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Phonology

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Phonology

Summary

Prosody; Vowels; De-nasalisation;Development of the Semi-Vowels; The Yat'; Consonants; Palatalizations;Reductions; Metatheses Printout of this page

Homework

All four homework assignments with the following lexical list. Use this Indo-European database as well as Vasmer's dictionary. HW #4 (due end of week 4): Establish PIE sources for all vowels on the list; HW #5 (due end of week 5): Find as many present-day Slavic equivalents of the lexemes from the list and explain the development of all vowels; HW #6 (due end of week 6): Establish PIE sources for all consonants on the list; HW #7 (due end of week 7): Explain the consonantal and distribution changes from CSL to the present-day Slavic languages.

Quiz - in class

Multiple choice on phonologicaldevelopment (first half hour of week 8)

PIE Vocalism

a) Full monophtongs

Front

High Medium Low

Back

< reduced diphtongs primary vowels primary vowel

Front High Medium Low

Back

< reduced diphtongs primary vowels primary vowels

b) Semivowels (schwas)

1 ­ schwa primum/schwaIndo-Germanicum < reduced long primary vowels 2 ­ schwa secundum < reduced short primary vowels

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c) Diphtongs

c1) Vocalic

Front 2nd part Long 1st part Short 1st part

i ii, iii, iii i i i ii, ii, ii

Back 2nd Part

u, u, u u, u, u

c2) Mixed

Nasal 2nd Part Long 1st part Short 1st part

m, m, m, n, n, n m, m, m, n, n, n

Liquid 2nd Part

r, r, r, l, l, l r, r, r, l, l, l

nond) Vocalic Resonants (only in non-vocalic environments)

Short

Nasal Liquid m, n r, l

Long

m, n r, l

< reduced mixed diphtongs < reduced diphtongs

27 inherent units 54 with suprasegmental features

PIE Consonantism

lab

voiceless stops voiced stops voiceless aspirated stops p b ph

den

t d th

vel

k g kh

pal

h

labvel

ku gu kuh

naslab

m

naslin

n

liq-lat

l

liqvibr

r

gli-lab

u

gli-lin

i

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voiced aspirated stops voiceless fricative voiced fricative

bh

dh

gh

h

guh

s (z)

28 units 27/28 vowel/consonat ratio = .96

Common Slavic Vocalism

a) Full Vowels

Front High Mid Low +nas

i e a

e,o ­ short, all others long

Back

y u o

+nas

b) Semivowels

Front

Back

c) The jat'

()

d) Vocaic r and l

Front

Vibrant Lateral r l

Back

r l

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14 units

Common Slavic Consonantism

Labial Voiceless

Stop Spirant Affricate Nasal Liquid m p

Dental Voiced

b

Palatal Voiced

d z

Velar Voiced

d' z (')

Voiceless

t s c n vibrant lateral r l

Voiceless

t' s (s') c (c') r' l'

Voiceless

k x

Voiced

g

26 (23) units 10/26 ­ vowel/consratio = .54

The Development of Phonology

Proto Indo-European (PIE) > Early Proto-Slavic (EPS)> Late Common Slavic (LCS) > Slavic languages and dialects.

Here: PIE > LCS> Slavic languages and dialects

PIE, Major Characteristics:

a) Rich and diversified vocalism (full, reduced vowels, diphtongs) b) Quantity independent from quality (e.g., a can be both long and short) c) High Vowel vs. Consonant Ratio d) Rich back consonants oppositions e) Labialization f)

Aspiration

g) Both closed and open syllables

PIE > LCS, Major Lines of Development

a) Quantitatively and qualitatively reduced vocalism (esp. monophtogization)

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b) Quality linked with quantity c) Nasalization of the vowels d) Deaspiration e) Depalatalization of the velars f)

New palatalizations and jotations

g) Oppositionsshift toward the front consonants h) Opensyllables only (e.g., PIE sns vs. LCS syn)

PIE > Slavic languages, Major Lines ofDevelopment

a) Further simplification of the vocalism (reductions of the semivowels, jat', nasals in most languages) b) Mostly quantitative consonantal changes c) Open and closed syllables (e.g., LCS syn vs. Pol.syn)

Development of the Vocalism

LCS e

1)

