-temperature, lubricating greases, 235 undisturbed, lubricating greases, 235 unworked, lubricating greases, 234 worked lubricating greases, 234 prolonged, 235 Performance, volatility and, automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 6­7 Performance properties, lubricant additive compounds, 283­284 Performance tests automotive engine oils, 220 passenger car engine oil, 210­222 Peroxide content, petroleum waxes, 254, 257 Peroxide value, white mineral oils, 186 Persistence properties, 264­269 Petrolatums. see Petroleum waxes Petroleum, crude, sampling, 139 Petroleum coke, 123­124 materials, 130 test methods, 125­135 Petroleum ether, 176 Petroleum gases, liquefied, 165­168, 306­308. see also Liquefied petroleum gases Petroleum oils, for rubber, 224­228. see also Rubber oils Petroleum products, inorganic species in, 283­298 Petroleum quantities, static measurement, 147­148 Petroleum solvents, 173­183. see also Hydrocarbon solvents air pollution requirements, 174 ASTM specifications/test methods, 181 described, 173 general uses, 173

336

INDEX

odor, 174 purity, 174 relative density, 178­179 requirements, 173 solvency, 173 specific gravity, 174 toxicity, 174 volatility, 173­174 Petroleum waxes, 252­260 applications, 253 blocking properties, 254, 257 chemical properties, 255­257 test methods, 259­260 definitions, 253 food grade, 256­257 functional properties, 257 test methods, 260 manufacture, 252­253 melting point, 255 moisture barrier properties, 258 physical properties, 255 test methods, 258­259 quality criteria, 253­255 slip properties, 257 substrates, 254, 257 test methods, 258­260 pHe denatured fuel ethanol, 23 Ed75-Ed85, 24 Phosphorus content automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 7 biodiesel fuel, 30, 57, 62 Ed75-Ed85, 25 M70-M85, 27 petroleum products and lubricants, 290­291 Photolysis, 265 Photooxidation, 265 Physical properties environmental characteristics, 263­264 petroleum waxes, 255, 258­259 Pipeline, 144 Pipeline drag reducer (PDR) additive, in aviation fuels, 102­103 Pipeline streams, sampling, 141­142 Pitch, 123­124 materials, 131 test methods, 125­135 Plants, tests with, nonaquatic, 272­273, 277 Plastics, gasoline-oxygenate blends and, 13 PMNs. see Premanufacturing/marketing notifications (PMNs) Poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 311­312 Polyurea, 231, 232 Porosity, manufactured carbon and graphite, 132 Potassium content biodiesel fuel, 62 diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 49­50 Pour point base oils, 193­194 crude oils, 109 diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 43 fuel oils, 41, 67, 72­73 gas turbine fuel, 38 heavy fuel oils, 312­313

lubricating oils, 199­200 rubber oils, 227­228 white mineral oils, 187 Pour point depressants, automotive engine oils, 215 Powered mixer, 144 Precision defined, 299 in standard test method data quality assurance, 299­300 Premanufacturing/marketing notifications (PMNs), 261 Pressure, extreme, lubricating greases, 242 Pressure atomizing, 34 Prevaporizing, 34­35 Primary manual sample container, 138 Primary sample receiver/container, 144 Probe, 144 Process oils, specialty applications, 228 Product registration, 261­263 Profile testing, 144 Prolonged worked penetration, lubricating greases, 235 Propane, 165 commercial, 166 butane mixture with, 166 special duty, 166 Propylene concentrates, 169 Purity denatured fuel ethanol, 23 MTBE, 27 petroleum solvents, 174 Pyrolytic graphite, manufacturing methods, 125

Q

Quinoline insolubles, pitch, 131

R

Ramsbottom carbon residue biodiesel fuel, 61 diesel fuel, 37 fuel oils, 40, 66 gas turbine fuel, 38 Rangeability, 144 "Raw materials," 164 Red-dyed diesel fuel, 48 Reduced pressure distillation, biodiesel fuel, 30, 62 Referee test methods, crude oils, 116­117 Reference gage height, 147 Reference gage point, 147 Refinery gas, liquefied, 164 Reformulated gasoline, 4 fuel oxygenates, government regulations, 17 Reformulated spark-ignition engine fuel, 11­12 Refractive index rubber oils, 227 white mineral oils, 187 Refrigerator compressor oils, 208 Relative bias, in standard test method data quality assurance, 302 Relative density automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 8­9 fuel oxygenates, 30 hydrocarbon solvents, 178­179 liquefied petroleum gases, 167 lubricating oils, 200

