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TurqeTis geopolitika XX saukunis 90 iani wlebidan

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sarCevi

Sesavali.................................................................................................................................................................. 3 istoriografia.............................................................................................................................................. 7 Tavi I ­ Turquli saxelmwifos geografiul-geopolitikuri mdebareoba da saxelmwifoebriv-politikuri sistema.

$_1. geografiul-geopolitikuri mdebareoba....................................................................... 29 $_2. saxelmwifos wyoba............................................................................................................................... 39 $_3. Tanamedrove TurqeTis partiebis sagareo da saSinao politikuri koncefcia................................................................................................................... 62

Tavi II _ TurqeTis geopolitikuri koncefciebis evolucia meore msoflio omis Semdeg

$_1. geopolitikis tradiciuli safuZvlebi da Tanamedroveoba..................... 70 $_2. TurqeTis geopolitikuri veqtorebi XXs-is meore naxevridan............. 88 $_3. islamis politikuri faqtori Turqul geopolitikur

strategiaSi................................ 106

Tavi III _ TurqeTis respublikis geopolitika ssrk-s dezintegraciis Semdeg.

$_1. xmelTaSuazRvispiruli geopolitika............................................................................... 115 $_2. qurTebis problema da TurqeTis saxelmwifoebriv-politikuri usafrTxoeba................................................................................................................................................. 132 $_3. TurqeTis geopolitika XXs-is bolosa da XXIs-is dasawyisSi............ 157 $_4. axali Turquli geopolitikis rusuli veqtori................................................. 196 $_5. Turquli geopolitikis samxreT kavkasiuri mimarTuleba......................... 213

daskvna....................................................................................................................................................................... 233 danarTi.................................................................................................................................................................... 242 bibliografia................................................................................................................................................. 246

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Sesavali

saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis ganviTarebis Tanamedrove etapze _ XXI saukunis pirvel aTwleulSi msoflio bevrad ufro dinamiuri gaxda, iyo. vidre XX igi mTeli omis meore Semdgomi naxevari

periodis

manZilze

saukunis

saerTaSoriso politikaSi ori sistemis e. w. kapitalisturis da socialisturis Seurigebeli konfrontaciis niSniT iyo aRbeWdili yvela sferoSi. ,,civi omis" dasasrulma, rac msoflio politikis TiTqmis naxevarsaukunovani ganviTarebis logikuri Sedegi iyo, saTave daudo axal movlenebs da pirvel rigSi sxvadasxva samxedropolitikur gadajgufebis kavSirebSi process. XX gaerTianebuli saukunis saxelwifoebis gaZlierda

bolodan

liberalur-demokratiuli Rirebulebebis sayovelTao talRa, romelmac yvela postsocialisturi qveyana moicva, ssr

kavSiris dezintegraciam axali suverenuli saxelmwifoebis Camoyalibeba ganapiroba, ramac kidev erTxel da ukve

meramdened Secvala msoflios politikuri ruka. gaCnda axali problemebi, axali midgomebi da Sesabamisad bevri adrindeli problemis axleburi rakursiT warmoCenis da danaxvis

obieqturi aucilebloba. aRsaniSnavia TanamedroveobisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli erTi metad mniSvnelovani garemoeba, rasac globalizaciis procesi hqvia. igi axali politikuri fenomenia, romelic dasavluri liberaluri Rirebulebebis sistemaSi warmoiSva da msoflios masStabiT damkvidrebis tendenciebs avlens. bunebrivia, igi garkveul gavlenas axdens saxelmwifoTaSoris 3

urTierTobebzec, gansakuTrebiT samxedro aspeqtebze. samxedro SeiaraRebisa da teqnologiebis gaujobeseba mTel msoflios erTian strategiul sferod aqcevs. dedamiwaze ar arsebobs samxedro-SeteviTi aseT pirobebSi SeiaraRebisTvis miuwvdomeli adgilebi.

gansakuTrebuli araa erTxel

mniSvneloba da

geopolitikas mocemuli rigSi,

eniWeba, ucvleli

romelic

saudamod pirvel

fenomeni,

igi

sxvadfasxva,

geografiuli da politikuri faqtorebis zemoqmedebis Sedegad xdeba ufro momgebiani, an ufro wamgebiani. saerTaSoriso daSlis Sedegad, samxedro-politikuri rac bipolaruli blokuri sistemis

msoflios axali

dasasruls regionuli

warmoadgenda,

wina

planze

wamovida

saxelwifoebi, romlebic damoukidebeli sagareo politikis gatarebas cdiloben. bipolaruli msoflios daSlis Semdgom, Znelia imis

Tqma, rom samyaro erTpolusiani gaxda, radganac arsebobs seriozuli kontrargumentebi da gamowvevebi. arc imis Tqma SeiZleba, rom stabilurad mravalpolusiani samyaro gvaqvs, aramed ufro mizanSewonilia vilaparakoT Camoyalibebis

procesSi myof saerTaSoriso politikaze, romelic ZalTa balansisaken mimarTul tendenciebs avlens da erTpirovnul monopolistur hegemonias Znelad egueba. axal viTarebaSi gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba

regionaluri ganviTarebas

saxelmwifoebis da regionaluri

geopolitikuri qvesistemebis

interesebis Camoyalibebas.

miTumetes, roca es procesi msoflio globaluri politikis Semadgeneli nawilia da saerTaSoriso interesebis mqone didi saxelwifoebis

yuradrebas

iqcevs.

am

mxriv

gamorCeuli

bipolaruli - orpolusiani

4

geopolitikuri sivrce udavod aris samxreT kavkasia, romelic odiTganve iyo msoflios didi saxelwifoebis interesTa

dapirispirebis obieqti. ssrk dezintegraciis Semdeg msoflio politikur rukaze axali saxelwifoebi gaCnda, romelTaTvis axali politikuri urTierTobebis Camoyalibeba gardauvali realoba gaxda da bunebrivia, es didi winaaRmdegobebis gareSe ar xdeba. samxreT kavkasiaSi Tavisi interesebi yovelTvis hqonda regionis erTerT wamyvan saxelwifos _ TurqeTis msoflio respublikas, blokuri rac

gansakuTrebiT

TvalSisacemi

sistemis

daSlis Semdeg gaxda. TurqeTis sagareo saqmeTa ministri a. davuToRlu blokuri da sistemis droindel sistemas, saerTaSoriso romelic ,,civi

uriTierTobebs

saerTaSoriso

omis" gamokveTili niSniT iyo aRbeWdili, axasiaTebs, rogorc statikuri xasiaTis mqones, roca an erT blokSi unda

yofiliyo saxelwifo gaerTianebuli

an meoreSi. blokuri

sistemis daSlam saerTaSoriso urTierTobebs, misi marTebuli SeniSvniT ,,dinamiuri xasiaTi" SesZina, rac ufro moqnili politikis gatarebis saWiroebas warmoSobs. am garemoebam

mniSvnelovani geopolitikuri cvlilebebi gamoiwvia TurqeTis saxelwifos midgomebSi, bevri saerTaSoriso Tu regionuli problemis mimarT. aqedan gamomdinare, aucilebeli da

aqtualuria TurqeTis geopolitikis da misi mimarTulebebis Seswavla msoflioSi ,,civi omis" Semdgom xanaSi, radgan igi naTels hfens samxreT kavkasiisa da saqarTvelos politikis bevr aspeqts da iZleva momavali sagareo

ganviTarebis

tendenciebis ramdenadme prognozirebis saSualebas.

