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Power Measurement Ltd. ("Power Measurement") reserves the right to make changes in the device or its specifications identified in this document without notice. Power Measurement advises customers to obtain the latest version of the device specifications before placing orders to verify that the information being relied upon by the customer is current. Regardless of whether any remedy set forth herein fails in its essential purpose, except to the extent the following limitation is prohibited by applicable law, Power Measurement shall not, in any event or under any legal claim or theory (whether based on contract, indemnity, warranty, tort (including negligence and strict liability) or otherwise), be liable to the original purchaser or any other person or entity for special, indirect, incidental, punitive, liquidated, special or consequential damages whatsoever with respect to any purchased product, including, without limitation, business interruption, loss of use, profit or revenue, even if Power Measurement has been advised of the possibility of such damages. To the extent that a limitation or exclusion of consequential damages are prohibited by applicable law, then Power Measurement's liability shall be limited to twice the amount of the relevant purchased product. Not to limit the foregoing, a) Power Measurement shall not be liable for any claim (other than a claim solely for the breach of one of the above Warranties that is made in accordance with the above described procedures) made by the original purchaser, its employees, agents, or contractors for any loss, damage, or expense incurred due to, caused by, or related to any purchased product; and b) the above Warranties are the original purchaser's exclusive remedy and Power Measurement hereby expressly disclaims all other warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, warranties of non-infringement and the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. These limited Warranties shall not apply to any product that has been subject to alteration, accident, misuse, abuse, neglect or failure to exactly follow Power Measurement's instructions for operation and maintenance. Any technical assistance provided by Power Measurement's personnel or representatives in system design shall be deemed to be a proposal and not a recommendation. The responsibility for determining the feasibility of such proposals rests with the original purchaser and should be tested by the original purchaser. It is the original purchaser's responsibility to determine the suitability of any product and associated documentation for its purposes. The original purchaser acknowledges that 100% "up" time is not realizable because of possible hardware or software defects. The original purchaser recognizes that such defects and failures may cause inaccuracies or malfunctions. Only the terms expressed in these limited Warranties shall apply and no distributor, corporation or other entity, individual or employee of Power Measurement or any other entity is authorized to amend, modify or extend the Warranties in any way. The information contained in this document is believed to be accurate at the time of publication, however, Power Measurement assumes no responsibility for any errors which may appear here and reserves the right to make changes without notice. Power Measurement, ION, ION Enterprise, [email protected], WebMeter and "drive energy performance" are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Power Measurement. All other trademarks are property of their respective owners. Covered by one or more of the following patents: U.S. Patent No's 6694270, 6687627, 6671654, 6671635, 6615147, 6611922, 6611773, 6563697, 6493644, 6397155, 6186842, 6185508, 6000034, 5995911, 5828576, 5736847, 5650936, D459259, D458863, D443541, D439535, D435471, D432934, D429655, D429533, D427533.

Worldwide Headquarters

2195 Keating Cross Road Saanichton, BC Canada V8M 2A5 Tel: 1-250-652-7100 Fax: 1-250-652-0411 Email: [email protected]

www.pwrm.com

© 2004 Power Measurement Printed in Canada Revision Date: November 2004 70060-0001

Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction .................................................................. 9

Power Monitoring Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Getting More Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Contact Power Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Services and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 ION Product Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

Chapter 2

Building a System ....................................................... 17

System Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Single-Meter Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Single-Site Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Single-Site Network with Control Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Remote Substation Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Third Party System Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Enterprise-Wide Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Setup Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Wiring and Equipment Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Adaptability and Longevity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Integration with Existing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Chapter 3

Intelligent ION Meters ................................................. 33

Meter Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 ION 8000 series Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 ION 7650 / ION 7550 / ION 7500 RTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 ION 7700 Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 ION 7300 series Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 ION 6200 Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 ION 6100 Wireless Metering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3000 Series ACM Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Initial Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Comparison of Meter Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Chapter 4

ION Software ............................................................. 49

ION EEM - Enterprise Energy Management Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 ION EEM Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 ION Enterprise Operations Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Advantages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Software Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 ION Enterprise Server/Workstation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 ION Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 ION Setup Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 ION Setup Workstation Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 List of Software Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Software for Utility C&I Billing and Value-Added Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Energy Profiler Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Energy Profiler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Energy BOSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 E-VEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Chapter 5

Communication Links .................................................. 71

ION Enterprise Network Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 ION Network Building Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Building Your Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Serial Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Converting to RS-485 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Bus Wiring Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Infrared/Optical Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Modem Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Using a COM Converter with a Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Modem Gateway Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Dialing Out to Remote Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Immediate Notification from Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Ethernet Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Ethernet Gateway Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Internet Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Managing Network Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Time Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Clock Module Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Time Synchronization Method: ION Software, GPS, or NTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Time-Synchronization Blackout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

Chapter 6

ION and Third Party Systems ...................................... 95

Protocol Interfaces to Other Systems and Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Modbus Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Modbus Slave Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Modbus Master Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 DNP 3.0 Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 PROFIBUS-DP Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 MV-90 and the TIM_ION Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Using Telnet and Hyperterminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Analog/Digital Interfaces to Facility Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Digital Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Analog Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 External I/O Boards and the I/O Expander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 ION Logging and Data Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 ION Software Database Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Chapter 7

ION Technology ....................................................... 121

ION Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ION Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Power Quality Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Demand Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Substation Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Cost Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Capacitor Bank Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Popular Module Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 ION Timing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Designer Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 ION Modules Supported by Each Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

Appendix A

Glossary ................................................................... 133

1

Introduction

This System Design Handbook can help you select an enterprise energy management system that meets your exact needs. Key discussions include: typical configurations, digital power meters, software, communication methods, and third party interfacing.

In This Chapter

Power Monitoring Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Getting More Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contact Power Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Services and Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ION Product Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 11 11 11 14

Page 9

Power Monitoring Components

System Design Handbook

Power Monitoring Components

Energy suppliers and consumers use enterprise energy management ("EEM") systems to control energy costs, decrease downtime, reduce maintenance, accelerate problem response, and improve facilities planning. A turn-key system that addresses all of these concerns is now technically feasible for small systems right up to utility applications. There are three main components in any EEM system: hardware, software, and communications links. The following diagram is a basic illustration of how these components are connected:

ION intelligent metering devices are more than just meters: they can take measurements, store data, and respond to new information. The meters are on the front line, continuously gathering data and carrying out instructions. ION meters accomplish the tasks of many devices (relays, PLCs, RTUs) reducing the cost of materials, equipment and commissioning time required to build an EEM system. ION software processes data collected by the meter into a usable format. The software acts as director of operations with the ability to assess the overall picture and decide on new courses of action. The software offers a combination of energy information and control capabilities that can simultaneously address diversified needs such as billing, load aggregation, and cost allocation. ION software is scalable so that a system can start small and grow as needs change. Connectivity with other utility meters (gas, steam etc.) and systems is provided through multi-protocol communications ports and an ODBC-compliant database. Communication links transport data from the meter to software or other devices. The software and meters communicate to each other through serial, modem, or Ethernet links. ION meters and software use communications infrastructures such as Internet, Ethernet, telephone and wireless to provide a high degree of accessibility, responsiveness, and affordability.

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System Design Handbook

Getting More Information

An enterprise energy management system comprised of intelligent devices simplifies the wiring and equipment requirements of a traditional SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system. Traditional SCADA consists of transducers, Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), and a Master Station. Transducers measure general equipment parameters such as temperatures and pressures. RTUs detect, timestamp, and log setpoint and digital I/O events. The Master Station provides the primary operator interface and manages overall system functions, collecting data from RTUs and initiating control actions. ION meters provide all this functionality and more in one convenient unit. In a monitoring, analysis, and control system by Power Measurement, the meters act as smart RTUs with transducer, control, power quality, load profiling, and integration capabilities. Software performs Master Station functions as well as advanced graphical analysis, customized reporting, and communication paths that stretch across continents. The result is much higher performance and return on investment to many groups within an organization; the system provides all the information and control capabilities necessary to enable management, accounting, engineering and maintenance personnel to make the best decisions.

Getting More Information

This handbook is an introduction to system configuration concepts. More detailed information is available in ION meter and ION software product documentation and through hands-on training.

Contact Power Measurement

You can contact Power Measurement by email, phone, or fax, or you can visit the web site.

Address Web site Email Phone Fax

2195 Keating Cross Rd., Saanichton, BC Canada V8M 2A5 http://www.pwrm.com/ [email protected] [email protected] 1-250-652-7100 (Toll free:1-866-466-7627) 1-250-652-0411

Services and Support

You can get more details on installation, commissioning, and training by contacting your local Power Measurement sales representative or the Technical Support group.

Chapter 1 - Introduction

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Services and Support

System Design Handbook

Engineering Services

Power Measurement delivers single-source, integrated, end-to-end solutions via the Engineering Services team. Using a team-oriented, consultative approach, Engineering Services identify your requirements and design industry-proven solutions that include advanced technical support, commissioning, and project management. The Engineering Services team has decades of experience in designing highperformance EEM systems for the following industries: Utilities Office & Retail Properties Government Industrials Data Centers and other critical systems Universities Power Measurement focuses on implementing fully integrated enterprise energy management solutions that maximize your return on investment. The goal is to deliver complete systems that can help minimize your energy costs, manage complex billing, increase operating efficiencies, and reduce downtime.

Training

Power Measurement training courses save you time and money during the configuration, operation, and maintenance of your ION EEM system. Training ensures you make optimal use of your system, as you quickly learn how to collect and display information specific to your application and how to configure more advanced automated systems. Power Measurement offers both standard and custom courses. The standard courses include ION Fundamentals, ION Programmer, and ION Administrator. Each course offers an interactive learning environment where you can experiment, explore, and simulate any scenario. ION Fundamentals is an introductory course that focuses on the fundamentals of ION meter communications and ION Enterprise software. After reviewing the fundamentals of ION technology, the course teaches the basics for using and maximizing an ION Enterprise system. Students learn to read and configure ION meters, monitor system and device events, control system functions, display real-time data, and generate reports. ION Programmer is designed for ION system engineers and advanced ION users that have already completed the ION Fundamentals course. This course focuses on meter-level and system-level programming using Designer and ION Setup software. After reviewing the basics of ION meter programming, students learn to customize, build and manage ION application programs.

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Services and Support

ION Administrator is designed is ION Enterprise system administrators. This course focuses on administering a network of ION devices and the ION system databases. After reviewing the components of an ION Enterprise system, students learn to plan, configure, maintain and troubleshoot an ION Enterprise system. Power Measurement's knowledgeable trainers provide useful tips, tricks, and strategies that will help you maximize productivity on the job. For convenient and cost-effective training of larger groups at your location, Power Measurement offers the option of bringing the classroom to you through ION on-site courses. Custom training courses developed according to your ION Enterprise system are also available, and you have the choice of taking the custom course at Power Measurement's training facility or having on-site training at your facility. The portable training lab comes equipped with a maximum of eight ION Enterprise workstations that can each be networked to several different ION meters. Possible custom training course include: ION meter front panels: real-time values and setup menus ION Enterprise systems: overview of all the components Management Console: configuring a network of ION meters Real-time Vista: meter displays, control and status monitoring Historical Vista: viewing meter events and plotting logged data Designer: programming ION meters and the VIP Setpoints: configuration, alerting and alarming Inputs/Outputs: configuring analog and digital I/O points Power Quality: waveform capture for sag/swell or transients Using your specific training requirements, Power Measurement can create a training course designed to meet your needs.

Technical Support

From installation to operation and maintenance, Power Measurement offers reliable and accessible expert engineering support for your ION EEM system and its components. Long-term support and maintenance contracts are available to maximize your system investment. Power Measurement offers two levels of support: Standard Support and Premium Support. Standard Support is available to all Power Measurement customers, as part of our commitment to supporting your investment in Power Measurement systems and products. Premium Support is available for customers who want a single point of contact and priority access to support services.

Chapter 1 - Introduction

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ION Product Documentation

System Design Handbook

Compare Standard and Premium Support

Service

Email and voice mail communications Standard KnowledgeBase access1 Access to Service Packs and Quick Fixes Assigned Technical Support Engineer (TSE) Direct telephone access to assigned TSE 25% discount on training seats System inventory tracking Proactive maintenance check-ups System check-up reporting Proactive notification of updates and fixes Premium KnowledgeBase access 1 Remote troubleshooting access Includes software assurance (upgrades)

1 2 3

Standard

· · ·

Premium

· · · · · · · · · · ·

Optional2 Optional2

·3 ·

Coming soon. Additional fees apply. Initial startup fees may apply.

Visit Power Measurement's web site for more information regarding premium support at HTTP://WWW.PWRM.COM/SUPPORT/PREMIUM/.

ION Product Documentation

The listed product documentation details ION meter and software specifications, including the installation, operation, and application of Power Measurement's monitoring, analysis, and control systems. Each of the documents is available on Power Measurement's web site - just click the Library link. Data Sheets Data sheets are available for ION meters and software, providing a summary of features that explain the benefits of the product. Ask for copies from your local sales representative or view them online. Technical Notes Technical notes supplement information contained in hardware or software User Guides. A technical note explains how to use an ION feature, which is generally the combination of both an ION meter and ION software. Protocol Documents A protocol document contains information pertaining to how our products interact with a certain protocol, such as DNP 3.0, Modicon Modbus, and Profibus.

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ION Product Documentation

ION Meter Installation Guides An ION meter Installation Guide details how to mount, install, and configure your meter. The manual has wiring information for electrical connections, communications connections, and I/O connections. ION Meter User Guides User Guides give detailed descriptions on the operation and use of each ION meter. The guides explain how to display data, make configuration changes, customize operations, use outputs and relays, apply advanced communications, and use revenue metering features. ION Enterprise Commissioning Guide This Commissioning Guide describes the procedures you should follow to design and build an ION Enterprise server and ION system. The focus is getting your basic system installed and operational. The guide offers information on software upgrades, service packs, and security highlights in addition to information on third-party products like Microsoft Internet Information Services and Microsoft SQL Server. ION Enterprise Help The ION Enterprise Help provides information and instructions for all ION Enterprise components from the Management Console to Vista, Reporter to Designer. There is also detailed information regarding database management. ION Setup Getting Started Guide The ION Setup Getting Started Guide provides instructions on how to install, utilize, and troubleshoot the ION Setup software. The guide provides the system requirements needed to run the software. ION Setup User Guide This User Guide explains how to configure ION Setup software and provides instructions for adding and configuring devices, managing and monitoring your device network, and troubleshooting ION Setup and meter wiring. ION Setup Tutorials These documents are tutorials explaining how to use the various "Assistants" in the ION Setup software.

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2

Building a System

The ideal EEM system meets your needs in terms of application, installation cost, longevity, response time and throughput, reliability, and integration. Power Measurement solutions give you the most flexible and easy-to-use options for a multitude of configurations -- from stand-alone metering, to computer and thirdparty system networking. In no time, you can design a solution for any application: basic power metering, power quality monitoring, demand management, revenue metering, cost allocation, and more.

In This Chapter

System Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Single-Meter Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Single-Site Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Single-Site Network with Control Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Remote Substation Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Third Party System Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Enterprise-Wide Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Setup Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Wiring and Equipment Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Adaptability and Longevity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Reliability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Integration with Existing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

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System Configurations

System Design Handbook

System Configurations

The size of a power monitoring system can vary considerably from one installation to the next. One company may have a single meter and computer for monitoring the service entrance. A substation or manufacturing facility could have a group of meters set up to monitor sub-feeders and equipment. A campus might have meters installed in every building and linked through an Ethernet network. Choose specific meters and software based on the applications to be served: Power Quality Voltage sags, transients, and harmonics can interrupt or completely shut down your operations, damage electronics, and cause equipment malfunctions. You need continuous power monitoring and high-speed sequence-ofevents recording to identify the source of such disturbances and take corrective actions.

Energy Cost Control

Demand ratchet charges, power factor penalties, and billing errors all lead to higher energy costs. A power monitoring system helps you reduce these expenses through revenue-certified bill verification, automated demand control, and cost allocation for tenants or subdivisions. The electrical aspects of your operations need careful management. You may have to plan for facility expansion, generate weekly energy consumption reports, arrange for equipment maintenance, or contribute to activity-based costing or buyversus-build decisions with the energy-related cost of every process. An enterprise energy management system saves on capital expenditures by using trend data to load electrical circuits at higher levels and run systems near rated tolerances. You can replace manual meter reading with automated collection, processing, and customized data. You can also streamline maintenance with desktop access to historic files and automatic notification of work requirements. Revenue-accurate meters and network software help you manage today's electricity contracts. Energy providers can create new services such as performance guarantees, Web access to reports, remote load management, and sub-metering. Energy consumers can make better purchase decisions and respond to real-time pricing.

Operational Improvements

Managing Deregulation

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System Configurations

Which Intelligent Device Do You Need?

To meet the needs of these diverse applications, ION intelligent metering and control devices span the spectrum of functionality, from power and energy measurements to power quality and control capabilities.

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System Configurations

System Design Handbook

The ION 6200 meter is a basic revenue-accurate (revenue-certified in Canada) power and energy meter with a high-visibility LED display. Numerous product options let you minimize your initial investment and easily upgrade meter functionality later in the field for more demanding applications. The ION 7300 series meters are ideal for replacing old analog meters. The ION 7300 meter is suitable at metering points that focus on energy usage tracking for cost allocation purposes. The ION 7330 meter adds more functionality with digital inputs, data logging capabilities, and an optional internal modem. The ION 7350 meter adds yet another level of functionality with waveform recording, simple sag/swell indicators, and a call-back function for prompt response to critical conditions. All ION 7300 series meters have Internet and Ethernet features to varying degrees. You can also order these meters in a switchboard draw-out case. The ION 7700 meter combines high-accuracy, revenue-certified power and energy measurement capabilities with detailed power quality analysis features. It is this meter's extensive array of analog and digital inputs/outputs (I/O), however, that makes the meter ideal for many applications in industrial sites, commercial facilities, utilities, and energy service companies. The ION 7550 and ION 7650 meters are perfect for use at key distriution points and sensitive loads. These meters have advanced power quality analysis features coupled with revenue accuracy, control capabilities, and multiple communication ports. The ION 7650 meter includes pass/fail indicators that verify compliance with new international standards such as flicker (IEC 61000-4-15) and harmonics (IEC 61000-4-7). Both meters are web capable with numerous Internet and Ethernet features. The ION 8000 series meters are used to monitor electric power networks, service entrances, and substations to give you the ability to manage complex energy supply contracts that include commitments to power quality. While generally configured as socket meters, they are also available in a switchboard-case option with the same level of functionality. The ION 8300 meter has sag/swell indicators, harmonics analysis, transformer and line loss compensation, and additional I/O. The ION 8400 meter adds more functionality with advanced harmonics and sag/ swell analysis and more communication ports. The ION 8500 meter includes a full range of power quality and compliance reporting tools; pass/fail indicators verify compliance with new international standards such as flicker (IEC 61000-4-15) and harmonics (IEC 61000-4-7). All ION 8000 series meters are web capable with numerous Internet and Ethernet features.

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Single-Meter Installations

Single-Meter Installations

The most simple applications involve using a single meter. For example, you may decide to focus exclusively on monitoring the incoming feeder at your service entrance, as illustrated below. A workstation (or laptop) and the meter are connected through a serial, Ethernet, or modem link or even an optical port.

Recommended shopping list: ION Enterprise operations software (support for up to 5 devices) ION 7650, ION 7700 or ION 8500 meter RS-232 serial cables An ION meter has enough internal processing power to act as a complete standalone power monitoring, analysis, and control station. You may choose this alternative if you are satisfied with data collection and display at the meter and do not need a workstation. It's also possible to temporarily analyze power and energy at feeders or equipment sites, because you can move an ION meter to any point where you need to gather data. To set up a meter for standalone operation, you need a portable PC and an RS-232 cable; if your meter is an ION 7550 or ION 7650, you can use the optical port to transfer data to your portable computer.

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Single-Site Network

System Design Handbook

Single-Site Network

One scale up from a single-meter system is a single-site network where the service entrance and sub-feeders are monitored. This configuration has more than one meter, one or more workstations, and communications via serial or Ethernet. In this setup, you need to determine the number of metering points required at key distribution points, processes, and equipment locations.

Recommended shopping list: ION Enterprise operations software (support for up to 12 meters) At the service entrance: ION 7650, ION 7700, or ION 8500 meter At the sub-feeders: For transient detection or compliance monitoring (EN 50160, IEC 61000-4-15 flicker, IEC 61000-4-7), choose the ION 7650 meter. For energy and power quality monitoring, including waveform logs, use an ION 7550 or ION 7350 meter. If waveform logs are not required, then use the ION 7330 meter. If data logging or alarms are not required, then an ION 7300 or ION 6200 meter is suitable. Serial cables and an RS-232 to RS-485 converter

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Single-Site Network with Control Outputs

Single-Site Network with Control Outputs

You may want to connect your meters directly to Ethernet or implement automated demand control using meter input/output (I/O). A single meter can perform demand control based on its own readings. Alternatively, ION software can issue control commands, with actions contingent upon readings from multiple meters. This configuration is ideal for power quality, bill verification, cost allocation, and demand control.

Recommended shopping list: ION Enterprise operations software (support for up to 12 meters) At the service entrance: ION 7650, ION 7700 or ION 8500 meter At the sub-feeders: If you need transient detection or compliance monitoring (EN 50160, IEC 61000-4-15 flicker, IEC 61000-4-7), choose the ION 7650 meter. For energy and power quality monitoring, use an ION 7550 or ION 7350 meter. For more cost allocation and power system monitoring features, install an ION 7300, ION 7330 or ION 6200 meter. For demand control: ION 7550, ION 7650, ION 7700 meters Serial and Ethernet cables and wiring for control outputs

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Remote Substation Monitoring

System Design Handbook

Remote Substation Monitoring

You may want to monitor a remote substation and still have an ION software workstation at the substation for staff who visit the site. This configuration monitors substation feeder and equipment for power quality, energy tracking, control and alarm notification.

Recommended shopping list: ION Enterprise operations software (support for 25 to 50 meters) At the main feeder: ION 7650, ION 7700 or ION 8500 meter. All three offer internal modem options. At the sub-feeders: If you need transient detection or compliance monitoring (EN 50160, IEC 61000-4-15 flicker, IEC 61000-4-7), choose the ION 7650 meter. For energy and power quality monitoring, use an ION 7550, ION 7350, ION 8400 or ION 8300 meter. For more cost allocation and power system monitoring, install an ION 7300, ION 7330 or ION 6200 meter. Serial and modem connections including an RS-232 to RS-485 converter. Instead of modem links directly to the meters, the ION software workstation at headquarters could simply have a modem link to the ION software workstation at the substation.

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Third Party System Interface

Third Party System Interface

You may have to interface to a third-party SCADA system that talks to substation devices through the DNP 3.0 protocol. Another possibility is interfacing to RTUs and PLCs. This configuration monitors substation feeder and equipment with a DNP 3.0 interface for power quality, energy tracking, and SCADA interfacing.

Recommended shopping list: ION Enterprise operations software (support for up to 200 meters) At the main feeder: ION 7650, ION 7700 or ION 8500 meter At the sub-feeders: If transient detection or compliance monitoring is necessary (EN 50160, IEC 61000-4-15 flicker, IEC 61000-4-7), choose the ION 7650 meter. For energy and power quality monitoring, use an ION 7550, ION 7350, ION 8400 or ION 8300 meter. For more cost allocation and power system monitoring, install an ION 7300, ION 7330 or ION 6200 meter. Each meter can communicate via multiple protocols simultaneously. Serial connections including an RS-232 to RS-485 converter

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Enterprise-Wide Network

System Design Handbook

Enterprise-Wide Network

You may want to take advantage of an enterprise-wide power data network, which can span across multiple facilities over a wide geographical area, to efficiently track energy costs and power quality associated with every building, department, tenant, or process. You can use enterprise-wide power data for bill verification, maintenance, systems optimization/planning, and alarm tracking. You can allow desktop access to power system data for anyone in the organization (with appropriate security access), including facilities management, design engineering, finance, and administration groups.

Recommended shopping list: ION Enterprise operations software (support for 1 to 50 meters, 51 to 200 meters or 200+ meters, depending on size of system) with ION EEM (enterprise energy management) software. At the main feeders: ION 7550, ION 7650 or ION 8500 meter. If compliance monitoring (EN 50160, IEC 61000-4-15 flicker, IEC 61000-4-7) is necessary, choose an ION 7650 meter. For transient detection, use an ION 7650 or ION 7700 meter. At the sub-feeders: For energy logging and power quality monitoring, use an ION 7350, ION 7550, or ION 7650 meter. For more cost allocation and power system monitoring, install an ION 7300, ION 7330 or ION 6200 meter. Serial and Ethernet cables

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Design Considerations

Design Considerations

You can minimize costs by carefully considering how to simplify setup, wiring, and equipment requirements for your the installation of your power monitoring network.

Setup Time

Installation cost is affected by setup time: the less time it takes you to configure the hardware and software, the lower your costs. For this reason, you need a system that does not require any complex programming before it is operational. ION meters come pre-configured, so you can stay with the default settings at startup. All you have to do is configure transformer ratios, wiring method (Wye, Delta, or single-phase), and communications options. The meters automatically begin logging the most important power and energy parameters for cost allocation, operations, power quality, and maintenance purposes. Data is stored at the meter and uploaded as required to a computer through an RS-232/485 connection, modem, or Ethernet port. Similar to the ION meters, the ION software comes with default settings. By clicking on the "Generate Network Diagram" option in the Vista component of the ION software, you have immediate access to real-time or historic data from any meter or group of meters. You can create "hot spots" to find information quickly through graphical links; for example, you can click on a substation and then select a feeder to produce a disturbance analysis. You can start analyzing power quality, generating cost allocation reports, or determining your facility's load profile in no time at all.

Wiring and Equipment Requirements

There are four areas where wiring and equipment requirements can be simplified: the communications interface, the input/output (I/O) options, the power system connection, and the meter's multi-function capabilities.

Direct, Industry-Standard Communications

Your system's communications backbone can make up a significant portion of your total installation costs, depending on the equipment and labor involved. This is the reason communications interfaces on ION meters are industry-standard and onboard: you can take advantage of existing networks without extra hardware to complicate or slow down communication links. ION meters offer onboard modem, serial, Ethernet, and infrared interfaces. You can choose meters with internal modems to reduce wiring and power supply requirements and allow multiple meters to share the same modem. You can also choose to install external telephone, radio, or fiber optic modems from other vendors.

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Wiring and Equipment Requirements

System Design Handbook

Power Measurement's meters also offer direct support for several protocols. You can communicate via Modbus RTU, Modbus TCP, XML, DNP 3.0 and MV-90 protocols to devices without external translators. You can even communicate via multiple protocols simultaneously while linking to different types of equipment at the same time.

Analog and Digital I/O

Analog and digital I/O ports on the ION meters let you bring a variety of data into a common system. This simplifies data gathering. The I/O ports interface with relays as well as transducers for gas, steam, air, emissions, and water metering. You can use the inputs to count transducer pulses and breaker trips, or measure flow rates, rotations, fuel levels, oil pressures, and transformer temperatures. Use the outputs for equipment control to transfer any value (e.g. energy) to RTUs.

Power System Connections

Another way to curb spending on your installation is to use meters that offer standard power system interfaces.

ION meters connect directly to your existing PTs (Potential Transformers) and CTs (Current Transformers) alongside other devices. This is possible because the meters draw very little current from the measuring circuit. In addition, ION meters provide two terminals for every current input, so you can quickly hook into the power system without having to design any special wiring interface. The meters also have universal AC/DC power supplies to match whatever is available in your facility.

Multi-Function Meters

You can reduce the number of individual pieces of equipment by installing meters that serve multiple purposes. An ION meter bundles a wealth of functions into one unit: control, digital fault recording, load profiling, power quality, sequence-ofevents recording, revenue metering, PLC, and RTU functionality. Plus, ION technology makes it easy for you to customize the functions in your meters. As a result, you can extend the life of the meters by adding new features as your needs change.

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Adaptability and Longevity

Adaptability and Longevity

Adaptability is important; it affects the long-term cost of your system. You do not want to pay for an inflexible system that needs replacement in a few years because its capabilities have become outdated. Instead, you want to maintain your original investment and add modular components as you need them. Power Measurement's patented ION technology ensures the adaptability and longevity of your system by making meters and software fully configurable. ION architecture provides a set of functional building blocks, called ION modules, that you can link in the software to create your own specialized features build a custom meter by choosing sequences of measurements, calculations, and actions to perform. For example, the following diagram shows how you can arrange ION modules to protect a transformer from harmonics when kVA is high:

Every ION module carries out a dedicated task similar to a discrete operation in a conventional power meter. Once you are familiar with ION technology you can modify the standard functionality of the meter. As your needs change, you can quickly add a workstation or remotely modify any part of a meter's setup. You can limit any readings, calculations, or data storage that you find unnecessary. You can also easily add third party devices using industry-standard protocols and network links. Most systems take advantage of the numerous standard, pre-programmed functions that are suitable for all common power quality and energy tracking applications. ION meters also have flash firmware for simple, live upgrades. New firmware revisions are available at no charge on the Power Measurement web site, http:// www.pwrm.com.

Response Time and Throughput

Response time and throughput are important to a successful power monitoring system and are influenced by the physical aspects of a metering network, characteristics of the data transmitted, and the operating system. Response time refers to how quickly the system can react to situations. Throughput is the amount of data the system can process.

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Reliability

System Design Handbook

An ION enterprise energy management system ensures a fast response to a large amount of information in the following ways: Media: Data can be transmitted through telephone wire, twisted pair wire, coaxial cable, fiber optic cable, radio, satellite, cellular, and infrared. You can use a variety of media within the same system: continuously-connected methods (such as Ethernet) within one site and non-continuous (such as modems) across several. Amount of information: To maximize throughput along non-continuous channels like modems, and to reduce network data loads, you should transmit only useful information. For example, if all you want is power quality information, then send only the relevant parameters. To do this, you can configure an ION meter to "log by exception" and transfer only the data you require. Speed of data transmission: Usually expressed in bits per second (bps). This ranges from 9.6 kbps or 33.6 kbps for modems, up to 115 kbps for serial communications, and 10 Mbps for Ethernet. Speed of detection: Meters are able to respond quickly if a threshold value is exceeded for parameters such as voltage, demand, and power factor. You can get response times as fast as one cycle to trigger data logging, waveform recording, relay control, or reset functions. In the case of transient detection, ION meters provide the sub-cycle reaction times that are essential. ION meters also have large onboard memories, which ensure that any captured data is saved until a computer is ready to upload the information. Uninterrupted processing: Time-critical alarm and control operations should not be interrupted by other processes. A robust multi-tasking operating system addresses this issue.

Reliability

Reliability is becoming more important in the digital age and is affected by system complexity, security features, and data protection: System complexity: As a system grows in complexity, reliability decreases. You can reduce the complexity of your network by minimizing the number of separate devices and avoiding the use of external converters, power supplies, and large wiring schemes. That's why a "one-box metering solution" is a great advantage: an ION meter combines the functions of multiple devices and incorporates advanced communications onboard. Security: Another way to increase reliability is to use file and password protection mechanisms from the meter's front panel and through communications using software. These two levels of security prevent unauthorized users from changing software or meter configurations. Data protection: After a power failure, any data recorded by an ION meter is safely preserved. Energy, min./max. values, event logs, and other measurements are continually updated and stored in the meter's non-volatile RAM or flash memory. Configuration data, such as calibration and voltage scales, are stored in EPROMs or Flash.

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Integration with Existing Systems

Integration with Existing Systems

A key feature of a cost-effective power monitoring system is that it isn't isolated from the rest of your operations. An effective system should support a range of industry-standard protocols, talking to a variety of devices such as protective relays, RTUs, PLCs, and workstations. It should also store data in a networked, industry-standard database and interface to other software applications.

Protocols Supported by ION Meters and Software

ION meters use Modbus, DNP 3.0, PROFIBUS-DP, XML and ION protocols to communicate through their internal modems or RS-232, RS-485, infrared, and Ethernet ports. In the case of Ethernet, the protocols sit on top of the TCP/IP layer of the network architecture. Every port on an ION meter supports several protocols, and multiple ports can communicate at the same time to different systems. So a meter can talk to DNPcompatible equipment while simultaneously transferring energy data or receiving control commands from ION software. ION software supports ION as well as Modbus Master/Slave protocols. It can exchange data with Modbus devices on one port while talking to ION meters on another port. ION software can even add intelligence to the most basic Modbus device by applying logging and setpoint functions to Modbus data. ION software can also communicate to many devices over multiple modems simultaneously. The table below shows the protocols that each meter supports. ION software also supports Modbus RTU to give you Modbus mastering capability.

ION 7550 ION 7500 RTU ION 7650

ION 6200 ION Modbus RTU Modbus/TCP XML DNP 3.0 PROFIBUS-DP

ION 7300

ION 7330 ION 7350

ION 7700

ION 8300

ION 8400 ION 8500

ION Enterprise

Real-Time and Logged Data

Real-time data can be transferred through ION, Modbus, DNP 3.0, XML or PROFIBUS-DP. Some meters support access to data logs via Modbus. Otherwise, event data and waveform logs use the ION protocol. ION architecture makes it easy for you to integrate ION meters and software with third party systems.

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3

Intelligent ION Meters

Digital power meters are on the front lines of power monitoring, analysis, and control ­ taking measurements, storing data, and responding to new information. Power Measurement's ION meters are ideally suited to all these tasks because of their extensive internal processing power and communications options.