PIE >

LCS e

Example bher > ber

Proof Lat. fero, lit. beriù

2)

LCS e e e e > > > >

SL e 'o 'o (')o

Language; Condition All languages; Default Rus,Bel; _/+stress/[hard consonant] Pol;

Example S-Cr berem, Rus. Rus. Pol. ona, czolo U.Sor. colo, L.Sor. colo

_{t,d,n,s,z,l,r}

Sor;

_[hard consonant]

Logic of the exceptions ­ regressive assimilation (the first element adjusts to the second): [soft vowel][hard consonant] >[palatalization][hard vowel][hard consonant]

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LCS o

1)

PIE > >

LCS o o

Example ok

u-

Proof Lat. okulis Lat. aro, Lit ariù

2)

> oko

ar- > or'

LCS o o > >

SL o u

Language; Condition All languages; Default WSL; [cons]_[cons][end of syllable]

Example S-Cr oko, Pol. oko Cze. vl, vola, Pol. gród, grodu

Logic of the exception ­ influence of the closed syllable

LCS a

1) PIE > > LCS a a Example mtr > mati d- > dati Proof Lat. mter, Ltv. mte Lat. dnum

2)

LCS a >

SL a

Language; Condition All languages; Default

Example S-Cr mati, Rus.

Linking quality to quantity

short > a long >

o a

< short o < long

LCS u

1)

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2)

LCS u u > >

SL u ou

Language; Condition All languages; Default Cze; _/+long/

Example S-Cr oko, Pol. oko Cze. soud

LCS i

1)

PIE eiii

i oiii, aii [end of the word]

LCS > > > i i i

Example guus > ziv ueidos > vid stoloi > stoli

Proof Lat. vvus Lit. véidas Lit. stala

2) LCS i i > > SL i y Language; Condition All languages; Default East Slavic and Lechitic; [hard consonant]_ Example S-Cr piti, Pol. pi Pol. stoly, Rus.

LCS y

1)

PIE >

LCS y

Example t - > ty

Proof Lat. t

2) LCS y y > > SL i y Language; Condition South Slavic East Slavic, Lechitic, Sorbian Example S-Cr biti Pol. by, Rus.

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y

>

/- pal/ i

Standard Czech; Slovak

Cze. syn [sin]

LCS and

1) PIE a,o > 2 e > 2 > > > > LCS Example snsos -> snxa 2- -> vzmgla -> mgla k 2tur- > ctyre

u

Proof Lat. nurus Ltv. uz < az Lit. miglà Lit. keturì

2) Strong vs. Weak Semivowels

A Semivowel is strong in the syllable preceding a weak semivowel. In all other positions a semivowel is weak, e

1 s s 3 n

2 a - > Rus. - > Rus.

1 ­ strong(before 2) 2,3 ­ weak (all other positions, e.g., before a full vowel, end of the world, etc.)

Weak , > 0 (cca 11th century) Strong , have the following lines of development:

a. Semivowels retained or they yield full vowels (Bulgarian, Slovene) b. Semivowels yield full vowels, and so:

b1. They merge before turning into full vowels(Serbo-Croatian), b2. They keep separate inherent features (East Slavic, Macedonian), b3. They keep separate contextual values (West Slavic)

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Examples:

a. Bul. < , < dn

b1. S-Cr. san < , dan < dn b2. Rus. o < , < dn b3. Pol. sen < , dzie < dn

Present-day alternations (a:0, e:0, o:0, d:dz') as a result of the development of the semivowels

Nom. Rus. Pol. S-Cr.

, sen, dzie san, dan

Gen.

0, 0 s0na, d0nia s0na, dana (hist. d0ne)

LCS 1) PIE oi, ai > > LCS Example smnt > sm laiuos > lv Proof Lat. smen Lat. laevus

2) Numerous isoglosses dividing both Slavic languages and their dialects

East Slavic: Rus, Bel. > e () ; Not all Russian dialects follow this development Ukr. > 'i i

West Slavic: Pol. [t,d,n,s,z,l,r] > `a, [!t,d,n,s,z,l,r] > `e bialy:bieli, las:w lesie Slov. /long/ > ie biely, /short/ > e pena Cze. > e (default) seno, [t,d,n] > `e tlo, [p,b,v,m] > ie bh,[!t,d,n,p,b,v,m] /long/ > í vím Sor. > ie USor. bh, LSor. bg