dezintegracia ­ mTelis daSla, danawevreba Semadgenel nawilebad

5

winamdebare sadisertacio naSromis kvlevis sagani aris TurqeTis respublikis geopolitika XX saukunis @90-iani

wlebidan da XXIs-is

pirvel aTwleulamde, anu is periodi,

roca ssrk dezintegraciis da ,,civi omis" dasrulebis Sedegad warmoqmnil postsabWour qveynebs politikuri

TviTidentifikaciis aucilebloba CamouyalibdaT. politikuri TviTdamkvidrebisaTvis brZola dakavSirebulia uSualod im procesebTan, romelic TurqeTis respublikis SinaarsiT tradiciuli datvirTvam

geopolitikuri gamoiwvia.

veqtorebis

axali

gamokvlevis konkretuli amocanebi fokusirebulia iseTi mniSvnelovani problemebis gaSuqebaze TurqeTis

geopolitikur koncefciebSi, rogoricaa: _ saxelwifos geopolitikuri mdgomareoba da mniSvneloba saerTaSoriso da regionalur politikaSi; _ partiul-politikuri sistema da sagareo politikis formireba; _ demografiuli maxasiaTeblebi (socialur-eTnikuri struqtura) da misi roli geopolitikis formirebaSi; _ qveynis geopolitikuri veqtorebi XX saukunis II naxevridan; _ Turquli geopolitikuri mimarTulebebi xmelTaSuazRvispira regionSi; _ Turquli geoeTnopolitika qurTTa mimarT; _ Turquli geopolitika ssrk-s daSlis Semdeg; _ Turquli geopolitikis rusuli veqtori _ TurqeTis geopolitikis samxreT kavkasiuri mimarTulebebi

6

istoriografia

sakvlevi Temis problematikis garSemo mravalferovani politikuri da istoriuli xasiaTis literaturis

safuZvlianad damuSavebam didi samsaxuri gagviwia. marTalia, qarTul enaze jerjerobiT ar moipoveba iseTi monografiuli gamokvleva, romelic kompleqsurad gaaSuqebs sadisertacio Temis sakvlev sakiTxebs, magram miuxedavad amisa, aris

istoriuli da politikur-Teoriuli xasiaTis literatura, romelsac sakiTxebis gansakuTrebuli kvlevisas mniSvneloba eniWeba calkeuli midgomis

swori

meTodologiuri

SemuSavebisaTvis da masalis sistematizaciisaTvis. am kategoriis literaturidan unda aRiniSnos saerTod geopolitikis, rogorc mecnierebisadmi miZRvnili naSromebi, rogoricaa a. gegeSiZis ,,geopolitika", al. duginis

,,geopolitikis safuZvlebi", n. CixlaZis ,,geopolitika" da sxv. es naSromebi, garda imisa, rom gviqmnian kvlevis zogad

Teoriul

safuZvels,

saSualebas

gvaZleven

movaxdinoT

empiruli faqtebisa da masalis sistematizacia ama Tu im konceptualuri midgomis mixedviT. disertaciaze muSaobisas gamoviyeneT Semdegi wyaroebi da dokumentebi: yarsis xelSekruleba ,, , , , - , ."; . . .; xelSekruleba saqarTvelos respublikasa da TurqeTis respublikas Soris megobrobis, TanamSromlobisa da keTilmezobluri urTierTobebis Sesaxeb; 7

deklaracia respublikas

saqarTvelos Soris

respublikasa

da

TurqeTis da

megobrobis

TanamSromlobisa

solidarobis Sesaxeb; SeTanxmeba saqarTvelos mTavrobasa da TurqeTis respublikis mTavrobas Soris samxedro wvrTnis, teqnikisa da mecnierebis sferoSi; SeTanxmeba saqarTvelosa da TurqeTis respublikas Soris Tavisufali vaWrobis Sesaxeb; 1982 wlis TurqeTis respublikis konstitucia (Targm.); Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Hükümeti ve Gürcistan Cumhurieti Hükümeti arasnda eitim, Bilim, Kültür ve spor Alanlarnda I birlii Anla mas; Bgnk Trkiye 1980-2003 (TurqeTis Tanamedrove istoria 1980-2003ww da dokumentebis krebuli) qarTuli istoriasTan aRvniSnoT, monografiebidan, dakavSirebiT, mixeil svaniZis TurqeTis respublikis gvinda

upirvelesad, naSromi

gamorCeviT

,,TurqeTis

istoria",

romelic mniSvnelovan warmodgenas gviqmnis am didi qveynisa da misi winamorbedi saxelmwifoebis (selCukTa da osmalTa imperiebis) ganvlili istoriuli gzebis Sesaxeb, daarsebidan ocdameerTe saukunis damdegamde. naSromSi safuZvlianad aris warmodgenili respublikis monografia rogorc saSinao Sedgeba Zveli, da sami ise Tanamedrove politika. da TurqeTis aRniSnuli saqarTvelos

sagareo

nawilisagan

erovnuli mecnierebaTa akademiis prezidiumis dadgenilebiT avtors miniWebuli aqvs akad. giorgi wereTlis saxelobis premia. geopolitikaze, dargze, romelic rogorc udides SedarebiT rols axali mecnierebis Tanamedrove mniSvnelovan

TamaSobs

saxelmwifoebis

saerTaSoriso

urTierTobebze,

informacias gvaZlevs arCil gegeSiZis naSromi ,,geopolitika", saxelmZRvaneloSi avtori cdilobs daxmareba gauwios 8

mkvlevarebsa da sakiTxiT dainteresebul pirT globaluri procesebisa da maTi saxelmwifo politikaze gavlenis Sesaxeb swori warmodgenis SeqmnaSi. aseve elementaruli informaciis sistematizaciasa da damoukidebeli politikuri analizis

unaris gamomuSavebaSi. aRniSnul ganxiluli geopolitikis gamokvlevaSi msoflio Teoriis, SemWidroebuli rukis saxiTaa formirebis, da

politikuri erovnuli

usafrTxoebisa

saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri urTierTobebis sakiTxebi. agreTve daxasiaTebulia sasursaTo, ganiaraRebis, ekologiuri, dacvis demografiuli, globaluri

adamianTa

uflebebis

problemebi, romlebic uSualo gavlenas axdenen msoflio da saxelmwifo politikis formirebaze. saxelmZRvanelo originaluri xasiaTisaa, masSi

gamoyenebulia rogorc ucxouri literatura, aseve rusuliqarTuli gamocemebi da presis masalebi, sainteresoa isic, rom danarTis saxiT moyvanilia sacnobaro xasiaTis informacia cxrilebisa da mcire ganmartebiTi leqsikonis saxiT. TurqeTis respublikis istoriis mkvlevari prf. emzar makaraZe samecniero naSromSi ,,Tanamedrove TurqeTis

aqtualuri sakiTxebi XX saukunis 90-ian wlebSi" yuradRebas amaxvilebs sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdgom periodSi

TurqeTis sagareo da saSinao politikur problemebze. avtori saubrobs laicizmis Sesaxeb Tanamedrove TurqeTis

respublikis saSinao politikaSi, aseve ,,Turanizmis" sakiTxze da ankaris sagareo politikur kursze yofil sabWoTa

muslimanur respublikebTan mimarTebaSi. xsenebul monografiaSi mniSvnelovani da adgili uWiravs 1992 9