In This Chapter

Meter Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 ION 8000 series Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 ION 7650 / ION 7550 / ION 7500 RTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 ION 7700 Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 ION 7300 series Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 ION 6200 Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 ION 6100 Wireless Metering System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3000 Series ACM Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Initial Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Comparison of Meter Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

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Meter Characteristics

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Meter Characteristics

Every Power Measurement meter is an all-in-one solution, with capabilities such as sequence-of-events recording, load profiling, power quality analyzing, control, alarming, and status monitoring. These revenue accurate meters also replace Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) and Remote Terminal Units (RTUs). Multi-protocol communication ports provide direct interfaces to your existing systems and keep equipment and wiring requirements to an absolute minimum. Several unique features streamline the meters' system interfaces:

Feature EtherGate ModemGate [email protected] WebMeter

(onboard web server)

Capability it Provides

An Ethernet gateway meter (EtherGate) allows the direct transfer of data between a chain of devices connected to the EhterGate meter's RS-485 port and an Ethernet network. A modem gateway meter (ModemGate) allows the direct transfer of data between a chain of devices connected to the ModemGate meter's RS-485 port and a telephonet network, via the ModemGate meter's internal modem. The meter can automatically send alarm notifications or scheduled system status updates as email messages to workstations, cell phones, pagers, or PDAs. Allows real-time data display and basic configuration through the meter's onboard web server. The meter can export data in industry-standard XML format.

XML support

ION 8000 series Meters

ION 8000 series revenue-class meters are available in socket-mount and switchboard-case models. You can program these meters with ION software. ION 8300 meter The ION 8300 meter is an economical revenue-accurate billing meter with a multitude of standard features: sag/swell indicators, harmonics analysis, three multi-protocol communication ports including Ethernet, time-of-use measurements, load profile memory, instrument transformer correction, and calculations for transformer and line loss compensation. Energy suppliers use the meter for billing and integration with utility SCADA systems, while energy consumers also use the meter to verify electricity charges and profile loads. Options include an internal modem, digital and analog I/O, and the Extended Current Range option that allows the meter to monitor bidirectional flow for both generation and stand-by modes. This meter offers WebMeter with HTML and XML support; it also offers [email protected], emailing data logs and alarm notifications. ION 8400 meter The ION 8400 meter builds on the ION 8300, providing more detailed power quality analysis with sub-disturbances, more memory, Modbus Master support, and four multi-protocol communications ports including Ethernet. It features WebMeter with HTML and XML support, and [email protected], emailing data logs and alarm notifications.

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ION 7650 Meter / ION 7550 Meter / ION 7500 RTU

ION 8500 meter The ION 8500 meter offers the most advanced combination of analysis and multiport communications features available in a revenue-class meter. It has all the functions of the ION 8400 meter, plus waveform recording, sub-cycle transient detection, and compliance reporting as per international flicker and harmonics standards, IEC 61000-4-15, and IEC 61000-4-7. It has the largest onboard data storage capacity of the ION 8000 series, and includes the WebMeter feature with HTML and XML support. It also offers [email protected], emailing data logs and alarm notifications.

ION 7650 Meter / ION 7550 Meter / ION 7500 RTU

These are high visibility energy and power quality meters. ION 7550 meter and ION 7650 meter The ION 7550 and ION 7650 meters are high-visibility power quality and energy meters suitable for key distribution points and loads sensitive to power disturbances. The ION 7650 meter offers more comprehensive power quality compliance reporting according to flicker and harmonics standards such as EN 50160, IEC 61000-4-15, and IEC 61000-4-7. The ION 7550 and ION 7650 meters include large graphical displays, highaccuracy measurements, power quality analysis, historical trending, demand tracking, multi-protocol communications ports, digital I/O, and control capabilities. Both meters offer the WebMeter feature providing HTML and XML support; they also offer [email protected], emailing both data logs and alarm notifications. In addition, these meters have an optional modem and optional analog I/O. ION 7500 RTU When voltage and current connections are not required, the intelligent, webenabled RTU option of the ION 7500 provides an economical all-in-one solution for many applications. The RTU acts as a low-cost data concentrator, delivering all collected information over public or private networks. It provides extensive analog and digital I/O options, and supports multiple communication protocols (ION, Modbus Master/Slave, DNP 3.0). The RTU supports web-enabled applications such as WebMeter, and [email protected] (emailing both data logs and alarm notifications). It collects, scales, and logs data from devices that meter water, air, gas, electricity, and steam ("WAGES"). In addition, the RTU offers a large, highly visible display.

ION 7700 Meter

The ION 7700 meter has a wealth of power quality, communications, analog and digital I/O, and revenue metering capabilities to serve applications such as widearea load aggregation, power quality analysis, control, cost allocation, and demand management. It detects sub-cycle transients, has optional 4 M-bytes of extended memory, and an optional internal modem.

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ION 7300 series Meters

System Design Handbook

The ION 7700 MGT, or Modular Graphics Terminal, provides a detailed graphics and text display for the ION 7700 meter. It can display setup parameters as well as data in the form of alphanumeric values, graphs, histograms, and waveforms. If you have a few independent or networked ION 7700 meters, you can simplify your configuration with the MGT Switchbox. The Switchbox allows you to connect up to four independent or networked ION 7700 meters to a single display using standard 9-pin serial (DB9) cables.

ION 7300 series Meters

ION 7300 series meters are also available in switchboard-case models. ION 7300 meter The ION 7300 meter replaces a complete array of analog meters for power, energy and harmonic monitoring. Ethernet or serial communication ports, analog and digital outputs let you integrate the meter as a power transducer in a SCADA or energy management network. Data is not stored onboard; it must be uploaded to a workstation for long-term use. This meter supports the WebMeter feature (an onboard web server), so you can view real-time data or perform basic meter configuration using a standard web browser. ION 7330 meter and ION 7350 meter You can reduce equipment costs and simplify integration further with the ION 7330 and ION 7350 meters. These meters have all the features of the ION 7300 meter plus optional built-in modems, onboard data storage, setpoints, and analog and digital I/O. The ION 7350 meter adds simple sag/swell detection, waveform recording, and a call-back function for prompt response to critical conditions. Both meters are excellent for load control, alarms, energy cost tracking, and load profiling. When equipped with an Ethernet port, the ION 7330 and ION 7350 meters can automatically send data logs via email ([email protected]). In addition to data logs, the ION 7350 can send alarm notifications via [email protected] Like the ION 7300 meter, these meters support the WebMeter feature. Both meters have optional EtherGate and ModemGate capability. On ION 7330 and ION 7350 meters with the Ethernet option, the meter's COM2 port functions as a dedicated EtherGate port (RS-485 Master). On ION 7330 and ION 7350 meters with the internal modem option, the meter's COM1 port functions as a dedicated ModemGate port (RS-485 Master).

ION 6200 Meter

The ION 6200 digital power meter is a basic revenue-accurate (revenue-certified in Canada) power and energy meter with a high-visibility LED display. Upgrade options allow you to minimize your initial investment and easily upgrade later in the field by changing option keys for increased functionality. It's ultra-compact, at only two inches deep, and fits into a standard ANSI four-inch or standard DIN 96 (92 mm x 92 mm) switchboard cutout.

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ION 6100 Wireless Metering System

ION 6100 Wireless Metering System

The ION 6100 Wireless Metering System provides power and energy metering that exceeds ANSI C12.16 Class 1 energy accuracy standards. The wireless metering system includes ION 6100 wireless metering devices that attach to nearly any existing enclosure, split-core current transformers for non-intrusive current measurements, and a wireless gateway that automatically detects all your ION 6100 metering devices. The wireless gateway gathers, aggregates, and logs all meter data, which it then makes available for export in industry-standard XML format. The system is ideal for customers who need revenue-accurate measurements for tenant sub-billing applications because of the time-stamped, interval-based consumption data and coincident demand readings.

3000 series ACM Meters

The 3720 ACM, 3710 ACM, and 3300 ACM panel-mount meters are Power Measurement's earlier generation of digital meters. They are an economical answer to the needs of power quality analysis, energy management, and supervisory control. They can operate standalone or as part of a large energy management network that also includes ION software, ION 6000 series meters, ION 7000 series meters, and ION 8000 series meters.

Initial Setup

Before a meter can take readings or communicate with other devices, you must select a wiring method, transformer ratios, and communication modes. You can complete this initial setup using the meter's front panel display.

Selecting Parameters

Your first task is to define power system characteristics by entering new values or using the defaults. Parameters include: volts mode (e.g. 4W-Wye, Delta, 9S), PT primary/secondary, CT primary/secondary, nominal voltage, phase rotation. Then you set up the communication ports so the meter can talk to other devices or computers in your network. The setup menu for each port may contain: protocol name, serial mode, baud rate, unit ID. If your meter has a 10Base-T or 10Base-FL Ethernet port, you also have to specify an IP address. Values for the gateway and subnet mask are required if you are using multiple networks or subnets. There may also be a few demand parameters for Sliding Window Demand subintervals and Thermal Demand intervals. After these basic parameters are defined, the meter is ready to begin logging data for the most common energy tracking and power quality applications. You can further configure the meter to your specific requirements using the front panel display or a remote workstation linked through RS-232/485, modem, or Ethernet.

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Comparison of Meter Features

Default functions are shown. You can customize features to expand your options.

ION 6200 Power, Energy and Demand

Line-to-neutral per phase, line-to-neutral average, line-to-line per phase, lineto-line average 3 inputs. 60-400 VAC L-N Direct delta up to 690 V Line-to-neutral per phase, line-to-neutral average, lineto-line per phase, line-to-line average 3 inputs. 50-347 VAC L-N (87-600 VAC L-L) for 3-phase systems or 50-300 VAC L-N (100-600 VAC L-L) for single-phase Per-phase, average, unbalance, residual 3 inputs (& optional neutral). 5 A nominal, 10 A full scale kW, kVAR, kVA total & perphase PF total & per-phase (signed, lead/lag) Frequency: Hz Line-to-neutral per phase, line-to-neutral average, lineto-line per phase, line-to-line average 3 inputs. 50-347 VAC L-N (87-600 VAC L-L) for 3-phase systems or 50-300 VAC L-N (100-600 VAC L-L) for single-phase Per-phase, average, unbalance, residual 3 inputs (& optional neutral). 5 A nominal, 10 A full scale kW, kVAR, kVA total & perphase PF total & per-phase (signed, lead/lag) Frequency: Hz Line-to-neutral per phase, line-to-neutral average, lineto-line per phase, line-to-line average 3 inputs. 50-347 VAC L-N (87-600 VAC L-L) for 3-phase systems or 50-300 VAC L-N (100-600 VAC L-L) for single-phase Per-phase, average, unbalance, residual 3 inputs (& optional neutral). 5 A nominal, 10 A full scale kW, kVAR, kVA total & perphase PF total & per-phase (signed, lead/lag) Frequency: Hz

ION 7300

ION 7330

ION 7350

Voltage

Current

Per-phase, average (& optional neutral). 3 inputs. 5 A nominal, 10 A full scale kW, kVAR, kVA total & optional per-phase PF total & optional per-phase (signed, lead/lag) Frequency: Hz kWh & kVARh import, export; kVAh total

Power

Energy

kWh & kVARh import, export, absolute, net; kVAh total

kWh & kVARh import, export, absolute, net; kVAh total

kWh & kVARh import, export, absolute, net; kVAh total

Demand

Rolling Block, Demand and Peak Demand: kW, I, kVA, kVAR

Rolling Block, Thermal, Predicted: defaults I average, kW total, kVA total, kVAR total

Rolling Block, Thermal, Predicted: defaults I average, kW total, kVA total, kVAR total

Rolling Block, Thermal, Predicted: defaults I average, kW total, kVA total, kVAR total

Accuracy of voltage & current inputs

0.3% reading for voltage L-N and current; 0.5% reading for voltage L-L

± 0.25% reading + 0.05% full scale; for I4 ± 1.0% reading + 0.2% I unbalanced

± 0.25% reading + 0.05% full scale; for I4 ± 1.0% reading + 0.2% I unbalanced

± 0.25% reading + 0.05% full scale; for I4 ± 1.0% reading + 0.2% I unbalanced

NOTE

The RTU option of the ION 7500 provides many of the same features and capabilities as the ION 7550 meter, except the RTU does not monitor voltage, current, power quality or revenue-accuracy.

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ION 7650

ION 7700

ION 8300

ION 8400

ION 8500

Power, Energy and Demand cont...

Line-to-neutral per phase, line-to-neutral average, line-to-line per phase, line-to-line average 4 inputs; 57-347 VAC LN; direct delta up to 600 V; disturbance recording to 1200 V Per-phase, average, unbalance, neutral, ground 5 inputs. 0-20 A kW, kVAR, kVA total & per-phase PF total & per-phase (signed, lead/lag) Frequency: Hz kWh, kVARh, kVAh delivered, received, & by quadrant Line-to-neutral per phase, line-to-neutral average, line-to-line per phase, line-to-line average 4 inputs; 57-347 VAC LN; direct delta up to 600 V; disturbance recording to 1200 V Per-phase, average, unbalance, neutral, ground 5 inputs. 0-20 A kW, kVAR, kVA total & per-phase PF total & per-phase (signed, lead/lag) Frequency: Hz kWh, kVARh, kVAh delivered, received, & by quadrant Line-to-neutral per phase, line-to-neutral average, line-to-line per phase, line-to-line average 3 inputs; 120 VAC L-N, or optional 277 or 347 VAC Line-to-neutral per phase, line-to-neutral average, line-to-line per phase, line-to-line average 3 inputs: 9S, 36S: 57-277 VAC LN 35S: 120-480 VAC Per-phase, average, unbalance 3 inputs. 5A, optional 1A (switchboard only) Line-to-neutral per phase, line-to-neutral average, line-to-line per phase, line-to-line average 3 inputs 9S, 36S, 39S, 76S: 57277 VAC L-N 35S: 120-480 VAC Per-phase, average, unbalance (optional neutral for 39S, 76S) 3 inputs (optional neutral). 0-20 A kW, kVAR, kVA total & per-phase; kQ total PF total & per-phase (signed, lead/lag) Frequency: Hz kWh, kVARh, kVAh, kQh: delivered, received, & if appl., by quadrant Rolling Block, Thermal, Predicted: defaults kW, kVAR, kVA, kQ, cumulative ± (0.1% reading + 0.002% nominal current)*; for I4 ± 0.4% reading Line-to-neutral per phase, line-to-neutral average, line-to-line per phase, line-to-line average 3 inputs 9S, 36S, 39S, 76S: 57277 VAC L-N 35S: 120-480 VAC Per-phase, average, unbalance (optional neutral for 39S, 76S) 3 inputs (optional neutral). 0-20 A kW, kVAR, kVA total & per-phase; kQ total PF total & per-phase (signed, lead/lag) Frequency: Hz kWh, kVARh, kVAh, kQh: delivered, received, & if appl., by quadrant Rolling Block, Thermal, Predicted: defaults kW, kVAR, kVA, kQ, cumulative ± (0.1% reading + 0.002% nominal current)*; for I4 ± 0.4% reading

Per-phase, average, unbalance, neutral 4 inputs. 5 A, or optional 1 A or 10 A kW, kVAR, kVA total & per-phase PF total & per-phase (signed, lead/lag) Frequency: Hz

kW, kVAR, kVA total & per-phase; kQ total PF total & per-phase (signed, lead/lag) Frequency: Hz kWh, kVARh, kVAh, kQh: delivered, received, & if appl., by quadrant Rolling Block, Thermal, Predicted: defaults kW, kVAR, kVA, kQ, cumulative ± (0.1% reading + 0.002% nominal current)*

kWh & kVARh import, export, absolute, net; kVAh total Rolling Block, Thermal, Predicted: defaults I average, kW total, kVA total, kVAR total ± 0.1% reading + 0.01% full scale

Rolling Block, Thermal, Predicted: defaults kW, kVAR, kVA

Rolling Block, Thermal, Predicted: defaults kW, kVAR, kVA

± 0.1% reading for voltage & phase current; for I4 & I5 ± 0.4% reading

± 0.1% reading for voltage & phase current; for I4 & I5 ± 0.4% reading

* Nominal current: standard = 5A; Extended Current Range or Low Current option = 1A

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ION 6200 Power Quality

Sampling

64 samples/cycle. True RMS calculated per second None None None Optional: total harmonic distortion per voltage and current phase

ION 7300

ION 7330

ION 7350

32 samples/cycle. True RMS calculated per second None None None Up to 15th: individual, total, total even, total odd harmonic distortion, Kfactor

32 samples/cycle. True RMS calculated per second None None None Up to 15th: individual, total, total even, total odd harmonic distortion, Kfactor

64 samples/cycle. True RMS calculated per second None Included (basic: min/max, duration) None Up to 31st: individual, total, total even, total odd harmonic distortion, Kfactor

Transient detection Sag/swell monitoring Symmetrical components

Harmonics on voltage & current inputs

EN 50160 monitoring IEC 61000-4-7 harmonics IEC 61000-4-15 flicker Inter harmonics Ripple control data "Number of nines"

None None

None None

None None

None None

None None None None

None None None None

None None None None

None None None None

Data and Waveform Logs

Time stamps Time sync Sequence-of-events Historical "snapshot" (triggered by setpoint, schedule, event, external signal, etc.)

None None None None Variable depth Up to 32 (2 logs of 16 parameters each). Configure for stop-whenfull or roll-over For any parameter. Defaults: per-phase V (L-L, L-N) & I, kW, kVAR, kVA, PF, Hz, & Demand. Reset via setpoint, ext. signal, schedule None Variable depth Up to 96 (6 logs of 16 parameters each). Configure for stop-whenfull or roll-over For any parameter. Defaults: per-phase V (L-L, L-N) & I, kW, kVAR, kVA, PF, Hz, & Demand. Reset via setpoint, ext.l signal, schedule 64x14, 32x12, 32x26, 16x22, 16x48. Programmable trigger delay for pre- & post-event cycles None None None Via ION 1 ms resolution Via ION or DNP 1 ms resolution Via ION or DNP

Peak energy and current demand

Minimum & maximum

For any parameter. Defaults: per-phase V (L-L, L-N) & I, kW, kVAR, kVA, PF, Hz, & Demand

None

None

Waveform, samples/cycle x cycles (triggered by setpoint, schedule, event, external signal, etc.)

Maximum number of cycles for contiguous waveform capture Maximum memory capacity

None

None

None

6,900 cycles (based on 16 samples/ cycle x 48 cycles) 300 kB

None

None

300 kB

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ION 8500

POWER QUALITY CONT...

256 samples/cycle. True RMS calculated per ½ cycle & per second None Included None Up to 63rd harmonic: individual, total, total even, total odd harmonic distortion. Kfactor, crest factor 512 (optional 1024) samples/cycle. True RMS calculated per ½ cycle & per second 65 us @ 60 Hz (78 us @ 50 Hz) Included Zero, negative, positive sequences Up to 127th using ION software. Up to 63rd onboard: individual, total, total even, total odd harmonic distortion. K-factor, crest factor Yes (optional) Up to 40 harmonics onboard: magnitude, phase, interharmonics Yes Yes Yes Yes

th

128 samples/cycle. True RMS calculated per cycle & per second 130 us @ 60 Hz (156 us @ 50 Hz) Included Zero, negative, positive sequences Up to 63rd harmonic: individual, total, total even, total odd harmonic distortion, Kfactor

128 samples/cycle. True RMS calculated per ½ cycle & per second None Included (basic: min/ max, duration) Zero, negative, positive sequences Up to 31st harmonic: individual, total, total even, total odd harmonic distortion, Kfactor, crest factor

128 samples/cycle. True RMS calculated per ½ cycle & per second None Included Zero, negative, positive sequences Up to 63rd harmonic: individual, total, total even, total odd harmonic distortion, Kfactor, crest factor

256 samples/cycle. True RMS calculated per ½ cycle & per second 65 us @ 60 Hz (78 us @ 50 Hz) Included Zero, negative, positive sequences Up to 127th using ION software. Up to 63rd onboard: individual, total, total even, total odd harmonic distortion K-factor, crest factor Configurable Up to 40th harmonics onboard: magnitude, phase, interharmonics Yes Yes Yes Yes

None None

None None

None None

None None

None None None Yes

None None None None

None None None Yes

None None None Yes

Data and Waveform Logs cont...

1 ms resolution Via ION, DNP NTP , , external GPS input Variable depth Up to 800 (50 logs of 16 parameters each). Configure for stopwhen-full or roll-over For any parameter. Defaults: per-phase V (LL, L-N) & I, kW, kVAR, kVA, PF, Hz, & Demand. Reset via setpoint, ext. signal, schedule 128x14, 64x14, 64x28, 32x12, 32x26, 32x40, 32x54, 16x22, 16x48, 16x72, or 16x96. Programmable trigger delay for pre- & postevent cycles 1 ms resolution Via ION, DNP NTP , , external GPS input Variable depth Up to 800 (50 logs of 16 parameters each). Configure for stopwhen-full or roll-over For any parameter. Defaults: per-phase V (L-L, L-N) & I, kW, kVAR, kVA, PF, Hz, & Demand. Reset via setpoint, ext. signal, schedule 256x7, 128x14, 64x14, 64x28, 32x12, 32x26, 32x40, 32x54, 16x22, 16x48, 16x72, or 16x96. Programmable trigger delay for pre- & post-event cycles 1 ms resolution Via ION, DNP external , GPS input Variable depth Up to 320 (20 logs of 16 parameters each). Configure for stopwhen-full or roll-over For any parameter. Defaults: per-phase V (LL, L-N) & I, kW, kVAR, kVA, PF, Hz, & Demand. Reset via setpoint, ext. signal, schedule 128x14, 64x14, 64x28, 32x12, 32x26, 32x40, 32x54, 16x22, 16x48, 16x72, or 16x96. Programmable trigger delay for pre- & postevent cycles 1 ms resolution Via ION, DNP external , GPS input, Modbus Variable depth Up to 32 (2 logs of 16 parameters each), roll-over 1 ms resolution Via ION, DNP external , GPS input, Modbus RTU Variable depth Up to 160 (10 logs of 16 parameters each), roll-over 1 ms resolution Via ION, DNP external , GPS input, Modbus RTU Variable depth Up to 640 (40 logs of 16 parameters each), roll-over

RTU

For any parameter. Defaults: per-phase V (L-L, L-N) & I, kW, kVAR, kVA, PF, Hz, & Demand. Reset via setpoint, ext. signal, schedule None

For any parameter. Defaults: per-phase V (L-L, L-N) & I, kW, kVAR, kVA, PF, Hz, & Demand. Reset via setpoint, ext. signal, schedule None

For any parameter. Defaults: per-phase V (LL, L-N) & I, kW, kVAR, kVA, PF, Hz, & Demand. Reset via setpoint, ext. signal, schedule 256x7, 128x14, 64x14, 64x28, 32x12, 32x26, 32x40, 32x54, 16x22, 16x48, 16x72, or 16x96. Programmable trigger delay for pre- & post-event cycles

171,000 cycles (based on 16 samples/cycle x 96 cycles)* 5 MB (10 MB option)

171,000 cycles (based on 16 samples/cycle x 96 cycles)* 5 MB (10 MB option)

95,000 cycles (based on 16 samples/cycle x 96 cycles)* 1 MB. Xpress Card: 1 MB, 2 MB, 3 MB

None

None

92,000 cycles (based on 16 samples/cycle x 96 cycles) 4 MB

1 MB

2 MB

* Listed maximum cycles use the largest capacity of meter memory.

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ION 6200 Communications

RS-232/485 ports RS-485-only ports

None None 1 optional

ION 7300

ION 7330

ION 7350

None 1 standard

None 2 standard

None 2 standard

Ethernet ports

1 optional, 10BaseT (RJ45)

1 optional, 10BaseT (RJ45)

1 optional, 10BaseT (RJ45)

None

Infrared optical ports

1 standard, ANSI C12.13 Type II compatible. Calibration via optical coupler

1 standard, ANSI C12.13 Type II compatible. Calibration via optical coupler

1 standard, ANSI C12.13 Type II compatible. Calibration via optical coupler

PROFIBUS ports Built-in modems Modbus RTU Slave Modbus/TCP Modbus Master DNP 3.0 XML EtherGate ModemGate [email protected] Logs [email protected] Alerts WebMeter

None None

1 optional None

None 1 optional, 33.6 kbps; RJ11 or capture-wire Over serial, Ethernet (TCP/ IP), modem, infrared Yes No One connection over serial, modem, infrared No Yes Yes Over Ethernet No Yes RS-485: 1.2-19.2k Infrared: 1.2-19.2k Modem: 1.2-19.2k Ethernet: 10M

None 1 optional, 33.6 kbps; RJ11 or capture-wire Over serial, Ethernet (TCP/ IP), modem, infrared Yes No One connection over serial, modem, infrared No Yes Yes Over Ethernet Over Ethernet Yes RS-485: 1.2-19.2k Infrared: 1.2-19.2k Modem: 1.2-19.2k Ethernet: 10M

Optional over serial No No No

Over serial, Ethernet (TCP/ IP), modem, infrared Yes No No

No No No No No No 1.2k, 2.4k, 4.8k, 9.6k, 19.2k

No No No No No Yes RS-485: 1.2-19.2k Infrared: 1.2-19.2k Ethernet: 10M

Transmission rate (bps)

Analog and Digital I/O

None

Analog inputs

None

Up to 4 optional via onboard card

Up to 4 optional via onboard card

Up to 4 optional via onboard card

Analog outputs

None

Up to 4 optional via onboard card, updated every second None

Up to 4 optional via onboard card, updated every second 4 inputs (self excited), max 20 pulses/s, 1 ms resolution

Up to 4 optional via onboard card, updated every second 4 inputs (self excited), max 20 pulses/s, 1 ms resolution

Digital status/counter inputs

Digital relay outputs (control/pulse)

2 optional for kWh, kVAh, or kVARh pulsing

4 solid state

4 solid state

4 solid state

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ION 8500

Communications cont...

1 standard 1 standard 1 standard 1 standard 1 standard 2 optional via Xpress Card 1 optional via Xpress Card, 10BaseT (RJ45) or 10BaseFL (ST fiber) None 1 standard 1 standard (removed if modem & Ethernet options ordered) 1 optional, 10BaseT (RJ45) or 10BaseFL (ST fiber)** 1 standard, ANSI C12.13 Type II compatible. Visible & infrared Wh & VARh calibration LEDs default None 1 optional, 33.6 kbps; RJ11 or RJ31 (European model) Over serial, modem, infrared, TCP No No Multiple connections over serial, modem, infrared, TCP Yes Yes Yes Over Ethernet Over Ethernet Yes RS-232: 0.3-115.2k RS-485: 0.3-57.6k Modem: 0.3-33.6k Infrared: 0.3-19.2k Ethernet: 10M 1 standard 1 standard (removed if modem & Ethernet options ordered) 1 optional, 10BaseT (RJ45) or 10BaseFL (ST fiber)** 1 standard, ANSI C12.13 Type II compatible. Visible & infrared Wh & VARh calibration LEDs default None 1 optional, 33.6 kbps; RJ11 or RJ31 (European model) Over serial, modem, infrared, TCP Yes Over serial Multiple connections over serial, modem, infrared, TCP Yes Yes Yes Over Ethernet Over Ethernet Yes RS-232: 0.3-115.2k RS-485: 0.3-57.6k Modem: 0.3-33.6k Infrared: 0.3-19.2k Ethernet: 10M 1 standard 1 standard (removed if modem & Ethernet options ordered) 1 optional, 10BaseT (RJ45) or 10BaseFL (ST fiber)** 1 standard, ANSI C12.13 Type II compatible. Visible & infrared Wh & VARh calibration LEDs default None 1 optional, 33.6 kbps; RJ11 or RJ31 (European model) Over serial, modem, infrared, TCP Yes Over serial Multiple connections over serial, modem, infrared, TCP Yes Yes Yes Over Ethernet Over Ethernet Yes RS-232: 0.3-115.2k RS-485: 0.3-57.6k Modem: 0.3k-33.6k Infrared: 0.3k-19.2k Ethernet: 10M

1 optional, 10BaseT (RJ45) or 10BaseFL (ST fiber) 1 standard, ANSI C12.13 Type II compatible. Visible & infrared Wh calibration LEDs default. (Can be configured.) None 1 optional, 33.6 kbps; RJ11. FCC or CE approved Over serial, modem, infrared, TCP Yes Over serial Multiple connections over serial, modem, infrared, TCP Yes Yes Yes Over Ethernet Over Ethernet Yes RS-232: 0.3-115.2k RS-485: 0.3-57.6k Modem: 0.3-33.6k Infrared: 1.2-19.2k Ethernet: 10M

1 optional, 10BaseT (RJ45) or 10BaseFL (ST fiber) 1 standard, ANSI C12.13 Type II compatible. Visible & infrared Wh calibration LEDs default. (Can be configured.) None 1 optional, 33.6 kbps; RJ11. FCC or CE approved Over serial, modem, infrared, TCP Yes Over serial Multiple connections over serial, modem, infrared, TCP Yes Yes Yes Over Ethernet Over Ethernet Yes RS-232: 0.3-115.2k RS-485: 0.3-57.6k Modem: 0.3-33.6k Infrared: 1.2-19.2k Ethernet: 10M

None 1 optional, 33.6 kbps; RJ11 or capture-wire Over serial, Ethernet (TCP/IP), modem No No Over serial*, modem

No Yes Yes No No No 1.2k, 2.4k, 4.8k, 9.6k, 19.2k Xpress Card: 38.4k, 57.6k, 115.2k, 10M (Ethernet)

Analog and Digital I/O cont...

Up to 4 optional via onboard card Up to 4 optional via onboard card, updated every second 8 inputs (self excited), max 20 pulse/s, 1 ms resolution. I/O card adds 8 inputs.(for a total of 16) 4 solid state Form A, 3 electromechanical Form C, updated every ½ cycle or 1 s. Plus 1alarm indicator Up to 4 optional via onboard card Up to 4 optional via onboard card, updated every second 8 inputs (self excited), max 20 pulse/s,1 ms resolution. I/O card adds 8 inputs.(for a total of 16) 4 solid state Form A, 3 electromechanical Form C, updated every ½ cycle or 1 s. Plus 1alarm indicator 4 optional, up to 14 on expansion boards; >6 reqs ext. power supply Up to 30 on expansion boards; >6 requires external power supply 8 inputs (self excited), max 20 pulse/s, 1 ms resolution. Plus up to 30 on expansion boards, 5 ms resolution Up to 30 outputs on expansion boards None None None

Up to 4 optional via I/O Expander, updated every second 8 inputs (I/O Expander), 3 internal inputs (self or externally excited), max 20 pulses/s, 1 ms resolution 4 internal Form C; 4 solid state Form A & 4 solid state Form C, updated every 20 ms via optional I/O Expander

Up to 4 optional via I/O Expander, updated every second 8 inputs (I/O Expander), 3 inputs (onboard), (self or externally excited), max 20 pulses/s, 1 ms resolution 4 internal Form C; 4 solid state Form A & 4 solid state Form C, updated every 20 ms via optional I/O Expander

Up to 4 optional via I/O Expander, updated every second 8 inputs (I/O Expander), 3 inputs (onboard), (self or externally excited), max 20 pulses/s, 1 ms resolution 4 internal Form C; 4 solid state Form A & 4 solid state Form C, updated every 20 ms via optional I/O Expander

* DNP 3.0 is only available on the Xpress Card's RS-485 ports, and only a single port can use DNP 3.0 at any one time.

** Fiber available only on socket meters.

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ION 6200 Setpoints, Alarming and Control

Setpoints (to trigger logging, control, alarms, resets, etc.) Math & logic formulas Single- & multi-condition alarms Call-out on alarm Dial-out on outage

None

ION 7300

ION 7330

ION 7350

None

12 with 1-second operation. For any parameter or external condition Included Included None None

12 with 1-second operation. For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included None

None None None None

None None None None

Revenue Metering

ANSI C12.16 accuracy ANSI C12.20 accuracy class 0.2 IEC 60687 accuracy class 0.2S IEC 60687 accuracy class 0.5S ANSI class 10 (5 A nominal, 10A max) ANSI class 20, IEC 5/20 (5 A nom, 20A max) ANSI class 10; IEC 1A, 2A nominal, 10A max ANSI class 10, 20; IEC 5A nominal, 20A max ANSI class 10, 20; IEC 1A, 2A, 5A nominal, 20A max US approvals incl. California ISO, ERCOT & NY State Approved to MARIA Code of Practice 4 for New Zealand Certified by Comision Federal de Electricidad and LAPEM in Mexico, and INTI in Argentina CE approved Measurement Canada approved MV-90 support over serial or Ethernet

No No No Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes None None Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes - AE-0788 None None Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes - AE-0788 Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 2year calendar, up to 15 daily tariff profiles, division by season, month, week, day, holiday Configurable Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes - AE-0788 Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 2year calendar, up to 15 daily tariff profiles, division by season, month, week, day, holiday Configurable

Multi-year schedules with hourly activity profiles

Transformer/line loss compensation

None

None

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ION 8500

Setpoints, Alarming and Control cont...

65 with 1-second or ½-cycle operation For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included None 65 with 1-second or ½-cycle operation For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included None 24 with 1-second or 1-cycle operation For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included None 24 with 1-second operation. For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included Optional 24 with 1-second or ½-cycle operation For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included Optional 24 with 1-second or ½-cycle operation For any parameter or external condition Included Included Included Optional

Revenue Metering cont...

Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes (pending) Yes - AE-1021 (pending) Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 20-year calendar with daylight savings & auto leap year. Up to 4 seasons with 5 daily tariff profiles & 4 daily rates Included Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes (pending) Yes - AE-1021 (pending) Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 20-year calendar with daylight savings & auto leap year. Up to 4 seasons with 5 daily tariff profiles & 4 daily rates Included

Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes - AE-0688 Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 2-year calendar, up to 15 daily tariff profiles, division by season, month, week, day, holiday

Yes Yes Yes Yes Meets requirements Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes - AE-0924 Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 20-year calendar with daylight savings & auto leap year. Up to 4 seasons with 5 daily tariff profiles & 4 daily rates Included

Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes - AE-0924 Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 20-year calendar with daylight savings & auto leap year. Up to 4 seasons with 5 daily tariff profiles & 4 daily rates Included

Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes - AE-0924 Serial & Ethernet Energy & demand timeof-use monitoring 20-year calendar with daylight savings & auto leap year. Up to 4 seasons with 5 daily tariff profiles & 4 daily rates Included

Configurable

Applies to the Extended Current Range option. For the ION 7500 RTU option, assume a 60Hz frequency.

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Comparison of Meter Features

System Design Handbook

ION 6200 Additional Features

Customizing Mounting Non-intrusive CT support

Option cards Panel-mount, 2-inch depth, fits ANSI 4-inch cutout No LED

ION 7300

ION 7330

ION 7350

Functions & display are programmable Panel-mount or switchboard case No Backlit LCD customizable

Functions & display are programmable Panel-mount or switchboard case No Backlit LCD customizable

Functions & display are programmable Panel-mount or switchboard case No Backlit LCD customizable

Display

Non-volatile Flash-based memory

Battery backup

Non-volatile Flash-based memory, daylight savings & auto leap year

Non-volatile Flash-based memory. Real-time clock with daylight savings, & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -20ºC to 60ºC (-4ºF to 140ºF)

Non-volatile Flash-based memory. Real-time clock with daylight savings, & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -20ºC to 60ºC (-4ºF to 140ºF)

Firmware & software upgrades

Enhancements via option cards -20ºC to 70ºC (-4ºF to 158ºF)

Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -20ºC to 60ºC (-4ºF to 140ºF)

Operating temperatures

Power supply

100-240 VAC (50-60 Hz), 110-300 VDC standard; 480 VAC (50-60 Hz) and 20-60 VDC options also available

95 to 240 VAC ±10%, (47 to 440Hz) 120 to 310 VDC ±10% standard, 20 to 60 VDC ±10% optional

95 to 240 VAC ±10%, (47 to 440Hz) 120 to 310 VDC ±10% standard, 20 to 60 VDC ±10% optional

95 to 240 VAC ±10%, (47 to 440Hz) 120 to 310 VDC ±10% standard, 20 to 60 VDC ±10% optional

Instrument transformer correction

No

No

No

No

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ION 7550

ION 7650

ION 7700

ION 8300

ION 8400

ION 8500

Additional Features cont...

Functions & display are programmable Panel-mount Functions & display are programmable Panel-mount Functions & display are programmable Panel-mount Functions & display are programmable Socket-mount or switchboard case No Backlit LCD customizable graphical display; normal, alternate, & test modes; vector diagrams & harmonics display Non-volatile Flashbased memory Real-time clock with daylight savings & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -40ºC to 85ºC (-40ºF to 185ºF) internal ambient 3-phase: 120-277 VAC ±15% or 57-69 VAC ±15% (9S, 36S), 120480 VAC ±15% (35S) Auxiliary power pigtail: 120-277 VAC or 168330 VDC; Low Voltage option 57-120 VAC or 80-160 VDC Functions & display are programmable Socket-mount or switchboard case No Backlit LCD customizable graphical display; normal, alternate, & test modes; vector diagrams & harmonics display Non-volatile Flashbased memory Real-time clock with daylight savings & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -40ºC to 85ºC (-40ºF to 185ºF) internal ambient 3-phase: 120-277 VAC ±15% or 57-69 VAC ±15% (9S, 36S, 39S, 76S), 120-480 VAC ±15% (35S) Auxiliary power pigtail: 120-277 VAC or 168330 VDC; Low Voltage option 57-120 VAC or 80-160 VDC Yes Functions & display are programmable Socket-mount or switchboard case No Backlit LCD customizable graphical display; normal, alternate, & test modes; vector diagrams & harmonics display Non-volatile Flashbased memory Real-time clock with daylight savings & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -40ºC to 85ºC (-40ºF to 185ºF) internal ambient 3-phase: 120-277 VAC ±15% or 57-69 VAC ±15% (9S, 36S, 39S, 76S), 120-480 VAC ±15% (35S) Auxiliary power pigtail: 120-277 VAC or 168330 VDC; Low Voltage option 57-120 VAC or 80-160 VDC Yes

Yes (pending) Backlit LCD customizable graphical display; vector diagrams and harmonics display

Yes (pending) Backlit LCD customizable graphical display; vector diagrams and harmonics display

No Backlit LCD customizable graphical display Optional switchbox lets 4 ION meters share one display Non-volatile RAM Real-time clock with daylight savings & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link 0ºC to 50ºC (32ºF to 122ºF); without MGT 20ºC to 50ºC (-4ºF to 122ºF) 1-phase: 85-240 VAC, 47-440 Hz 110-340 VDC standard, 20-60 VDC optional

Non-volatile Flashbased memory Real-time clock with daylight savings & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -20ºC to 70ºC (-4ºF to 158ºF)

Non-volatile Flashbased memory Real-time clock with daylight savings & auto leap year Flash memory for upgrades over comm link -20ºC to 70ºC (-4ºF to 158ºF)

1-phase: 85-240 VAC ±10% (47-63 Hz) 110330 VDC ±10% standard 6 cycles ride-through on power failure

1-phase: 85-240 VAC ±10% (47-63 Hz) 110330 VDC ±10% standard 6 cycles ride-through on power failure

Yes (pending)

Yes (pending)

No

Yes

Products meet or exceed the accuracy requirements of the standards listed. Some products tested by third-party laboratories. Due to the form factor of some meters, not all ANSI/IEC compliance tests may apply.

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4

ION Software

Power Measurement offers a complete range of powerful software products for enterprise energy management. ION EEM is a web-based enterprise energy management software solution that answers the energy information needs of any organization wanting to reap the benefits of better energy decisions. ION Enterprise operations software provides robust and flexible solutions for operations aspects of your energy management, which provides the tools for utility, plant, and facility managers to maximize the efficiency and reliability of their power distribution systems. Power Measurement also provides free device configuration software called ION Setup that is designed with an intuitive interface and has numerous setup wizards to make programming your ION devices much easier. Power Measurement offers software designed for commercial and industrial billing as well as value-added services designed for Utilities. These software and service offerings include Energy Profiler, Energy Profiler Online, Energy BOSS, and E-VEE.

In This Chapter

ION EEM - Enterprise Energy Management Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 ION EEM Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 ION Enterprise Operations Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Software Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Network Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 ION Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 List of Software Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

Software for Utility C&I Billing and Value-Added Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

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ION EEM - Enterprise Energy Management Software

ION® EEM web-based software answers the energy information needs of any organization wanting to reap the benefits of making better energy decisions. ION EEM software unites energy management with business strategy from energy procurement, budgeting, and benchmarking to cost allocation and operational cost reduction. This software is a benefit to any office or retail building, industrial or research facility, university campus, or health center. ION EEM software gathers, cleanses, and integrates real-time and archived data, translating it into precise and actionable information. It enables organization-wide collaboration between decision makers, planners, and front line staff by offering custom information from its analysis and reporting tools as well as from its realtime monitoring and alerting capabilities. Furthermore, an ION EEM software solution has a robust, scalable architecture that lets you to add capabilities as you need them, enabling you to deliver precisely the information your organization needs. Backed by Power Measurement's advanced metering hardware and supported by our expert Engineering Services, ION EEM software helps you save time and money while improving productivity.

Advantages

Comprehensive

Real-time Monitoring: You can determine the condition of all your energy assets in real time. Instant access to data lets you correlate ongoing activities with logged trends to help you better fulfil core needs. And since the dashboard can link to any web page, you can easily integrate real-time functionality into your ION EEM system by linking to WebReach diagrams available through ION Enterprise operations software. Power Quality Analysis: ION EEM software conducts complex power quality analyses, including steady state, waveform, and variation analyses. You can benchmark power quality to industry standards and improve productivity with electrical system analysis, enabling you to diagnose and repair power system faults. ION EEM software can generate automated power quality reports and distribute them via paper, email, or the internet. Energy Cost Analysis: ION EEM software monitors and evaluates energy consumption and costs accurately, displaying the data in whatever format best suits your needs. You can normalize energy usage data for variables such as weather and square footage, and you can use easy drill-down analysis functions to present increasing levels of detail. With a wealth of information at you fingertips, you can process system data to prepare budgets for individual departments or processes, track budget projections with actuals, and use historical data to identify production, usage, and cost trends.

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Advantages

Energy Cost Control: With ION EEM software you can implement a comprehensive demand control scheme with automatic load shedding, peak shaving, base loading, and on-site generation. The software helps reduce business risks with information and analyses that can be used to produce cost and risk reduction strategies.

Intelligent

Cost Allocation & Sub-billing: The ION EEM software lets you create accurate bills for specific departments or tenants based on actual usage, and you can distribute these bills via paper, email, or the web. Discover the true unit cost of production by allocating costs according to process or production line, and combining usage data with information on the number of units produced. Benchmarking, Baselining & Forecasting: You can benchmark facility conditions and make comparisons between locations to identify best practices. You can create baselines to track conditions within a single facility and compare it over time to measure the effectiveness of retrofits, conservation programs, and upgrades. And you can use normalization routines to remove independent variables like temperature and square footages, which ensures that results from benchmarking and baselining are accurate. The ION EEM software lets you model future results so that you can then alter variables to gauge dependencies and see possible outcomes of different scenarios. Energy Procurement & Bill Verification: The ION EEM software lets you procure energy at the best possible rate by using utility tariff and usage data to compare options. A real-time pricing feed lets you monitor and calculate spot market prices. You can also validate utility bills by running accurate shadow bills for comparison. Alarming: You can configure schedule-driven alerts or event-driven alerts on any combination of trends, events, or costs to ensure quick and efficient response to any condition.

Scalable

System Expansion Planning: Design the right power distribution system capacity to meet but not exceed the needs of a new facility, retrofit or expansion. Automatically generate load profiles to reveal hidden capacity and increase forecast accuracy. Increase efficiency by safely maximizing your electric network capacity while avoiding unnecessary expansion costs. Compare energy usage to equipment specs to determine whether maintenance or replacement is required before capital expenses are incurred. Integration & Scalability: ION EEM software offers easy, cost-effective and fast system expansion. The system grows as your needs grow. Add one piece at a time, at your own pace, within your own budget. The software can integrate with virtually any device or component, so you can choose newer, faster and lower-cost devices as they become available, or integrate existing systems and devices to maintain your original investment.

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ION EEM Components

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Adaptive

Sharing information: ION EEM exceeds the traditional boundaries of energy management through its unique ability to provide a fully integrated look at all levels of your business. It simplifies the way you use and share your energy information, providing analysis, reports, and monitoring for users inside and outside a corporate firewall. And different groups, from management and finance to front-line staff, have secure access to personalized views of their information. Web-based dashboard: The user interface offers a single point of entry for secure, personalized access to real-time and historic information anytime, anywhere. The web-based interface makes it easy to share energy information securely with customers, suppliers, partners, and employees. Everyone can gather key performance indicators (KPI) in one place, whether they are energyrelated or not. Easy Administration: Within the web-based dashboard, you can access user administration features that let you configure specific settings for individual users or groups. You can specify what information different people see, set up tailored dashboard views, and determine security settings. You can also access reports, bills, and audit logs so that you have a personalized, enterprise-wide view of your ION EEM system.

ION EEM Components

ION EEM is an innovative software program designed to support real-time monitoring within a data warehousing architecture. It is built on SQL Server 2000 with a scalable Microsoft .NET framework. This fully secured, fully web-based solution consists of a core platform and a number of optional modules that allow users to tailor the functionality of the software to their specific needs.

Core Components

Data Quality Module The Data Quality Module provides comprehensive validation, editing, and estimation (VEE) functions to ensure that the information is trustworthy and accurate. Its streamlined data validation routines eliminate processing delays and reduce manual validation tasks. You can do the following with the Data Quality Module: Accept data from many different types of systems (including water, air, gas, electricity, steam and emissions) Perform numerous types of validation Correct data for gaps, nulls, time jitter, and duplicates automatically Allow for manual data entry and audit all data quality operations Adhere to utility standards Issue automatic notifications to the appropriate users when predefined limits have been exceeded

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ION EEM Components

Accept additional validation methodologies to meet your organizations standards Use your utility's standards to compensate for missing data and calculate revenue-accurate bills Audit, track, and version all data quality changes Trend Analysis Module The Trend Analysis Module reports on the complex relationships between energy drivers. With this ION EEM component, you can do the following: Compare values over different time ranges, like days of the week, seasons, production shifts, production lines, time of day, or time-of-use period. Aggregate and compare different energy cost centers, such as geographical regions, buildings and load types (for example, lighting versus HVAC). You can also compare one supplier to another. View measured parameters including usage, demand, voltage, harmonics, transients, status, temperature, and real-time prices. Organize your physical and virtual data sources into multiple hierarchical views The basic analysis functionality allows you to do more with less and understand the complex inter-relationships between your energy loads and achieving your business goals.

Optional Components

Billing Module The Billing Module changes raw energy data and complex utility tariffs into business-relevant dollars-and-cents values that everyone in an organization can understand and act upon. It supports multiple utility types including water, air, gas, electricity, steam and emissions (WAGES), real-time prices, sub-billing, energy cost allocation, bill validation and comparison, what-if scenarios, and multiple currencies. It presents clear and simple key performance indicators in real-time. The Billing Module allows you to: Determine if it is more profitable to shift loads or pay higher energy prices Create accurate energy cost forecasts and evaluate the impact of varying rates Identify utility billing anomalies Manage and integrate real-time price signals Compare tariffs to improve energy procurement and select the proper rate Respond quickly to curtailment signals Manage generation assets based on real-time signals and fluctuating costs Allocate costs, and integrate cost data with ERP and other enterprise applications Divide energy costs into user-defined time periods

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ION EEM Components

System Design Handbook

Power Quality Analysis Module The Power Quality Analysis Module lets you integrate power quality analysis into your EEM system, so you can evaluate how the overall quality of your power impacts productivity. It supports three types of power quality analysis: Steady state analysis: View steady-state RMS voltages, current, power, frequency, voltage imbalance and harmonic distortion. Waveform analysis: View advanced waveform analysis with zooming and RMS overlays. Variation analysis: Categorize events into Transients, Outages, Sags and Swells. It can generate ITI (CBEMA), SEMI F47 and custom plots so that users can understand the impact of power quality events. All these features are integrated cleanly with other ION EEM features such as the dashboard and time dimensionality. For example, the user can have a dashboard plot that shows power quality events for a specific shift on weekdays in the summer and compare that to weekdays in the winter. Our Services group can also create custom power quality reports to meet your organization's unique needs. You can also compare with standardized rating systems like EnergyStar and ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers). Baselining allows you to compare an individual facility, process or production line to itself at different times. For example, you can use the year prior to a retrofit as a baseline, then compare energy consumption in the year after the retrofit to gauge its effectiveness. Modelling enables you to remove independent variables from the comparison. For example, you can standardize the temperature profile for the two time periods being compared to ensure the comparison is accurate. Modeling Module With the Modeling Module, you can benchmark, baseline and forecast the performance of facilities, processes or production lines. Provide context for gathered data by entering specific details on equipment, buildings or other assets, such as rated load, performance/efficiency ratings, age, total/leasable space, occupancy rates, and so on. With benchmarking, you can compare one facility, process or production line to another by removing independent variables such as temperature, square footage or production units from the energy consumption profile, so you can compare many similar items to each other without being misled by the fact that they may be located in different climates or producing different amounts. Forecasting enables you to model future results, and to change the variables within your model to gauge dependencies and see possible effects. For example, you can predict how your energy bill would increase if the average summer temperature increased by a degree.

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ION EEM Components

Alarms & Events Module The Alarms & Events Module notifies you of specified events in all connected systems. You can determine when and how personnel react to different system conditions. Its detailed event log enables event analysis that helps you analyze and benchmark past events to predict future occurrences, validate investments, or compare processes. The Alarms & Events Module lets you: Track disturbances, instantaneous or cumulative usage levels, equipment failures, fuel tank levels, or temperature, as well as define complex alarm conditions based on events and setpoints from individual and/or aggregated sources in the system Include detailed information on time, date, priority, who acknowledged it and when, who resolved it and when, and any notes entered by the respondent Link "how-to" documents to different types of alarms, to help staff choose the best corrective action for the current condition. Obtain advance notification before costs or demand levels peak Integration Modules Implemented through Power Measurement's Services group, ION EEM offers numerous integration options to accept data from disparate sources. You can import information from third-party systems, consolidate WAGES (water, air, gas, electricity, steam and emissions) information and import production or business process data, so you can analyze and combine information from multiple systems (including creating single bills with information from multiple systems). Common integration options include: Weather feeds: ION EEM can pull information from online weather services to normalize other data for weather conditions, so you can remove variable weather conditions across time or multiple locations from usage comparisons. Real-time pricing feeds: ION EEM can pull information from online real-time pricing feeds and use that information to calculate accurate spot market price information, so you can make effective energy sell/buy decisions. [email protected] Archiver: The [email protected] archiver automatically aggregates and emails information from devices to your database, within a single facility or around the world. [email protected] messages are formatted like typical email messages, working within firewall restrictions, so that data can be sent to the database without raising security issues.

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ION Enterprise Operations Software

The web-enabled ION EnterpriseTM operations software is an energy information management solution for the operations end of your business. It offers profiling and control capabilities, in addition to comprehensive power quality and reliability analysis that can help you reduce energy related costs. ION Enterprise allows you to manage intelligent ION metering and control devices, analyze data, and decide on new courses of action. The ION Enterprise operations software lets you to collect, process, analyze, store, and share data across your entire enterprise. The software leverages multiple communication methods and protocols to create a simple or extensive network of ION and other devices. ION Enterprise software processes collected data into meaningful information and delivers that information to you using standard web technologies. You can access information from any desktop, locally or around the world in the format you need. The cutting-edge flexibility and compatibility of the ION Enterprise operations software means you can add one piece at a time, at your own pace, while still maintaining your original investment. Interface to your existing systems through industry-standard protocols and choose newer components as they become available.

Advantages

Comprehensive

Complete: The ION Enterprise operations software package includes all the elements required to build a powerful energy information and management system. Components are customizable and modular; if your equipment and communication needs change, you can cost-effectively add a workstation or modify any metering function. Real-time: Information and system status is presented in an intuitive, graphical format for a quick and easy snapshot view. Animation enhances alarm warnings, and trigger buttons give you manual control of breakers and switches. For background graphics, you can choose default settings, or include any familiar engineering diagrams, maps, and photographs. You can customize tables, graphs, measurement displays, and alarm indicators ­ whatever is most important for your job. Historical analysis: ION software takes raw data and automatically organizes the information into formats useful for energy tracking, bill verification, and operations management applications. Many departments across your organization can immediately benefit from these reports that focus on energy consumption, cost, or power quality. Power quality/reliability: ION software can automatically track disturbances and categorize their severity, giving you the benefits of a digital fault recorder at a much lower price. All event and historic data is logged in an industrystandard ODBC-compliant database, which makes it easy for ION Reporter, the ION Enterprise report generator, to retrieve and correlate events.

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Advantages

ION software can overlay waveforms to correlate phase-to-phase relationships between voltages and currents, as well as cascading failures. You can view several seconds of consecutive waveforms using cursor control and zoom options. You can plot transients, surges, and sags on CBEMA curves, as well as display odd/even harmonics, THD, K-factor, crest factor, vector diagrams, and symmetrical components (to identify voltage or current imbalances). Control: An operator doesn't have to be present to perform load shedding, startup of an auxiliary generator, or relay control. ION software can automatically determine a course of action and implement the most appropriate response by applying time-of-use data, demand prediction, schedules, facilitywide demand data, cost calculations, and control signals. You can set up distributed control through the ION Virtual Processor, or configure meters to deal directly with time-critical control and alarm decisions. Open protocols and integration: To take advantage of your existing infrastructure, ION software supports multi-port and multi-protocol communications. With supported Modbus Master and Slave protocols, ION software can request data from Modbus devices (protective relays, RTUs, PLCs); Modbus devices can also request data from ION software. This capability gives you an inexpensive way to integrate many types of devices into a single system, and adds energy intelligence to even the most basic devices.

Intelligent

ION Virtual Processor: The Virtual Processor can aggregate and process data from a multitude of metering points, and initiate actions based on results. With these capabilities, you can implement demand control, power quality analysis, load profiling, cost allocation, alarming and more. Alarming: Alarms can be tailored to the needs of every user. Your system can be set up to detect alarms that depend on combinations of conditions at multiple meters or sites. Even if you aren't logged on to ION software, you can still receive alarms via pager or email. The ION Alert feature informs ION software of a problem immediately, so there is no dependence on system polling. The comprehensive information provided by email or pager alerts, and applications like Vista and Reporter, enable you to take appropriate action and avoid future occurrences.

Scalable

From one to hundreds of devices: ION Enterprise is designed to evolve with your system, allowing you to extend your ION system at your own pace. Newer components can be added as they become available without impacting existing functions. A simple monitoring system using only a few powerful ION devices can be expanded to a complete Energy Management System utilizing an array of ION and other devices Single server to an enterprise-wide network: ION software can be configured to manage a number of independent sites and facilities, or multiple sites can be combined into one enterprise network, delivering information from everywhere to everywhere.

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Adaptive

Out-of-the-box operations: You can have immediate access to all meters in just a few mouse clicks with the "Generate Network Diagram" option and default displays. "Hot spots" let you quickly tunnel into deeper layers of information; for example, click into a substation, and then select a feeder to produce a disturbance analysis. The whole system can be configured in under an hour. Customized solutions: For more comprehensive and targeted uses, ION Enterprise can be modified to suit a wide variety of relevant applications. Create custom views and reports, integrate ION Enterprise with your other information systems, or have our Power Measurement Services groups deliver exactly what you need.

Software Architecture

Communication Services

Communication Services include the following: The ION Site Servicer is responsible for handling communications to system devices. This service reacts to changes in network configuration. If certain channel, gate, port, or device parameters change, then a connection may be interrupted. New channels, gates, ports, and devices can be added, deleted, or changed without having to restart any Communication Services tools. The ION Connection Management Service is responsible for determining and managing the connection status of the ION software system's sites and devices; it also handles resource allocation for modems. In order to establish the most appropriate state for the system, each connection and disconnection request is evaluated against the overall state of the system and availability of communications channels. Although the Connection Manager is not dependent on any of the other ION software services, it should remain running at all times. The ION Network Router Service is responsible for the routing of all information between ION software components, such as client workstations, the Log Inserter, and devices. It dynamically detects changes to the network configuration, including the addition of new servers and is also capable of recognizing new software nodes, such as Vista, that are added to an existing server. The Network Router is required for all of the other ION software services. The ION XML Subscription Service manages subscriptions to XML data for Vista diagrams. This service is only used for the web application. When you (or a software component) requests XML data for a diagram, this service creates a subscription and delivers the XML data when it is available. Subscriptions expire automatically if they are not renewed -- a browser renews a subscription by repeatedly requesting XML data. The ION Component Identifier Service manages communications between local and remote ION Enterprise components.

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Software Architecture

The Alarm Server monitors a workstation's communication port for highpriority events that may occur at remote modem sites. When a remote site reports an alarm, the Alarm Server notifies the Communications Server, which then initiates an unscheduled connection and retrieves the high priority message. You launch this server in the ION Enterprise/System/bin folder. The ION Log Inserter Service acts as an intermediary between network components that record data and the ODBC-compliant database. The Log Inserter receives data from the meters or Virtual Processors, and transfers it to the ION database. The ION Query Service provides historical data retrieval for your powermonitoring system.

Data Storage

ION software interacts with three ODBC-compliant databases: the Network Configuration database, the System Event database, and the ION database. The ION Database is where all ION meter data is stored and accessed by the Log Inserter and Query Server services. This database is essentially a historical account of logged data from every intelligent device in your system; it contains all the information displayed by your devices. The ION database is dynamic and seamlessly tracks device configurations, so you can make changes to any meter without having to go offline and restart the software. The Network Configuration Database (also referred to as the Network Object Model or NOM) holds information about your network topology (the network connections, computers, device types, protocols, and every connected device including dialout modems) for other ION software components to use. The System Event Database database stores data for events that occur in the operation of ION software components. The system event records can be viewed using the Management Console.

Logic Extensions

The ION Virtual Processor provides coordinated data collection, data processing, and control functions for groups of meters. It operates like a virtual meter. It can analyze real-time or historical data from multiple meters and perform actions based on the results. All information is processed together on your desktop using mathematical and logic formulas to perform custom cost calculations, automated demand control, plant-wide trending or alarm generation. For instance, in response to a specific combination of setpoints and alarms, the Virtual Processor can execute an application that dials a pager.

System Utilities

System Utilities include the following: The User Manager lets you configure ION Enterprise operations software user accounts that define different operations permitted within the ION software (e.g., viewing meter data, performing control actions, or configuring devices). The License Manager lets you upgrade the number of devices and Vista clients you can have without re-installing the software.

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The Database Manager lets you manage your ION Enterprise databases with both manual tasks and scheduled tasks. The Device Upgrader utility updates the operating software inside your meters when new releases are available. You can perform the upgrades over serial, Ethernet, or modem links. The Diagnostics Viewer provides a tree structure of the ION network where you can find all associated events that have been logged. Events are system status occurrences such as data recording uploading or communication error rates. This is valuable for troubleshooting your network. The ION Virtual Processor Setup: The Virtual Processor Setup utility allows you to modify the global operating parameters of Virtual Processors and configure the Virtual Processor Modbus network. The Remote Modem Setup utility in the Management Console helps you set up and test modems supported by ION software.

Administration Tools

Management Console: The Management Console is the starting application for the ION software where you can launch system and database applications, update the serial number to increase the number of allowed devices, administer ION software user accounts, trim the System Log database, and configure remote modems. The Management Console presents a graphical view of your network, allowing you to easily add, remove, or configure sites and ION meters or other devices on your network. The Management Console offers the ability to clone configuration of servers, sites, devices, and to set up dial-out modems and connection schedules. Designer: Through Designer software, you can change the configuration and customize the features of any ION meter or ION software component.

User Tools

Vista offers graphical views of your entire power system, from real-time metered data to historical information from the networked database. It analyses data and events, reports equipment status, and provides control capabilities. WebReach lets you access meter displays from the convenience of a web browser. You can create screens in Vista and display them in your web browser, including real-time numeric data, background graphics or diagrams, and views of event, data and waveform logs. Reporter lets you define and create comprehensive database reports using Microsoft Excel. Configured Power Quality, Load Profile, Energy and Demand, and EN50160 reports are included with Reporter. Custom reports can be created easily, and support is provided for other third-party reporting tools.

System Design Handbook

Network Architecture

Network Architecture

A basic ION Enterprise operations software network contains one primary server, one or more client workstations, and a single database. Primary server: The primary server contains all ION software core components, ION Services, and the three databases: Network Configuration, System Event and ION data. You may need a secondary server if you are planning a large system; contact Technical Services for help. Database server: If you choose to host the ION Enterprise databases on a computer other than the primary server, then you can install a Database Server. You must complete the Database Server installation before you proceed with installing an ION Enterprise Primary Server on your network. Secondary server: For larger or distributed systems, you can complement a primary server with one or more secondary servers. Dividing an ION Enterprise network among multiple servers can improve performance by balancing the processing, memory, and networking loads on each server. Client workstations: Client workstations can include all ION software user components (Vista, Reporter, and the Management Console). There are no ION services, no databases, and no meters attached to a client workstation. Web (thin) clients: ION Enterprise offers a number of options for viewing system data. Our WebReach option presents Vista diagram views through the Internet Explorer web browser interface, and takes just seconds to install and configure. A small Active X component included with WebReach adds powerful chart and trending abilities with a variety of output options. ION Enterprise can also be used with Microsoft Terminal Services. Terminal Services enables remote access to the ION Enterprise server for simple viewing or complete remote server administration. You can set up a basic network by following the instructions in the ION Enterprise Commissioning Guide. If you need a larger system with multiple databases or secondary servers, contact Power Measurement for more information. The Engineering Services Group is specially trained to configure large distributed networks.

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ION Enterprise Server/Workstation Requirements

ION Enterprise Server Requirements

Server No. of Devices1 No. of Clients Minimum Hardware Requirements

2.0 GHz CPU 1 GB RAM 40 GB disk drive 2.4 GHz CPU 2 GB RAM 2 x 60 GB disk drives5 Dual 2.4 GHz CPUs 4 GB RAM 2 x 146 GB storage on SCSI RAID-1

Minimum Software Requirements2

Microsoft Windows Server 20033 Microsoft Office 2003 (Excel for OPC and Reporter, Outlook for sending email reports) Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or newer MSDE 20004

1-25

1-5

Primary Server

25-100

1-15

100-200

1-15

Microsoft Windows Server 20036 Microsoft Office 2003 (same as above) Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or newer Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Standard Edition

For systems larger than those referenced above, please contact Power Measurement. Database Server Secondary Server Contact Technical Support for Secondary Server requirements. Contact Technical Support for Secondary Server requirements.

1 2 3

The numbers in this column refer to ION 7550 / ION 7650 meters in an ethernet network. It is recommended that you also install the latest security patches and hotfixes using the Windows Update service. Application of the ION Enterprise server in a client/server network requires Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition, Windows 2000 Server, or Windows 2000 Advanced Server; however, you can use Windows 2000 Professional or Windows XP Professional as Standalone ION Enterprise servers. MSDE 2000 is installed with your ION Enterprise software if you require a new MSDE 2000 instance. RAID-1 configuration is optional for this device range; it offers substantial performance and hard drive redundancy benefits. Note that as the number of devices increases, the need for a RAID-1 array may also increase. Application of the ION Enterprise server in a client/server network requires Windows Server 2003 Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition, Windows 2000 Server, or Windows 2000 Advanced Server. You can only install Microsoft SQL Server 2000 (both Standard and Enterprise editions) on a server class operating system.

4 5

6

ION Enterprise Client Workstation Requirements

Computer Function & Type Minimum Hardware Requirements

Pentium Class computer 300 MHz 128 MB RAM 4 GB free space

Minimum Software Requirements

Windows 2000 Professional, Service Pack 31 Microsoft Office 20002 Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or newer

ION Enterprise Client Computer

Desktops and Laptops

WebReach Clients

1 2

Desktops and Laptops

Any Windows operating system capable of running Internet Explorer 5.5 and up.

MS Windows NT 4.0 Service Pack 6a or MS Windows XP Professional Service Pack 1 can be used. Microsoft Excel is required for Reporter, Microsoft Outlook is required for sending email reports.

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ION Setup

ION Setup

ION Setup for Windows is a low-cost software solution that displays real-time data from your power monitoring devices and provides device configuration capabilities. ION Setup lets you create a network of sites and devices, so that the next time you want to upgrade the firmware or make any configuration changes, the meters are easy to find and the communication links are ready.

ION Setup Functionality

ION Setup lets you create a communication site, then add and group devices connected to this site. The site defines the communication method while the groups define location or function. For example, you might group all the meters located in one building, or you might group all the meters that are performing power quality functions. The Setup Assistant helps to guide you through the common setup requirements for ION meters and appears automatically in the right-hand window once you have added a device. When you double-click the Setup Assistant icon, a screen similar to this appears:

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ION Setup Workstation Requirements

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The Setup Screens listed on the left-hand side of the screen let you access different setup functions. When you click on each Setup Screen, different tabs appear on the screen identifying the functions included within that screen. For example, in the illustration above, the Basic Setup screen is shown, including the tabs for PT/CT Ratios (to change ratios), Nameplate Info (to update info) and Rollover (to set the rollover values). Upgrading Meter Firmware and Programs ION Setup lets you take advantage of new features for your meters by upgrading the meter's firmware. You can also copy (upload) the meter configuration from one meter and paste (download) it to another, using the Setup Assistant Templates setup screen. Using ION Setup version 2.0, meters with the Rapid Meter Programming feature can dramatically reduce the time to send a template to the meter.

ION Setup Workstation Requirements

A wizard installs the ION Setup software components. When installation is complete, just run ION Setup. Minimum system requirements for ION Setup are: Windows 98SE, Windows NT (version 4.0 or later), or Windows 2000 or XP (Service Pack 1) Pentium 90 MHz processor (Pentium 133 or faster is recommended) 15 MB free hard drive space, plus an additional 2 BM free disk space for each device 16 MB RAM (32 or more recommended) Mouse or pointing device VGA display CD-ROM drive

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List of Software Features

List of Software Features

ION Enterprise Power Quality Analysis

Waveform overlay to analyze phase-to-phase relationships Event correlation ITI (CBEMA) plots Harmonics (to the 127th), K-factor, crest factor

ION Setup

Information Management

Graphic user interface: default & custom displays with animation Report generation: energy & demand, load profile, power quality Multi-site data collection, aggregation, & real-time display Continuous or scheduled retrieval of metered data Company-wide data access through networked PCs ODBC-compliant database for historical data logging Remote meter configuration & firmware upgrades Rapid meter programming Windows 2000 operating system & security Windows 95/98 operating system (must be specified on order)

3

2 1

Communications & Integration

Serial links: RS-232, RS-485, infrared/optical Modem links: telephone, cellular, radio Ethernet over TCP/IP

Advanced Processing

"Virtual" meters (Virtual Processors) customized for any set of functions Math, logic, trig, log, linearization formulas

Automated Alarming & Control

Alarm notification via pager & email (using external application) Automatic dispatch of alarm/control signals Alarm/control based on conditions from many meters or sites Responds to alert signals from ION meters Pop-up alarm indicators in graphical displays Options for manual control

Revenue Metering

Sub-metering Storage of billing data to CSV / HHF4 file

1 2 3 4

Load profile only Requires ION Setup version 1.1 or higher, and a meter with rapid meter programming capability Client modules in ION software can also run on Windows 95/98 platforms MV-90 Hand-Held format

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Software for Utility C&I Billing and Value-Added Services

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Software for Utility C&I Billing and Value-Added Services

Power Measurement supplies utilities with a range of IT software products, including a centralized database to serve all downstream applications, and an advanced billing package. Data viewing and analysis tools feature Web-based handling of load curtailment and RTP programs. Designed around the latest software architecture, these products are easy to use and boast maximum flexibility and scalability. They accelerate throughput and minimize the risk of error by automating routine manual tasks (e.g., data validation procedures, spreadsheet-based billing). This lets you apply utility resources to other value-added projects. The entire suite utilizes intuitive Windows® or Web-based user interfaces to derive maximum productivity with minimal training. Ease of integration and scalability let you add components as needed.