INDEX

337

Renewable fuels standard automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 12 fuel oxygenates, 17­18 Repeatability conditions, defined, 299 Reporting irradiation results, manufactured carbon and graphite, 133 Representative sample, 138, 144 Reproducibility conditions, defined, 299 Research Octane Number (RON), 4­5 Residual fuel oils, 69 Residual fuel(s), compatibility, test methods, 160­161 Residual oil burning equipment, 70­71 Residue carbon. see Carbon residue crude oils, 116 liquefied petroleum gases, 167 unsulfonated, white mineral oils, 187 Resistivity, electrical, manufactured carbon and graphite, 132 Rheology, base oils, 193­194 Rockwell hardness, manufactured carbon and graphite, 133 Roller bearings, tapered, lubricating greases, 237 Roll stability, lubricating greases, 235­236 RON. see Research Octane Number (RON) RR: D02-1125, 98 RR: D02-1137, 99 RR: D02-1572, 94 RR:D02-1007, 299 Rubber base oil compatibility, 194 natural, 224 oil-extended, 224­225 synthetic, 224 Rubber oils, 224­228 ASTM/IP standards, 228 carbon-type analysis, 225 classification, 226 composition, 225 history, 224­225 importance of composition to compounders, 225­226 molecular-type analysis, 225 physical properties, 226­227 process oils, specialty applications, 228 Running sample, 138 Russian jet fuels, 91 Rust, corrosion and, automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 9 Rust prevention, lubricating greases, 244­245 Rust tests, accelerated, lubricating greases, 245

S

Salt content, crude oils, 108, 112 Salt(s), in petroleum products and lubricants, 291 Sample conditioning, 144 Sample controller, 144 Sample extractor, 144 Sample grab, 144 Sample handling and mixing, 144 Sample proving, 144 Sample(s). see also specific types boring, 136 bottom, 136 clearance, 136 composite spot, 150

core, 137 defined, 137 dipper, 137 drain, 137 floating roof, 137 flow proportional, 137, 144 grab, 137 grease, 137 lower, 138 middle, 138 middle spot, 138 multiple tank composite, 138 obtaining, 140 official, 138 outlet, 138 representative, 138, 144 running, 138 surface, 138 tank composite, 138 tank-side, 138 tap, 138 time proportional, 144 top, 138 types, 136­138, 144 upper, 138 Sampling, 136­150 applicability, 137 ASTM/API/ISO standards, 150 ASTM/IP standards, 163 automatic, 143­147 definitions, 144 design considerations, 146 extractors, 145 frequency, 145 isokinetic, 144 minimum velocities, 145 probe location, 144 sample frequency in large-volume pipeline operations, 145­146 systems, 145 bottle or beaker, 140­141 core, 142­143 manufactured carbon and graphite, 135 crude oils, 117, 119 defined, 138 hydrocarbon solvents, 178 liquefied petroleum gases, 166 manual, 136­143 containers, 138­139 core, 142­143 crude petroleum and heavy fuel oils, 139 definitions, 136­138 gasoline and distillate products, 140 marine custody transfer, 140 obtaining samples, 140 pipeline streams, 141­142 probe location, 142 procedures, 140 procedures, 137, 140 automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 11 stability, 161­163 static measurement, 147­149, 149. see also Static measurement