TurqeT-saqarTvelos

urTierTobebs

qveynebs

Soris

wlis 30 ivliss gaformebul megobrobisa da TanamSromlobis xelSekrulebas. e. makaraZe rogorc aRniSnul naSromSi, aseve Tavis meore monografiaSi ,,kviprosis sakiTxi aRmosavlur politikaSi XX saukunis 60_80-ian wlebSi" m. gogitiZesTan erTad ganixilavs kunZul kviprosis problemas TurqeTis politikaSi. Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi Sesabamisi saxelmwifo dajgufebebiT,

xmelTaSuazRvis aRmosavleTi regioni, urTierTobebiT, sistemebiTa da

sxvadasxva

yovelTvis warmoadgenda problemaTa rTul kvanZs. dRes es problemebi kidev ufro daamZima warsulSi samxedro an eTnokonfliqtebis saSiSma Sedegebma. swored kviprosis amis erT-erT naTel magaliTs da warmoadgens ganviTarda

problema,

romelic

warmoiSva

uSualod berZnebsa da Turqebs Soris istoriulad arsebuli winaaRmdegobebis ganpirobebuli iyo safuZvelze. agreTve igi winare mniSvnelovnad epoqaSi ori Seqmnili qveynis, da

saerTaSoriso-politikuri TurqeTisa da saberZneTis,

viTarebiT, ise aSS-s,

rogorc yofili

ssrk-sa

evropis sxva saxelmwifoebis interesebiT. yovelive es, erTad aRebuli, ara erT winaaRmdegobas qmnida da dRemde SeinarCuna Tavisi problemuri xasiaTi. aRniSnuli naSromi avtorebma swored am problemebis

gamokvlevas miuZRvnes da safuZvlianad ganixiles kviprosis saSinao da sagareo politikis metad mniSvnelovani sakiTxebi. bolo xanebSi gamocemul qarTul naSromTagan CvenTvis sainteresoa r. gaCeCilaZis wigni ,,axlo aRmosavleTi: sivrce, xalxi da politika." aRniSnul naSromSi avtors kargad aqvs naCvenebi axlo aRmosavleTis regionis ZiriTadi problemebi, 10

ris Sedegadac igi amtkicebs, rom am regionis politikurgeografiuli stabiluroba moCvenebiTia. CvenTvis

gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani gaxlavT monografiis meTormete Tavi, sadac r. gaCeCilaZe saubrobs Tanamedrove TurqeTis respublikaze geopolitikuri daZruliyo. respublikis ankarisaTvis gaxleCili amave iseT da gvaCvenebs rogor SeZlo ankaram rolisaken TurqeTis rogoricaa da orad Tu

Zvridan TavSi

regionuli is vrclad

lideris ganixilavs

mniSvnelovan regionul kviprosi.

problemebs, geopolitikaSi aseve

qurTebi kunZuli

avtori

saubrobs,

rogor uaryofiTad imoqmeda, amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis xelmZRvanelobiT wamowyebulma gavlenas Seqmnili, koaliciis regionSi, mier rac da eraySi udides sakuTriv

samxedro

kampaniam

axdens

msoflio

geopolitikasa

regionis politikur geografiaze. swored regionis cdac cvlilebaTa es speqtri moiTxovs mTlinad risi

axlebur mocemuli

politikur-geografiul aqvs avtors

gaazrebas,

aRniSnul

naSromSi.

disertaciaze muSaobisas aseve didi daxmareba gagviwia iseTma naSromebma, rogoricaa: z. batiaSvilis ,,TurqeTis

SeiaraRebuli Zalebi", 1945-80 wlebSi da

t. lebaniZis ,,TurqeTis Sida politika politikuri partiebi", politika", migracia el. g. maCitiZes anTelavas (1960-1990-iani

,,TurguT

ozalis evropa

ekonomikuri da

,,Tanamedrove

Turquli

wlebi)" da a. S. Cvens TemasTan dakavSirebiT aucileblad miviCnieT

geopolitikis cnobili mkvlevaris al. duginis samecniero naSromebis Seswavla. misi Tvasawieri farTo da

mravalferovania. rusi geopolitikosis wignSi ,,geopolitikis 11

safuZvlebi" dawvrilebiT mecnierebis, Teoriebi.

(qarTulad aris

iTargmna

da

gamoica

1999

wels)

gaanalizebuli misi

geopolitikis,

rogorc

safuZvlebi,

istoria,

geopolitikuri skolaTa kargad da

aseve

warmodgenilia speqtri

geopolitikur da sabolood

SexedulebaTa

farTo

aris

Camoyalibebuli ruseTis federaciis geopolitikuri doqtrina. aRsaniSnavia, politikisaken, rom al. dugini federacias ,,velikoderJavuli" ,,civi omis"

ruseTis

dasrulebisTanave mouwodebda. avtors wignSi gansakuTrebiT vrclad aqvs ganxiluli ruseTis federaciis geopolitikuri momavlis sakiTxebi, misi damokidebuleba samxreT kavkasiis eTnosebTan da saxelmwifoebTan, samxreTis, samxreT-

dasavleTisa da dasavleTis qveynebTan. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom rusi geopolitikosi aRniSnul naSromSi, misi

bolodroindeli wignebisagan gansxvavebiT, sakmaod akninebs TurqeTis saxelmwifos rolsa da SesaZleblobebs, hqondes mas raime damoukidebeli politikaSi, respublikas da uSualod gavlena, radgan amerikis misi rogorc avtori im msoflio, ise

regionalur TurqeTis satelitad miiCnevda. al.

periodisaTvis Statebis

SeerTebuli politikis

gamtareblad

duginis

wigSi

gamoTqmuli

Sexeduleba

da

azri

CvenTvis ara mxolod sakamaTo, aramed aSkarad miuRebelia, magram miuxedavad amisa, miT ufro aucilebelia Rrmad da safuZvlianad gavecnoT yvela arsebul Tu momzadebis

procesSi myof doqtrinasa Tu ideologias, romelic Cvens interesebs uSualod exeba. CvenTvis aseve mniSvnelovania duginis SedarebiT

Tanamedrove wignebi da statiebi, romlebSic is ukve Zalian 12

damTbaria TurqeTis mimarT da ufro metic, evraziis Zlieri imperiis SeqmnisaTvis igi ruseTis xelisuflebas TurqeTis respublikasTan aucilebeli kavSirebisaken mouwodebs. rusi geopolitikosis bolo naSromebidan, romlebic Cvens mier iqna gamoyenebuli gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa: ,, " (. 2008), ,, " (. 2008) da " (. 2009). aRniSnul wignebSi duginis azriT, ruseTis federaciam da xmeleTis aucileblad romelic sxva unda saxelmwifoebma Seqmnan Zlieri TviTgadarCenis evraziuli mizniT ,,

saxelmwifo, zRvis

ASeZlebs

sabolood

daamarcxos

saxelmwifoebi. aRniSnuli axali imperiis lideri, avtoris azriT, ra Tqma kargad unda, Cans, ruseTis rom federacia unda gaxdes. sxva

naSromebSi

evraziulobis

proeqtSi

evropis Zlier saxelmwifoebTan, TurqeTis respublikamac unda miiRos monawileoba. avtori amasTanave amtkicebs, rom

axalgazrda TurqeTis respublikis fesvebi ,,hartlandSia" da rom respublikis sulis Camdgmeli mustafa qemal aTaTurqi xmeleTis saxelmwifoebs yovelTvis Tavis mokavSireebad