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South Slavic Bul. > `a(default), [syllablewith a soft vowel] > e :, :; Not all Bulgarian dialects follow Mac. > e seno, mleko Slov. > (narrow e) mesto S-Cr. > e hleb, lep or /long/ > ije bijeli, [l,n] /short/ > `e ljepota, [!l,n] /short/ > je pjena;Not all S-Cr dialects follow OCS. retains

LCS and

1) PIE en,em[cons] en[0] m, n > im, in > m, n on,an,om,an[cons] n, n[0] m, n > um, un > m, n > > > > > > LCS Example penk tos > pt men > m neunto > devt ronka > rka ronkn > rk dmti > dti

u

Proof Lit. peñktas Pind. mm Lit. deviñtas Lit. rankà Opr. ronkn Lit. dùmti

2) East Slavic

> u, > `a Rus. ,

West Slavic Cze, Slo: > u (>ou in Cze) Slo, Cze ruka, Slo súd, Cze soud Cze. > e (default) deset, [t,d,n] > `e jehn, [p,b,v,m] > ie pt, [!t,d,n,p,b,v,m] /long/ >a/í maso/vzíti Slo. > a (default) desat', [b,p,v,m] > ä/ia mäso/piaty, [t,d,l,n] > `a t'ah Sor. follow the Cze/Slo pattern ( > u, varied reflexes of the ) Pol. Retains both phonemic values but in different contexts. The neural network model of the change.

bottom layer hidden layer top layer

/ \

\ \ <-

/ ` / ->

\ /

`

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e.g. db > db, rka > rka,pamt > pami, msc > miesic

South Slavic Slov. > o, > e roka, pet (the only language with direct denazalization) S-Cr. > u, > e ruka, pet Mac. > a, > e , Bul. > , > e ,

LCS r, r, l, l 1) Unclear, probably from PIE r, l via BSL [front semivowel]{r,l}, [back semivowel]{r,l} Secondary groups in South and West Slavic with thesemivocalic element after the liquid

2)

r > er, r >or, l > ol, l > ol Rus. , , , South Slavic S-Cr. r > r, r >r, l > u, l > u grlo, smrt, vuk,dug Slov. r > r, r >r, l > ou, l > ou grlo, smrt, volk,dolg Mac. r > r, r >r, l > ol, l > ol drvo, smrt, volna,dolg Bul. r, r> r/r, l, l > l/l , , , West Slavic Cze., Slo. Retain both r, and l (e.g., Cze. smrt,vlk) with some decomposing as exceptions in Czech (esp. in the case of the l, e.g. zlutý) Pol., Sor. Decompositions and methateses dependend on both inherent features and the context Pol. r > ar r > `ez (default) wierzba, [t,d,n,s,z,l]r > ar martwy [!t,d,s,c,z]l> el pelny, [t,d,s]l > lo /short/ lu /long/sloce, dlugi, [c,z]l> ol /short/ ól /long/czoln, ólty, l > il wilk East Slavic

Shift from quantitative to qualitative oppositions in the vocalism

short >

o

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a long > short > o long > short > e long > long > i short > long > u short > y i a e a o

Phonotactical changes

Open syllable principle: Every syllable has to end in a vowel This common Slavic principle has been retained only inOCS. This principle triggers metatheses (with resulting vowel at the end of the syllable) and the monophtongization of the diphtongs (i.e., the diphtongs, which end in a non-vowel component are replaced with vocalic monophtongs, see examples above)

Metatheses of the liquids (groups ort, olt, tort,tolt, tert, telt)

Groups [0/cons]{o,e}{r,l}[cons]

PIE

or er ol el

South Slavic

ra r la (al) l

Czecho-Slovak

ra r la l

Lechitic-Sorbian

ro (ar) re lo le (lo)

East Slavic

oro ere olo olo

Examples:

*gord (Lit. gardas) > S-Cr. grad, Cze. hrad, Pol. gród,Rus.