338

INDEX

SANS. see South African National Standards (SANS) Sasol synthetic products, 304­314 Sasol synthetic products. see also Synthetic liquid fuels Saybolt color, kerosine, 68 Scanning Brookfield Technique, automotive engine oils, 217 Scleroscope hardness, manufactured carbon and graphite, 133 Sediment content ASTM/IP standards, 163 biodiesel fuel, 30, 57 crude oils, 108­109, 112 diesel fuel, 36 fuel oils, 66, 73 gas turbine fuel, 38 static measurement, 149 test methods, 160 Sediment toxicity tests, 276 Sediment water, 144 Semisynthetic jet fuels analysis, 309 commercial aviation turbine fuel, 308 Separating properties, jet fuels, 97 Short-trip driving, automotive engine oils effects on, 212 Silver corrosion, automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 9 Site precision, defined, 300 Slip stream, 144 Smoke point, white mineral oils, 187 Smoke Point Test, 77 Soap greases. see specific types Sodium content biodiesel fuel, 62 diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 49­50 petroleum products and lubricants, 293 Sodium/potassium combined content, biodiesel fuel, 30 Sodium soap greases, 231, 232 Solid paraffin test, white mineral oils, 188 Solubility, "difficult materials," 270 Solvency base oils, 194 petroleum solvents, 173 Solvent extractables, petroleum waxes, 254, 256 Solvent(s) hydrocarbon, 173­183. see also Hydrocarbon solvents petroleum, 173­183. see also Petroleum solvents Solvent washed gum, denatured fuel ethanol, 23 Sonic velocity Young's modulus, manufactured carbon and graphite, 134 South African National Standards (SANS), 305 Spark-ignition engine fuel automotive, 3­15. see also Automotive spark-ignition engine fuel Spark ignition fuel, oxidation stability, 153 Special duty propane, 166 Specific energy aviation gasoline, 84 jet fuels, 310 Specific gravity fuel oil, 71 hydrocarbon solvents, 178­179 lubricating oils, 200 manufactured carbon and graphite, 132 petroleum solvents, 174 rubber oils, 227

Specific heat, jet fuels, 95 Specific metal analysis, in petroleum products and lubricants, 296 Spectrometry atomic emission, 294­295 atomic fluorescence, in petroleum products and lubricants, 294 x-ray fluorescence, in petroleum products and lubricants, 295­296 Spectroscopy, atomic absorption, in petroleum products and lubricants, 292­293 Spirits, " 176, "textile mineral, 176­177 Spot sample, 138 Stability aromatic and poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 311­312 ASTM/IP standards, 162 automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 8 consistency, lubricating greases, 235 defined, 151 diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 44­45 fuel oil, 75­76 gasoline, 308 grain, petroleum coke, 130 high-temperature, jet fuels, 95 liquid fuels, methods for assessing, 151­162 miscellaneous properties, 161 oxidation lubricating greases, 240­244 test methods, 152­154 roll, lubricating greases, 235­236 storage. see Storage stability test methods, 152­154 thermal diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 44 jet fuels, 310 test methods, 154­155 Stability sampling, 161­163 Standardized toxicity procedures, in environmental testing acute methods, 271­276 algae, 271, 272, 276 aquatic toxicity tests, 271 chronic methods, 276­277 fish, 275, 276 invertebrates, 273­273, 276 nonaquatic toxicity tests, 276­277 subchronic methods, 276­277 Standard test method data quality assurance, 299­303 accuracy, 302 ASTM standards, 303 bias, 300­302 in determining conformance with product quality specification, 303 metrics, 299­302 monitoring, 302­303 precision, 299­300 relative bias, 302 Stand pipes, 138 State biofuel mandates, fuel oxygenates, 8 Static bleed tests, lubricating greases, 239­240 Static dissipator additive, in aviation fuels, 101, 103