miiCnevda, xolo zRvisas piriqiT (am SemTxvevaSi mas saubari aqvs did britaneTze). CvenTvis aseve gansakuTrebiT

sainteresoa is faqti, rom al. dugini Turqebs srulebiT amarTlebs, qurTuli problemis Zalismieri gziT mogvarebis sakiTxSi da Tanaxmaa, rom ankaram aranairi angariSi ar

gauwios mis teritoriaze mcxovreb 12 milionze met qurTul eTnoss, es maSin, rodesac is paralelurad mxars uWers da

separatizms

saqarTvelos

regionebSi,

afxazeTsa

samaCabloSi, sadac dRes araqarTveli mosaxleobis raodenoba erTad aRebuli daaxloebiT 150 aTasic ki ar iqneba. arada 13

realurad al. duginisagan ufro marTebuli iqneboda, rom Turqebi kunZul amaze gaemarTlebina kviprosis met ara qurTebTan mimarTul misi mimarTebaSi, agresiaSi, saxelmwifo aramed radgan dRes

winaaRmdeg

daundoblobas

iCens

saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi, im dros, rodesac Cvens qveyanas mxolod da mxolod sakuTari teritoriuli mTlianobis

aRdgena unda, ruseTi saokupacio jarebs agzavnis da oms uwyebs iseT patara saxelmwifos, rogoric saqarTveloa. amrigad, al. duginis yvela naSromi, romelic CvenTvis xelmisawvdomi gaxldaT, Zalian saintereso da mniSvnelovania, rogorc saqarTvelosa da TurqeTis progresuli ZalebisaTvis, ise msoflio TanamegobrobisaTvis, radgan dugini gaxlavT kremlis ideologi, misi survilebis xmamaRla ganmcxadebeli da geopolitikosi, romlis mTavari mizani ruseTis uZleveli imperiis aRorZinebaa. aqve imasac davZenT, rom Tavis droze a. hitleri da misi politikuri azris gundi, swored cnobili rac,

geopolitikosebis

gamTvaliswinebeli

gaxldnen,

rogorc mogexsenebaT, msoflioSi yvelaze didi omis dawyebiT dasrulda. gamorCeviT gvinda aRvniSnoT polonel-amerikeli (daibada q. varSavaSi 1928w.) politologisa da saxelmwifo moRvawis zbignev bJezinskis wigni ,,The Grand Chessboard" (New York 1997.) ,,didi saWadrako dafa". aRniSnul naSromSi avtori saubrobs imis Sesaxeb, rom meoce saukunis bolos, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg, amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma, araevraziulma saxelmwifom, rogor SeZlo gamxdariyo erTpirovnuli lideri evraziul saxelmwifoebs avtoris Soris. magram miuxedavad zRvisa am da

gamarjvebisa, xmeleTis

azriT,

faruli kvlav

brZola

saxelmwifoebs

Soris

grZeldeba,

radgan 14

evrazia mainc inarCunebs Tavis geopolitikur mniSvnelobas, rogorc misi dasavleTi nawilic, es nawili aziis evropis saxiT, ise bolo

aRmosavleTi periodisaTvis

saxiT, gaxda

radgan

ukanaskneli

sasicocxlod

mniSvnelovani ekonomikuri siZlieris mflobeli. yovelive amis Semdeg z. bJezinskis azriT, amerikis SeerTebuli evraziaSi radgan Statebi Seqmnas SeZlos

iZulebulia

ibrZolos

imisaTvis,

rom

Tanasworuflebiani SeinarCunos Tavisi

saxelmwifoebi, politikuri

hegemonia,

ganaxorcielos

Tavisi saboloo politikuri mizani da Seqmnas iseTi msoflio wesrigi, sadac gansakuTrebiT didi roli daeTmoba

kacobriobis interesebis gaTvaliswinebas. aqve avtori mkafiod da dabejiTebiT urCevs amerikis specsamsaxurebs, geostrategiuli raime Seqmna, azriT, SeuSalos rom ar

dauSvan

SeerTebuli

Statebis

miznebis

ganxorcielebisTvis kerZod

xelisSemSleli imperiis" z.

gaerTianebis, ruseTis evraziul amerikas swored

,,evraziuli radgan

xelmZRvanelobiT, gaerTianebas Tavisi

bJezinskis xeli

yovelTvis

SeuZlia miznebis

geopolitikuri

ganxorcielebaSi.

amitom avtoris mizania gamokveTos Tvalsazrisi, rom misi qveynisaTvis aucilebelia, saxelmwifos mmarTvelma wreebma

sworad Camoayalibon da ganixilon Tanamedrove evraziuli geopolitika. amave naSromSi bJezinskis Zalian kargad aqvs naCvenebi TurqeTis respublikis geopolitikuri roli axlo

aRmosavleTisa da kavkasiis regionebSi. avtoris azriT, rac CvenTvisac misaRebia, miuxedavad rigi problemebisa, TurqeTi iranTan erTad aRniSnul regionSi iTvleba mniSvnelovan

geopolitikur centrad, radan igi astabilizebs Savi zRvis 15

regions, akontrolebs bosforisa da dardanelis sruteebs da awonasworebs ruseTs samxreT kavkasiaSi. dReisaTvis SeerTebuli aliansis TurqeTis respublika da gaxlavT amerikis

Statebis erTaderTi

mokavSire muslimuri

Crdilo saxelmwifo,

atlatikuri romelic da

oficialurad gaxlavT amrigad,

winaaRmdegia samxreTi

islamuri flangis

fundamentalizmis uSualo

,,nato"-s

damcveli. TurqeTis

bJezinskis

azriT

destabilizacia

respublikaSi gamoiwvevs destabilizacias mTels regionSi da xels Seuwyobs ,,ruseTis imperias", samxreT kavkasiis kvlav Tavisi gavlenis qveS moqcevaSi. sadisertacio gansakuTrebiT naSromze muSaobis gaxldaT periodSi Tanamedrove CvenTvis Turqi

mniSvnelovani

politikosebisa da mecnierebis ukanaskneli 5-10 wlis manZilze gamoqveynebuli monografiebi da gamokvlevebi TurqeTis

respublikis geopolitikasa da geostrategiaze, qveynis rolze saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis sistemaSi, ankaris, rogorc

mimdinare, ise momaval sagareo da saSinao politikur kursze, Turquli rogoric saxelmwifos aris iseT mniSvnelovan problemebze, brZola

qurTebis

separatistuli

TavisuflebisaTvis, problemebi evrokavSirSi gawevrianebasTan dakavSirebiT da mwvave urTierTobebi saberZneTTan Suaze

gaxleCili kunZuli kviprosiTurT. aRniSnuli naSromebidan upirvelesad gvinda gamovyoT b. Tanoris (B. Tanör), q. boratavisa (K. Boratav) da s. aqSinis (S. Akin) naSromi ,,Bgnk Trkiye 1980-2003" (dRevendeli TurqeT 1980-2003), romelSic avtorebs dawvrilebiT da aqvT da aRwerili sagareo