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*berg (Germ. Berg) > S-Cr. br(ij)eg, Cze. beh,Pol. brzeg, Rus. *golv (Lit. galvà) S-Cr. glava, Cze. hlava, Pol. glowa,Rus. *melk (Lat. melca) > S-Cr. ml(ij)eko, Cze. mléko,Pol. mleko, Rus.

Patterns:

a. pure metathesis (Lechitic and Sorbian), b. metathesis with lengthening (South and Czech-Slovak) c. development of an additional vocalic element (East)

See here how South-Slavic influences compete with East Slavic reflexes. This situation is somewhat similar to Germanic vs. Norman in English, see here

Development of the Consonantism Principal tendencies:

deaspiration delabialization palatalization shift toward the front of the mouth cavity

. See this [page about Grimm's law] to compare it with the situation in Germanic languages (hence in English)

LCS p,b,d,t (contination and simple deaspiration)

PIE

p, ph b,bh d,dh t,th

> > > >

LCS

p b d t

Examples

pol- > polv; sphin > pna bk- > byk; bher > ber rd- > srdce; dhm > dym t > ty; ponth > pt

LCS s,z(continuation, shifted depalatalization)

PIE

s, , h (z), , h

> >

LCS

s z

Examples

stol- > stol; olm- > solma;

i nizdo (zd < sd <s2d) > gnzdo; n- > znati, heiim-

> zima

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LCS k,g(continuation, simple deaspiration, simple delabialization) PIE k, k kh, k h g, gu, gh, guh

u, u

> >

LCS k g

Examples bk- > byk; ulkuos > vlk bhog- > bog; ghostis > gost; guus > go-vdo;

i snoiiguh- > sng

LCS x (qualitatively new element, context-dependentshift toward theback of the mouth cavity)

PIE

{i/u/r/k}s{!p/t/k} Slavic g > h shift

>

LCS

{i/u/r/k}x{!p/t/k}

Examples

mus- > mx; aus- > uxo;

Regional(Czecho-Slovak, Upper Sorbian, Ukrainian, Belorussian; Russian, S-Cr, Slovene dialects), e.g. Cze. hlas, hovado, noha, Slov. hlas, hovädo, noha Usor. hlos, hlova, noha Ukr. [h...], [h...], [..h..] Palatalizations 1. FirstPalatalization (regressive) After s > x, afterdelabialization and deaspiration, before the monophtongization {k,g,x}[front vowel = , e, (! <oi), i (! <oi), , r, l]> {c , z , s }[frontvowel = , e, (! <oiii), i (! <oiii), , r, l] kui- > cto (Lat. quid) ghltos > zlt (Lit. geldas) myx > mys (Lat.ms) Development towardhardening in modern Slavic languages The first palatalization of the groups sk, zg (major isoglosses dividing Slavic languages and dialects)

i i {sk,zg} [front vowel = , e, (! <oii), i (! <oii), , r, l]> {s c , z dz }[front vowel = , e, (! <oiii), i (! <oiii), , r, l]

Development in Slavic languages: East Slavic: s c retained, z dz >various reflexes, most commonly z z Rus. , Lechitic

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Hardening s c > sc, z dz > zdz Pol. piszczel, drode Czecho-Slovak, Sorbian Softening s c > s, z dz > z Cze. pist'al, drozdí South Slavic Major differentiation of the dialects East South Slavic and some S-Cr dialects: st, zd S-Cr: pistaljka, drozda Other S-Cr dialects: s, zj; sc, zj; st, z Slovene: sc, z Slovene dialects: sc, zdz; s,z 2. The second palatalization (regressive) After the monophtongization {k,g,x}{ (<oi), i (<oi)} > {c , dz , s }{ ( <oi), i (<oi)} clovk: clovk+i > clovci bog: bog+i > bodzi dux:dux+i > dusi The second palatalization of the groups sk, zg {sk,zg}{ ( <oi), i (<oi)} > {sc , zdz }{ ( <oi), i (<oi)} Retained or simplified (st, zd) in South and East Slavic, e.g. S-Cr.daska:dasci, OCS. drzga: drzd Merged with the results of the first palatalization in the West andBelorussian (i.e., s c , z dz) The second palatalization of the groups kw, gw Indirect palatalization ­ East and South Slavic only: kw Rus. S-Cr. Pol. cv(ij)et kwiat gw zvijezda gwiazda