INDEX

339

Static measurement abbreviations, 147 ASTM/API/ISO standards, 150 calculation of petroleum quantities, 147­148 definitions, 147 density determination, 149 sampling, 147­149 sediment determination, 149 tank calibration, 148 tank gaging, 148 temperature determination, 148­149 water determination, 149 Static mixer, 144 Steam cylinder oils, 208 Steam-turbine oils, 205­206 oxidation stability, 153 Storage stability aviation gasoline, 84 diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 45 jet fuels, 95 Stream conditioning, 144 Sulfate content, denatured fuel ethanol, 23 Sulfated ash biodiesel fuel, 28­29, 57, 60 petroleum products and lubricants, 285 Sulfur, mercaptan, kerosine, 68, 78 Sulfur compounds impact on base oil chemistry, 192 white mineral oils, 187 Sulfur content, 169 aromatic and poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 311 automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 7­8, 11 aviation gasoline, 84 biodiesel fuel, 29, 57, 60, 61 crude oils, 107­108, 112 diesel fuels, 36, 47­48 Ed75-Ed85, 25 fuel oils, 40, 66, 74 gasoline, 308 hydrocarbon solvents, 180 kerosine, 68, 78 liquefied petroleum gases, 167, 306 manufactured carbon and graphite, 135 M70-M85, 27 MTBE, 27 petroleum coke, 131 petroleum products and lubricants, 291­292 total, nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 47­48 Surface sample, 138 Synthetic aviation fuels, 308 Synthetic jet fuels analysis, 309 commercial use as Jet A-1, 308­309 Synthetic liquid fuels, 304­314. see also specific types, e.g., Aviation fuels analysis, 304­313 ASTM standards/methods, 313­314 aviation fuels, 308 cetane index and number, 310­311 diesel fuel oil, 310­311 Fischer-Tropsch technology, 303­304 heavy fuel oils, 312­313 HTFT product slate, 305

liquid petroleum gas, 306 LTFT product slate, 305 paraffinic hydrocarbons, 311 poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 311­312 Synthetic rubber, 224 System materials, compatibility with, jet fuels, 96

T

Tank calibration, static measurement, 148 Tank capacity table, 148 Tank composite sample, 138 Tank gaging, static measurement, 148 Tank increments, 147 Tank-side sample, 138 Tank strapping, 147 Tapered roller bearings, lubricating greases, 237 Tap sample, 138 Taste, white mineral oils, 186 TEL. see Tetraethyl lead (TEL) Temperature determination, static measurement, 148­149 distillation. see Distillation temperature gas turbine fuel, 38 jet fuels, 94, 95 Tensile properties, manufactured carbon and graphite, 133 Tensile stress-strain, manufactured carbon and graphite, 134 Terrestrial toxicity tests, 276 Test methods. see specific types and indications Test specimen, 138 Tetraethyl lead (TEL), aviation fuels, 100, 103 "Textile" spirits, 176 Thermal conductivity, carbon, 132 Thermal diffusivity, by thermal pulse, manufactured carbon and graphite, 134 Thermal pulse, thermal diffusivity by, manufactured carbon and graphite, 134 Thermal stability diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 44 jet fuels, 310 test methods, 154­155 Thermal stability improver additive, in aviation fuels, 102 Time proportional sample, 144 Timken method, extreme pressure, 242 Toluene, 177 Toluene insolubles, pitch, 131 Top sample, 138 Torque, low-temperature, lubricating greases, 236­237 Total acid number, crude oils, 110, 112 Total glycerin content, biodiesel fuel, 30, 57, 62 Total nitrogen content, crude oils, 111, 112 Total sulfur content, diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 47­48 Toxicity, " 270, complex mixture, "difficult materials petroleum solvents, 174 Toxicity tests, environmental. see specific types Toxicological properties, environmental characteristics, 269 Trace elements, crude oils, 109­110, 112 Trace properties, jet fuels, 95 Transformation processes, 264­265 Transmission fluids, automatic, 205 Transparency, white mineral oils, 186 True value, defined, 302

340

INDEX

Tube and thief sample, 138 Turbine combustors, trace metals entering, 50 Turbine(s), gas. see Gas turbine(s)

U

Ultraviolet absorption tests, white mineral oils, 187 Ultraviolet absorptivity petroleum waxes, 254, 257 rubber oils, 227 Undisturbed penetration, lubricating greases, 235 Uniform petroleum product, 138 Unleaded aviation gasoline, 85 Unsulfonated residue, white mineral oils, 187 Unworked penetration, lubricating greases, 234 UOP 163, 112, 114, 121 UOP 375, 114, 121 UOP 389, 63 UOP 391, 30 UOP 391-91, 64 Upper sample, 138 Used oils, analysis, 283 USP 31, 188 USP 31-NF 26, 186, 187

nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 42­43 petroleum waxes, 254, 255 white mineral oils, 187 Viscosity index, lubricating oils, 199 Viscosity index improvers, automotive engine oils, 215 VM&P naphtha, 176 Volatile matter, petroleum coke, 131 Volatility, " 270, "difficult materials automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 5­7, 11 aviation gasoline, 83­84 gasoline, 307 jet fuels, 93­94 liquefied petroleum gases, 166­167, 306 performance and, automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 6­7 petroleum solvents, 173­174 Volatility/distillation, diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 42