Energy Profiler Online

Energy Profiler OnlineTM (EPO) is the industry's leading load data visualization and analysis application. The service takes the volumes of customer usage data utilities collect every day and turns it into actionable information that is readily accessible to both customers and internal users. For commercial and industrial energy customers, managing energy costs is the primary objective; however, these customers cannot control what they cannot measure. EPO enables energy customers to take control of their costs by providing the information they need to understand how their organization uses energy. Armed with that understanding, they can then take steps to reduce costs through implementing conservation measures, investing in more efficient equipment, or participating in new pricing or load curtailment programs. For the utility, EPO provides an intuitive, easy-to-maintain tool for better understanding customer usage patterns and meeting customers' growing need for information. It also provides a convenient platform from which to administer realtime pricing (RTP) or load curtailment programs.

Features

EPO provides a wide range of functionality that serves the needs of customers and utility staff from the same platform: Data Access and Analysis - view and anlayze data in both graphical and tabular formats. Historical and Estimated Bills - view previous bills and generate estimates based on existing data, even before the billing period ends. Rate Comparison - explore the effects of rate changes for specific customers, based on their unique usage characteristics.

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Energy Profiler

What-if Analysis - explore cost scenarios by assessing the impact of various changes to operations, such as shifting energy between time periods or reducing usage by fixed amounts or percentages. Automated Alarming - set usage parameters to automatically notify customers when their consumption exceeds a given threshold. Memorized Reports - save customized reports and schedule their automatic delivery to colleagues via email. Benchmarking - benchmark usage data from multiple facilities by applying normalization factors such as square footage, operating hours and units of production. Multiple Commodities - access usage data for gas and water as well as electricity. RTP Programs - administer real-time pricing and other programs that rely on customers' access to usage data (e.g., load curtailment). Administration Tool - manage user accounts, access privileges and more from a convenient and intuitive Web interface. User Community Site - participate in discussion forums with other users and download documentation such as marketing materials and release reviews. EPO makes it easy for utilities to leverage the power of the Internet to deliver value-added services to their commercial and industrial customers. Energy customers across North America use the service every day to monitor usage, evaluate the effectiveness of energy-saving programs, establish benchmarks for usage performance, gain a better understanding of how their entire organization uses energy, and more.

Energy Profiler

Energy Profiler® is an intuitive Windows-based tool for the analysis of energy usage and pricing. It is used for a variety of purposes by load researchers, pricing analysts, utility account managers, major energy customers, and energy services consultants. Energy Profiler is your all-in-one tool for energy usage and pricing analysis.

Features

Energy Profiler is the choice of Account Managers who want to win and retain customers through superior service. Using Energy Profiler, you can get the best deal for your customer by demonstrating immediately the change in your customer's bill under alternate rate structures, and/or alternate energy usage patterns. You can quickly see the effects of: Shifting from one rate schedule to another Switching from one supplier to another Moving on-peak usage into off-peak periods Aggregating individual billing accounts Any combination of the above, for any rate schedule

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Energy BOSS

System Design Handbook

Graphical and tabular results are instantly available for any of these "what if" scenarios. The RTP capabilities of Energy Profiler are a total solution for RTP program design and implementation. If rate analysts, program managers, customer account managers, accounting staff, and customers are all working with different packages, there is a high risk of miscommunication with potentially disastrous results. These risks can be mitigated or eliminated altogether a software tool such as Energy Profiler. Energy Profiler is also a strategic tool that metered energy customers can use to better understand their energy usage and manage their energy costs. Energy Profiler allows major energy customers to: Identify anomalies in energy usage Improve operational efficiency Reduce energy costs Make informed purchase decisions Take part in Real-Time Pricing programs Understand Energy Usage Energy Profiler presents load data in highly intuitive charts and graphs to provide a clear picture of your company's energy usage. You can manipulate load profiles graphically to view changes in usage under different conditions. You can also define on-peak and off-peak periods, and display data overlays such as weather conditions. What happens to your bill if you move some of your demand to an offpeak period? Or bring down your peak demand by ten percent? Energy Profiler lets you answer these and other similar questions instantly.

Energy BOSS

Energy BOSS® provides utilities with an advanced billing solution that addresses the needs of their most important customers. The software processes interval data directly into billing determinants, and it supports the complex rates and customerspecific contracts used in billing major energy customers. You can use the software as a stand-alone billing system, or you can incorporate it into an existing CIS to perform the complex calculations required to bill commercial and industrial accounts.

Features

Energy BOSS features include: Powerful rate configuration Summary billing for multi-premise customers (e.g. chain accounts) Conjunctive billing to aggregate usage from multiple accounts into a single set of billing determinants Multiple commodities and services on one bill Support for one-time, recurring and installment charges

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E-VEE

Customer-specific billing cycles, due dates and contract parameters Validation and exception reporting (through E-VEETM) Management reporting PDF output for electronic bills Energy BOSS can store and easily update contract parameters, allowing the system to handle whatever terms a given customer has negotiated. At the heart of Energy BOSS's billing capability is the RateWizard, a highly intuitive component that simplifies the creation and maintenance of even the most complex rate structures. You can readily integrate Energy BOSS with an E-VEE meter data management system to deliver a complete solution from data collection to billing. Energy BOSS is based on a modern 3-tier architecture that ensures scalability and ease of maintenance. As volume increases, more processing power can be added by simply upgrading the server hardware--no significant changes to the software are required. The system is easily linked to other utility applications through direct import of data from various sources (e.g., MV90, CSV files) and export of accounting information. Energy BOSS is also Web-enabled, providing utilities with the option of using the system as a traditional on-site application or as an online service requiring a minimum commitment of internal resources.

E-VEE

Whether in regulated or restructured markets, utilities of all types face many of the same challenges, such as minimizing manual processes, scaling up to handle the increasing volume of meter data, improving throughput, and enabling the growing number of downstream applications that rely on meter data. E-VEETM was designed from the outset to meet the needs of utilities. It allows utilities to consolidate meter data from a variety of sources into a single repository from which to serve the growing number of applications that rely on it.

Features

E-VEE also addresses all of the requirements for a lasting meter data solution: Feature Rich - E-VEE can handle user-defined validations, socket support, meter changeouts, multiple export queues, and pre-estimated data archiving. Automation - Manual processes slow the throughput of meter data and introduce the potential for error. E-VEE reduces the level of human intervention required for meter data processing, increasing productivity and allowing resources to be applied to other value-added activities. Scalability - E-VEE utilizes a highly scalable database and client/server architecture that easily handles increasing volumes of meter data. Flexibility - The software is based on industry standards and provides many options for creating automatic data exports and reports via its user interface. Throughput - A combination of automation and flexibility cuts down the time it takes for meter data to be processed. Customer data is made available rapidly to billing, CIS, and other systems automatically and simultaneously.

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E-VEE

System Design Handbook

One Database - Utilities collect data from a number of sources including meter data collections systems (i.e. MV-90), wireless systems, market operators, and other energy companies. These data flows must then be consolidated. E-VEE takes in data from any number of sources; the result is a single repository for all of the utility's meter data from which all downstream applications can be served. E-VEE offers an extensive set of validation and editing procedures to take meter data from raw file to billing and settlement quality in a fraction of the time required by legacy systems. Spike tests, sum tests, existence checks, hardware checks, and cross-validation with manually collected data can all be performed automatically. More importantly, E-VEE does not require programming--the business rules behind the various procedures are completely database-driven. Once the validation and estimation parameters are set up in user-defined validation groups, customers can be assigned to those groups through the user interface. Couple E-VEE with Energy Profiler Online to deliver a valuable service to customers while providing a convenient way for internal groups to view customer data on their desktop--all using the same tool. Add Energy BOSS for a sophisticated billing solution designed to handle the unique needs of major commercial and industrial customers. Both applications draw on the E-VEE database, and can be seamlessly integrated.

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5

Communication Links

Communications between ION software and meters can occur through serial cables (RS-232, RS-485), Ethernet (10Base-T, 10Base-FL fiber optic), or modem links (telephone, wireless, and fiber optic).

In This Chapter

ION Enterprise Network Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 ION Network Building Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Building Your Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Serial Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Converting to RS-485 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Bus Wiring Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Infrared/Optical Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Modem Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Using a COM Converter with a Modem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Modem Gateway Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Dialing Out to Remote Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Immediate Notification from Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Ethernet Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Ethernet Gateway Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Internet Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Managing Network Traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Time Synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Clock Module Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Time Synchronization Method: ION Software, GPS, or NTP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Time-Synchronization Blackout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

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ION Enterprise Network Communications

An ION Enterprise network consists of devices that are connected to each other through a variety of communication links. ION software services control communications among the software and devices. Software resides on a single workstation or at any location in a Windows network. The diagram below illustrates an ION Enterprise network.

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ION Network Building Blocks

ION Network Building Blocks

The power-monitoring network that you build in ION Enterprise reflects the way that your physical communications network is wired. A complete ION Enterprise power monitoring and analysis network can be created using the building blocks described below.

Software

The following ION software applications make up the key components of ION Enterprise software: Management Console, Vista, Virtual Processor, Database Manager, Designer, and ION Setup. The ION Enterprise network is built in the Management Console graphical interface using sites, servers, modems, and intelligent devices that can be added, removed, configured, or duplicated. You can set up dialout modems and connection schedules, as well as define software security, enable advanced meter security, trim the system log database, and view system events. ION software also has management tools to help you with system and database maintenance and configuration: Remote Modem Setup, Database Manager, License Manager, Virtual Processor Setup, Reporter, Diagnostics Viewer, and Device Upgrader. Each of these applications is registered in the network configuration database.

Network Configuration Database

In order for ION software to recognize all the software and devices, they must be registered in a Network Configuration database. Every time you add, delete, or reconfigure a site or device, the Network Configuration database is updated. The Network Configuration database resides on the primary server, which maintains the information for all other workstations to access. Your interface to the Network Configuration database is the Management Console software component.

Sites

ION software arranges all of the devices in the network based on their physical location and the type of communications link on which they reside. In the Management Console, a site contains one or more intelligent devices that are accessible via a serial, modem, or TCP/IP port on the primary server. The following sites can be created in the Management Console: Direct (Serial) Site: a direct-connected RS-232 or RS-485 network Modem Site: a remote serial site connected by a modem Ethernet Gateway Site: a gateway that transfers data between an Ethernet device and an RS-485 chain of connected devices

NOTE

In the Management Console, it is not necessary to create a site for Ethernet devices. Simply click the Devices icon.

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Building Your Network

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Devices

Devices are normally ION or ACM meters but can also include other manufacturers' devices that can connect to ION Enterprise network serially, via Ethernet, or through a gateway, and that use ION software-supported protocols. These devices must be registered in the Network Configuration database using the Management Console.

Building Your Network

The details of your ION Enterprise network are stored in the Network Configuration database. Your interface to the Network Configuration database is the Management Console. Only personnel with appropriate authority should use the Management Console since changes to the Network Configuration database can result in an unstable or unusable ION software network. Building a Network using the Management Console 1. Identify the sites to which each workstation physically connects. The following site details are required: Type of site (Direct-Serial, Modem, or Ethernet Gateway) Workstation and COM port to which the site connects Baud rate for the site (for Direct-Serial, Modem, and Ethernet Gateway sites) Site name (your choice) Modem type and telephone number (for Modem sites) Baud rate (must be the same for all devices at any one site) IP address and IP Port number (for Ethernet Gateway sites) 2. Next, add devices to your sites. The following details are required: Type of device (e.g. ION 7650, ION 8500, 3720 ACM) Site to which device belongs Name for each device (your choice but must begin with a letter) Unique Unit ID of the device (for devices on RS-485 networks) IP address and IP Port number (for devices on Ethernet networks) Installation Example Assume that your physical communications network has an Ethernet Gateway site connected to an Ethernet network via an ION 7550 meter, so you can communicate directly to the meter and through it to the meters on the RS-485 loop. To model this in your ION Enterprise operations network using the Management Console, first add a "New Ethernet Device" (ION 7550 meter). Then, add an "Ethernet Gateway Site." (When you add an Ethernet Gateway Site, you provide information about the Ethernet gateway device, including the TCP/IP port where the loop of serial devices is connected.) Finally, add each "Serial Device" on the RS-485 loop.

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Serial Communications

Serial Communications

Serial sites are a group of devices that transmit data one bit at a time. (The opposite of serial is parallel where several bits are transmitted concurrently as in Ethernet connections.) To communicate between computers and meters serially, you must have and specify a communications port on the computer and the device. Commonly used serial interface standards are RS-232 and RS-485. RS-232 is currently the most common standard for serial communications and is the standard used on most computers, allowing connection to one device. Personal computers usually have an RS-232 port for interfacing to printers, displays, modems, or intelligent electronic devices. If you are connecting to more than one device, you need to convert this standard to RS-485. To do this conversion you need a COM32 or COM128 converting device. RS-485 is an enhanced version of RS-232, designed for serial communications between a computer and up to 32 external devices. RS-485 allows for longer distances, up to 4000 feet from the computer. RS-485 is similar to RS-422 but can support more nodes per line. The EIA (Electronic Industries Association) has also defined new RS-422 and RS423 standards, which are backwards compatible with RS-232, so RS-232 devices can connect to RS-422 ports.

Converting to RS-485

To communicate directly between a computer and multiple ION meters, you need an RS-232 to RS-485 converter box. Power Measurement offers two such converters: the COM32 and COM128. The COM-32 box converts the RS-232 interface to a single RS-485 port supporting up to 32 power meters. The COM128 provides four RS-485 ports with support for up to 128 devices (32 devices on each port). The COM128 is ideal for installations that contain more than 32 remote devices, or that have devices positioned at distances greater than can be reached with one 4000-foot cable.

Connections between the Computer and COM Device

An RS-232 cable can have either a 25-pin D-type connector (DB-25) or a 9-pin Dtype connector (DB-9). The device at one end of the cable is known as Data Communications Equipment (DCE), while at the device at the opposite end is called Data Terminal Equipment (DTE). These terms indicate the pin-out for the connectors on a device and the direction of the signals on the pins. The RS-232 port on the COM32 is available as a female DB-25 connector. Your computer is a DTE device, so COM32 is configured as DCE. The COM32 interfaces to the RS-485 bus through a shielded twisted pair cable connected to its "Data +" and "Data -" terminals. Maximum cable length between the computer and the COM32 is 50 feet.

DB-25 Connector

DB-9 Connector

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Bus Wiring Considerations

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The RS-232 DCE and DTE ports on the COM128 are available as male DB-9 connectors. An adapter plug is supplied in case your RS-232 cable has a male DB25 connector. The COM128 interfaces to each RS-485 bus through a shielded twisted pair cable connected to its "Data +" and "Data -" terminals. Maximum cable length between the computer and the COM128 is 50 feet.

The COM128 is switch-selectable to act in DTE or DCE mode. An RS-232 port is provided for each mode. In DTE mode, the COM128 supports a CTS-WAIT feature in which RS-485 packets are buffered until the CTS (Clear To Send) line indicates the RS-232 device is ready to receive the data.

Data Transfer

The COM32 and COM128 control whether the RS-232 device (e.g. computer) listens or transmits onto the RS-485 bus. This capability is required because RS-232 is a full duplex standard, where signals are transmitted and received simultaneously, while RS-485 is half duplex, allowing only one device to transmit at a time. There are two ways the COM32 and COM128 control data transfer: (1) If the RTS (Request To Send) signal is asserted, they transmit data onto the RS-485 bus; if RTS is de-asserted, they listen for RS-485 data and pass it through to RS-232. (2) If the RTS signal isn't available, the RS-232 line is monitored, and when data is present, it is automatically transmitted onto the RS-485 bus. Because RS-485 buses are generally quite long, and run through electrically noisy environments, the risk of exposure to transient voltage surges and spikes is substantially higher than for RS-232 lines. To protect computer equipment, the COM32 and COM128 optically isolate the RS-232 and RS-485 sections.

Bus Wiring Considerations

Up to 32 devices can connect to a single RS-485 bus. The length of the RS-485 cable connecting all devices cannot exceed 4000 ft. (1219 m). Devices connected on the bus, including converter(s) and other instrumentation, must be wired as follows: Use a good quality shielded twisted pair cable for each RS-485 bus. AWG 22 (0.6 mm) or larger conductor size is recommended. Ensure that the polarity is correct when connecting to the RS-485 port (+) and (-) terminals of each device.

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Bus Wiring Considerations

Connect the shield of each cable segment to ground at one end only.

CAUTION

Do not connect the shield to ground at both ends of the segment. This lets ground loop currents flow in the shield, including noise in the communications cable.

Use an intermediate terminal strip to connect each device to the bus. This allows for easy removal of a device for servicing when required.

Recommended Topologies

Devices on an RS-485 bus are connected in a point-to-point configuration, with the (+) and (-) terminals of each device connected to the associated terminals on the next device. While you can use many topologies to connect devices on an RS-485 communication bus, you should only use either straight-line or loop topologies. Straight-Line Topology The straight-line wiring method is illustrated below. Note that connections are shown for one RS-485 port only. The COM128 supports four RS-485 buses simultaneously. The COM128 can exist at any position on the RS-485 bus, including an end point. Each end point of the straight-line bus must be terminated with a ¼ watt resistor. These termination resistors reduce signal reflections that may corrupt data on the bus.

Termination resistors are connected between the (+) and (-) terminals of the device at each end of the bus. The value of the resistor should match the line impedance of the cable. For an AWG 22 shielded twisted pair cable, values between 150 and 300 ohms are typical. Consult the cable manufacturer's documentation for the exact impedance of your cable.

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Infrared/Optical Communications

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Loop Topology One advantage of loop topology (shown below) is that a single open circuit fault condition anywhere on the loop does not result in the loss of communication between the workstation and any of the remote devices. Loop topology does not require termination resistors and the COM128 can exist at any position on the RS-485 bus.

Calculating Overall Cable Length

When determining the overall length of an RS-485 straight-line or loop connection, be sure to account for all cable segments. For example, for RS-485 connections to a device via an intermediate terminal block, you must add the lengths of cable between the device and the terminal block to the total cable distance.

Connection Methods to Avoid

Do not connect more than two cables at any point on the RS-485 bus. Connection points include meters, converters, and terminal strips. Too many cable connections results in signal reflections causing interference. These wiring methods are known as 3-way star or tee types and create branches in the main RS-485 bus.

Infrared/Optical Communications

An ION meter's infrared/optical port can communicate real-time measurements to ION software via ION, Modbus, or DNP 3.0 protocols. The infrared/optical port is compatible with ANSI Type 2 magnetic optical communications couplers. The optical magnetic coupler is purchased separately. To enable infrared communications, you must configure the port's Communications module, which exists in the meter's software. Just select the comm mode (infrared), protocol, baud rate, RTS delay, and unit ID. Once you have completed the meter's configuration, connect the magnetic optical coupler to the front panel. The device is now ready to communicate with ION software.

CAUTION

Ensure that RTS/CTS is disabled for the infrared port's site in the Management Console.

The infrared port on some meters can also be used for energy pulsing. To do this, choose the ION software module you wish to use for pulsing (kWh Pulse, for example), and specify the infrared port in its setup register.

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Modem Communications

Modem Communications

NOTE

In the Management Console component of ION Enterprise operations software, remote sites that use radio modems or leased-line modems are configured as Serial sites, not as Modem sites. ION software Modem sites are designed for telephone modems, which require a brief pause before communicating. Radio modems and leased line modems do not require this pause, therefore, no commas are needed before the telephone number string.

A modem converts a computer's digital signal into an analog signal that is transmitted over telephone lines, wireless channels, or fiber optic links. Modems can be external or internal to the server computer. An external modem is encased in a box separate from the server computer. An internal modem may reside on a printed circuit board plugged into one of the computer's expansion slots. It may also exist in software, where the computer's processor handles all the data communications. External modems are generally preferred because they have carrier detect (CD), receive (Rx), and transmit (Tx) lights that indicate how the modem is functioning. RS-232 is the standard interface for connecting computers to external modems. Even if you have a very fast modem, the rate that your modem can receive data is limited by the rate at which the remote modem can transmit data. For example, if the remote modem only operates at 1200 bps, your modem must receive the data at the same rate. Another point to consider is that some telephone lines cannot transmit data reliably at high rates. Your modem features may include: Auto-answer: Allows your computer to receive calls in your absence. Data compression: Fewer bits are transmitted but information is sent intact. The receiving modem must be able to decompress the data using the same compression technique as the transmitting modem. One disadvantage with this process is that the risk of error increases with greater data compression. Flash memory: This allows you to update transmission protocols without having to purchase a new modem. CDPD: Cellular Digital Packet Data or CDPD is a data transmission technology developed for use on cellular phone frequencies. CDPD uses open cellular channels (in the 800 to 900 MHz range) to transmit data in packets. This technology offers data transfer rates of up to 19.2 Kbps, quicker call set up, and better error correction than using modems on an analog cellular channel. Wireless modem: A modem that accesses a private wireless data network or a wireless telephone system, such as the CDPD system.

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Using a COM Converter with a Modem

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Choosing a Modem

To streamline modem configuration efforts, we recommend that you use modems supported by Power Measurement. These modems are listed at www.pwrm.com. If you intend to use a modem that is not supported, you can use the Modem Configuration Utility to add your modem to the database, and configure it using the information provided in the modem's user manual.

Using a COM Converter with a Modem

The COM128 is the recommended interface between a modem and an ION meter. A telephone or radio modem typically acts as an RS-232 DCE device. The COM128's DTE port can be connected directly to the modem's DCE port with a regular RS-232 cable.

To configure the COM128, you must decide how it will provide timing control (flow control) signals to the RS-485 ports: an internally fixed baud rate, automatic detection of the modem's baud rate, automatic baud detection with carrier detect (CD) for data flowing back to the modem, or an RTS signal from the modem. Handshaking Considerations One other main consideration for the COM128 is whether the modem requires RTS/CTS handshaking. If it does, the RTS/CTS flow control function on the COM128 should be enabled. This forces the COM128 to buffer all RS-485 data received until the CTS line indicates that the modem is ready to receive the data. Most radio modems require this mode, as do some telephone modems. Refer to your modem's operation manual to see if your modem provides or requires this handshaking. Power Supply Considerations The COM128 is configured for use with devices that supply their own power. Some RS-232 devices, such as short-haul modems and line drivers, receive power from the DTR pin of the RS-232 line. The COM128 can be configured to support these devices, supplying 5 VDC @ 10 mA to the DTR pin of its DTE or DCE port. ION Software and Modems ION software can dial out through modems to remote sites in a variety of ways. You can set up one-time dial-outs to execute with a click of the mouse, or you can create scheduled dial-outs that occur automatically. The ION software Remote Modem Setup utility lets you configure your modems and your computer's serial port. You can choose from a set of recommended modems, add new modems, or create your own custom modem setup. You can also edit your modem's internal configuration strings, command strings, and messages.

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Modem Gateway Communications

Modem Gateway Communications

Every ION meter except the ION 7300 and ION 6200 meters offers an internal modem option. The internal modem can be shared by 31 other devices on an RS485 chain. This unique "ModemGate" capability reduces costs, simplifies wiring, and improves reliability because you don't have to purchase additional external modems or power supplies. If you have multiple meters linked on an RS-485 loop, only the first meter requires the internal modem.

The internal modem supports all standard modem protocols at transmission rates from 300 bps to 33600 bps. Data received by the modem is transferred to one of the meter's RS-485 ports. The meter comes with an FCC-compliant telephone cord so that you can connect the internal modem to the telephone network. After installing the meter's power supply, communications, and voltage/current connections, you plug one end of the telephone cord into the meter's RJ-11 socket and the other end to a wall jack. If you decide to use a different cable than the one supplied, ensure that it is FCC Part 68 compliant. When ION software dials up the modem site, it sends an initialization string to the modem. You can define the modem's initialization string using Designer or ION Setup software, but you shouldn't change the default setting unless you are familiar with AT commands.

Dialing Out to Remote Sites

You can schedule specific times and days when a server connects to a modem site. This is done using Connection Schedules button in the Management Console. You can also perform a one-time dial-out by right-clicking on a modem site or device in the Management Console and selecting Connect. Once you are done, right-click on the site or device to disconnect.

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Immediate Notification from Meters

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Immediate Notification from Meters

The ION Alert module is available on the ION 7350, ION 7550, ION 7650, ION 7700, ION 8300, ION 8400 and ION 8500 meters. You can configure the module to immediately dial ION software or other parties (e.g. paging services) in response to any condition you specify. The ION Alert module can report high priority events from more than one meter on an RS-485 chain. In such a scenario, only one meter contains an active Alert module. The other meters, equipped with setpoints and digital outputs, pass event information to the meter that contains the active Alert module. A control wire must run between the digital output of the monitoring device and the status input of the meter with the Alert module. Usually you configure the Alert module to contact ION software when a high priority event occurs, although you can arrange to have it contact other parties like paging services.

Alarm Server Data Retrieval from Remote Sites

The Alarm Server is commonly used to receive alarms from a remote meter that is not continuously or permanently connected to the ION Enterprise network. It requires a dedicated modem, a dedicated phone line, and a dedicated COM port on the ION Enterprise server computer to avoid conflicts with other ION software components. The Alarm Server monitors a remote site for a priority event, and when it detects that a priority event has occurred, typically launches the ION Enterprise Connection Manager to establish communications with the remote meter and upload its data. Following is a sequence of steps that outlines the process: 1. A meter at a remote site records a power system priority event, and initiates an alert using a remote-site modem (an internal modem within an ION meter or an external modem) programmed to dial the Alarm Server's dedicated modem phone number. The Alarm Server dedicated modem is contacted and the alert is passed to the Alarm Server.

2.

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Ethernet Communications

3.

The Alarm Server (which has been monitoring the phone line waiting for a remote meter to annunciate a priority event) receives the alert, and immediately requests that the ION Enterprise Connection Manager establish communication with the remote meter to upload its records.

The Alarm Server uses a series of command line arguments to specify the actions it takes when a priority event is reported. These commands must be entered on the ION Enterprise primary or secondary server computer that is running the Alarm Server utility. Although the Alarm Server is typically configured to launch the Connection Manager which dials up the remote site and retrieves the logs from the devices, the Alarm Server can also be configured to launch other applications. A series of parameter switches are added to the command line to pass information about the event to the application that is launched.

Outage Dialback Alerts

The Outage Dialback alert card lets ION 8000 series meters alert an operator during a power outage, informing the operator that the meter is shutting down. A short ASCII-based message can be sent as an alert to ION software, MV-90, or via a pager. A pager alert message can be directed automatically to an email address and/or a voice line with a third-party system provided as a service by a paging company or other software. The Outage Dialback alert card uses a modem that is powered independently from the rest of the meter when a power outage occurs. This allows enough time for the modem to dial-out an alert. The Outage Dialback card must be ordered with the meter internal modem option.

Ethernet Communications

The Ethernet links in an ION software network can be 10Base-T cables or 10BaseFL fiber optic lines. You can bring Ethernet directly to your ION meters and workstations, or employ serial-to-Ethernet converters. Many of the terms in this chapter are defined in the Glossary.

General Ethernet Capabilities and Network Topologies

Ethernet is a 10 Mbps LAN (Local Area Network) specification invented by Xerox and developed jointly by Xerox, Intel, and Digital Equipment Corporation. Ethernet is one of the most widely implemented LAN standards because it offers a good balance of speed, cost, and ease of installation. It's also able to support virtually all popular network protocols. The Ethernet specification describes the implementation of the physical and data link layers of the OSI Reference Model (see below). An extension to Ethernet is Fast Ethernet operating at 100 Mbps. Physical variations of Ethernet include: 10Base-F: A 10 Mbps Ethernet specification that uses fibre optic cabling. 10BaseF includes the 10Base-10FP, 10Base-FB, and 10Base-FL standards that cover various topologies and cabling segment lengths.

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Ethernet Communications

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10Base-T: A 10 Mbps Ethernet specification that uses two pairs of unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling: one pair for transmitting data and the other for receiving data. 10Base-T has a distance limit of approximately 100 meters per segment. 100BaseT: A 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet specification that uses unshielded twisted pair (UTP) wiring. Like the 10Base-T technology, 100Base-T sends link pulses over a network segment, but these pulses contain more data than those in 10Base-T. Fast Ethernet raises Ethernet transfer rates with only minimal changes to the existing cable structure. Gigabit Ethernet is a future technology that promises a migration path beyond Fast Ethernet.

Ethernet Terminology

OSI Reference Model The OSI (Open System Interconnection) Reference Model is an ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and ITU-T (International Telecommunications Union -- Telecommunication Standardization Sector) standard that defines a network architecture for implementing protocols in seven layers. The layers specify network functions such as physical links, addressing, flow control, error control, interfaces to other applications, and reliable message transfer. The lowest layer (the physical layer) is closest to the wiring and the highest layer (application layer) is closest to the user. The lower two layers are implemented in hardware and software, and the upper five are implemented only in software. The layers are named as follows: physical, data link, network, transport, presentation, session, and application. Control passes from one layer to the next, starting at one device with the application layer, moving down to physical layer, through the channel, to another device, and back up to the top layer. Most of the functionality in the OSI model exists in all communications systems, although two or three OSI layers may be incorporated into one. OSI serves as a teaching model rather than a standard to which vendors must precisely comply. LANs and WANs A LAN (Local Area Network) is a computer network that covers a relatively small geographic area. LANs transmit data at much faster rates than telephone lines, but distances are limited; most LANs are contained within a building or group of buildings. One LAN can connect to other LANs over greater distances via telephone lines and wireless channels, forming a Wide Area Network (WAN). WANs can be global in scope, connecting hundreds of branch offices and thousands of users. LANs can link as few as three workstations, but often link hundreds. A network workstation can execute its own programs, as well as access data and devices anywhere on the LAN. This means that many users can share expensive devices, such as laser printers, and communicate with each other. Ethernet, FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface), and Token Ring are different LAN specifications, with Ethernet being the most common for PCs. LANs differ from one another in terms of topologies (bus, star, or ring), data transmission protocols, and physical media.

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Ethernet Communications

Ethernet Topologies A network topology is the arrangement of nodes and cable links in a LAN. The three main topologies are star, bus, and ring. These topologies can be mixed; for example, a bus can connect a number of star segments. In a star topology, all devices are connected to a central hub that controls access. 10Base-T Ethernet and Fast Ethernet use a star topology. The primary advantage of this type of network is reliability, because if one of the "point-to-point" segments has a break, other segments continue to operate. Star networks are also relatively easy to install and manage, but bottlenecks may occur because all data must pass through a hub. In a bus topology, all devices are linked together in series with each device connected to a long cable or bus. Any device can communicate with all other devices on the bus. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install, but a break anywhere in the cable causes the entire segment to be inoperable until the break is repaired. In a ring topology, all devices are connected to one another in a closed loop. Ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install, but offer high bandwidth and can span large distances.

Star

Bus

Ring

Ethernet Media An important part of designing an Ethernet network is selecting the appropriate medium. You have the choice of unshielded twisted pair (UTP) for 10Base-T and fiber optic cable for 10Base-FL. UTP is similar to telephone cable and comes in a variety of grades, with each higher grade offering better performance. Level 5 cable is the most expensive grade with the highest transmission rate, up to 100 Mbps. Level 4 and level 3 are less expensive, but cannot support the same data throughput. Level 4 can support speeds of up to 20 Mbps and level 3 up to 16 Mbps. Level 2 and level 1 cables are not used in the design of 10Base-T networks. Fiber optic cable is more expensive, but is necessary in situations where electronic emissions and environmental hazards are a concern. Because it does not conduct electricity, fiber optic cable is useful in areas where considerable electromagnetic interference (EMI) is present, such as on a factory floor. Fiber optic cable is also used in inter-building applications to insulate network equipment from electrical damage caused by power disturbances. The Ethernet standard allows for fiber optic cable segments up to 2 kilometers long, connecting nodes that aren't reachable through copper media.

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Ethernet Gateway Communications

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Connecting Workstations to the LAN Network interface cards provide a physical connection between a workstation's internal data bus and the Ethernet cable. You can plug the interface card into one of the computer's expansion slots. Alternatively, your computer may connect directly to the Ethernet through an internal 10Base-T transceiver.

Choosing a New or Existing Ethernet Network

You should consider the pros and cons of connecting directly to an existing Ethernet network. With an existing network, the main advantage is that the entire infrastructure is already designed and maintained by your Information Systems (IS) department. You don't have to spend any time or money selecting, purchasing, and installing the equipment. You don't have to become familiar with Ethernet hubs, switches, routers, or other network components. The primary disadvantage of an existing network is that you aren't in control of its operation. You may not be able to arrange for the network to be installed, maintained, and backed up as required for your particular application. You may not be able to put UPSs (uninterruptible power supplies) on hubs or other critical components. If the network goes down, IS has to fix problems according to general company priorities. You may not be able to conduct performance tests, or establish the type of security you want to prevent unauthorized users from changing meter configurations. You also have to share bandwidth with other users across your organization.