Tanamedrove

TurqeTis

istoria

saSinao

politika 1980 wlidan 2003 wlamde. 16

wignSi kargad aris ganxiluli, rogorc respublikaSi 1980 wels momxdari samxedro ajanyeba, aseve misi dasrulebis Semdeg arsebuli samxedro reJimi da 1982 wels miRebuli qveynis moqmedi konstitucia. monografiaSi dawvrilebiT aris saubari qveyanaSi 1980-2003 wlebSi Catarebuli yvela

arCevnebisa da masSi gamarjvebuli partiebis istoria, maTi Sida da sagareo politikuri saqmianoba. aRsaniSnavia, rom aRniSnuli naSromis avtorebis azriT, TurqeTis respublikis warmatebuli evrokavSirSi TanamegobrobasTan gaaqtiurebasTan. CvenTvis Zalze mniSvnelovania naSromis is nawili, momavali aucileblad da dakavSirebulia saerTaSoriso kidev ufro

gawevrianebasa urTierTobebis

romelSic mocemulia dokumentebi: zemoT aRniSnul periodSi ,,Resmi Gazet"-Si gamoqveynebuli TurqeTis parlamentis mier

miRebuli kanonebis garkveuli nawili da TurqeTis umaRlesi saarCevno komitetis gadawyvetilebebi 1983-87 wlebSi. disertaciaze muSaobisas mniSvnelovani daxmareba gagviwia a. alkanis (A. Alkan) naSromma ,, Karadeniz gvenlii" (,,Savi zRvis usafrTxoeba"). aRniSnul monografiaSi avtori

ganixilavs Tu ra roli ukavia TurqeTis respublikas Savi zRvis qveynebis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofaSi. Zlier, igi Tavis

samSoblos regionalur geopolitikas

warmoaCens saxelmwifos, Savi zRvis

rogorc

ganviTarebul, ankaris da

dawvrilebiT regionis

ganixilavs

saxelmwifoebisadmi

naTlad asaxavs TurqeTis im politikur qmedebebs, romlebic mimarTuli gaxlavT Savi zRvis akvatoriis usafrTxoebisaTvis. a. alkani dawvrilebiT exeba rogorc ruseTis federaciis da TurqeTis respublikis politikur interesebs aRniSnul 17

regionSi, ise amerikis SeerTebuli Statebisa da dasavleT evropis geopolitikur da geostrategiul miznebs Savi zRvis akvatoriis dawvrilebiTaa saxelmwifoebis ganxiluli mimarT. naSromSi aseve

samxreT

kavkasiis

ganviTarebadi

regioni, misi aqtiuri problemebi da TurqeTis respublikis urTierToba aRniSnuli regionis saxelmwifoebTan. Turqi politikosebidan da mecnierebidan CvenTvis aseve sayuradReboa diplomati T. Tofuri (T Topur). igi saerTaSoriso respublikis

gaxlavT,

moRvaweobda

TurqeTis

elCad amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi, kviprosSi, briuselSi, iyo Crdilo atlantikur aliansSi TurqeTis warmomadgeneli da a.S. sagareo urTierTobebSi ormoci wlis moRvaweobis Semdeg T. Tofurma saqmianoba ganagrZo ,,Yeditepe"-sa da ,,Kadir Has"-is universitetebSi, sadac aqtiuri pedagogiuri da samecniero moRvaweoba daiwyo. avtoris mier gamocemuli naSromebidan CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania ,,kreselleme jeopolitika ve milli gvenlik" (globalizacia, usafrTxoeba), radgan geopolitika wignSi da nacionaluri kargad aris

aRniSnul

ganxiluli ,,civi omis" Semdgomi mdgomareoba msoflioSi da TurqeTis roli saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebaSi. avtori aseve saubrobs axal geopolitikur sabWoTa xedvebze, kavSiris romelic Semdeg

gansakuTrebiT

mkveTrad

daSlis

warmoCnda, aseve amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis hegemoniasa da TurqeTis respublikis nacionalur usafrTxoebaze. mas miaCnia, rom dasavleTi: arian Crdilo is atlantikuri gaerTianeba da

evrokavSiri TurqeTis

demokratiuli momavali aris

Zalebi,

romelTanac T.

warmatebuli

dakavSirebuli.

Tofuri monografiaSi

saubrobs imazec, rom evrokavSirma 18

aucileblad unda miiRos TurqeTi Tavis ojaxSi, xolo Tu ankaram momavalSi Tavisi sagareo kursi Secvala, avtori

fiqrobs, rom es strategiuli Secdoma iqneba ara Turqebis brali, aramed im evropeli mmarTvelebisa, romlebic uars amboben misi qveynis maT organizaciaSi miRebaze. Tanamedrove TurqeTis respublikis sagareo politikis aqtualur problemebs exeba agreTve r. olsonis (R. Olson) naSromi ,, Trkiye'nin Suriye, Israel ve Rusya ile ilikileri: 1979-2001" (TurqeTis urTierTobebi siriasTan, israelTan da ruseTTan) monografiaSi avtors dawvrilebiT aqvs ganxiluli zemoT

aRniSnul wlebSi TurqeTis urTierToba siriasTan, israelTan da ruseTTan. r. olsoni wignis pirvel nawilSi saubrobs ankaris

siriasTan urTierTobaze, gansakuTrebiT didi adgili aqvs dakavebuli oqtomberSi am saxelmwifoebs kriziss, Soris 1998 wlis seqtembersabrZolo

arsebul

romelic

kinaRam

moqmedebebSi gadaizarda. aRniSnuli krizisis mTavari mizezi gaxldaT saerTaSoriso Tanamegobrobis ,,qurTistanis mier teroristul partiis"

organizaciad

aRiarebuli

muSaTa

lideri a. ojalani, romelic siriaSi mniSvnelovan informacia politikuri devnilis statusiT imyofeboda. naSromis politikur meore nawili eTmoba da TurqeT-israel-amerikis samxedro,

urTierTobebsa

TanamSromlobebs

politikur da ekonomikur sferoSi. xolo mesame nawilSi ki avtori vrclad saubrobs ssrk-s daSlis Semdeg ankarisa da moskovis urTierTobebis

gaRrmavebasa da TanamSromlobaze. paralelurad igi saubrobs Tu ra Tanadgomas uwevdnen rusebi qurTebs sabWoTa kavSiris arsebobis periodSi da Turqebi CeCnebs, rusul-CeCnuri omebis 19

dros. avtori aseve mniSnelovan yuradRebas aqcevs aRniSnuli saxelmwifoebis Zalian Soreul axal geopolitikur strategiebs, sadac

perspeqtivaSi

ganixilavs

msoflioSi

movlenebis iseT ganviTarebas, rom SesaZlo gaxdes TurqeTis respublikisa mokavSireoba. TurqeTis respublikis qurTul problemasTan da ruseTis federaciis geopolitikuri

dakavSirebiT saintereso monografia aqvT dawerili m. qinaqs (M. Kaynak) da o. meTes (. Mete). wignis saxelwodebaa ,,Derin PKK Byk oyun'un gizli kodlar" (,,qurTistanis muSaTa partiis siRrmeSi didi TamaSebis saidumlo kodebi"). aRniSnul

naSromSi avtorebi amxileben ,,qurTistanis muSaTa partias", rogorc teroristul organizacias, maT dawvrilebiT

dokumentebis saxiT aqvT gadmocemuli qurTebis ajanyebebi, aseve ganixilaven, amboxebuli qurTebi politikuri

moTxovnebidan Tu rogor gadavidnen terorze, ra teraqtebi moawyo a. ojalanis ,,qurTistanis muSaTa partiam" Turquli mSvidobiani mosaxleobis winaaRmdeg da ra rols TamaSoben ,,TiTqosda TavisuflebisTvis mebrZoli teroristebi"