3. The third palatalization (progressive) {,i,} {k,g,x}{![cons],,y}> {,i,} {c ,dz ,s }{![cons],,y}

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ovka > ovca stga > stdza vxo > vse Alternations as results of the palatalizations: S-Cr vojnik:vojnice:vojnici (k:c:c);lovac:lovce:lovci (c:c) Nom. Sg. Voc. Sg. Nom. Pl. Nom. Sg. Voc. Sg. Nom. Pl. Jotations Differentiate Slavic from Baltic languages (where jotations are found only sporadically in Lithuanian). Dental Siprants {s,z}j> {s ,z } pis: pisati vz: vzati Hardening in most Slavic languages and dialects Velars {k,g,x}j> {c , s , z } plac:plakati dusa:dux lz:lgati Hardening in most Slavic languages and dialects (c > c in Lower Sorbian,remains soft in Russian and Upper Sorbian) {sk,zg}j > {s c , z dz } is c:iskati zvizd:zvizgFurther development as in the case of the first palatalization describedabove Alveolars {l,n,r}j > {l', , r'} lov lov lov vojni vojni vojni a 0 0 k c c c c c e i e i 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd

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Further development: retained: S-Cr konj, Pol. ko, Rus. l' le l a. Reduction to one value: Cze. has only l b. Reduction to twovalues: S-Cr. has l' le Rus. has l' l c. Reduction and extensionof the scale Pol. and Slo. have le u r' Retained in ., Ukr., Sor, OCS andpartially Bul, e.g. Rus. Hardening in Bel., Slov,S-Cr., and Mac, e.g. S-Cr more Decomposition in Slov(before a vowel), e.g. morje Shift in Pol. and Cze,i.e. r' > rz (Czech) > z (Polish), e.g. Cze peka, Pol. piekarz Labials {b,p,v,m}j > {b',p',v',m'} L epentheticum in East and South Slavic Rus: , , , S-Cr: kupljen, grablje, zemlja, ulovljen Pol. kupiony, grabie, ziemia, lowi Dental Stops Major isoglossesdifferentiating Slavic languages and dialects {t,d}j> {t',d'} svt'a, med'a East Slavic: c , z Rus., West Slavic: c, dz Pol. wieca, miedza South Slavic:

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Bul., OCS: st, zd, e.g. Bul. , Mac. , e.g., , Standard S-Cr , , e.g. sv(ij)ea, mea S-Cr ca dialect , j, e.g. svia, meja Slo and S-Cr kaj dialect c, j, e.g. sveca, meja {st,zd}j > {s c , z dz } pustj > pus c zdj > z dz Further development just like sk, zg above {kt,gt,xt}i > {t'} rekti > ret'i mogti > mot'i verxti > vrt'i Further development as tj above Reductions Principle of risingsonority Mostly regressive reductions of the sequences violating the principle ps, bs, ts, ds > s, e.g. opsa > osa (Lat. vespa) ks, gs > x, e.g., tkxon > tx tsl, dsl > sl, e.g., cistlo > cislo tsm > sm, e.g., cistm > cism kst, gst > st, e.g., rkste > rste pt, bt > t, e.g., grebti > greti pn, bn, tn, dn > n, e.g., spnos > sn dm, tm > m, e.g., dadmi > dam

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bv > b, e.g.,ob-volko > oblako tt > st, e.g., metti > mesti tl, dl> l (only East and South), e.g., Rus. , , Pol. plotla, radlo, S-Cr plela,ralo [cons][cons] > [cons], e.g. osis > ossis > os Positional softness in Slavic Retained in the East,e.g., Rus. [d'eduska] Depalatalization in the South, e.g., S-Cr. deda [deda] Partial preservation inthe West, e.g. Pol. Pol. dziadek [adek] Prosthetic consonants in Slavic Prosthetic v and j je > o shift in East Slavic, Rus. , , S-Cr jezero, jelen, Pol. jezioro, jele jezioro, jele , ,

Prosody

Quality: CSL: intensity, length, pitch => West Southern - retained East, Polish and East Southern - reduced to intensity Other Western - intensity and length Distribution: CSL: free => East, Slo, S-Cr, Bul, - free or relatively free Other - fixed

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