Ethernet Gateway Communications

An Ethernet Gateway site is an RS-485 chain of devices that communicates with an Ethernet network. Data is passed between the RS-485 and Ethernet networks through a gateway device such as the ION 7550 meter. Some ION meters support direct data transfer between their Ethernet and RS-485 ports, however, the ION 7700 meter must have an Xpress Card installed to support these features. You can also communicate through the Ethernet-linked meter directly to the RS-485 chain of devices. To do this, use the Management Console to create an Ethernet Gateway site. Then add each of the devices on the RS-485 chain to the site. Each RS-485 port that functions as an Ethernet gateway must be configured to use the EtherGate protocol. You can edit the Protocol setup register on the meter to select ETHERGATE from the list. Some ION meters let you direct the flow of data in a variety of ways. Ethernet data can be transferred to both RS-485 ports, or to just one of the RS-485 ports. If you use EtherGate on both RS-485 ports, the ID values assigned to the RS-485 meters must be unique across both networks.

Internet Connectivity

Meters equipped with Ethernet offer [email protected] messaging, and onboard web servers supporting HTML and XML industry standard formats.

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Internet Connectivity

[email protected]

With [email protected], ION meters can automatically email high-priority alarm messages, system status updates or data logs to anyone within the facility or around the world. [email protected] messages are received like any other email: at a workstation, cell phone, pager, or PDA. Alarm emails can be sent to key facility personnel for timely notification of critical power conditions. Data logs can be emailed on an event-driven, scheduled or manual basis, conveniently working within firewall restrictions. Email is an expedient and cost-effective way to transmit power information over a corporate Intranet or the Internet. Sending Alarms via Email High priority events may occur at remote sites while ION software is not connected. You can configure a meter's ION Alert module to immediately send an email in response to any condition you specify. The message includes a description of the event, the date and time it occurred, its priority, and information about the meter. Sending Data Logs via Email An ION meter can email data logs every hour, every day, or at any other interval. You can configure the meter's ION modules to send emails containing any data you specify, such as fault analysis, historical trending, or coincidental min./max. information. A data log email includes the names and numeric values of the data, the time they were recorded, and information about the meter such as the type, owner, and serial number. To set up [email protected], you need: An SMTP mail server. You need to know the IP address of the SMTP mail server so that the meter can be configured to send email to it. The SMTP mail server can reside on the same local network as the meter or can be accessed via a dial-up connection. The following components are optional: A BootP server. This automatically configures an ION meter's network settings via the Bootstrap Protocol. It saves you from having to configure all the settings through the meter's front panel. Any ION meter with WebMeter support has the BootP server enabled by default. A network administrator should manage the BootP server, and assign an IP address and other settings to the server. When the ION meter is booted up, BootP automatically transfers the IP address and network settings to the ION meter. The meter then polls the BootP server every six hours for an IP address in case it changes. A firewall is a security scheme that prevents unauthorized users from gaining access to a computer network, or that monitors transfer of information to and from a network. If you need to access the meter from beyond the corporate network, then a firewall is highly recommended. To email data logs, use Designer software to set up your own combination of Data Recorder, Log Mail, and Periodic Timer modules. The Data Recorder module stores measurements, then the Log Mail module retrieves these measurements and sends out emails when triggered by the Periodic Timer module.

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Managing Network Traffic

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WebMeter

Meters with onboard web servers let you view real-time data and perform basic meter configuration using any standard web browser, keeping deployment costs low. Built-in web pages display a range of energy and power quality information and meter configuration tools. To set up WebMeter capability, you need: An Ethernet network An ION meter with an Ethernet port and WebMeter support. Power information and basic meter configuration via the onboard web browser is enabled by default. You can disable basic meter configuration with Designer software. The ION meter can be connected to your corporate LAN Ethernet network like any other network device. Accessing the Meter via a Web Browser To view real-time information at your desktop, start up your web browser and type the meter's IP address into the address field. Then select one of the viewing tabs entitled Real-Time Data, Revenue Measurements, or Power Quality. You have access to real-time measurements such as: Per-phase, average, and line-to-line voltages and currents Total and per-phase power (kW, kVAR, kVA), power factor, and frequency Accumulated energy, and peak demand Voltage disturbances, voltage/current harmonics, THD, crest factor, and K factor Typically, you do not have to change the basic parameters after your ION meter is put into service. But if you need to change a measurement for your specific application, then you can do this using a web browser.

XML Compatibility

ION meters can also exchange information using industry-standard XML format. This simple machine-readable format supports easy integration with other reporting, spreadsheet, and database applications.

Managing Network Traffic

Performance is important when you're building a network of software components and hardware devices. You want to ensure that data throughput remains high for your power monitoring application and for the rest of your company's information systems. The first step is to review network load benchmarks and understand the effects of various system configurations. Then you can determine the best way to optimize performance. You may decide to isolate network-intense communications segments with hubs or switches. Other options include increasing meter transmit delays, controlling the number of direct meter-to-Ethernet links, and adjusting how Vista displays real-time readings.

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Managing Network Traffic

Factors that affect network loads are: distribution of ION software components, intensity of data logging, frequency of alarm conditions, frequency of client requests, etc. In general, the greatest intensity of information flow is between the Log Inserter and Query Server services, and databases. To reduce network traffic, Vista can query the database and transmit information one screen at a time.

Dividing Your Network into Segments

As more users or applications are added to a shared network, a growing number of processes compete for the transmission of data packets. This increases the frequency of data collisions, which occur when multiple nodes attempt to send data at the same time. A 10 Mbps Ethernet network with over 30 users might have a throughput of only 3 Mbps because of packet overhead and collisions. Collision rates increase as more nodes are added to the shared "collision domain" of a single Ethernet network. One way to solve this problem is to divide the network into segments, with all segments joined by a bridge, switch, or router. Hubs Hubs (or repeaters) connect multiple Ethernet segments, and are required in star topologies such as 10Base-T. A hub takes an incoming data packet and copies it to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see the packets. A multi-port twisted pair hub allows several point-to-point segments to be joined into one network. Hubs allow LANs to extend beyond normal distance limitations, but all ports on a hub have to share a single 10 Mbps network and collision domain. This means that all segments are contending for data transmission and only get a portion of the total network bandwidth. Bridges Bridges support a full Ethernet segment for each port, so each port gets 10 Mbps of bandwidth, allowing a LAN to grow significantly larger. Bridges also filter network traffic to only those packets needed on each segment, separating the network into separate collision domains and increasing data throughput. A packet is examined for its destination address and then forwarded to only those ports to where it needs to go. Bad or misaligned packets are removed to prevent errors from propagating through the network. Switches Switches are extensions of bridges, linking four or more full Ethernet networks. There are two types of switches: cut-through and store-and-forward. A cutthrough switch only examines the packet destination address before forwarding it to its destination segment. A store-and-forward switch examines the entire packet to catch packet errors. Both types of switches separate a network into collision domains, with each Ethernet segment having 10 Mbps of bandwidth shared by fewer users, resulting in higher performance. For example, an eight-port switch can support eight Ethernet connections, each running at 10 Mbps. Routers Routers filter out network traffic by protocol rather than packet address. Routers can also divide a network into subnets so that only traffic destined for particular IP addresses can pass between segments. Network speed decreases with this type of processing, but overall efficiency improves in more complex networks.

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Time Synchronization

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Workstation Resources and Data Links

To maintain an acceptable level of performance across your network, you should consider the following factors for every workstation: Resources: Workstation performance is directly influenced by the speed of the processor, the amount of RAM, and the number of tasks performed. Continuous or non-continuous connections: Workstations can be connected to metering sites through telephone lines, twisted wire pair, coaxial cable, infrared, and fiber optic cables. You have a choice of continuous (Ethernet) or noncontinuous (modem) channels, which impact how quickly you can retrieve event and logged data. Amount of information transferred: For maximum throughput along noncontinuous channels like modems, the workstation should retrieve only useful data. For example, if the workstation needs power quality information, the meter should filter out unnecessary data and transmit only the relevant parameters, not all data at once. Speed of connection: A high-speed Ethernet backbone ensures fast data transfer between workstations. Other network links, such as modems, can cause bottlenecks. Speeds range from 9.6 kbps or 33.6 kbps for modems, up to 115 kbps for serial communications, and 10 Mbps for Ethernet. Data compression: To get around any speed restrictions, you may want to compress the data so that fewer bits are transmitted but the information is still intact. One disadvantage is that the risk of error increases with greater data compression.

Time Synchronization

Time synchronization lets you synchronize the internal clocks of all networked meters and devices. Once synchronized, all data logs have timestamps that are relative to a uniform time base. This allows you to achieve precise sequence-ofevents and power quality analyses. To synchronize clocks, use ION software, an NTP server or a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to broadcast time signals across the network. Time synchronization signals are broadcast periodically over the network; each meter continually assesses its ability to remain synchronized with the incoming broadcasts. Over a brief period, each meter learns how its internal timing differs from that of the broadcast source and adjusts its timekeeping to compensate. Very accurate time synchronization is achieved with this method. Meters at modem sites are synchronized each time they are connected. The longer the duration between connections, the larger the error in time synchronization. In the extreme case, this can result in missing or duplicated logs. If this occurs, you can increase the frequency of connections: install GPS receivers at the remote sites, or arrange for a direct ION software connection. It is important that only one method of time synchronization be used on each network. If multiple methods are used, the timestamps will differ for the sites and devices using separate time synchronizing methods.

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Clock Module Settings

Before you configure time synchronization on your network, you should familiarize yourself with the Clock module settings. Once you have done this, you can decide which synchronization method you want to use.

Clock Module Settings

The Clock module controls an ION meter's internal clock. In order to correctly set up time synchronization with your single meter or network, you need to be familiar with certain features of the Clock module. You need to configure the Clock module's Setup registers to correspond to the type of time synchronization you desire. You can use Designer software or the front panel's Setup menu to configure the Clock module.

Clock Source used for Synchronization

The Clock Source setup register has three settings from which to choose, depending on the method of time synchronization. The ION 8000 series of meters have all three settings available as options; the ION 7550 / ION 7650 meters have two; and the ION 7700 and ION 7300 series only have the INTERNAL setting.

LINE FREQUENCY: When the Clock Source is set to monitor the ISO Grid Operation line frequency, each meter auto-corrects the internal clock based on the measured line frequency. Over a long period of time, this form of time keeping is highly accurate. If a power outage occurs, the clock automatically synchronizes with the meter's internal crystal until power is restored. Once the power is restored, the clock once again synchronizes with the line frequency. Meters synchronize with the line frequency by default. INTERNAL: If you prefer having the meter itself provide timekeeping, set the

Clock Source setup register to INTERNAL. The clock then synchronizes to the meter's internal crystal.

COMM:

Use this for the Clock Source if you set the Sync Source setup register (see below) to a COM port to receive GPS time synchronization signals.

Time Synchronization Method: ION Software, GPS, or NTP

Use ION software for systems where time synchronization is not critical: ION Enterprise can synchronize a meter's clock to within ± 16 ms (typical) of other meters in a serial network. ION Setup can be used for manual "one-time" timesyncs to an individual meter. It uses your computer's clock. Use a GPS receiver if you require time synchronization to within ± 1ms of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), or within ± 2 ms (typical) of other meters in the network. If you install a GPS receiver, you'll need an additional serial network. Use an NTP server for systems where time synchronization is not critical. NTP can synchronize a meter's clock to within +/- 1 sec (worst case) of other meters in an Ethernet network.

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ION Software Time Synchronization

ION Enterprise provides time synchronization by default. (It is disabled by default.) The communications port and protocol used for communications between ION Enterprise and the networked devices is automatically used to send time synchronization signals to all connected ION devices. ION Enterprise sends out a time sync packet and the time is set once the packet is received. Time synchronization values are set when sites or Ethernet devices are defined in an ION Enterprise network. You enable time synchronization or set custom intervals for any device in any site through the Management Console. Use ION Setup for initial time synchronization (when putting the meter into service) or when manual time syncs are required. ION Setup uses the computer's time. Note that ION Setup will not timesync automatically -- you must perform the following instructions every time you wish to synchronize this meter.

GPS Time Synchronization

To implement a GPS scheme, you need a dedicated serial network. If you are already using a serial link for communications with ION Enterprise, you need a second serial network to transport GPS signals. Either RS-232 or RS-485 networks can be used for GPS time synchronization, though RS-485 is recommended if more than two meters are being synchronized. If your GPS receiver output is RS-232 use the COM32 or equivalent RS-232/RS-485 converter that does not buffer communications. The COM128 is not recommended if used in Repeater Mode.

GPS Receiver RS-232 / RS-485 Converter

ION Network

GPS Serial Network

ION Devices

Supported GPS Receivers

GPS Receiver

True Time XL-DC series Datum ExacTime Series Arbiter 1092 Clark and Associates GPS-200-ASCII

1

Comm Module Protocol Register Setting

GPS:TRUETIME/DATUM GPS:TRUETIME/DATUM GPS:ARBITER GPS:ARBITER-VORNE1 GPS:TRUETIME/DATUM

GPS:ARBITER-VORNE is only supported in the ION 8000 series and ION 7550 / ION 7650 meters.

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Time-Synchronization Blackout

IRIG-B GPS Time Synchronization The IRIG-B option is available on all ION 8000 series meters. These meters accept unmodulated IRIG-B time code via twisted pair, compatible with the IRIG-B00x format. The standard is outlined in the IRIG-STANDARD 200-98 "IRIG Serial Time Code Formats" prepared by the Timing Committee, Telecommunications and Timing Group, Range Commanders Council. IRIG-B is the industry standard for GPS time synchronization. Power Industryspecific IRIG-B applications include: power quality monitoring and sequence of events recording highly accurate time stamping for revenue billing (1ms) system stability monitoring

NOTE

This option requires a receiver capable of unmodulated IRIG-B time code output (not included).

NTP Time Synchronization (ION 7550 and ION 7650)

To implement NTP time synchronization, your meter must be connected to an Ethernet network with access to an NTP server. See the TCP/IP Network Connectivity technical note and the Clock module description in the ION Reference for more information on configuring NTP time synchronization with ION meters.

Time-Synchronization Blackout

Time-synchronization blackout is defined as a duration when time synchronization cannot occur. Utilities often record power usage at regular, predetermined intervals. For example, the utility may schedule a recording every five minutes during an hour period (i.e. 5, 10, 15, 20,..., 55, 60). If a time synch moves the meter clock forward, the meter may miss one of the recording intervals. If a time synch moves the meter clock backwards, the meter may get two records with the same timestamp. The time synchronization blackout feature seeks to protect the time before and after these recording intervals by not sending out any time synch signals at those times. ION Enterprise has time-synchronization blackouts enabled automatically. The blackout intervals are every five minutes as follows: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55. Each blackout is 2 minutes and 30 seconds in duration. This duration is distributed evenly before and after the interval. If a regularly scheduled time synch is not sent due to a blackout interval, the software continues trying to send the time synchronization signal every 15 seconds until the blackout period expires and the time synch is sent. See the Time Synchronization and Timekeeping technical note for more information on Time-synchronization blackout.

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6

ION and Third Party Systems

To unify your diverse operations and automate facility-wide analyses, ION meters and software provide third-party system interfaces. The meters can interface directly to PLCs, RTUs, relays, and switches, in addition to gas, water, and compressed air monitoring devices. ION Enterprise operations software can communicate with other devices and software applications to perform demand management, distributed control, cost analyses, and billing calculations.

In This Chapter

Protocol Interfaces to Other Systems and Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Modbus Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Modbus Slave Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Modbus Master Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 DNP 3.0 Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 PROFIBUS-DP Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 MV-90 and the TIM_ION Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Using Telnet and Hyperterminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Analog/Digital Interfaces to Facility Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Digital Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Analog Inputs and Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 External I/O Boards and the I/O Expander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 ION Logging and Data Sharing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 ION Software Database Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

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Protocol Interfaces to Other Systems and Devices

ION meters and software communicate through industry standard protocols: Modbus, DNP 3.0, PROFIBUS-DP, and TIM-ION (for MV-90). ION devices can easily integrate with your existing energy management, control, data acquisition, and billing systems. Interface ION devices to your Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), Distribution Monitoring Systems (DMS) and Energy Management Systems (EMS). Combine them with other devices to perform monitoring, switching, control, load forecasting, disturbance analysis, and accounting functions, or include PLCs, RTUs, and transducers in a ION software network.

Defining Data Characteristics with ION Software Modules

Every ION meter has a set of software modules that control its communication ports. Inside the ION software modules' setup registers, you can specify the characteristics of incoming or outgoing data: protocols to use, power system parameters to communicate, and enable/reset functions to implement. Refer to the ION Reference or each meter's User Guide for details on how to configure ION modules using ION Setup or Designer software.

Port

Serial Ethernet Modem Infrared

Corresponding ION Software Module

Communications Ethernet Communications Infrared Communications

Modbus Protocol

Modbus RTU and Modbus/TCP protocols were developed by Modicon Corporation. Modbus is a master/slave protocol where the master initiates transactions and the slave responds with the requested data or action. A Modbus network is a single-master, multi-drop system that supports up to 247 slave devices. Modbus devices can be set up to use one of two transmission modes: RTU or ASCII. RTU mode, which is supported on ION meters, transmits binary characters. In ASCII mode, each byte contains two ASCII characters. RTU mode has greater character density and higher throughput. Modbus/TCP was designed to communicate Modbus messages in a peer-to-peer TCP/IP networking environment. Unlike traditional Modbus transactions, the TCP/IP protocol stack requires a "connection-oriented" approach where individual transactions can be opened and closed without any specific action by the client or server.

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Modbus Slave Configuration

The Virtual Processor and ION meters can make real-time data available to Modbus masters using the Modbus protocol. The ION 6200 meter, as well as the ION 7300 and ION 8000 series meters support access to data logs via Modbus. For ION 7300 and ION 8000 series meters, access to events and waveform logs must be communicated through the ION protocol. The Virtual Processor and some ION meters can act as Modbus masters. In that role, they can write data to and read data from, any Modbus slave device. The write capability lets masters send control or reset commands directly to slave devices. Modbus master extends the "reach" of an ION meter by enabling it to act as a local data concentrator, processor, and controller for a network of Modbus-enabled devices. It can import and export data over the local Modbus network, detect undesirable conditions and respond with a corrective action or an alarm. Data can be served up to the outside world through the meter's front panel display or any of its communication ports. For more details on using Modbus and ION meters, refer to the following references available from www.pwrm.com: Online ION Reference ION and Modbus Technology technical note Common Modbus Registers document

Modbus Slave Configuration

Both ION meters and the Virtual Processor can be configured as slaves on a Modbus network. A Modbus master can read and write to any ION meter that is slave on a Modbus network. For read requests, the slave sends data back to the master; for write requests, the slave receives data and writes it to the appropriate register. ION meters that support Modbus Slave modules allow a portion of the fixed Modbus map (address range from 40001 to 41800) to connect to any ION module output. The Modbus master gets the data from the inputs of the Modbus Slave modules when it reads these registers. If there are no inputs connected to the Modbus Slave module, a master can now write data to the Modbus Slave module input registers. The ION Virtual Processor Modbus slave modules also have this write capability.

The ION Meter as a Slave Device

You can use Modbus format for real-time data communications on the serial, Ethernet, modem and infrared ports of an ION meter. These hardware ports are controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter's software. First, choose the hardware port(s) through which you want to transmit data in Modbus format. Use Designer or ION Setup software to configure the corresponding ION software module. For an Ethernet port, the master uses Modbus/TCP protocol and the meter responds without any special setup.

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Modbus Master Configuration

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The module can then receive data from another set of ION software modules known as "Modbus slaves." The Modbus Slave modules convert an ION meter's data into Modbus format for Modbus master devices. Modbus Slave Modules on ION Meters Modbus Slave modules are pre-configured to communicate common power system parameters in a specified format. If these settings don't suit your needs, you can modify the setup registers or re-link modules to other power system data. A Modbus slave module's setup registers specify the Modbus format, scaling, and base address settings. Each Modbus slave module outputs a number of power system parameters. You can easily change these parameters if you want to communicate different data. Note that the Modbus register remains the same if you specify a different parameter. Sending or Writing Data to an ION Meter A Modbus master device can send data to an ION meter. You can use this data to enable, disable, and reset metering functions, as well as change setup register values to configure the meter's operation. The information required to write to ION registers through Modbus is available in the Common Modbus Registers document.

The Virtual Processor as a Slave

The Virtual Processor can act as a Modbus slave by accessing a Modbus network through the serial ports on your workstation. This hardware port is controlled by ION modules that exist for the Virtual Processor. First, choose the hardware port through which you want to transmit data in Modbus format. Use Designer to configure the corresponding ION modules known as Modbus slaves. Refer to the ION Reference for a description of the Modbus Slave module. Before configuring modules you must prepare the network using the Virtual Processor Setup software utility.

NOTE

Your Modbus slave port must be separate from the ports that connect to ION meters or that function as Modbus masters.

Modbus Master Configuration

There are three ways to bring Modbus data into an ION Enterprise energy management system: ION Enterprise as a Modbus master (using the Modbus Device Importer) ION meter as a Modbus master ION Virtual Processor as a Modbus master

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Modbus Master Configuration

The Modbus Device Importer

ION Enterprise operations software can be set up as a Modbus master using the Modbus Device Importer, a user-friendly interface. The Modbus Device Importer allows you to create a Modbus map for your Modbus slave device, and import it into the Network Configuration database where all meter and device information is stored. Once the map is imported into the Network Configuration database, a new "Device Type" is created that can be accessed in the Management Console for communications configuration. (This "Device Type" can be used for any Modbus slave devices requiring the same Modbus map.) In the Management Console, you can configure communications for the Modbus slave device the same as any ION device ­ the Modbus slave device has the same "look and feel" as an ION device. In addition, you can associate a Vista diagram with the Modbus slave device, so you can quickly access readings from you desktop.

The ION Meter as a Master Device

An ION meter acting as a Modbus master accesses the Modbus network through a serial port. This hardware port is controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter's software. First, choose the hardware port(s) through which you want to transmit data in Modbus format. Use Designer or ION Setup software to configure the corresponding ION Modbus software modules used for mastering functions. Within an ION meter the Modbus Import and Export modules are used to perform Modbus master functions. These modules allow configuration of data types, scaling capability, and function codes. For example, an ION 7550 meter acting as a Modbus master can collect voltage, current, power factor, energy, demand, THD, and status parameters from a network of ION 6200 meters and third-party Modbus slave devices such as PLCs, RTUs, and I/O devices.

The Virtual Processor as a Master

The Virtual Processor can act as a Modbus master, accessing the Modbus network through either the serial port or Ethernet port.

NOTE

The Modbus master port must be separate from the port that connects to ION meters.

Use the Virtual Processor Setup utility and Designer software to configure the Modbus Import and Modbus Export modules. These ION modules determine Modbus master functions. The Modbus Import module allows you to read data from a Modbus slave. The slave can be an ION meter or a third-party device. The Modbus Export module allows you to write data to a Modbus device for controlling devices such as remote relays.

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DNP 3.0 Protocol

System Design Handbook

DNP 3.0 Protocol

DNP 3.0 (Distributed Network Protocol Version 3.0) is a peer-to-peer protocol that was designed to achieve inter-operability among substation computers, RTUs, and other devices. By including the source and destination address of each message, the protocol makes unsolicited responses, multiple masters, and general peer-topeer operations easier. Any device can transmit a request or response at any time. DNP 3.0 can be transmitted by a range of media such as RS-485 and packet radio. DNP 3.0 is managed by the DNP User's Group whose members represent utilities and equipment vendors. It consists of four layers that adhere to the Enhanced Performance Architecture standard defined by the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission). ION meters can make real-time data available to a DNP network. (Data logs and waveform logs must be communicated through the ION protocol.) DNP master devices can also activate the meter's outputs for control actions. For more details on using DNP and ION meters, refer to the following references available from www.pwrm.com: ION Reference DNP and ION Technology technical note DNP Device Profile document for your meter Multiport DNP 3.0 and ION Technology technical note

Port Configuration

You can use the DNP 3.0 protocol for real-time data communications on serial, modem, and infrared ports. Some meters support DNP over Ethernet, too. These hardware ports are controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter's software. First, choose the hardware port(s) through which you want to transmit data in DNP 3.0 format. Use Designer or ION Setup software to configure the corresponding ION Communications modules. Set the protocol in any of these modules to DNP 3.0. These modules receive data from another set of ION software modules known as "DNP slaves." The DNP Slave Import, Export, and Options modules convert an ION meter's data into DNP 3.0 objects or vice-versa. An in-depth understanding of DNP 3.0 is required to interpret the settings in the DNP Slave Options and DNP Slave Export modules. Consult the references listed above for more detail.

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DNP 3.0 Protocol

DNP Slave Module Settings

The DNP Slave modules are pre-configured to communicate numeric or Boolean values in a specific format. If these settings don't suit your needs, you can modify the setup registers or re-link the modules to other power system data. Or, you can add additional DNP Slave Export modules and link the desired ION parameters to them. Don't make any changes to the setup registers in the DNP Options module unless you understand the effects that the changes will cause. DNP Slave Export Module The DNP Slave Export module supports four categories of DNP data objects: static, event, frozen static, and frozen event. A static object is a real-time value of a data point, for example, phase A voltage. An event object is generated when a static object exceeds a deadband threshold. A frozen static object or frozen event object represents the value of the static or event object at the moment when a DNP master issues a "freeze" command. The DNP Slave Export module converts an ION meter's Binary Input, Binary Counter, or Analog Input data into DNP static, event, or frozen objects. The BasePoint register maps the first value in a DNP Slave Export module into a DNP point number. The DNP master can then read the static, frozen, and event objects associated with that DNP point. Each subsequent value, and its related DNP point, is addressable by the appropriate offset from that BasePoint. The Scaling register determines whether or not the meter's measurements are scaled for output to a DNP master. This ensures that the DNP master receives valid data even if, for example, the source values are 32-bit and the master can only handle 16-bit. IONZero and IONFull specify the range of source values while DNPZero and DNPFull specify the range of output values. Data can be imported into an ION meter from a DNP control relay or analog output device. The DNP Slave Import module takes a DNP Analog Output or Binary Output object and converts it into an ION numeric or Boolean value. The DNP Slave Import module also allows the meter to react to control commands from a DNP master. DNP Slave Options Module The DNP Slave Options modules provide per-session settings that affect all DNP Slave Export and DNP Slave Import modules associated with that session.

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PROFIBUS-DP Protocol

System Design Handbook

PROFIBUS-DP Protocol

PROFIBUS is a vendor-independent field bus standard used in manufacturing, building automation, and process control. PROFIBUS allows multiple masters and their distributed peripherals on one bus. PROFIBUS-DP is the most popular version, optimized for speed, efficiency, and low connection costs. To ensure fast data transmission, it uses a streamlined OSI architecture: physical layer, data link layer, and user interface. Application functions are defined in the user interface.

Port Configuration

You can use the PROFIBUS-DP protocol for real-time data communications on the Profibus ION 7300 ports. This hardware port is controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter's software. They are called PROFIBUS Slave Export modules and must be configured using Designer or ION Setup software. A floppy disk is included with your ION 7300 PROFIBUS. This disk contains a PROFIBUS.GSD file that must be installed on your PROFIBUS master device so that the ION 7300 can communicate with your PROFIBUS network. The file is also available on the website at http://www.pwrm.com.

PROFIBUS Slave Export Module Settings

PROFIBUS Slave Export modules format ION data into PROFIBUS-DP response packets and make them available to PROFIBUS master devices. The response packets are represented by 32-bit signed integers, with values ranging from ­2 147 483 648 to +2 147 483 648. These data blocks contain 8 bytes of setup and control data, plus 24 bytes of power system measurements. Four scaling registers determine how ION data is scaled for output to a PROFIBUS system. IonZero and IonFull specify the lower and upper limits of ION values while the ProfiZero and ProfiFull specify the minimum and maximum PROFIBUS values. If the default settings don't suit your needs, you can modify the setup registers or re-link the modules to other power system data. See the PROFIBUS Slave Export module description in the ION Reference for more information.

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MV-90 and the TIM_ION Protocol

MV-90 and the TIM_ION Protocol

ION meters (except the ION 7300 and ION 6200 meters) are compatible with MV90, a software package used by hundreds of electric utilities to analyze electricity and gas data collected from commercial and industrial sites, and provide billing management capabilities. ION meters can supply information directly to MV-90 via modem or Ethernet links. MV-90 was developed by UTS (Utility Translation Systems, Inc.), a subsidiary of Itron Inc. MV-90 supports multiple methods of data retrieval, including dial-up modems, handheld readers, and cartridge readers. MV-90 software is a multi-vendor translation system developed to collect and analyze data from many different brands of meters, including ION meters. MV-90 communicates with each brand of meter through a protocol translator known as a Translation Interface Module, or TIM. For ION meters, the protocol translator is called TIM_ION. Every TIM converts metered data into MV-90 database format. MV-90 communications occur through an ION meter's serial, modem, or Ethernet ports. These hardware ports are controlled by the ION Communications module that exists in the meter's software. Use Designer or ION Setup software to configure the module. For more details on using MV-90 and ION meters, refer to the ION Reference and the technical note ION and MV-90 Technology. They are available at www.pwrm.com.

TIM_ION Configuration

TIM_ION may be currently installed on your system, in which case you can specify TIM_ION and continue. If TIM_ION is not installed, you need to install it (if it is available in your system), or order it from UTS. The TIM_ION.EXE file is available for MV-90 for DOS (releases 506, 606 or later), and for MV-90 for Windows (release 2.2 or later). TIM_ION is not compatible with release 405 of MV-90. Once you have set up TIM_ION in MV-90, you can configure your sites and meters.

Adding an ION Meter to MV-90

For MV-90 to access data from an ION meter, the meter must exist as an "ION recorder" in MV-90. When you add ION recorder, specify values such as: TIM number, device ID, phone number of meter site, baud rate, number of times per hour that the meter logs data, maximum number of history logs the meter can store, and the time difference between local time and universal standard time. After you have added an ION meter, define all 16 of its "channels," which are parameters it supplies to MV-90. You also specify characteristics such as the units of measure, encoder type (cumulative or non-cumulative), number of dials (number of digits where rollover of a cumulative value occurs), PT/CT ratio, tolerances, and length of interval between readings.

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Using Telnet and Hyperterminal

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Using Telnet and Hyperterminal

If your meter is connected to an Ethernet network, use a telnet application such as Microsoft Telnet. If your meter is connected serially or through a modem to your workstation, use a terminal application such as Windows HyperTerminal. These methods of connection are available for the ION 7300 series, ION 8000 series, ION 7550, and ION 7650 meters.

Using Telnet

Use Telnet if your meter has Ethernet capabilities. A Telnet session lets you: Access certain Ethernet communications module settings Display Ethernet statistics Access certain Power Meter module settings Access certain Factory module settings Clear the front panel event log display on an ION 8000 series meter Configure Factory module setup registers for Current Probe Input applications

Telnet ION Meter Menu

Not all ION meters have a Telnet menu, but when it is available, the Telnet menu options are:

0) 1) 2) 3) 4) 9) ?) Logout Ethernet Settings Ethernet Stats Meter Clear Funtions Factory Login Switch to Debug Parser (and route msgs to telnet) Displays this menu

Logout ­ select this option to log out of the meter, and end the Telnet session. Ethernet Settings ­ there are two options in this menu: one for viewing your current communications settings and one for configuring your IP Boot option, IP address, Subnet mask, Gateway address and SMTP address. Ethernet Stats ­ there are three options available in this menu: one for viewing various Ethernet statistics, one for viewing an Ethernet collision histogram, and a third option for resetting these statistics. Meter Clear Functions ­ there are two options available in this menu: one returns you to the Main Menu, and one clears the meter Event Log Display. (The Meter Clear Functions option is only available for ION 8000 series meters.)

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Using Telnet and Hyperterminal

Switch to Debug Parser (and route msgs to telnet) ­ there are eight screens with options available in this menu: Help; All Commands; Display Comm Help; Miscellaneous Help; Reset Help; Security Help; Time Help; and Calibration Help. In addition, the Factory Login and Logout menus are available. Factory Login ­ this menu is reserved for Technical Services' use.

Using HyperTerminal

NOTE

Ensure that the meter COM port you are using has its Protocol register set to "Factory."

Use Windows HyperTerminal to access certain meter module settings if your meter is connected serially or through a modem to your workstation. A HyperTerminal session lets you: Access certain Factory module settings Access certain Power Meter module settings Clear the front panel event log display on an ION 8000 series meter Configure Factory module setup registers for Current Probe Input applications

Factory Terminal Menu

The Factory Terminal menu options are:

? ALL? COMM? MISC? RESET SEC? TIME? KAL? LOGIN LOGOUT Display Help Screen Display All Commands Display Comm Help Screen Display Misc Help Commands Display Reset Help Commands Display Security Help Screen Display Time Help Screen Display Calibration Help Screen Factory login Logout

Display Help Screen ­ select this option to display the Factory Terminal menu (menu displayed above). Display All Commands ­ select this option to display every Terminal Command that can be used in HyperTerminal. Display Comm Help Screen ­ this option is not used if your meter is connected serially to your workstation.