Turquli da qurTuli eTnosebis erTmaneTTan dapirispirebis saqmeSi. paralelurad, avtorebi ganixilaven amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis Tanadgomas politikas eraySi axlo aRmosavleTSi qurTul da maT aSkara

mcxovreb

mosaxleobasTan

mimarTebaSi. naSromSi CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania is Tavi, sadac m. qinaqi da o. meTe Tamamad ayeneben im

mosazrebas, rom dReisaTvis TurqeTisaTvis SeiZleba ufro momgebiani ruseTTis federaciasTan urTierToba da masTan seriozuli samxedro da politikuri kavSirebis damyareba 20

iyos, radgan maT miaCniT, rom amerika piradi geopolitikuri miznebis gamo ukve aSkarad Ralatobs Tavis Zvel strategiul mokavSires vaSingtoni, ganwyobili. Cveni yuradReba miiqcia agreTve T. qorqmazis (T. Korkmaz) wignma ,,Ankara vashington hatti" (,,ankara vaSingtonis xazi") da da am mosazrebis mtrebis dasturad moaqvT is, rom

ankaris

mimarT

aSkarad

megobruladaa

romelSic TurqeTis

avtori

saubrobs

SeerTebuli XX

Statebisa saukunis

respublikis

urTierTobebze

meore

naxevridan XXI saukunis sawyis etapamde. igi kargad aRwers Tu ra wvlili miuZRvis aSS_s TurqeTis respublikaSi 1960 wlis 27 maisisa da 1980 wlis 12 seqtembris samxedroebis mier mowyobil ajanyebebSi. CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa

naSromis is nawili sadac avtori dawvrilebiT saubrobs Tu ratom gaCnda bzari amerikisa da TurqeTis urTierTobebSi 11 seqtembris cnobili teraqtis gamo vaSingtonis mier axlo aRmosavleTSi wamowyebuli samxedro kampaniebis Semdeg. T. qorqmazi aseve exeba qurTebis problemas da

amerikelebis

qurTebisadmi

sakmaod

keTilganwyobilebaze

saubrobs. sainteresoa aseve avtoris azri imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra rols TamaSobda TurqeTis respublika 90-iani wlebis Semdeg amerika-ruseTis urTierTobebSi da iyo Tu ara marTla ankara am periodSi vaSingtonis sateliti da regionSi misi

survilebis gamxmovanebeli da Semsrulebeli. T. TurqeTma qorqmazis azriT, XXI saukunis Tavisi dasawyisisaTvis politikuri

nel-nela

moipova

damoukidebloba, rac msoflios Tundac imiT daanaxa, rom erayis ufleba omis ar dros misca, amerikis esargebla SeerTebuli misi Statebis armias

teritoriiT.

sabolood 21

avtori

Tvlis,

rom

ukve

ankara

kidev

ufro

metad

damoukidebli gaxdes da regionSi daiwyos, iseTi politikis gatareba, romelic mimarTuli iqneba, ise rogorc mTeli TurqeTis regionis

saxelmwifos

keTildReobisaTvis,

demokratizaciisa da ganviTarebisaTvis. TurqeTis mkvlevarTa mecnieruli prodasavluri gansxvavebiT, misi istoriisa da geopolitikis a. CeCenis Tanamedrove (A. Çeçen)

Soris

angariSgasawevia

Sexedulebebi

TurqeTis da momavali

geopolitikaze. mecnierebisagan da Zliereba

politikosebisa azriT, qveynis

mxolod da mxolod evraziulobaSia. Tavis naSromSi ,,Trkiye ve Avrasya" (,,TurqeTi da evrazia") a. CeCeni saubrobs imis Sesaxeb, rom dedamiwaze arsebul imperiebTan SedarebiT yvelaze

farTo imperia, sabWoTa kavSiri, 73 wlis arsebobis Semdeg, rogorc ki daiSala, msoflio axal geopolitikur periodSi Sevida. avtoris mTeli azriT, qveyana rodesac or meoce saukunis polusad meore gaiyo.

naxevridan

politikur

TurqeTis respublika TviTgadarCenis mizniT iZulebiT wavida dasavleTisken, SeuerTda zRvis saxelmwifoebs da gaxda

Crdiloatlantikuri aliansis wevri. dasrulda sabWoeTidan Tu ara ,,civi omi", ankarisaTvis safrTxe. moixsna amis

wamosuli

intervenciis

swored

Semdeg TurqeTis respublikas mieca axali SesaZleblobebis gamoxatvis Tamami sabWoTa saSvaleba da dasavleTis ruseTis Sedegad mxardaWeriT daiwyo ise axal moipova siZliere.

urTierToba, imperiis

rogorc daSlis

federaciasTan, warmoqmnil

damoukidebel saxelmwifoebTan, ris gamoc TandaTan regionSi rogorc politikuri, ise ekonomikuri

aqedan gamomdinare, avtori fiqrobs, rom mis samSoblos dRes, 22

XXI saukunis dasawyisSi ukve sakmaod gaZlierebuls, yvelaze didi Sansi eZleva moscildes dasavleTs da daubrundes Tavis evraziul fesvebs, swored evrazia miaCnia a. CeCens iseT Zlier Zalad, romelsac SeuZlia daamxos msoflioSi amerikis

SeerTebuli Statebis hegemonia. yovelive zemoT aRniSnulTan erTad, avtori rusi

geopolitikosebidan gansxvavebiT, naSromSi imasac amtkicebs, rom TurqeTis respublika aris evraziis centri da raoden gasakviric ar unda iyos, dRes mas ufro sWirdeba TurqeTis saxelmwifo, vidre Tavad ankaras evrazia, radgan igi gaxlavT erT-erTi damakavSirebeli xidi evropasa da azias Soris, aseve mniSvnelovan politikur da ekonomikur rols TamaSobs

rogorc axlo aRmosavleTSi, ise balkaneTsa da kavkasiaSi. sabolood avtori iSveliebs ra mustafa qemal aTaTurqis miswrafebebs evraziisaken, TurqeTis respublikis

gabrwyinebul momavals mxolod evraziasTan erTad xedavs da amtkicebs, rom mxolod aseT SemTxvevaSi SeZlebs Turqi xalxi miaRwios srul, politikurad damoukidebeli da Zlieri

saxelmwifos Seqmnas. evraziulobis momxreobasTan erTad a. CeCeni ,,Trkiye ve Avrasya"-Si aCens Tavis imperialistur zraxvebs da amtkicebs, rom dasavleT ATrakia (Crdilo-aRmosavleT saberZneTi) da bulgareTi TurqTa qveynis Semadgeneli nawilia. rac Seexeba ruseTs, avtori momavalSi ar gamoricxavs TurqeTisa da ruseTis samxedro-politikur TanamSromlobas, magram miuxedavad amisa, igi mkacrad akritikebs moskovs

CeCnebTan mimarTebaSi. miuxedavad Zlieri geopolitikuri xedvebisa, Cven ar

SegviZlia daveTanxmoT a. CeCens, radgan misi Teoriebi gverds 23

uvlis

demokratias uaryofs

da

sakuTari mustafa

qveynis

demokratiul azrs

ganviTarebas.

qemal

aTaTurqis

TurqeTis respublikis sazRvrebTan dakavSirebiT da Tamamad iWreba sxva saxelmwifoebis teritoriebsa da geopolitikur sivrceSi. disertaciaze samecniero muSaobisas krebulma didi daxmareba gagviwia ve ,,Trkiye'nin jeoekonomisi

statiebis

jeopolitikasi, Trkiye gelecein neresinde?" (,,TurqeTis geoekonomika da geopolitika; ojali (M. cal). aRniSnuli naSromi gaxlavT TurqeTis respublikis TurqeTis momavali sad aris?") wignis gamomcemlebi arian n. doRani (N. Doan), f. qula (F. Kula), da m.