W

Water dissolved, 137 entrained, 137 free, 137 sediment, 144 Water content ASTM/IP standards, 163 biodiesel fuel, 30, 57 crude oils, 108­109, 112 denatured fuel ethanol, 22 diesel fuel, 36 Ed75-Ed85, 25 fuel oils, 40, 66, 73 gas turbine fuel, 38 liquefied petroleum gases, 167 methyl-tertiary-butyl ether, 28 M70-M85, 27 static measurement, 149 test methods, 160 Water effects, lubricating greases, 245 Water reaction, aviation gasoline, 84­85 Water retention, jet fuels, 96 Water solubility, 264 Water spray-off, lubricating greases, 246 Water tolerance gasoline, 308 gasoline-oxygenate blends, 13 Water washout, lubricating greases, 245 Wax(es) defined, 252 petroleum, 252­260. see also Petroleum waxes Wax precipitation point, white mineral oils, 187­188 Wear extreme, lubricating greases, 242 friction and, manufactured carbon and graphite, 134 lubricating greases, preventive characteristics, 243 Wear metals, in lubricating oils, 285 Wear tests, oscillating, lubricating greases, 244 Wheel bearing grease life, lubricating greases, 242 Wheel bearing(s), leakage from, lubricating greases, 240 White mineral oils, 184­188 acidity test, 186 aniline point, 185

V

Vacuum gas oil fractions, crude oils, 116 Value(s) coking, pitch, 131 combustion, heat of, 47 heat of combustion, conversion factors, 47 Kauri butanol, 179­180 peroxide, white mineral oils, 186 true, defined, 302 Vanadium diesel and nonaviation gas turbine fuels, 49­50 petroleum products and lubricants, 293 Vaporizing, 34­35 Vapor-liquid ratio, automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 6 Vapor pressure, 264 automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 5 crude oils, 110, 112 Ed75-Ed85, 24 liquefied petroleum gases, 166 M70-M85, 26 MTBE, 28 Velocity, minimum pipeline, 144 Viscometer(s), mini-rotary, automotive engine oils, 217­219 Viscometry, low-temperature, automotive engine oils, 217 Viscosity apparent, lubricating greases, 236 aromatic and poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, 312 biodiesel fuel, 28, 57, 61 crude oils, 109 diesel fuels, 36, 42­43 fuel oils, 40, 66, 72 gas turbine fuel, 38 heavy fuel oils, 312 high-temperature, high shear rate, 216 kerosine, 68 kinematic. see Kinematic viscosity low shear rate, automotive engine oils, 216­217 lubricating oils, 198­199 nitrocellulose solutions, 180

INDEX

341

API gravity, 187 ASTM/IP standards, 188 cloud point, 185­186 color, 186 density, 187 described, 184 dielectric breakdown voltage, 186 distillation range, 186 flash and fire points, 186 fluorescence, 186 gravity, 187 manufacture, 184 odor, 186 peroxide value, 186 pharmaceutical grades, 185 pour point, 187 purity guardianship, 184 quality assessment, 4­188 readily carbonizable substances, 185 refractive index, 187 smoke point, 187 solid paraffin test, 188

sulfur compounds, 187 taste, 186 transparency, 186 ultraviolet absorption tests, 187 unsulfonated residue, 187 viscosity, 187 wax precipitation point, 187­188 Worked penetration lubricating greases, 234 prolonged, lubricating greases, 235 Workmanship requirements, 152 automotive spark-ignition engine fuel, 7 Worms, tests with, nonaquatic, 277

X

X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, petroleum products and lubricants, 295­296 Xylenes, 177­178

Y

Young's modulus, sonic velocity, manufactured carbon and graphite, 134

Information

Index

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