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Analog/Digital Interfaces to Facility Equipment

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Display Misc Help Screen ­ this option lists commands that allow you to repeat the last command, and display the battery statistics, meter release version, and meter firmware version. Display Reset Help Screen ­ if your security level allows you to perform resets then this screen lists the following options: full or partial factory initialization; restore the factory framework; read power-up style; and reset fatal error. Display Security Help Screen ­ select this option to enable/disable password or hardware security, or read the meter lock state. Display Time Help Screen ­ select this option to set or display: Meter time: Unix time (seconds since January 1, 1970) Human meter time: day/month/year and hour:minute:second Display Calibration Help Screen ­ select this option to display or configure meter calibration parameters. Factory Login ­ this menu is reserved for use by Technical Support. Logout ­ select this option to log out of the meter and end the session.

Analog/Digital Interfaces to Facility Equipment

Analog and digital inputs/outputs (I/O) help you implement control, monitoring, alarming, and data output functions. You can meter electricity, gas, air, steam, and water, all from a single unit, as well as monitor equipment status, count transducer pulses and breaker trips, and measure flow rates, oil pressures, and transformer temperatures. You can also transmit control signals or send information to RTUs.

CAUTION

During normal operation of the meter, hazardous voltages are present that can cause severe injury or death. These voltages are present throughout the connected status inputs, relays, and control power circuits. Only qualified and properly trained personnel should perform servicing.

ION Software Modules for Defining I/O Characteristics

Every ION meter has a set of software modules that control its analog and digital I/O ports. Inside an ION software module's setup registers, you can specify characteristics for the incoming or outgoing signals, such as pulse width, signal polarity, or zero/full scale values. For details on how to link and configure these ION modules using Designer or ION Setup software, refer to the technical note Digital and Analog I/O, each meter's User Guide, or the ION Reference.

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Digital Inputs and Outputs

Digital Inputs and Outputs

Digital Inputs

Digital inputs are necessary for status monitoring or pulse counting applications. Status monitoring can help you prevent equipment damage, improve maintenance, or track security breaches. Digital inputs let you monitor the closed/ unclosed positions of breakers, on/off status of generators, armed/unarmed conditions of different zones in a building alarm system, closed/unclosed positions of doors to meter enclosures, or over/under pressures of transformers. If you want to confirm the status of a breaker, it should have an auxiliary circuit that indicates whether it is open or closed. If you want to check for over/under conditions of a transformer, you interface the meter's digital input to a transducer that monitors the transformer and turns on if such a condition exists. You can also have the digital inputs count transducer pulses to indicate, for example, the number of times a breaker has tripped, or the number of rotations completed by a device. Another option is to have the inputs read pulses from gas, water, steam, or other electricity meters. The digital inputs of the ION 7000 series meters are self-excited, which means the meters use an internal 30 VDC power source to send out currents that detect whether relays are open or closed. The digital inputs of the ION 8000 series can be self- or externally-excited. By default, the digital inputs are configured to operate with internal excitation. If an external power supply is required for the digital inputs, the I/O Expander board must first be disassembled to access a set of jumper blocks. The position of these jumpers defines whether the I/O Expander uses the internal excitation power supply for the digital inputs, or accept an external excitation supply. Specifications The total number of both internal and external digital inputs on each ION meter is listed below. If you need more information on the external boards, please see the "External I/O Boards" section of this chapter.

Meter

ION 6200 ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 ION 7550 ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500

1

Digital Inputs on Meter1

0 0 4 4 16 16 8 0 0 0

Digital Inputs on External Boards

0 0 0 0 0 0 30 8 8 8

Some of these inputs require the installation of an optional circuit board inside the meter. See the meter's data sheet for complete details.

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Digital Inputs and Outputs

System Design Handbook

The digital input ports are controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter's software. One ION "Digital Input" software module corresponds to each physical input port. After connecting the digital input ports to field equipment, use Designer or ION Setup software to check that the corresponding software modules are configured appropriately. On ION 7000 series meters, the Digital Input modules are pre-configured at the factory, together with Counter modules for counting status changes, and External Pulse modules for resetting the Counter modules. Cable Lengths for Digital Inputs The length of cable that digital inputs can support depends on the size of cable. To detect a short, resistance across the leads must be less than 5k. To detect an open, the resistance across the leads must be greater than 1M. Consequently, resistance between 5k and 1M is non-deterministic. The specifications below are for 50 ohm max loop impedance: 2000 feet for 24 AWG wire 3000 feet for 22 AWG wire 5000 feet for 20 AWG wire 7500 feet for 18 AWG wire. The wire should be shielded twisted pair, properly shielded to reduce the effects of induced noise.

Digital Outputs

An ION meter's digital outputs can provide on/off control signals for capacitor banks, generators, or other equipment. They can also send out status signals, or kWh pulses if the receiving device determines energy usage by counting pulses. Each digital output is a dry contact relay (switch) that is either open or closed. An external power supply must be available to sense whether the relay is open (no current) or closed (current is flowing). Specifications ION meters offer solid state and electromechanical relay outputs. The external boards are described in the "External I/O Boards" section of this chapter.

Meter

ION 6200 ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 ION 7550 ION 7650 ION 7700 2 4 4 4 7 7 0

Digital Outputs on Meter1

0

Digital Outputs on External Boards

42 42 42 0 0 30

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Analog Inputs and Outputs

Meter

ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500

1

Digital Outputs on Meter1

0 0 0 8 8 8

Digital Outputs on External Boards

Some of these outputs require the installation of an optional circuit board inside the meter. See the meter's datasheet for complete details. The ION 7300 can have a total of 4 digital outputs, either on the meter or on an external board.

2

The digital output ports are controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter's software. A "Digital Output" or "Pulser" software module corresponds to each physical output port. After connecting the ports to field equipment, use Designer or ION Setup software to configure the software modules and specify signal characteristics. A Digital Output module takes a Boolean input and sends it out a hardware channel as a constant level or a complete pulse. A Pulser module takes an instantaneous pulse and converts it to either a complete pulse or a transition pulse on a hardware channel. All the ION meters, except the ION 7500 RTU, also have Calibration Pulser modules.

Energy Pulsing from ION Meters

If you want to use one of the digital outputs on an ION 7300 series, ION 8000 series, ION 7550 or ION 7650 meter for energy pulsing applications (kWh, kVAh, kVARh), assign it any Pulser, Digital Output, or Calibration Pulser module. In the ION 7300, ION 7550 and ION 7650 meters, one of the solid-state relays (DO4) is pre-configured for calibration pulsing. It outputs a pulse for every 1.8 Wh measured and is controlled by an ION Calibration Pulser module. If you want to configure the LED for other energy pulsing applications (kVAh, kVARh), disable the default configuration, then assign it any Pulser, Digital Output, or Calibration Pulser module. On the ION 6200 meter, two ION Pulser software modules are pre-set to send pulses every 1 kWh and every 1 kVARh to the solid state relays on the meter. The ION 7300 meter's infrared port can also be used for energy pulsing. To do this, you must set the communications protocol to INFRARED I/O. Then choose one of the ION Pulser modules and specify the infrared port in its setup register.

Analog Inputs and Outputs

Analog Inputs

An ION meter's analog inputs can receive electrical signals from transducers, which derive those signals from flow rates, temperatures, pressures, rotations, and fluid levels. You need transducers that transmit industry standard signals: 0 to 20 mA current, 0 to 1 V voltage, or 0 to 10 V voltage. Voltage-based signals aren't as reliable because induced voltages or ground potential might affect the signal level during transmission.

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Specifications The number of analog inputs on each ION meter is listed below. The external boards are described in the "External I/O Boards" section of this chapter.

Meter

ION 6200 ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 ION 7550 ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500

1

Analog Inputs on Meter1

0 4 4 4 4 4 4 0 0 0

Analog Inputs on External Boards

0 0 0 0 0 0 14 0 0 0

These inputs require the installation of an optional circuit board inside the meter. See the meter's datasheet for complete details.

The analog input ports are controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter's software. An "Analog Input" software module corresponds to each physical input port. After connecting the analog inputs to field equipment, use Designer or ION Setup software to configure the software modules and specify signal characteristics. An Analog Input software module takes a signal from an input port, scales it, and makes the result available to the meter. The ION 7550 and ION 7650 meters offer optional plug-in cards with 4 analog inputs that monitor DC signals. The ION 7700 meter's optional plug-in board provides 4 double-ended voltage or current inputs. You can configure some to be AC signals and some to be DC; however all 4 must have the same input rating, e.g. 0 ­ 20 mA.

Analog Outputs

An ION meter's analog outputs act as transducers. For example, an ION meter can measure power and energy, then send that information to an RTU. The analog outputs issue industry-standard 0 to 20 mA current signals. Specifications The number of analog inputs on each ION meter is listed below. The external boards are described in the "External I/O Boards" section of this chapter.

Meter

ION 6200 ION 7300 ION 7330 0 4 4

Analog Outputs on Meter

0 0 0

Analog Outputs on External Boards

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Meter

ION 7350 ION 7550 ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 4 4 4 0 0 0 0

Analog Outputs on Meter

0 0 0

Analog Outputs on External Boards

30 4 4 4

The analog output ports are controlled by ION modules that exist in the meter's software. An "Analog Output" software module corresponds to each physical output port. After connecting the analog output ports to field equipment, use Designer or ION Setup software to set up the software modules and specify signal characteristics. An Analog Output software module takes a numeric value and scales it for output to an analog hardware port, allowing you to control external devices by delivering a specific current or voltage. If the input rises above the value specified in the Full Scale setup register, the output remains at the Full Scale value and the maximum possible value is sent to the hardware port. Likewise, if the input falls below the value specified in the Zero Scale register, the output remains at the Zero Scale value and the lowest possible value is sent to the hardware port. The ION 7550 and ION 7650 meters offer optional plug-in cards with 4 analog outputs that deliver DC signals. Note that a ION 7300 TRAN unit with this sort of card cannot be ordered with a remote display unit.

External I/O Boards and the I/O Expander

You can change the number of inputs and outputs available to ION meters through external I/O boards. Just plug Grayhill analog or digital I/O modules into the boards. For more information on Grayhill racks and modules, visit the web site at www.grayhill.com or contact Power Measurement. Like onboard I/O, the functionality of these external Grayhill hardware modules is controlled by ION software modules inside the meters. ION Digital Output, Analog Output, or Pulser modules specify output signal characteristics, while the Digital Input or Analog Input modules define incoming signals.

External Digital Outputs for ION 7300 Meters

You can replace the open collector outputs on the ION 7300, ION 7330 and ION 7350 meters with an optional REB (Relay Extension Board). The REB provides four slots into which you can plug Grayhill digital output modules. There are nine Grayhill modules of varying functionality to choose from.

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You can use ION Digital Output or Pulser modules to control the functions of the Grayhill relays. Set the Digital Output or Pulser module's Port setup register to the digital output port (D1 to D4) to which the relay is connected.

Expansion Boards for the ION 7700 Meter

The expansion boards provide multiple analog inputs, analog outputs, digital inputs, and/or digital outputs. Each expansion board offers 15 slots into which you can plug Grayhill I/O modules. Slots 0 through 7 support digital input, digital output and analog output Grayhill modules only, not the analog input modules. Slots 8 through 14 support digital input, digital output, analog input and analog output Grayhill modules. Slot 15 is not supported. Other restrictions apply to the use of analog I/O Grayhill modules, as discussed below.

NOTE

Slots are numbered on the expansion boards. Slots 0­7 do not support analog input devices, and slot 15 is not used.

Analog Grayhill Module Restrictions -- Power Supplies Power requirements and hardware restrictions limit the number and placement of analog Grayhill modules on I/O expansion boards. To install the maximum number of analog I/O Grayhill modules, you must have two power supplies (one for each expansion board). These power supplies are purchased separately. If you only need to install a maximum of 6 analog Grayhill modules, you can power Expansion Board A directly from the ION 7700 meter. Note that if you have a separate power supply for Expansion Board A, then you must remove the associated jumper from the board. Failure to remove the jumper voids the ION 7700 meter's warranty. (Refer to the ION 7700 Installation & Basic Setup Instructions for jumper location.) Expansion Board B always requires a separate power supply, no matter what the configuration. Analog Grayhill Restrictions -- Direction of Installation The direction of all modules in slots 0 through 7 and slots 8 through 14 must be the same. You cannot mix inputs and outputs within these two groups of slots; however, you can have all inputs in slots 0 through 7 and all outputs in slots 8 through 14 (or vice versa). As noted above, only slots 8 through 14 support analog input modules, so you can have a maximum of 7 per board. Analog output modules can populate both slot groups on the expansion board, so you can install a maximum of 15 analog output modules per board. The table below summarizes the restrictions on analog I/O devices.

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Max # of Analog Inputs

Board A WITHOUT Optional Power Supply Board A WITH Optional Power Supply Board A WITHOUT Optional Power Supply + Board B 6 7 13

Max # of Analog Outputs

6 15 21

Max # of Analog Devices

6 15 21

Possible Maximum Configurations

Any combination up to 6 total Board full A: 6 AI; B: 7 AI, 8 AO A: 6 AO; B: 7 AI, 8 AO A: 6 AO; B: 15 AO A: 6 AI; B: 15 AO Both boards full

Board A WITH Optional Power Supply + Board B

14

30

30

External I/O Expander for ION 8000 Series Meters

To get enhanced analog or digital I/O with the ION 8000 series meters, you can use an external I/O Expander. The I/O Expander equips an ION meter with eight digital inputs, four Form A digital outputs, and four Form C digital outputs. Another version offers four analog outputs (0 to 20 mA scalable 4-20, or ­1 to +1 mA, scalable 0-1) in place of the four Form A digital outputs. The I/O Expander also provides a convenient location for the ION meter's RS-232 and RS-485 communications wiring. If the I/O Expander is not ordered with the ION 8000 series meter, a breakout cable (ordering accessory) is required to get access to communications. The I/O Expander is mounted separately, no more than 15 feet away from the meter. It connects to the meter via a standard Molex Micro-Fit 3.0 connector. RS232 and RS-485 links are made through standard DB9 and captured-wire connectors located on the I/O Expander. The analog output version of the I/ O Expander must be powered by an external source, a standard AC/DC supply. Because the I/O Expander board is external, you can install and configure I/O points without affecting the meter's operation. Terminal strips simplify connections to external equipment. Plus, the low-profile connectors between the meter and the I/O board let you easily remove the meter without disconnecting all the attached I/O wiring.

ION Logging and Data Sharing

ION software stores all system data in an industry-standard, ODBC-compliant (Open Database Connectivity) database. Because of this capability, you can bring power system data into third-party software applications and adapt the information into formats that make sense for your organization. You can perform any sort of analysis that you need to make decisions, and apply simulation and modeling techniques to forecast the results of changes to operational processes or expenditures like substations. You can also formulate energy cost estimates or track the real sources of power quality disturbances.

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In addition, the ODBC-compliant database makes data-sharing across your entire organization possible. ODBC is an industry standard method of sharing information between a database and other applications. You can quickly retrieve data through Standard Query Language (SQL) commands to create custom reports. The open architecture allows your other software applications to access information from the same database in which ION software logs metered data. A dynamic database automatically tracks configurations, so you can make changes to any meter without having to go offline and restart the software. An ODBC-compliant database also eliminates the need for large log files on the hard drive of local workstations. ION software features automated archiving where old data is periodically transferred to a removable disk. Reporter software accesses information from the database to generate energy consumption, load profile, cost, and power quality reports. You can use these reports for bill verification, usage tracking, maintenance, and operations planning. Reports are schedule-, event-, or manually-driven. You can distribute them automatically via email or fax. You can also arrange to have the reports automatically sent to a printer, stored on the network, or saved in Internet-ready HTML format. To get you started quickly, ION software comes with pre-configured power quality, billing and load profile reports. You can also customize these ION software reports to incorporate virtually any type of data and perform further analysis using Microsoft Excel's mathematical and graphical functions. For more details on data-sharing, refer to the ION Enterprise User documentation available from www.pwrm.com.

ION Software Database Tools

Several ION software and third-party components interact to perform a variety of data collection, information retrieval, and database management functions. These include the Log Inserter service, Query Server service, Reporter software, and standard databases. For customizable reporting capabilities, you can also use Microsoft Excel in conjunction with the Reporter software. (Other third-party report generation packages, such as Crystal Reports, can also be applied. Microsoft Excel is recommended.) Your system will have distinct operational requirements, resulting in unique uses of the tools provided. The system can be very basic, very sophisticated, or somewhere in between. The following components form the basis of a ION software information system: Digital power meters and other monitoring devices Vista Query Wizard Log Inserter and Query Server (formerly the Log Server) Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)

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Reporter Database Manager The sources of data stored in the database are monitoring devices such as ION 7000 series, ION 8000 series, and 3000 ACM series digital power meters.

Vista Query Wizard

Vista lets you display logged data from your power system. The Query Wizard component of Vista walks you through the creation of SQL queries, providing a point-and-click interface to the ION databases. With the Query Wizard, anyone with little or no SQL experience can generate functional database queries.

Log Inserter and Query Server

The Log Server service has been split into two separate services: the ION Log Inserter Service and the ION Query Service. The Log Inserter typically runs only on a primary server workstation; it controls the flow of data into the ION database. The Log Inserter initiates and controls data collection and organizes data storage. You can configure the Log Inserter yourself, or you can let the Log Inserter perform and maintain its configuration for you. The Query Server processes queries made on the database and controls data retrieval. The Query Server is responsible for retrieving data for display in Vista, and provides connection string information used by WebReach. You can customize both the Log Inserter and the Query Server with Designer software, and you can monitor the Query Server's operation using Vista. When in "Auto-Mode," the Log Inserter automatically configures all the links between the databases and monitoring devices. It automatically reconfigures when you add or remove workstations, software components, or devices. AutoMode is recommended for all ION software users, provided your system does not include a large number of logging devices (i.e. several hundred meters). You can configure the Log Inserter manually using Designer software to create each link between device recorders and the database. Manual configuration is required if you have a very large system, or if you use multiple Log Inserters. Manual configuration also provides increased control over logging functions. If you need to modify the Log Inserter's operation, you should be familiar with the different modes of operation, and the functions of the internal components and ION Enterprise services.

Log Inserter ION Modules

NOTE

Refer to the online ION Programmer's Reference for complete descriptions of the ION modules in the Log Inserter.

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ION software modules control the Log Inserter's operation. If the Log Inserter isn't in Auto-Mode, you can configure the following ION modules in Designer software. If you require assistance using the software, refer to the Online Help. Factory module -- Lets you view the revision information, serial number, and compliance information for the Log Inserter and the Query Server. Log Acquisition module -- Collects logs from the devices and the Virtual Processor and inserts them into the ION database. System Log Controller module -- Collects system events from a server workstation and converts them into ION-compatible format. System events are generated by ION software applications, not by the power system. System events include operator log-ins, device status messages, system errors, and startup and shutdown messages from ION software applications. The System Log Controller's output is connected to a Log Acquisition module for insertion into the database. When the Log Inserter is in Auto-Mode, it creates a System Log Controller module for each ION software server workstation. External Boolean module -- This is another module often associated with the Log Inserter. It provides operator control for enabling and disabling log acquisition. While External Boolean modules can be created using Designer software, these modules are not part of a typical Log Inserter, nor are they installed by default. Diagnostics module -- Provides diagnostic information on the nodes and sites in your system and stores it in the database. If you add and configure the Diagnostics module, you use Vista to examine how node communications and log retrieval operations are proceeding. Some advanced knowledge of the Log Inserter and Services is required to interpret some of the information provided by these modules. System Log Service The System Log service operates on all primary or secondary workstations. When internal ION software system events occur, the System Log service collects them and passes them to the Log Inserter's System Log Controller module. The System Log service operates silently; dialog box messages are displayed only when a problem occurs. If the System Log service on a workstation shuts down, a message appears in each of the other ION software applications whenever a system event is generated until you restart the service, or click Cancel. All system events are written into the Windows Application Log if the System Log service shuts down. If desired, you can configure the System Log service to write other system events into the Windows Application Log, based on an event priority level that you specify. This lets you keep a backup log of ION software system events that can also be viewed in the Windows Event Viewer. Log Inserter Interface Once the Log Inserter is configured, a simple window interface is all that appears. Inside this window, when the Diagnostics option is enabled, you can view a progress log that tracks the Log Inserter's operation. This is primarily for use by Technical Services. The Diagnostics module provides you with more detailed performance diagnostics.

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Relational Database Management System (RDBMS)

The RDBMS is the central point of the ION software information system. The Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Desktop Engine (MSDE 2000) manages the ION Enterprise databases, which are the ION database, the Network Configuration database, and the System Events database. For more information on database management, refer to the ION Enterprise Help. Components of the RDBMS The RDBMS includes three main components: the database server, the database clients, and the database file. (Other components, such as the database engine, operate without user interaction, so they are not discussed in detail here.) In the diagrams, the RDBMS is represented as a single component (a gray cylinder).

You can consider the RDBMS as a single component in most cases; however, it is useful to understand how the components inside the RDBMS interact.

Database Server

Database Files Database Clients

ODBC Links

The Log Inserter, Query Server, and Reporter all use ODBC links to connect to a database client. ODBC links are made when a software component accesses the database by referencing a Data Source Name (DSN).

NOTE

Refer to the Sybase SQL Anywhere documentation for further information about the RDBMS components.

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Each component that writes to the database (such as the Log Inserter) or reads from the database (such as the Query Server, Vista, or Reporter) connects to a database client through an ODBC Data Source. The Data Source creates an ODBC link between the ION software or third party component and the database client. In turn, whenever a database client has a request to insert or retrieve data, it communicates with the database server. There may be several connections between database clients and the server at any one time. The database server (in combination with the database engine) handles all insertions into the database and distributions of data retrieved from the database. Database Seat Licenses Each connection between a database client and the server typically requires one seat license. ION software ships with enough seats to operate each ION software database tool. You must purchase additional seats if you connect to the database with a third-party application, or if you extend the use of the ION software database beyond the standard configuration.

Reporter Software

Reporter software lets you define, generate, and manage comprehensive reports based on the data in your database. Reporter retrieves data from the RDBMS, and processes it into a finished report in Microsoft Excel format. ION software comes with pre-configured power quality, billing and load profile reports. You can also generate custom reports that incorporate virtually any of the data stored in the RDBMS and perform further analysis using Excel's advanced mathematical and graphical functions. After you've designed custom reports and configured the Excel workbooks, reports are updated automatically, either in response to a power system event or following a specified schedule. You can also configure reports to automatically email selected recipients after updating.

Database Manager Utility

Use the Database Manager utility to configure scheduled archives, backups, and trims of the ION Enterprise databases. You can also perform these operations manually. You launch this utility from the Management Console.

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The Database Manager provides additional database management functions that are specific to the ION database. It lets you perform database backups, trim the live database, and produce custom archives that include only the types of data that you wish to keep (i.e. you can create archives based on specific date ranges). The utility also generates the ODBC Data Sources necessary to access your archived databases. Database Backup and Archival The data in your database is irreplaceable. While you can re-install ION software, you can only recover a lost database if you have access to a backup. For that reason, it is critical to plan for regular database backups and implement an archival system that provides permanent storage for backed-up copies. Archiving and Trimming a Database The simplest method to control database size is regularly archiving logical sections of the database and then trimming (removing) these sections from your main database file. This method is recommended for all ION Enterprise systems. The Database Manager utility is a graphical utility which can archive and trim your database. The Database Manager archives data by creating a new database file that is configured in the exact format of the existing database. The utility can then trim (when that task is selected) the same information out of the main database file to make room for more database information. It is recommended that you always archive information first, then trim the database. You can perform these tasks manually, or you can create an archive/trim schedule in the Database Manager utility. You can archive a live database and trim (delete) records without stopping the database engine.

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Restoring an Archived Database Restoring an archived database is easy using the Database Manager utility. It is not possible to simply detach the live file, copy the backup file into the live file location, and reattach the file. The backup file is a file copy of the live database, but it must have some operations performed on it to allow it replace the live database. The Restore command performs these operations for you. Recommended Backup/Archival Frequency The Database Manager has a number of preconfigured scheduled tasks. The following table explains which tasks are preconfigured, on which databases these scheduled tasks are performed, and whether or not the scheduled task is enabled by default.

Database

Scheduled Task

Archive Trim Backup Maintenance Backup Maintenance Trim Maintenance

Enabled by Default?

No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

ION database (ION_Data)

Network Configuration database (ION_Network) System Events database (ION_SystemLog)

You can determine the frequency for your scheduled backups, archives, and trims, but the schedule for the maintenance tasks are fixed. There are a number of tasks performed on the database when a maintenance job is executed. The following is an ordered breakdown of a scheduled maintenance: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Shrink the database, leaving 10% free space in the database file afterwards. Check database fragmentation and defragment if the fragmentation level is more than 10%. Update statistics for all the tables in the database. Check and track the database size. Send an email alert if any maintenance step fails.

The maintenance schedule for each database is as follows: ION_Data maintenance job occurs daily at 2:00 AM. ION_SystemLog maintenance job occurs daily at 7:05 AM. ION_Network maintenance job occurs daily at 7:30 AM. (Note that the disk usage monitor starts at 7:00 AM, taking only a few seconds to complete.)

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7

ION Technology

ION is a software architecture that provides state-of-the-art solutions for your power monitoring, analysis, and control needs. You can use the default configurations in meters and software, or customize them for your particular applications. The same products can satisfy changing needs, so you don't have to keep re-investing in equipment to add functionality. It's like having a system built to your specifications, but not at a custom-built price.

In This Chapter

ION Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 ION Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Power Quality Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Demand Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Substation Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Cost Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Capacitor Bank Switching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Popular Module Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 ION Timing Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Designer Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 ION Modules Supported by Each Platform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129

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ION Architecture

ION is a software architecture that makes your power monitoring system flexible and adaptable. In place of conventional power monitoring designs with fixed features, ION offers a set of functional building blocks that you can use right out of the box, or assemble in different ways to meet the demands of your application. You don't have to waste any time or space with unnecessary readings, calculations, or data storage. ION allows you to process power system data and construct new features through building blocks known as ION modules. These ION modules are contained within the operating software of ION meters and ION software Virtual Processors. Each ION module performs a dedicated task, and by linking groups of ION modules in software, you can build the features you require. For example, you can combine a Power Meter module, a Demand module, and a Data Recorder module to create a Demand Recorder feature. Many popular features are preprogrammed, so system setup is fast. If you want to create or dismantle features, Designer software lets you change settings graphically. ION modules transfer, process, and store power information through their inputs, setup registers, and output registers. A module reads data at its inputs, manipulates this data according to user-specified information in setup registers, and writes the results to output registers. You can link an ION module's output register to the inputs of other ION modules using Designer software. Suppose you want to record demand values every day at the same time... 1. Take a Power Meter module and link its kW output to a Sliding Window Demand module*. This Power Meter module calculates average power consumption over a specified interval. The Sliding Window Demand module is used to calculate block and rolling block demand. Link a Data Recorder module to log the time-stamped demand values. Add a Periodic Timer module that provides a trigger for recording every 24 hrs.

2.

3.

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ION Solutions

ION Solutions

ION meters come with default module configurations that provide capabilities such as energy and demand calculations, min/max logging, harmonics logging, loss compensation, and Modbus slave communications. Default configurations are different for every type of meter. You can stay with these defaults, or assemble your own set of ION modules to match your specific requirements. Implement specialized features for power quality monitoring, revenue metering, substation automation, demand and load management, capacitor bank switching, and operations planning.

Power Quality Monitoring

ION meters keep you apprised of your power quality, helping you avoid operational shutdowns that cost you in time, resources, and lost customers. Power quality disturbances such as harmonics, voltage sags, and transients often lead to equipment failures, nuisance breaker tripping, and shortened transformer life-spans. A network of continuously-active ION meters at various loads and feeders can determine the sources of these problems, capture short-duration events, and alert you of phase imbalances. Analyze surges, sags, and faults; monitor harmonics in real-time on any phase; record high accuracy multi-cycle waveforms; and transfer this data to your existing SCADA system. Based on all this information, you can select the most suitable protective devices and UPSs to avoid future interruptions. Alarms can be generated for any condition you specify, ensuring that corrective actions can be implemented immediately.

Power quality monitoring: This framework detects and counts disturbances and records associated data including multi-cycle waveforms. The Sliding Window Demand module, used to calculate block and rolling block demand, provides a stable operating voltage reference.

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Demand Control

To control power costs in your industrial facility, you may want to eliminate expensive demand surcharges. To do this, you have to monitor power usage, predict upcoming demand, and as soon as your demand exceeds a certain value, shed non-essential loads or start up auxiliary generators. This way, you can avoid setting new demand peaks that impact your billing for subsequent calendar periods. With ION modules, you can configure your facility's demand control to satisfy your exact needs. The ION framework below is one example of how you can manage loads using prediction and scheduling. The Arithmetic module plays a key role in gathering all the relevant data and deciding on a course of action. It accepts facility temperature data from the Analog Input module, Predicted Demand from the Sliding Window Demand module (used to calculate block and rolling block demand), and time-of-use information from the Scheduler module. The Arithmetic module then sends the calculated results to the Digital Output modules.

In this particular framework, you can set different predicted demand limits for weekdays and weekends. When a limit is reached, you can turn off the air conditioning if the facility's temperature is less than 30°C. If the temperature is higher, and it's a weekday, you may want to turn on an auxiliary generator. Or if it's the weekend, maybe shutting off some lighting systems is acceptable. The power of ION is that you have a virtually unlimited number of options.

Substation Automation

Distributed ION meters lets you automate the operation of substations by providing remote monitoring, control, and information access functions. From a central location, you can monitor and combine data about each substation's voltage, current, and demand levels; disturbances; breaker positions; and operating conditions. ION can respond automatically to changes using high-speed setpoints that control substation equipment and automatically notify you of alarms. Additionally, you can have access to comprehensive ION measurements and records from wherever you are. All these functions are possible using ION modules such as the Power Meter, Data Recorder, Arithmetic, Analog and Digital Input/Output, and Sag/Swell modules.

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Cost Allocation

Cost Allocation

ION offers an economical way of attributing portions of your monthly power bill to various equipment and systems in your operation. If you are planning facility expansion or upgrades, ION can identify problem areas or opportunities for extra capacity and capital cost deferrals. ION meters and ION software Virtual Processors can track power factor, demand peaks, and penalty tariff structures, even accepting data from third-party HVAC and PLC systems. ION software can integrate this information and promptly disseminate it to the appropriate people. You can implement cost allocation features with a combination of Power Meter, Integrator, Arithmetic, and Data Recorder modules.

Capacitor Bank Switching

Capacitor banks are often used to correct a facility's lagging power factor, bringing it closer to unity. Correcting power factor reduces the kVA load on facility or utility transformers, potentially preventing expensive failures. It can also save money on the utility bill, as utility companies commonly include penalty charges for customers with poor power factors. A basic control scheme switches a fixed capacitor bank in or out based on the monitored power factor or consumed kVAR. This can easily be accomplished with ION Setpoint modules controlling Digital Output modules. These Digital Outputs send trip and close signals to the capacitor bank. In more complex situations, there could be several capacitor banks with different kVAR ratings. Whether or not a specific bank should be operated may depend on several factors: present power factor or load kVAR, other currently energized banks, manual or protective lock-outs, or even the harmonic levels in the system. Using the ION Arithmetic and Digital Output modules, you can make complex decisions about when to turn on or off each capacitor bank.

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Popular Module Links

You may want to implement power monitoring, analysis, and control operations using the module links suggested below. ION modules are described later in this chapter.

Desired Operation

Breaker trip counting Cost calculations Delay of operation after setpoint1 Demand control (load shedding) Demand peak recording Disturbance counting Energy calculations Fuel level recording Phase imbalances Power factor lag statistics Power quality analysis Relay control with multiple setpoints1 Status of breaker, switch, or relay Service continuity verification Scheduled disabling of setpoint Tamper detection Time-of-use revenue metering Transformer temperature recording Trending, demand Trending, maximum values, recorded at daily intervals

1 2

ION Module Links

Digital Input Virtual Processor & XML Import Setpoint Demand Demand Sag/Swell Power Meter Analog Input Symmetrical Components Power Meter Sag/Swell Setpoints Digital Input Setpoint Scheduler Setpoint Power Meter & Time-Of-Use Analog Input Power Meter Power Meter & Periodic Timer Counter Arithmetic One-Shot Timer Arithmetic or Setpoint Maximum Counter Integrator Data Recorder Data Recorder Setpoint Pulse Merge AND/OR or Arithmetic Data Recorder Counter Setpoint Data Recorder Integrators Data Recorder Sliding Window Demand2 Maximum Data Recorder Data Recorder Counters Counter Waveform Recorder Digital Output Data Recorder or Digital Output Digital Output Data Recorder

Setpoint conditions can be high demand, low current, high harmonics, etc. Sliding Window Demand module is used to calculate block and rolling block demand.

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ION Timing Considerations

ION Timing Considerations

The standard, high-accuracy update rate of ION modules on most platforms is one second. Many modules can also be configured to operate at high-speed, and as such, are updated every cycle. When programming or linking ION modules, it is important to keep in mind whether you want the framework to be a high-speed or high-accuracy framework. If you link multiple modules together to perform a function, the update rate of the first module in the framework determines the update rate of the whole framework. For example, if you link: High-speed Power Meter Maximum Data Recorder The whole framework operates at high-speed (1 cycle update rate), including the Maximum and Data Recorder modules. If you use an Analog Input module (with a 1 second update rate) instead of the high-speed Power Meter module, the framework operates as high-accuracy (1 second update rate). The number of highspeed capable modules is usually limited; you should only use them if necessary.

Designer Software

Designer software lets you configure meters and Virtual Processors by creating new ION modules, changing links between modules, or editing setup registers inside existing modules. The Designer toolbox displays icons for all of the modules available in the ION meter or software node you have open. Here is an example of two different toolboxes:

To add a module, locate its icon in the Designer toolbox, press and hold the left mouse button over the icon, and drag it onto the node diagram.