maStabiT wamyvani profesorebis samecniero kvlevebis krebuli qveynis geoekonomikasa da geopolitikaze. krebuliT avtorebi cdiloben gaarkvion Tu sad da vis gverdiT SeiZleba iyos maTi samSoblos momavali. wignis pirvel nawilSi sxvadasxva mecnierebi saubroben rogorc TurqeTis respublikis Sida

ekonomikaze da mis prioritetebze, ise TurqeTis saxelmwifos rolze globalur geoekonomikaSi. naSromebSi aseve kargad aris ganxiluli evrokavSirisa da ankaris ekonomikuri

urTierTobebi. krebulis meore nawili (M. Ojal) CvenTvis saintereso Temas

geopolitikas eTmoba: mehmeT sferosebuli usafrTxoebis respublikis strategiaze, mecnierebisagan ojali Tavis SuaSi naSromSi ,,Secvlili axali TurqeTis da rigi

usafrTxoebis politika" Tanamedrove aseve mis

TurqeTis rogorc

saubrobs

usafrTxoebis momaval m.

politikaze

geopolitikaze, TurqeTis

gansxvavebiT,

ojali

momavals 24

kvlav amerikasTan gansakuTrebiT mWidro samxedro kavSirSi xedavs, magram miuxedavad amisa is mainc ar erideba aSS-s gakritikebas misi qurTebTan megobruli politikis gamo. CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa elif SimSekis (E. im ek) naSromi ,,1991 wlidan dRemde samxreT kavkasiisa da TurqeTis sagareo politika", sadac avtori Tamamad amtkicebs, rom samxreT kavkasias regionSi mniSvnelovani geostrategiuli adgili uWiravs da eTanxmeba TurqeTis respublikis sagareo kurs am mimarTulebiT, rac ZiriTadad gamomdinareobs ankaris ekonomikuri da politikuri mxardaWeriT azerbaijansa da

saqarTvelosTan mimarTebaSi. sainteresoa is faqti, rom e. SimSeki TurqeTis mmarTvel wreebsa da saerTSoriso Tanamegobrobas mouwodebs meti

yuradReba dauTmon aRniSnul saxelmwifoebs, raTa isini ar gaxdnen morigi provokaciis msxverpli yarabaxis, afxazeTisa da e.w. samxreT oseTis separatistul regionebSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom samecniero statia avtors 2007 wels aqvs dabeWdili da faqtiurad, nawinaswarmetyvelebi aqvs saqarTvelos 2008 wlis agvistos tragikuli movlenebi. aRniSnuli krebulidan Cveni yuradReba miiqcia aseve j. duras (C. Dura) naSromma ,,evrokavSiri da TurqeTi", sadac avtori TurqeTis momavals evropasTan integrirebaSi xedavs da amtkicebs imas, rom maTi evrokavSirSi gawevrianeba zarals ki ar miayenebs evropis ekonomikas, aramed piriqiT. amasTan erTad avtori saubrobs ankaris im alternatiul gzebze, romliTac momavalSi gansakuTrebiT evrokavSiri

dazaraldeba. j. dura aseT gzad ruseTis federacias miiCnevs da amtkicebs, rom moskovisa da ankaris strategiuli

25

mokavSireobis miRwevis Sedegad evropisaTvis alternatiuli energo gzebi sabolood Caiketeba. mocemul krebulSi CvenTvis aseve saintereso samecniero naSromebi aqvT: h. TurSujusa (H. Tur uc) da o. kirlis (. Kirli) ,,respublikeloba, demokratia da TurqeTi", m. ojals (M. cal) ,,Secvlili msoflio usafrTxoeba m. nakips da (M. TurqeTis Nakip) axali

usafrTxoebis

politika",

,,TurqeTis

perspeqtivebi kirkukSi, erayi da Turqmenebi", n. doRans (N. Doan) ,,globaluri mSvidobis proeqti demokratia: Teoriuli dikusia da Sua aRmosavleTis momavali" da a.S. aseve mniSvnelovani daxmareba gagviwia r. inanCisa (R. Ynanç) da h. TaSdemiris (H. Tademir) redaqtorobiT gamocemulma samecniero krebulma ,,Uluslararasi gvenlik sakiTxebi sorular da ve Trkiye"

(saerTaSoriso

usafrTxoebis

TurqeTi).

aRniSnuli wigni gaxlavT ,,ankara Universitesi"-s, ,,Gazi Universitesi"sa da ,,Istanbul universitesi"-s wamyvani profesorebis samecniero naSromebis krebuli, (Ç. romelTagan Erkan) mier CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT

saintereso aRmoCnda: C. erqanis ,,civi axali omis Semdeg, amerikis aRqma",

SeerTebuli

Statebis

usafrfrTxoebis

sadac avtors kargad aqvs ganxiluli, Tu rogor politikas atarebda SeimuSava Statebi sabWoTa ,,civi omis msvlelobaSi" daSlis (T. Ilmaz) da da rogor axali

kavSiris

Semdeg

geopolitikuri strategia. mniSvnelovania aRmosavleTis T. ilmazis naSromi ,,Sua sadac

usafrTxoebis

sakiTxebi

TurqeTi".

avtori mogviTxrobs regionSi ,,civi omis" Semdeg arsebul wonosworobaze da uSualod da urTierTobaze mezobel TurqeTis respublikis rolsa aRmosavleTis saxelmwifoebTan 26

saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebis sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. aseve avtors saubari aqvs 90-iani wlebis Semdgom TurqeTisa da israelis urTierTanamSromlobaze, rogorc socialur-

ekonomikur, ise samxedro sferoSi. aseve sainteresoa z. daRis (Z. Dagi) gamokvleva ,,ruseTis usafrTxoebis politika da TurqeTi". avtori saubrobs

saerTaSoriso usafrTxoebasa da Tanamedrove ruseTis sagareo politikaze, aseve 2000 wels gamoqveynebul samxedro

doqtrinaze, imis avtori kargad xsnis Tu ratom Riziandeba kremli ,,nato"-s sazRvrebis gafarToebaze. CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia naSromis is nawili, sadac z. daRi saubrobs ruseTisa da TurqeTis erToblivi usafrTxoebis sakiTxebze da uSualod ankarisa da moskovis urTierTTanamSromlobis sisworeze. h. TaSdemiris (H. Ta demir) statia ,,kavkasiis usafrTxoebis sakiTxebi" im mxriv aris CvenTvis saintereso, rom pirvel rigSi saubaria Cveni qveynis usafrTxoebis Sesaxeb, garda amisa avtori msjelobs Tu ra rols asrulebs Tanamedrove etapze TurqeTis respublika samxreT kavkasiis saxelmwifoebis

usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofaSi. f. i. Cakari (F.I. Çakar) naSromSi ,,TurqeTis tradiciuli usafrTxoebis sakiTxebi: kviprosi" saubrobs kunZul

kviprosis geografiasa da mis geopolitikur mniSvnelobaze, TurqeTis respublikis mier kviprosis Turquli mosaxleobis Tanadgomaze da imis Sesaxeb, rom kviprosis problema

berZnebis agresiuli politikis Sedegad warmoiSva. avtori aseve ganixilavs evropelTa uaryofiT radgan rols igi problemis rom did 27

mogvarebasTan evropelebi

dakavSirebiT, berZnebis

Tvlis, sakmaod

sasargeblod

tendenciurobas kviprosis

iCenen,

rac

Tundac sruliad

imaSi

gamoCnda

rom gaxda

beZnuli

nawili

uproblemod

evrokavSiris sruluflebiani wevri.