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Designer Software

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The node diagram provides a graphical view of all the modules operating inside the ION meter or software node:

A module is represented by a simple box, showing the module's name and a representative icon.

Links between one module's output registers and another module's inputs appear as black lines. Designer shows a single line for each link.

Grouping windows contain additional modules. Double-click grouping windows to open them and display the modules they contain.

Inputs are shown as triangles on the left side of the module.

Output registers are shown as triangles on the right side of the module. Right-click near the center of a module to view and edit its setup registers.

To view a module's setup registers, right-click near the center of the module. The ION Module Setup dialog box appears, showing a list of setup registers available for configuration:

Complete details on each ION module's inputs, setup registers, and output registers are listed in the ION Reference.

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ION Modules Supported by Each Platform

ION Modules Supported by Each Platform

This chart lists the ION modules supported by various meters and software. Refer to the online ION Reference manual for more information on each module.

ION 6200 ION 7300 ION 7330 ION 7350 ION 7550 ION 7500 RTU ION 7650 ION 7700 ION 8300 ION 8400 ION 8500 ION Virtual Processor

ION Module Name

ION Modules Supported by Each Platform

Alert Analog Input Analog Output AND/OR Arithmetic Averaging Bin Calibration Pulser Clock Communications Convert Counter Data Acquisition Data Monitor Data Recorder Diagnostics Difference Summation Digital Input Digital Output Display Display Options Distributed Boolean Distributed Numeric Distributed Pulse Disturbance Analyzer DNP Slave Export DNP Slave Import DNP Slave Options Event Log Controller External Boolean External Numeric External Pulse

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ION Module Name Factory Feedback FFT Flicker Harmonics Analyzer Harmonics Evaluation Harmonics Measurement Instr Xformer Correction (ITC) Integrator Launching Log Acquisition Log Export Log Mail Mains Signaling Evaluation Maximum Minimum Modbus Export Modbus Import Modbus Master Device Modbus Master Map Modbus Slave One-Shot Timer Periodic Timer Power Harmonics Power Meter PROFIBUS Slave Export Pulse Merge Pulser Relative Setpoint Sag/Swell Scheduler Scroll Security Option Security User Setpoint Signal Limit Evaluation

ION 6200

ION 7300

ION 7330

ION 7350

ION 7550

ION 7500 RTU

ION 7650

ION 7700

ION 8300

ION 8400

ION 8500

ION Virtual Processor

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ION Modules Supported by Each Platform

ION Module Name Sliding Window Demand* Store Symmetrical Components Thermal Demand Time of Use Transient Voltage Selection Waveform Recorder Web Page XML Import

ION 6200

ION 7300

ION 7330

ION 7350

ION 7550

ION 7500 RTU

ION 7650

ION 7700

ION 8300

ION 8400

ION 8500

ION Virtual Processor

* Sliding Window Demand module is used to calculate block and rolling block demand.

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A

Glossary

This glossary defines the various terms that are used in discussions about power monitoring systems. A note about power quality: Because power quality terminology is not consistent across the industry, the definitions listed here may differ from the ones you've seen previously. We have tried to avoid the use of ambiguous words that have multiple or unclear meanings, and have attempted to include only those that are widely accepted. 3 Phase An electrical system with three different power-carrying lines, which transport sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms that are 120° out of phase from one another. A variation of the Ethernet standard. 10Base2 is a 10 Mbps Ethernet specification that uses 50-ohm thin coaxial cable with a distance limit of 185 meters per segment. A variation on the Ethernet standard. 10BaseF is a 10 Mbps Ethernet specification that uses fiber optic cabling. 10BaseF includes the 10Base10FP, 10BaseFB, and 10BaseFL standards that cover various topologies and cabling segment lengths. A variation of the Ethernet standard. 10BaseT is a 10 Mbps Ethernet specification that uses two pairs of unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling: one pair for transmitting data and the other for receiving data. 10BaseT has a distance limit of approximately 100 meters per segment. The cable is thinner and more flexible then the coaxial cable used for the 10Base2 standard. A variation on the Fast Ethernet standard. 100BaseT is a 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet specification that uses unshielded twisted pair (UTP) wiring. Like the 10BaseT technology, 100BaseT sends link pulses over a network segment, but these pulses contain more data than those in 10BaseT. Also known as real/true power delivered to a load. Represents the portion of electrical power that does work, which by definition includes heat losses. Measured in watts or kilowatts (kW), and determined by E*I*PF (voltage x current x power factor). An accounting system that assesses product costs by identifying all factors that lead to final output. Factors may include sales, service, and energy expenses. A company that generates power and is affiliated with a utility.

10Base2 10BaseF

10BaseT

100BaseT

Active Power, kW

Activity-Based Costing Affiliated Power Producer

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Aggregation

1) Combining data from multiple sites to determine total energy usage, demand, and load profiles. 2) Forming a consumer group that can bargain for the best prices on electricity rates and services. The bargaining can be done by a marketer, a buying group, or other representative. 3) Estimating demand and scheduling deliveries of power to a group of customers. The equipment, including compressors, evaporators, pumps, ductwork and piping, required to regulate the temperature and humidity of air in a building. The standard unit for measuring the strength of an electrical current. The product of RMS voltage applied to a circuit and RMS current flowing through it. Apparent power, or volt-amperes (VA), is not the active/true power of the circuit since power factor and reactive power are included in the total (apparent power = active power + reactive power). Apparent power is a measure of the total electrical power capacity of a distribution system or component equipment. Utility and facility engineers must size their system equipment in VA in order to provide the current-carrying capacity to handle the worst-case situation. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), a code that computers use to represent English text as numbers, making it possible to transfer data from one computer to another. Each letter is assigned a number from 0 to 127, e.g. uppercase A is 65. The standard ASCII character set uses 7 bits for each character. Larger character sets that use 8 bits have 128 additional characters for non-English text and math symbols. Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) is a device that changes the speed that an AC motor rotates by changing the characteristics of the electricity (voltage and frequency) supplied to the motor. Speed control can be based on rpm, temperature, pressure, flow, and power. By operating the motor slower than the constant speed for which it is designed, the ASD saves energy (and energy costs) in cases where the motor runs a machine that doesn't require full output most of the time, such as a fan, pump, or crusher. ASDs are more efficient than conventional machine controls, such as gears, valves for pumps, and outlet dampers for fans. To reduce both peak electric demand and customers' energy costs, utilities have encouraged the purchase of ASDs. ASDs also reduce maintenance costs. ASDs start motors gradually, reducing stress on drive components such as belts, and reducing the effects of fluctuating voltage from sudden motor startups. Decreasing motor speed may extend the life of the motor and the machine due to fewer resolutions and reduced stresses. One disadvantage is that some ASDs produce harmonics that can be harmful to other electronic equipment.

Air Conditioning System Ampere Apparent Power, VA

ASCII

Adjustable Speed Drive

ASHRAE Avoided Cost Back-up Power

American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-conditioning Engineers. A utility's production or transmission cost that is avoided by conservation, or by purchasing from another source, rather than by building a new generation facility. Power supplied to a customer when the normal supply is interrupted.

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Ballast

A device that provides a high initial voltage to activate the gas discharge in a fluorescent or HID lamp and then quickly limits the lamp current to safely sustain operation. A ballast generally contains a small transformer, capacitor, and electronic circuitry. Electronic ballasts convert the lamp's operating frequency from 60 Hz to a range between 20 and 40 kHz, which reduce internal losses in the lamp and conserve energy. The amount of occupied frequency space, determined by the difference between the high and low frequencies of a transmission band. Bandwidth is used to measure network capacity, and is expressed in Hz. A mathematical logic unit that is comprised of only one of two values: true or false. A device that passes data packets between two network segments. Bridges can support a full Ethernet segment port, so each port gets 10 Mbps of bandwidth, allowing a LAN to grow significantly larger. Bridges also filter network traffic to only those packets needed on each segment, increasing data throughput. Often used to describe sustained periods of undervoltage, resulting from intentional utility operations to reduce power demand, or from fallen power lines or utility equipment failures. However, since there is no formal definition for brownout, its use should be avoided. (Use "undervoltage" instead.) Combining the costs of electrical generation, transmission, distribution, and other services into a single rate charged to the customer. An inherent property of an electric circuit or device to oppose changes in voltage and store electrical energy when a potential difference exists across it. The capacitance in a circuit resulting from adjacent turns on coils, parallel leads and connections. Coupling of a signal between two circuits due to discrete or parasitic capacitance between the circuits. A load in which the capacitive reactance exceeds the inductive reactance. Since a capacitive load resists changes in voltage, the current flow through the load leads the voltage, i.e. the current waveform leads the voltage waveform in time. This phase shift causes the active power for the load to be less than if the waveforms were synchronized, reduced by an amount known as reactive power. Capacitive, or "leading," loads can create resonance conditions that cause harmfully high line voltages on the supply bus, damaging currents and, when capacitors are switched on or off, current or voltage transients. Capacitive and inductive loads can cause excessive demand for current because the reactive power lowers active power even though current remains the same, so you need to deliver more power (and current) than necessary to do actual, useful work (see Power Factor).

Bandwidth

Boolean Bridge

Brownout

Bundling Capacitance Capacitance, Distributed Capacitive Coupling Capacitive Load

Capacitive Reactance

The opposition to the flow of AC current at a given frequency by a capacitance, contributing to a load's total impedance (impedance = resistance + capacitive reactance + inductive reactance). Capacitive reactance is inversely proportional to the current's frequency, so its ohmic value decreases when frequency increases.

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Capacitor

A device that stores electrical energy and releases it back into the power system when required. The power rating of a capacitor is expressed by: kVAR = [2fcV2]/1000 where = 3.14159, f = frequency in Hz, c = capacitance in µF, and V = volts in kV

Capacitor Bank

A collection of individual capacitor units grouped to form a particular kVAR and voltage rating. A capacitor bank may be pole mounted, substation mounted, or metal enclosed (pad mounted). A connector type that is designed to safely hold bare stranded wire cable ends. Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association Curve. See ITI Curve. A signal generated by a modem indicating that a call has been connected. CDDI (Copper Distributed Data Interface), an implementation of FDDI over shielded and unshielded twisted pair cabling. CDDI transmits over relatively short distances, about 100 meters. CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data), an open standard for two-way wireless data communications at 19.2 kbps over cellular telephone channels. CE (European Community), the standards mark granted by CENELEC (Comité Européen de Normalisation Electrotechnique). A thermal-magnetic device for opening an electrical circuit, thereby shutting off electric power, when the current exceeds a predetermined limit. A refrigeration machine used to transfer heat from a fluid, such as water in a chilled water system, to another fluid. A network architecture where clients request service from servers. In client/server computing, software is separated into its constituent parts (modules), which are executed in different memory spaces for easier development and maintenance. Clients and servers run on platforms appropriate for their functions. Client programs send messages to server programs requesting that the server perform a task (service). Client programs run on PCs or workstations and usually manage the user-interface portion of the application, as well as the monitor, keyboard, workstation CPU, and peripherals. Server programs fulfill client requests by performing the task. Server programs usually run on another machine on the network. For example, database servers run on platforms specially designed to perform queries, and file servers run on platforms with special capabilities for managing files. If the server is the host operating system or network file server, it offers both file and application services. The server can perform the back-end tasks that are common to similar applications. A server also manages shared resources such as databases, printers, communication links, or high powered-processors.

Captured Wire Connector CBEMA CD (Carrier Detect) CDDI

CDPD CE Circuit Breaker Chiller Client/Server

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Coaxial Cable

A transmission medium usually consisting of one central wire surrounded by an insulator and encased in either a wire mesh or an extruded metal sheathing. Also, a concentric cable consisting of a center conductor, a dielectric, and a shield. The simultaneous production of power and thermal energy; such as, burning natural gas to produce electricity and using the heat produced to create steam for industrial use. Noise voltage that appears equally from current-carrying conductor to ground. The transfer of energy from one medium, such as metallic wire or optical fiber, to another like medium. Different types of coupling include capacitive (electrostatic), inductive (magnetic), and conductive (resistive or hard-wire). Capacitive coupling occurs due to mutual capacitance between the circuits, and inductive coupling is a result of mutual inductance between the circuits. Conductive, or direct, coupling is achieved by physical contact through wire, resistor, or common terminal. Capacitive coupling favors transfer of higher frequency components, whereas inductive coupling favors transfer of lower frequency components, and conductive coupling passes the full spectrum of frequencies, including DC. The ratio of the crest (peak) value of the measured waveform to the RMS value of the fundamental waveform. For example, the crest factor of a sinusoidal wave is 1.414. Devices whose operation is critical. Failure for such a load to operate properly can result in financial loss, damage to property, or threats to safety. Distortion in the AC line current (deviation from the normal sine wave). Any type of breaker, fuse, or recloser that can open a circuit after sensing an abnormal condition. The circuitry necessary to protect relay contacts from excessive and possibly damaging current caused by capacitive loads. A transformer that scales AC currents up or down, or provides isolation. Generally used for measurement or control purposes to scale large primary or bus currents to usable values. The current measurement range is the ratio of full scale primary current to full scale secondary current. The primary winding is connected in series with the conductor whose current is measured or controlled. There are two types of current transformers: Window and Wound Primary. In Window types, the primary winding is provided by the line conductor. In Wound Primary types, the primary winding is an integral part of the transformer and usually consists of more that one turn. Wound Primary transformers are used where very high accuracy or high voltage isolation is required.

Co-generation

Common Mode Voltage Coupling

Crest Factor

Critical Load Current Distortion Current Interrupter Current Surge Limiting Current Transformer

CSA CT/PT

CSA (Canadian Standards Association), tests equipment safety and gives certificate of approval. Current Transformer/Power Transformer. Instrument transformers that are used to reduce system voltages and currents to safe levels for metering purposes.

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Delta

A wiring system for distributing and utilizing 3-phase power. Three powercarrying conductors are used with possibly a fourth safety ground wire. The ends of each phase winding are connected in series to form a closed loop with each phase 120 electrical degrees from the other. The voltage between any two power wires is the rated distribution voltage which is 208 Vac in North America and 380 to 415 Vac in other countries. The connection between a delta source and a delta load. The connection between a delta source and a wye load. The rate at which electric energy is delivered to a load at a given instant or averaged over a designated time interval. It is usually expressed in kilowatts or megawatts. A series of strategies developed by an industrial, commercial, or institutional organization to control peak demand to a management-specified target level. Demand control is implemented by scheduling major electrical loads to avoid simultaneous peaks and by reducing energy (kWh) waste. Reductions in kWh waste are achieved by accurately identifying department or cost center energy consumption, measuring the benefits of equipment retrofits, and operating cogeneration equipment or auxiliary generators at the best available opportunities. A surcharge applied by utilities after a demand peak is exceeded. The utility's ratchet clause may stipulate that the minimum billed demand is at least 40% to 90% of the peak demand recorded in the previous 11 months. Utilities charge a ratchet to offset the cost of maintaining full generation capacity all year long, which they must do, even though the highest demand from a large industrial customer may occur during only one month of the year. Methods used by utilities to manage energy demand and reduce consumption by influencing when and how customers use electricity. Such programs promote energy efficiency, load management, fuel substitution, and incentives for switching electricity use from mid-day to evening. The modification of federal and state laws and regulations that govern the generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity. This is currently leading to the "unbundling" of electricity, where the costs of electrical generation, transmission, distribution, and other services are divided into separate rates. The voltage between any two active conductors. Detects only two states (ON and OFF, or Energized and De-Energized). Either a dry contact or solid state relay. DIN (Deutsches Institut für Normung) Rail. A standardized mounting rail (named after the German standards organization) on which components (meters, breakers, fuses, power supplies, etc.) can be mounted via a snap-on connector. See "sag." Ability of a power producer to sell directly to the retail customer.

Delta-Delta Delta-Wye Demand, kW or MW

Demand Control

Demand Ratchet

Demand Side Management

Deregulation

Differential Mode Voltage Digital Input Digital Output DIN

Dip Direct Access

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Distortion Distribution

Deviation from a normal sine wave for an AC quantity such as current or voltage. The way power is routed to various sites or devices. For the utility, distribution refers to the process of routing power from the power plant to consumers. For the consumer, distribution is the process of using feeders and circuits to provide power to devices. Automating the operation of substations. This requires remote monitoring, control, and alarming of substations from a central location, so the utility can automatically process data about each substation's voltage, current, demand, power disturbances, breaker positions, and operating conditions. The equipment that carries or controls the supply of electricity from the local high voltage transmission lines to the customer. See Power Quality Disturbance. DNP 3.0 (Distributed Network Protocol Version 3.0) was designed to achieve open, standards-based inter operability among substation computers, RTUs, IEDs, and master stations (except inter-master station links) for the electric utility industry. It is managed by the DNP Users Group whose members represent utilities and vendors. By including the source and destination address of each message, DNP 3.0 makes unsolicited responses, multiple masters, and peer-to-peer operations easier. Any device may transmit at any time (not only when it's recognized by a master). Remote devices can communicate with each other because any device can send a request or response. DNP performs functions such as initialization, polling, reportby-exception, clock synchronization, control and set point outputs, freezing data, file transfer, and collision avoidance. DNP can be carried by many different types of media, such as Ethernet and packet radio.

Distribution Automation

Distribution System Disturbance DNP 3.0

DOE DPU Dropout Dropout Voltage DSM EEI EIA

Department of Energy in the United States Department of Public Utilities in the United States Loss of equipment operation due to noise, a sag, or an interruption. The voltage at which a device fails to operate. See Demand Side Management. Edison Electric Institute EIA (Electronic Industries Association) is a trade association representing the US high technology community. The EIA sponsors a number of activities on behalf of its members, including conferences and trade shows. It has been responsible for developing some important standards, such as the RS-232, RS-422 and RS-423 standards for connecting serial devices. Environmental Impact Statement The ability of a device to function properly in its environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic interference to any other equipment.

EIS Electromagnetic Compatibility

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EMI EN 50160

EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) is interference by electromagnetic signals on transmission lines. EMI causes data errors. A standard that defines acceptable levels and evaluation criteria for flicker, inter harmonics, mains signaling, voltage deviations, and more. For example, the flicker measurement, Plt, must not exceed a value of "1" more than 5% of the time during a one-week observation period. EN 50160 bundles several other standards including IEC 61000-4-15 (flicker) and IEC 61000-4-7 (harmonics and inter harmonics). The capacity for doing work and overcoming resistance; the integral of active power with respect to time. Energy is measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh), which is the amount of work done by 1,000 watts for one hour. Consumers are charged for electricity in cents per kWh. For example, with one kilowatt hour, you can watch television for about 3 hours. A technique for developing the most energy efficient operation of a facility. Legislation in the United States that authorized FERC to introduce competition at the wholesale level using new open access requirements for transmission and authorization of exempt wholesale generators. A method of transmitting energy consumption information. One pulse is sent out by a device for every "x" kWh. The receiving device counts the pulses and can convert them back to kWh if it knows "x". EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute), a non-profit organization established in 1973 and headquartered in Palo Alto, California, that manages science/technology research and development for the electricity industry. More than 700 utilities are members of the Institute. EPRI's objective is to make electric power generation, delivery and use affordable, efficient, and environmentally sound throughout the world. EPRI is organized into 5 groups: Customer Systems (CSG), Environment (EG), Generation (GG), Nuclear Power (NPG), and Power Delivery (PDG). Energy Service Company, i.e. a power supplier. The conductor that connects non-current-carrying parts of equipment enclosures to neutral. Also, the grounding electrode at the main panel or secondary of a separate system (e.g. isolation transformer). A 10 Mbps LAN (Local Area Network) specification invented by Xerox and developed jointly by Intel, and Digital Equipment Corporation. The Ethernet specification describes the implementation of the physical and data link layers of the OSI Reference Model. An extension to Ethernet is Fast Ethernet operating at 100 Mbps. Physical variations of Ethernet include 10BaseF and 10BaseT. An exempt wholesale generator is a company that generates power solely for wholesale use and not to the public. They are exempt from PUHCA. Factors affecting human welfare not included in the monetary cost of a product (i.e. air pollution caused by power generation).

Energy, kWh

Energy Management Process Energy Policy Act (1992)

Energy Pulsing

EPRI

ESCO quipment Ground Conductor

Ethernet

Equipment Wholesale Externalities

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Fast Ethernet

An extension of the Ethernet specification. Fast Ethernet offers a speed increase of ten times. Because it preserves Ethernet data format, existing 10BaseT applications and network management tools can be used on Fast Ethernet networks. A common utility practice for clearing faults by momentarily interrupting current flow. It involves protective relaying where the recloser (or circuit breaker) operates faster than a fuse can blow. It subjects industrial loads to momentary interruptions. A short circuit on the power system. It is usually triggered by lightening, tree branches, or animals and can be cleared by momentarily interrupting the current. FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface), is a 100 Mbps LAN specification for a token-passing network using fiber optic cabling with transmission distances of up to 2 km. FERC (Federal Energy Regulatory Commission), federal agency responsible for regulating interstate wholesale electricity markets and the interstate transmission of electricity. An electronic device that attenuates certain frequencies while allowing others to pass through. A high-pass filter lets all signals above a given frequency pass. A low-pass filter lets only frequencies below a given frequency pass. A bandpass filter lets a given band of frequencies pass while attenuating all others. Software instructions that are stored in Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EPROM) or Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM). EPROM and EEPROM memory chips reside in ION digital power meters to store setup data, including calibration and voltage scales. Data is safely preserved and uncorrupted during power failures. A common term used to describe a series of random or continuous voltage fluctuations that are a maximum of 10% lower or higher than the normal voltage waveform. These fluctuations cause perceptible lamp (lighting) flicker, even at magnitudes as low as 0.5% and frequencies of 6 Hz to 8 Hz. Voltage flicker can be a result of loads that have continuous, rapid variations in load current magnitude. Arc furnaces are common triggers of voltage flicker on utility transmission and distribution systems. An increase or decrease in the power frequency lasting from several cycles to several hours. In power quality terms, a graph of the variation of the impedance of a system or a metering transducer, as a function of frequency. In an AC power system, the frequency at which the supply system is designed to operate, usually 50 or 60 Hz. Simultaneous data transmission between a sending station and a receiving station. For example, in voice transmissions between two people, they can talk at the same time and still be heard. A device that heats up, melts, and electrically opens a circuit after a period of prolonged abnormal current flow.

Fast Tripping

Fault FDDI

FERC

Filter

Firmware

Flicker

Frequency Deviation Frequency Response Fundamental Frequency Full Duplex

Fuse

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FPA Generation Ground

Federal Power Act The process of converting thermal, mechanical, chemical or nuclear energy into electric energy. A conducting connection from an electric circuit or device to the earth (or a substitute body). Through this connection, the device maintains the earth's voltage potential, and ground currents are conducted to and from earth. Often when characteristics of an electrical circuit are measured, they are referenced to ground. Conductor(s) in contact with the earth to connect with ground. This electrode may be a water pipe, driven ground rod, or the steel frame of the building. An undesired path that allows current to flow from a line to ground. A system of interconnected bare conductors arranged in a pattern on or below the earth's surface. It provides safety for people working on a circuit in the area by limiting potential differences if the circuit becomes energized or a short circuit occurs. Metallic surface mats and gratings are sometimes used for this purpose. A potentially detrimental loop in an electrical system where two or more points, which are nominally at ground potential, are connected such that they are not at the same ground potential. When two or more grounds have a potential difference between them, current can flow creating a new circuit or loop that can interfere with the normal operation of the system. GUI (Graphical User Interface), software user interface with pictorial and textual representations of information. Conventions such as buttons, icons, and windows are typical, and many actions are performed using a mouse. Data transmission in only one direction at a time between a sending station and a receiving station. For example, in voice transmissions between two people, only one person can talk at a time and be heard. Sequence of messages exchanged between two or more network devices to ensure transmission synchronization. Voltage or current signals that are not at the desired 50 or 60 Hz fundamental frequency, but instead at integer multiples of the fundamental. For example, 120 Hz is the second harmonic of 60 Hz; 180 Hz is the third harmonic of 60 Hz. Distortion of the normal sinusoidal waveform by a series of harmonics at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. Harmonic distortion can be created by any electronic device that draws a non-sinusoidal current (a nonlinear load), such as variable frequency and DC motor drives, regenerative motor controls, transformer magnetizing currents, induction heating equipment, rectifiers and computer power supplies. Harmonic distortion levels can be magnified by resonance conditions created by power factor correction capacitors. Harmonic distortion can cause motors and transformers to overheat, relays and controls to mis-operate, data corruption, capacitor failure, and shortened equipment life. A device for filtering harmonics from the power system. Most are combinations of inductance, capacitance, and resistance.

Ground Electrode Ground Fault Ground Grid

Ground Loop

GUI

Half Duplex

Handshake Harmonics

Harmonic Distortion

Harmonic Filter

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Harmonic Number Harmonic Resonance HID

An integer that is the ratio of a harmonic frequency to the fundamental frequency. A condition in which the power system resonates near one of the major harmonics produced by a nonlinear load, thus exacerbating any harmonic distortion. HID (High Intensity Discharge) Lamps. All mercury vapor and metal halide lighting systems. HID systems are the most cost-effective method of lighting industrial plants, warehouses, roadways, parking areas, sports fields, signs, and some commercial buildings. A computer system on a network. Similar to the term node, except that host usually implies a computer system, whereas node generally means any device on the network, including IEDs, servers, workstations, processors, and routers. HTML (Hypertext Markup Language), simple hypertext document formatting language that uses tags to indicate how a given part of a document is interpreted by a viewing application, such as a Web browser. HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), the protocol used by Web browsers and Web servers to transfer files, such as text and graphic files. Hypertext is electronicallystored text that allows direct access to other texts by way of encoded links. A common connection point for network segments required for star topologies. A hub takes an incoming data packet and copies it to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see the packets. Hubs allow LANs to extend beyond normal distance limitations, but all ports have to share a single network bandwidth. A passive hub simply passes data go from one network segment to another. A switching hub reads the destination address of each packet and then forwards the packet to the correct port. Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning. IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission), the IEC, founded in 1906, is composed of National Committees representing all the industrialized countries in the world. "The object of the Commission is to promote international co-operation on all questions of standardization and related matters in the fields of electrical and electronic engineering and thus to promote international understanding." (Statutes - Art. 2) A standard measurement technique for harmonics and inter harmonics, developed so that readings from different devices can be reliably compared. A flicker measurement standard that includes design specifications for flicker meters. Most digital flicker meters are based on this standard. It defines flicker perception quantities called Pst values, which are combined over 10-minute periods to produce Plt values. IED (Intelligent Electronic Device), an instrument that can perform local data processing and storage functions. ION meters are often referred to as IEDs. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), an international organization that produces standards and guidelines covering most aspects of electricity use.

Host

HTML

HTTP

Hub

HVAC IEC

IEC 61000-4-7 IEC 61000-4-15

IED IEEE

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IEEE 519-1992

An IEEE-recommended practice. It describes acceptable harmonics levels at the point of common coupling between the utility and the energy consumer. If the consumer doesn't cause harmonics that exceed these levels, then the delivery of electricity should be reliable. A report that gives functional and design specifications for flicker-measuring apparatus. Introduced in 1986 and intended for analog measuring devices, it has been replaced by IEC 61000-4-15. An IEEE-recommended practice for the proper monitoring and interpretation of electromagnetic phenomena that cause power quality problems. Three IEEE working groups are expanding the 1159 standard, focusing on the measurement (P1159.1), characterization (P1159.2), and data exchange (P1159.3) of power quality events. The opposition to the flow of AC current at a given frequency. Impedance consists of resistance, inductive reactance, and capacitive reactance. It is measured in ohms. A surge of electrical power in one direction. The preferred term is impulsive transient which is a sudden, temporary non-power frequency change in voltage or current that is unidirectional in polarity. A load in which the inductive reactance exceeds the capacitive reactance. Devices such as motors, solenoids, relay coils, valves, and conductor coils are inductive loads. Since an inductive load resists changes in current, the current flow through the load lags the voltage, i.e. the current waveform lags the voltage waveform in time. This phase shift causes the active power for the load to be less than if the waveforms were synchronized, reduced by an amount known as reactive power (see Reactive Power). When turned on, an inductive, or "lagging" load, can exhibit an inrush current of up to 5 times its normal running current. When power is removed from the inductive load, high voltage transients are generated due to the collapsing magnetic field, and these can cause arcing across contacts, or a malfunction, and/ or damage to electronic circuits. Inductive and capacitive loads can cause excessive demand for current because the reactive power lowers active power even though current remains the same, so you need to deliver more power (and current) than necessary to do actual, useful work (see Power Factor).

IEEE 868

IEEE 1159

Impedance, Impulse

Inductive Load

Inductive Reactance

The opposition to the flow of AC current at a given frequency by an inductance, contributing to a load's total impedance (impedance = resistance + capacitive reactance + inductive reactance). Inductive reactance is directly proportional to the current's frequency, so its ohmic value increases when frequency increases. The peak value of current that a load requires when first being energized. Certain types of loads, such as lamps and motors, draw a larger initial current because their impedance is lower at startup than during regular operation. Electromagnetic waves whose frequency range is above that of radio waves and microwaves, but below that of the visible light and ultraviolet.

Inrush Current

Infrared

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Inter harmonics

Voltages or currents that have frequency components that are not integer multiples of the fundamental frequency. The main sources of inter harmonics are static frequency converters, cyclo-converters, induction motors, and arcing devices. Inter harmonics affect power line carrier signaling and cause visual flicker in displays such as CRTs. The Internet is a worldwide system of linked computer networks. It allows the general public ­ millions of people ­ to use email and access the World Wide Web for information or commerce. An Intranet is a private network using Internet-type tools, but available only within one organization. For large organizations, an Intranet provides employees with easy access to corporate and departmental information. Sales and transportation service that is offered at a lower cost and lower level of reliability. Under this service, power companies can interrupt customers on short notice, typically during peak service hours. Interruptible services are provided through individually negotiated contracts. In most cases, the price and availability charged take into account the price of the customer's alternative source. A short duration decrease in supply voltage or load current to less than 10% of nominal for a duration of less than 1 minute. Interruptions can be triggered by utility system faults, equipment failures, and control malfunctions. When interruptions are caused by faults, some of them may be preceded by a voltage sag. The duration of an interruption caused by a utility system fault is determined by response time of the utility's protective devices. Instantaneous reclosing usually limits the interruption to less than 30 cycles. Delayed reclosing may cause a momentary or temporary interruption. The duration of an interruption due to equipment malfunctions or loose connections is not as predictable. There are 3 kinds of interruptions: (1) momentary, a complete loss of voltage on one or more phase conductors lasting from 30 cycles to 3 seconds. (2) temporary, a complete loss of voltage on one or more phase conductors lasting from 3 seconds to 1 minute. (3) sustained, a complete loss of voltage on one or more phase conductors for greater than 1 minute. These sustained interruptions are often permanent and require human intervention.

Internet

Intranet

Interruptible Service

Interruption

Isolated Ground Integrated Resource Planning ION

A grounding conductor that runs in the same conduit as the supply conductors. It is insulated from the metallic raceway and all ground points throughout its length. The process many utility commissions use to select the generation resources needed to meet future demand for electricity. ION is a software architecture that is comprised of a functional building blocks called ION modules. Each module consists of inputs, setup registers and output registers. When you combine (or link) several modules you can create custom functions on an ION meter. IOU (Investor Owned Utility). Utility that is structured as a tax-paying business financed through sales of common stock. It is organized under state law as a corporation for the purpose of providing electric power service and earning a profit for its shareholders.

IOU

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Interruptible Loads Inverted Rates IP Address

Loads that by contract can be interrupted if the supplier needs the energy to meet other requirements. A rate structure that prices successive blocks of power use at increasingly higher per-unit prices. The more electricity a customer uses, the greater the per-unit price. A 32-bit address assigned to network hosts (computer systems) using TCP/IP protocol. An IP address is written as 4 octets separated by periods (for example, 35.110.12.45). Each address contains network and sub-network numbers for routing, and a host number to address the individual host. IPP (Independent Power Producer), a company that generates power but is not affiliated with an electric utility. ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), a communications protocol, offered by telephone companies, that permits telephone networks to carry data, voice, and other source traffic. ISO (International Organization for Standardization), the international organization responsible for a wide range of standards, including those relevant to networking and quality control. A set of international quality management standards defined by ISO. The standards are not specific to any country, industry, or product, and allow companies to demonstrate that they have specific processes to maintain an efficient quality system. ITI (Information Technology Industry Council) Curve. A set of curves representing the capabilities of a device to withstand a voltage disturbance, in terms of the disturbance's magnitude and duration. The curve, developed by ITI (formerly called CBEMA), is the standard for measuring performance of all types of equipment and power systems. ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union ­ Telecommunication Standardization Sector), the ITU-T was created in 1993, replacing the former International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee (CCITT). The ITU-T works towards the worldwide standardization of telecommunications related to technical, operational, and tariff issues. The ratio of estimated winding eddy current losses in a transformer. k-factor = (losses from load current with given RMS)/(losses from sinusoidal current with the same RMS) LAN (Local Area Network), high-speed, low-error data network connecting workstations, peripherals, and other devices. A LAN covers a relatively small area, within a department or building, extending up to a few thousand meters across. Each workstation can execute programs and access other data and devices on the LAN. This allows many users to share equipment, such as printers, as well as information (via email, for example). Different types of LANs, such as Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring, are characterized by their topology, protocols, and physical media.

IPP ISDN

ISO

ISO 9000

ITI

ITU-T

K-Factor

LAN

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Lighting Systems

All components used in providing a building with artificial light, including fixtures, ballasts, sockets and lamps, generally arranged in such a way as to provide a predetermined level of illumination. One or more power-carrying conductors for power distribution. The black (or red or blue) wire is the line conductor, the white wire is the neutral, and the green wire is ground. The voltage difference between the line conductor and the neutral is the supply voltage, i.e. 120 volts. A package containing multiple protection devices to provide, for example, electrical noise isolation and voltage regulation. A given condition between conductors of a multi-phase feeder. A given condition between a phase conductor and a neutral conductor. An electrical device that presents an essentially constant load impedance to the power source throughout the AC voltage waveform cycle. The relationship between current and voltage is linear, so the shapes of the current and voltage waveforms are the same. This type of load does not produce harmonics. When a sinusoidal voltage is applied across a linear load, all current flow occurs at the fundamental frequency. (1) An electrical device that draws power and presents an impedance to the power source. (2) The amount of electric power required at any given time by industrial, commercial, or residential energy consumers. The management of load patterns in order to reduce power demand at peak load times or to shift some of it to off-peak times. This may be with reference to peak hours, peak days or peak seasons. In some cases, non-essential loads are shed as soon as demand exceeds a certain value. Different loads can be cycled on and off, including air handlers, water pumps, lighting, or wastewater treatment units, any one of which can shut down for five- to 15-minute periods without undue hardship. One factor that affects electric peaks is air-conditioning use, which is therefore a prime target for load management efforts. The variation in the magnitude of the power load over a daily, weekly or annual period. A variation of the RMS voltage from nominal voltage for longer than 1 minute. Usually described in terms of an undervoltage, overvoltage, or voltage interruption. The current surge that is injected into a transformer's secondary terminals when lightning strikes grounded conductors in the area. A communications signal carried on a power transmission and distribution system. If the voltage of this signal is too large, it can interfere with the operation of electrical equipment, similar to the way excessive harmonics and inter harmonics do. The EN 50160 standard specifies the maximum allowable mains signaling voltage for frequencies up to 10 kHz. The cost to increase output by one unit (e.g. the cost to produce one additional kWh of electricity).

Line

Line Conditioner Line to Line Line to Neutral Linear Load

Load

Load Management

Load Profile Long Duration Variation

Low-Side Surge Mains Signal

Marginal Cost

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Master Control Unit

Or Master Control Station (MCU or MCS), or just Master. The Master Control Station operates within a SCADA system. It provides the primary operator interface and manages overall system functions, collecting and analyzing data from RTUs as well as initiating control actions. A typical Master is a computer workstation or a programming panel. PowerView and ION Enterprise operations software perform advanced Master Station functions. Modbus Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), A protocol developed by Modicon Corporation. Modicon's Modbus network is a single-master, multi-drop, serial communications network that supports up to 247 slave devices. The master can initiate transactions (queries), and the slaves respond by supplying the requested data to the master, or by performing the action requested. The master can address individual slaves, or can initiate a broadcast message to all slaves. The Modbus protocol establishes the format for the master's query and slave's response, with fields for address, function code, data, and error checking. Devices can be set up to use either of two transmission modes: ASCII or RTU. In RTU mode, each message contains binary characters. In ASCII mode, each byte contains two ASCII characters. The greater character density of RTU mode allows better data throughput. All devices on the network must be configured for the same transmission mode and serial communications (baud rate, parity, etc.). Modbus RTU can be carried by RS-232/485, modem, or Ethernet connections.

Modbus RTU

MTBF Municipal Utility

MTBF (Mean Time Between Failure), a statistical estimate of the time a component, subassembly, or operating unit operates before failure will occur. An electric utility system owned and/or operated by a municipality that generates and/or purchases electricity at wholesale for distribution to retail customers generally within the boundaries of the municipality. MV-90 is a software package for acquisition and analysis of electric and gas usage data from large commercial and industrial meters. MV-90 software supplies more than 70% of major electric utilities in the United States with advanced metering, billing, and demand-side management capabilities. MV-90 was developed by UTS (Utility Translation Systems, Inc.), a subsidiary of Itron Inc. The MV-90 system supports communication protocols for many large commercial and industrial electric and gas meters supplied in the United States and Europe. MV-90 supports multiple methods of data retrieval, including handheld readers, cartridge readers, and dial in-bound telephone. Another UTS software package. MV-PBS is a power billing system for complex revenue billing of large commercial and industrial gas and electric customers, national accounts, and energy aggregators. North American Electric Reliability Council Nuclear Regulatory Commission Non-Utility Generator Any device or processing location on a network, including IEDs or other devices, servers, workstations, processors, printers, and routers.

MV-90

MV-PBS

NERC NRC NUG Node

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Noise

Unwanted electrical signals that distort power signals. Noise consists of high frequency signals (lower than 200 kHz) that are superimposed on voltage or current waveforms and are present on a more or less continuous basis. Noise can be triggered by electronic devices, control circuits, arcing equipment, loads with solid-state rectifiers, and switching power supplies. Noise causes undesirable effects in electronic equipment including PCs and programmable controllers. The problems can be mitigated with filters, improved grounding, isolation transformers, and line conditioners. A nominal value assigned to a system to designate its voltage class (as 208/120 V, 480/277 V, 600 V). Electrical device that draws current discontinuously or whose impedance varies throughout the AC voltage waveform cycle. The relationship between current and voltage is non-linear, or curved. The amount of curvature is highly variable and unique to each non-linear load, so the exact curve is determined with testing. All nonlinear loads produce harmonics. When a sinusoidal voltage is applied across a nonlinear load, harmonic currents occur at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency, e.g. 60 Hz, 180 Hz, 300 Hz. The lower the order of the harmonic current, the greater the waveform distortion (each integer multiple of the fundamental is called an order). Nonlinear loads also create harmonic voltages in the wiring system, mainly by the flow of harmonic currents through the wiring system's impedances (generally inductances). The impedances develop voltage drops, which occur at each harmonic frequency of the current and in proportion to the current's frequency. For example, 1 A of 3rd harmonic current produces three times the voltage drop that 1 A of 60 Hz current does, so small amounts of high order harmonic current can produce significant harmonic voltages. These voltages are propagated to all downstream points on the wiring system. The nonlinear loads, in turn, draw harmonic currents in different proportions, aggravating the harmonics problem. Thus, the worst place to create a harmonic voltage is at a service transformer, and the least troublesome is on the output of a small power source serving one load.

Nominal Voltage (Vn) Non-linear Load

Notching

A periodic voltage disturbance induced by the normal operation of electronics devices when current is commutated from one phase to another to produce continuous DC current. During commutation, there is a momentary short circuit between two phases, pulling the voltage close to zero. A voltage that appears between active circuit conductors. OSI (Open System Interconnection) reference model, a network architectural model developed by ISO and ITU-T. The model defines a way to implement protocols in seven layers. The layers specify network functions such as physical links, addressing, flow control, error control, interfaces to other applications, and reliable message transfer. The lowest layer (the physical layer) is closest to the wiring and the highest layer (application layer) is closest to the user. The lower two layers are implemented in hardware and software, and the upper five only in software. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one device, moving to the bottom layer, then over the channel to the next device and back up to the top layer. The layers are named as follows: physical, data link, network, transport, presentation, session, and application.

Normal Mode Voltage OSI

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Outage

This term should be avoided in discussions of power quality. Utilities use the terms "outage" or "interruption" to describe similar phenomena for reliability reporting purposes. However, outage is defined by IEEE Std 1008 as the state of a component that has failed to function as expected, not as a power quality disturbance. A voltage increase of at least 10% above the nominal voltage for greater than 1 minute. Overvoltages are usually the result of switching off a large load or energizing a capacitor bank. The overvoltages occur because voltage controls are inadequate, or tap settings on transformers are incorrect. A unit of information sent over a network. It can contain a header and footer (for synchronization and control) as well as user data. Performance-Based Rates A type of network in which each device has equivalent capabilities and responsibilities. This differs from server/client (master/slave) architectures, where some computers are responsible for serving others. Peer-to-peer networks are generally simpler and less expensive, but they usually do not offer the same performance under heavy loads. A value-added service offered by a utility, providing a guarantee of some level of performance, e.g. level of power quality. A time displacement of one waveform relative to another waveform. A light sensitive element producing current. It is used in conjunction with a relay to turn circuits on or off depending on ambient lighting levels. PLC (Programmable Logic Controller), a computerized controller that stores instructions for device operation and sequencing. PMU (Power Management Unit), a term used to describe load shedding and load cycling equipment. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service), also known as the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). General term referring to the variety of worldwide telephone networks and services. A source or a means of supplying power. The rate at which work is done, expressed as amount of work per unit time and commonly measured in Watts or horsepower. It is measured as the product of effective values of voltage and current with the cosine of the phase angle between current and voltage in an ac circuit. The power factor of the fundamental frequency components of the voltage and current waveforms.

Overvoltage

Packet PBR Peer-to-Peer Architecture

Performance Contract Phase Shift Photoelectric Control PLC PMU POTS

Power

Power Factor, Displacement

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Power Factor (kVA)

The ratio of RMS value of active power to the RMS value of apparent power, resulting from the supply of power to inductive or capacitive loads. Power factor represents demand for electric current. The lower the power factor, the higher the demand for current. To meet this demand for current, the utility must build sufficient generating capacity with adequate lines, transformers, and substations. Higher than necessary power factor means that the utility must make unnecessary investments in equipment and distribution capacity, so utilities charge customers who have low power factor. The ideal power factor value is 1.0, but usually the highest that can be achieved is 0.95. Penalties are generally imposed for power factors below 0.9. An inductive load produces lagging power factor (negative value) and a capacitive load produces leading power factor (positive value).

Power Frequency Variations

The deviation of the power system fundamental frequency from it specified nominal value (e.g. 50 Hz or 60 Hz). These variations are a result of changes in the dynamic balance between generation and load on a power supply system. The size and duration of the variation depends on the load characteristics and the response of the generation system to load changes. Today, variations are more likely to occur with generators isolated from the utility system, rather than with the utility system itself. A company that buys and resells power. These merchants typically do not own generating facilities. A group of utilities that coordinate the operation of their power plants and share the costs between themselves. Power pools are especially common in the northeastern US. Any disruption or distortion to the normal magnitudes and/or sinusoidal waveforms of voltages and currents, causing misoperation or failure of equipment. Disturbances include transients, harmonics, sags, swells, and interruptions. The format of data transmitted between two or more devices. A protocol defines how addressing, error control, data compression, and other characteristics are represented in the data stream so that information can be processed properly once it reaches its final destination. Devices must use the same protocol in order to communicate with each other. A set of related communications protocols (e.g. TCP/IP) that operate together and handle communications at some or all of the layers of a network specification like Ethernet. Not every protocol stack covers each layer of the model and often a single protocol in the stack addresses a number of layers at once. PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network), also known as POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service). General term referring to the variety of worldwide telephone networks and services. Public Utilities Commission Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 Public Utility Regulatory Policy Act of 1978

Power Marketer Power Pool

Power Quality Disturbance

Protocol

Protocol Stack

PSTN

PUC PUHCA PURPA

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Qualifying Facility

A generator that qualifies as a co-generator or small power producer under PURPA and has obtained certification from FERC (generally, they sell power to utilities at the utilities' avoided cost). Random Access Memory that can be read and written by a microprocessor. Measured data, including energy, min/max values, and event logs, are stored and continually updated in the IEDs' non-volatile RAM, which contains a 30-year battery and power protection circuitry. The advantage over software-based monitoring and trending is that records are kept even when communications are unreliable or during a power failure; especially important in remote locations. A load that exhibits capacitive and/or inductive reactance. Inductive and capacitive loads create a phase shift between AC current and voltage. When you combine the phase-shifted current and voltage waveforms to produce power, the resulting power (active power) that a load can use is less than if the waveforms were synchronized. The power is reduced by an amount known as reactive power, which is measured in kilovolt-amperes reactive (kVAR). Apparent Power = Active Power + Reactive Power. In inductive loads, the current waveform lags the voltage waveform (in time), while in capacitive loads, the current waveform leads the voltage waveform. kVARs are typically first present in a distribution system as a result of inductive loads such as motors, reactors and transformers. kVARs are then used in sizing power factor correction capacitors, which can offset the effects of these inductive loads. (See Power Factor)

RAM

Reactive Load Reactive Power, kVAR

Real Power, kW

Also known as active power delivered to a load. It represents the portion of electrical power that does useful work, which by definition includes heat losses. Measured in watts or kilowatts (kW), and determined by E*I*PF. RTP, hourly-based rates that reflect the time-varying cost of generating and transmitting electricity. Automated energy management systems in commercial buildings and industrial facilities can link to these hourly energy price signals from the utility. Based on this RTP information, the automated system can manage a facility's energy use. Utilities, in turn, can reduce peak generation costs and offer customers the chance to be rewarded for energy efficiency. Power providers make better use of existing assets by leveling energy use over the day. Power providers in the US, Canada, United Kingdom, Norway, Australia, and New Zealand currently make RTP rates available to commercial and industrial customers. RTP is also useful for retail wheeling. The real-time cost of electricity is the basis for a spot, or pool, market, where the price of electricity is established by supply and demand and customers can buy their power on this spot market for the best available price.

Real-TIme Pricing

Recloser

An electric switch for high voltage electric lines. It shuts off electric power when a problem, such as a short circuit, occurs. A recloser then automatically tests the electrical line to determine if the problem has been removed. If there's no more problem, the recloser resets itself and restores electric power. If the problem is still present, the recloser shuts itself off again. If the problem is still present after three tries, the recloser remains off so that a utility crew can perform line repairs and restore power by manually resetting the recloser.

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Temporary problems include lightning, wind-blown tree branches or wires, birds, or animals. Temporary problems are often corrected if the power is shut off. Permanent problems include power lines or other equipment damaged by lightning strikes or fallen trees. Reclosing, Instantaneous Recovery Time The reclosing of a utility breaker as quickly as possible after interrupting the fault current. Typical times are 18-30 cycles. Time required for the output voltage or current to return to a value within regulation after a step load or line change. Also, the time required to bring a system back to its original operating condition after an interruption or dropout. The voltage that occurs across the terminals of a pole of a circuit-interrupting device upon interruption of the current. An agreement in which a utility is guaranteed a particular profit (through electricity rates set by regulators) in exchange for building the necessary generation, transmission, and distribution infrastructure. An electrically-controlled mechanical device that opens and closes electrical contacts when a voltage (or current) is applied. A group of interconnected utilities that work together to assure system-wide reliability. A load in which the resistance exceeds the capacitive and inductive reactances. Resistive loads tend to cause RMS voltage drops that are usually not big problems for other equipment. They don't tend to create resonance conditions that cause harmful voltages or currents. In a pure resistive load (a linear load), the frequency of the applied voltage has little or no effect on how much current flows through it, so its ohmic value remains constant. Defined by the EN 50160 standard, this is a mains signal with frequency between 110 Hz and 3000 Hz. Root-mean-square, is the square root of the average of the square of the current. This provides an average of the peak of AC current (both positive and negative) over time. Also known as Sliding Window Demand (SWD), Rolling Block is an averaging method. It is the arithmetic average of a parameter (e.g. active power) over a total demand period (e.g. 15 minutes) that consists of one of more sub-periods of equal length (e.g. 5 minutes). As each sub-period passes the parameter average is included in the total average while the average of the oldest period is removed. Forwards network traffic using one or more metrics to determine the optimal path. Routers filter out network traffic by protocol rather than packet address. Routers can also divide a network into subnets so that only traffic destined for particular IP addresses can pass between segments. Network speed decreases with this type of processing, but overall efficiency improves in more complex networks.

Recovery Voltage Regulatory Compact

Relay

Reliability Council Resistive Load

Ripple Control Signal RMS

Rolling Block

Router

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RTU

RTU (Remote Terminal Unit), a device that detects, timestamps, and logs setpoints and digital I/O events. It communicates to a master station that provides the primary operator interface and data analysis functions. Because RTU functions are independent of the master station, events that last a few milliseconds are recorded even if the master station scan time is at longer intervals. ION and ACM meters act as RTUs with the addition of control, analysis, and transducer capabilities. Organization composed of rural customers that band together to generate or purchase power at wholesale and distribute at retail. A short duration decrease in RMS voltage or current of between 10% and 90% of the nominal. The duration ranges from ½ a cycle to 1 minute. Sags are triggered by fault clearing, startup of heavy loads, or lightning. Sags deprive computers of power, causing unexpected system crashes that lead to lost or corrupted data. Sags can also damage or shut down equipment, particularly motors, and reduce their efficiency or life spans. There are 3 kinds of sags: (1) instantaneous, lasting from a ½ cycle to 30 cycles of the power waveform. (2) momentary, lasting from 30 cycles to 3 seconds. (3) temporary, lasting from 3 seconds to 1 minute.

Rural Electric Cooperative Sag

Sampling Rate SARFI SCADA

Rate at which samples of a particular waveform amplitude are taken. System Average RMS Frequency (Variation) Index SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) System, a traditional SCADA system consists of a master station, transducers, and RTUs. The master station provides the primary operator interface and manages overall system functions, collecting and analyzing data from RTUs as well as initiating control actions. Transducers measure general equipment parameters such as temperatures and pressures. The RTU detects, timestamps and logs setpoint and digital I/O events. Transmission of data one bit at a time. Commonly-used serial interface standards are EIA-approved RS-232 and RS-485. Workstations usually have RS-232 ports for interfacing to digital power meters, printers, displays, modems, or other devices. The opposite of serial is parallel, where several bits are transmitted concurrently. The geographical area served by a particular utility company. A metal barrier, enclosure, or wrapping (around instrumentation and power cables) designed to protect sensitive circuitry and cabling from noise sources (equipment that may generate electrostatic or electromagnetic fields). Shielding reduces coupling between conductors. A grounded conductor or tower over power lines designed to intercept lightning strikes. A variation of the RMS voltage or current for ½ a cycle to 1 minute, encompassing "instantaneous," "momentary," and "temporary" variations. Usually described in terms of a transient, sag, swell, or interruption. A mechanical assembly that allows shorting of the CT secondary connections. This is necessary in order to safely disconnect a device from a live circuit.

Serial

Service Territory Shielding

Shielding Utility Lines Short Duration Variation

Shorting Block

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Signal Reference Grid

Signal Reference Grid (or Plane), a system of conductive paths among interconnected equipment. It reduces noise-induced voltages to minimize improper equipment operation. Data transmission in only one direction from a sending station to a receiving station. Broadcast television is an example. A device that responds to master station requests for information. Single line-to-ground fault. SWD (Sliding Window Demand), also known as rolling block demand, is an averaging method. It is the arithmetic average of a parameter (e.g. active power) over a total demand period (e.g. 15 minutes) that consists of one of more subperiods of equal length (e.g. 5 minutes). As each sub-period passes the parameter average is included in the total average while the average of the oldest period is removed. Sometimes used to describe a "transient." STP (Shielded Twisted Pair), two-pair wire medium used in a variety of networks. STP cabling has a layer of shielded insulation to reduce EMI (electromagnetic interference causing data errors). Social programs and other regulatory benefits currently included in utility rates. These could be stranded in an open market. Stranded Costs/Investment, utility assets (mainly high-cost power plants) that would lose value in a competitive market. See Vertical Disaggregation. The part of a network whose devices share the same address component. For example, on an Ethernet network, devices with the same prefix on their IP addresses belong to one subnet. A subnet improves network security and performance. A short duration increase in RMS voltage or current of 10% to 80% above the nominal. The duration ranges from ½ a cycle to 1 minute. Swells are not as common as sags. They are usually associated with system faults, but are also caused by switching off large loads and energizing large capacitor banks. One way that a swell can occur is from the temporary voltage rise on the unfaulted phases during a single line-to-ground (SLG) fault. There are 3 kinds of swells: (1) instantaneous, lasting from a ½ cycle to 30 cycles of the power waveform. (2) momentary, lasting from 30 cycles to 3 seconds. (3) temporary, lasting from 3 seconds to 1 minute.

Simplex Slave SLG Fault Sliding Window Demand

Spike STP

Stranded Benefits Stranded Costs Structural Unbundling Subnet

Swell

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System Design Handbook

Switch

Switch (in computer network), an extension of a bridge, linking four or more full networks. There are two types of switches: cut-through and store-and-forward. A cut-through switch examines the packet destination address before forwarding it to its destination. A store-and-forward switch examines the entire packet to catch packet errors. Both types of switches separate an Ethernet network into segments, with each segment having 10 Mbps of bandwidth shared by fewer users, resulting in higher performance. Switch (in electrical circuit), a device that controls if an electrical circuit is open or closed. A general-use switch, intended for general distribution and branch circuits, is rated in amperes and is capable of interrupting its rated voltage. A transfer switch moves one or more load conductor connections from one power source to another. An isolating switch cuts off an electrical circuit from the source of power. It is intended to operate only after the circuit is opened by some other means.

Switching Station Synchronous Closing T1

A substation where connections are made between several distribution and transmission lines, but voltage remains the same. Closing all three poles of a capacitor switch in sync with the power system to minimize transients. Digital WAN carrier line. T1 transmits digital data at 1.544 Mbps through the telephone-switching network. Digital WAN carrier line. T3 transmits digital data at 44.736 Mbps through the telephone switching network. A list of terms, conditions, and rate information applied to various types of electrical service. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. Common name for the suite of protocols (or protocol stack) developed by the US Department of Defense in the 1970s to support communications across worldwide inter-networks. TCP and IP are the two best-known protocols in the suite. TCP provides reliable full-duplex data transmission, and IP provides features for addressing, type-of-service specification, fragmentation and re-assembly, and security. The elements of TCP/ IP span several layers of the OSI Reference Model. TDD (Total Demand Distortion), the ratio of the RMS value of the harmonic current to the RMS value of the rated load current or maximum demand fundamental current, expressed as a percent. The IEEE defined TDD to avoid the use of misleading THD values and to characterize harmonic currents in a consistent fashion. For example, many adjustable speed drives (ASDs) exhibit high THD values for input current when they are operating at very light loads, but this high value is not a significant concern because the magnitude of the current is low. THD (Total Harmonic Distortion), a percentage value that describes the harmonic content of a periodic waveform, indicating the severity of the distortion. It is the ratio of the RMS value of the harmonic content to the RMS value of the fundamental. THD is most affected by the level of harmonic current and the frequency response of the power system. A token-passing LAN standard developed and supported by IBM. Token Ring runs at 4 or 16 Mbps over a ring topology.

T3 Tariff TCP/IP

TDD

THD

Token Ring

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System Design Handbook

Topology

The shape of a LAN. The three main topologies are bus, ring, and star. In a bus topology all devices are connected to a central cable, called the bus or backbone. Bus networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks. In ring topology all devices are connected to one another in a closed loop. Ring topologies are relatively expensive and difficult to install, but they offer high bandwidth and can span large distances. In a star topology all devices are connected to a central hub. Star networks are relatively easy to install and manage, but bottlenecks occur because all data must pass through a hub. These topologies can also be mixed. For example, in a bus-star network, a high-bandwidth bus (or backbone) can connect a number of slower-bandwidth star segments. The level of an electromagnetic disturbance, determined by the total emission of all pieces of equipment. Time of Use A device for converting equipment parameters, such as temperature and pressure, into electrical signals that are used by computers. Computers translate the signal into data that we analyze with software. Transducers are used in SCADA systems. An electrical device for increasing or decreasing system voltage. The output rating for transformers, measured in kVA, designates the volt-amps that a transformer can deliver for a specified time at a rated secondary voltage and a rated frequency without exceeding the specified temperature rise. A sudden frequency and amplitude change in the voltage and/or current waveform. There are two main types of transients: (1) impulsive, which are either positive or negative changes, and (2) oscillatory, which include both positive and negative values. Transients cause electronic component failures and shutdown of adjustable speed drives (ASDs). Impulsive transients are usually triggered by lightning, and can last a few hundred microseconds. For example, a 2000 V impulsive transient can rise from zero to its peak value of 2000 V in 1.2 µsec, then decays to half its peak value in 50 µsec. An oscillatory transient lasting a few microseconds with primary frequency more than 500 kHz is often the result of an impulsive transient exciting the natural frequency of power system circuits. Some oscillatory transients last tens of microseconds with primary frequency 5 to 500 kHz. These types of current transients can be triggered by back-to-back capacitor switching (energization), and such voltage transients can be triggered by cable switching. These transients can also be the result of power system response to an impulsive transient. An oscillatory transient lasting from 0.3 ms to 50 ms with primary frequency less than 5 kHz is often encountered on utility sub transmission and distribution systems. Voltage transients between 300 and 900 Hz are caused by capacitor bank energization. Their peak magnitudes are typically 1.3 to 1.5 times the normal voltage, but can approach 2 times. Transients with principal frequencies less than 300 Hz are associated with resonance and transformer energization.

Total Disturbance Level TOU Transducer

Transformer

Transient

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System Design Handbook

Transmission

The process of transporting electric energy in bulk on high voltage lines from the generating facility (power plant) to the local distribution company for delivery to retail customers. The high-voltage wires that connect generation facilities with distribution facilities. Also known as, the grid, it is the infrastructure through which power moves around. It is necessary to carefully coordinate use of the transmission system to ensure reliable and efficient service. Tropicalization and conformal coating, the process that covers the meter's circuit board with a protecting layer against moisture (the conformal coating). This is done to protect the circuit board and meter from the effects of high humidity. Relatively low-speed transmission method consisting of two insulated wires arranged in a regular spiral pattern. The wires can be shielded (STP) or unshielded (UTP). Twisted pair is common in telephony applications and is increasingly common in data networks. The maximum deviation from the average of the 3-phase voltages or currents, divided by the average of the 3-phase voltages or currents, expressed in percent. Using symmetrical components, unbalance is the ratio of the negative sequence component to the positive sequence component. Voltage unbalance is most important for 3-phase motor loads. An unbalance greater than 3% can result in significant motor heating and failure if there aren't any protection circuits for the motor. Voltage unbalance can be caused by unbalanced single-phase loads on a 3-phase circuit, or by capacitor bank abnormalities, such as a blown fuse on one phase of a 3-phase bank.

Transmission Grid

Tropicalization

Twisted Pair

Unbalances

Unbundling Undervoltage

Dividing the costs of electrical generation, transmission, distribution, and other services into separate rates charged to the customer. A voltage decrease of at least 10% below the nominal and lasting more than 1 minute. Undervoltages are the result of switching a load on, switching a capacitor bank off, or overloading circuits. The undervoltage lasts until voltage system regulation equipment can bring the voltage back to within tolerances. UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair), four-pair wire medium used in a variety of networks. UTP does not require the fixed spacing between connections that is necessary with coaxial-type connections. A service offered by a power provider in a deregulated energy market to establish a competitive advantage that helps to retain or attract key customers. Examples include remote load management, flexible billing, power quality analysis tools, guaranteed power quality levels and fast account access. Separating electric generation, transmission, and distribution functions of a utility into separate companies. Voltage-line-to-neutral. The voltage between a line conductor (A, B, or C) and the neutral conductor (the ground conductor) in a four-wire Wye power system. Distortion of the AC line voltage (deviation from the normal sine wave).

UTP

Value-Added Service

Vertical Disaggregation Vln Voltage Distortion

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System Design Handbook

Voltage Fluctuation Voltage Imbalance

A series of voltage changes or a cyclical variation of the voltage envelope. Voltage Imbalance (unbalance), a condition where the three phase voltage differs in amplitude and/or is displaced from the normal 120 degree phase relationship. Voltage imbalances are often a result of single-phase loads on a three-phase circuit, or blown fuses in one phase of a three-phase capacitor bank. Imbalance is frequently expressed using symmetrical components: the ratio of the negative or zero sequence voltage to the positive sequence voltage, in percent. Sometimes it's defined as the maximum deviation from the average of the three phase voltages or currents, divided by the average of the three phase voltages or currents, expressed in percent.

Voltage Regulation WAN

Degree of stability in RMS voltage at the load. Often specified in relation to other parameters, such as input-voltage changes, load changes, or temperature changes. WAN (Wide Area Network), a data communications network that connects equipment across large geographic areas and often uses transmission devices provided by telephone companies. The public switched telephone network (PSTN) typically provides the links between remote sites but some organizations have established their WAN links using radio, microwave, satellite, or other communications technologies. The power available from an electrical current of one ampere at an electrical potential of one volt. Deviation from an ideal sine wave. GUI-based application, such as Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer, used to access hypertext documents and other services located on remote servers throughout the World Wide Web and Internet. The transportation of power to customers, using the transmission facilities of one system to transmit power into another system. Wholesale wheeling is transmitting bulk power over the grid to power companies, or in other words, selling generated electricity to wholesale buyers who resell to retail customers. Retail wheeling is transmitting power to end users (e.g. homes, businesses and factories). The purchase and sale of electricity from generators to resellers (who sell to retail customers) along with the ancillary services needed to maintain reliability and power quality at the transmission level. A wiring system for distributing and utilizing 3-phase electrical power. There are four power-carrying conductors with possibly a fifth safety ground wire. One of the four power carrying wires is called the neutral wire. Similar ends of each phase winding are connected together at a common point that forms electrical neutral and is often grounded. The physical arrangement resembles a Y. The angular displacement between each point of the Y is 120 degrees. When the neutral and one of the three phases is separated from the other phases, the resulting two wires are said to supply single phase power. Most single phase power is derived from three phase power in this way.

Watt Waveform Distortion Web Browser

Wheeling

Wholesale Power Market

Wye

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System Design Handbook

The voltage between any two of the three non-neutral power wires is the rated distribution voltage, which is 208 VAC in North America and 380 to 415 VAC in other countries. The voltage between the neutral and any of the other power wires is the voltage supplied to a typical wall output, which is 120 VAC in North America and 220 to 240 VAC in other countries. X.25 A protocol stack that defines how connections between Date Terminal Equipment (e.g. computers) and Data Communications Equipment (e.g. modems) are maintained for communications across a public data network.

Page 160

A

Activity-based costing 18 Adaptability 29 Air 28, 106 Alarming 22, 24, 30, 34, 51, 57, 106, 123, 124 Analog inputs 109, 112 Analog outputs 110, 112, 113

topologies 85 External I/O boards 111 External I/O for 73xx ION 111 External I/O for 7700 ION 112

F

Feeder monitoring 21, 36 main feeders 21 sub-feeders 18, 22 Fiber optic 27, 30, 83, 85 Flow rates 28, 106, 109 Fluid levels 28, 109

B

Bill verification 18, 26, 34, 114 Billing 34, 96, 114 Buy-versus-build decisions 18

C

Capacitor bank switching 123, 125 CDPD 79 Cellular communications 30 Clients 117, 118 Control 19, 23, 24, 28, 30, 31, 34, 96, 106, 124, 125 Cost allocation 18, 20, 26, 27, 35, 113, 114, 125 Cost control 18, 26, 29, 124 CTs 28 Customization 29, 122

G

Gas 28, 103, 106, 107 Gateway sites 74, 86 Grayhill modules 111

H

Harmonics 18, 23, 24, 25, 29, 123 Hyperterminal 105

I

Information sharing 26, 114, 125 Infrared communications 27, 30, 31, 78 Inputs/outputs 20, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28, 35, 36, 106 ION EEM 50 ION protocol 31, 78 ION technology 28, 29

D

Database 114 archiving 114, 119 configuration 115 query wizard 115 seat licenses 118 Decision tree 19 Demand control 18, 23, 37, 124 Deregulation 18 Digital inputs 107, 112, 113 Digital outputs 108, 112, 113 DNP 3.0 25, 28, 31, 78, 96, 100 meter slave configuration 100

L

LANs 83, 84 Leased-line modems 79 Load control 36 Load profiling 28, 34, 96, 114 LonTalk 96

E

Energy logging 21, 27, 29, 36, 37, 114 Energy pulsing 28, 78 EtherGate 86 Ethernet communications 18, 23, 26, 27, 30, 31, 35, 37, 83, 86 media 85 performance 89

M

Maintenance 18, 27, 114 Master Stations 11 Modbus 28, 31, 78 Modem communications 24, 27, 30, 35, 36, 37, 74, 79 dial-outs to remote sites 80 high priority events 87 internal modems 81

ModemGate 81 MV-90 28, 96, 103 meter configuration 103

N

Network loads 88

Throughput 29, 88 Time synchronization 90 blackout 93 method 91 Transient detection 18, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 35, 123

O

ODBC 113, 114, 118 Operations planning 18, 27, 113, 114, 123, 125 Optical couplers 78

U

UPSs 123

V

Voltage sags 18, 123

P

Passwords 30 Performance guarantees 18 PLCs 25, 28, 31, 34, 96 Power factor 18, 30, 125 Power quality 18, 26, 27, 28, 29, 34, 35, 50, 56, 96, 113, 114, 123, 124 Power supplies 28 Pressures 28, 106, 109 PTs 28

W

WANs 84 Water 28, 106, 107 Web access 18

R

Radio communications 27, 30, 100 Radio modems 79 Real-time pricing 18 Report generation 18, 114 Revenue metering 18, 28, 34, 35, 123 RTUs 11, 25, 28, 31, 34, 96, 100, 106

S

Satellite communications 30 SCADA 11, 25, 36, 96 Security 30 Sequence-of-events 18, 28, 34 Serial communications 21, 27, 31, 37, 74, 81, 86 RS-232 to RS-485 converters 75 RS-485 topologies 77 Servers 117, 118 Service entrance 21 Setup 27, 37, 127 SQL 114, 115 Status monitoring 106 Steam 28, 106, 107 Substations 18, 24, 25, 100, 124

T

Telnet 104 Temperatures 28, 106, 109

Information

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