28

Tavi - I TurqeTis saxelmwifos geografiul-geopolitikuri mdebareoba, istoriuli warsuli da saxelmwifoebriv-politikuri sistema.

@$ _ 1. geografiul-geopolitikuri mdebareoba TurqeTis respublika evraziuli saxelmwifoa, romelic mdebareobs anatoliis naxevarkunZulze, dasavleT aziasa da TrakiaSi, (rumelia) samxreT aRmosavleT evropis, balkaneTis regionSi. cnobilia, rom or kontinentze strategiuli mdebareobis gamo TurqeTis kultura aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis

tradiciaTa unikaluri nazavia. idealuri geografiuli da geopolitikuri mdebareobis gamo TurqTa saxelmwifom bolo saukuneebSi gansakuTrebuli strategiuli mniSvneloba SeiZina. TurqeTis dedaqalaqia ankara. administraciulad

saxelmwifos teritoria dayofilia oTxmocdaerT provinciad rasac Turqulad ,,ili" ewodeba (ix. danarTi#1}. provinciebi Tavis mxriv gaerTianebulia Svid regionSi cenzisTvis, Tumca maT administraciuli daTvirTva ara aqvs. yoveli provincia dayofilia raionebad, rac saerTo jamSi 923 raions Seadgens. [118] Tanamedrove TurqeTs esazRvreba rva qveyana: bulgareTi, saberZneTi, irani, saqarTvelo, da siria. somxeTi, azerbaijani TurqeTs zRva. (naxiCevani), esazRvreba anatolias

erayi

samxreTiT

xmelTaSua

zRva,

dasavleTiT

egeosis

Trakiisagan aSorebs marmarilos zRva da TurqeTis sruteebi

118 ­ gamoyenebuli internet resursis numeracia, aq da sxvagan teqstSi

29

(bosfori da dardaneli), romlebsac aziasa da evropas Soris sazRvrad miiCneven, ris gamoc TurqeTis respublika

traskontinenturi qveyanaa. anatolias Trakiisagan aSorebs marmarilos zRva da

TurqeTis sruteebi: bosfori da dardaneli, romlebsac aziisa da evropis sazRvrad miiCneven, ris gamoc, rogorc

mogexsenebaT, TurqeTi transkontinenturi qveyanaa [118]. igi mdebareobs aRmosavleT naxevarsferoSi, aRmosavleT grZedis 25°49'' da 44°48' da CrdiloeT ganedis 35°51' da 42°06' Soris. misi farTobia 814 578 km2. teritoriis ZiriTadi nawili _ daaxloebiT 97% (790 200 km2) _ mdebareobs aziaSi, xolo 3% (24 378 km2) - evropaSi, balkaneTis naxevarkunZulis ukidures samxreT-aRmosavleT nawilSi (aRmosavleT Trakia). aRiarebuli WeSmaritebaa, rom saxelmwifos

geopolitikuri mdebareobis Sefasebisas udidesi yuradReba eqceva mis geografiul faqtors, radgan bunebriv-geografiuli pirobebi saxelmwifos swored Zlierebis Cvens erT-erTi mier mniSvnelovani aRniSnuli

maxasiaTebelia.

qvemoT

geografiuli mdebareobaa, imis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani piroba, rom TurqTa saxelmwifo dResdReobiT, mTeli msoflios

maStabiT, geopolitikurad Zlieri da angariSgasawevi qveyana gaxlavT. wignSi ,,geopolitika" politologi a. gegeSiZe miuTiTebs, rom geopolitikuri mdebareobis qveS, Cveulebriv, qveynis

sxvadasxva trasebisa mqone

samxedro-politikuri da gansxvavebuli

dajgufebebis,

ekonomikuri tradiciebis vinaidan dinamiuri

eTno-kulturuli

saxelmwifoebis politika da

mdebareoba ekonomika

igulisxmeba. uaRresad

msoflio

30

procesebis erTobliobaa, geopolitikuri mdebareobac Zalze cvalebadia saxelmwifoebisaTvis sivrcesa da droSi. TurqeTis respublikis aziuri mxare moicavs mcire aziis (anatoliis) naxevarkunZuls, aRmosavleT anatoliis zegans da siria-mesopotamiis zeganis Crdilo-dasavleT nawils. TurqeTis teritoriis maqsimaluri sigrZe dasavleTidan aRmosavleTiT 1565 km-ia, xolo CrdiloeTidan samxreTiT 550 km. TurqeTs Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT esazRvreba saqarTvelo

(sazRvris sigrZe 288 km), aRmosavleTiT _ somxeTi (312 km), azerbaijani (10 km) da irani (454 km). samxreT-aRmosavleTiT _ erayi (331 km) da siria (877 km), Crdilo-dasavleTiT _

saberZneTi (212 km) da bulgareTi (269 km). mTlianad saxmeleTo sazRvris sigrZea 2753 km. [26-4] TurqeTis reliefiT, respublika teritoriis gamoirCeva saSualo danawevrebuli simaRle zRvis

romlis

donidan Seadgens 1132 metrs. anatoliis umetes nawils moicavs mcire aziis mTianeTi, romlis mTaTa rigebSic qedebi da Sedian farTo maRali, mSrali

xeobebiT

danawevrebuli

zegnebi. dablobebi qveyanaSi cotaa, isini ganlagebuli arian sazRvao sanapiros calkeul monakveTebze, ZiriTadad

mdinareebis SesarTavebTan. TurqeTis aziuri teritoriis CrdiloeT da samxreT

nawilebSi ganlagebulia mTaTa rkalebi, romelTa ganStoebebi zRvisken cicabod eSveba. mcire aziis CrdiloeT nawilSi, Savi zRvis sanapiros gaswvriv, daaxloebiT mTebi 1000_1200 (`pontos km-ze, mTebi~,

gadaWimulia

CrdiloeT

anatoliis

saSualo simaRle 2500 metri). aRmosavleTiT isini aRweven Cveni qveynis, saqarTvelos sazRvramde, dasavleTiT mdinare saqarias xeobamde. TurqTa saxelmwifos aRmosavleT nawilSi 31

mTaTa qedebis maqsimaluri simaRlea 3932 metri (mTa qaCqari), dasavleTiT pontos qedebi dabldeba 1000-1500 metramde

(maqsimaluri simaRle mTa iaraligiozi ­ 2019 metri) [118]. TurqeTis samxreTiT, xmelTaSua zRvis sanapiros

gaswvriv, iran-TurqeTis sazRvramde gadaWimulia meore rTuli mTaTa sistema _ Tavri igi ar warmoadgens erT mTlian jaWvs da iyofa sam nawilad: dasavleTi _ `likiis~, centraluri _ `kilikiis~ da aRmosavleTi _ `didi somxeTis~ Tavri. dasavleT Tavris mTaTa sistema rkalad Semoevleba

antaliis yures da dablobs. mTaTa jaWvi dayofilia Rrma vakeebiT da danawevrebulia kanionebiT. maqsimaluri

simaRleebia _ mTa aqdaRi (simaRle 3014 m) da mTa elmali (simaRle 2490 m). centraluri Tavri gamoirCeva reliefis alpuri tipiT. mravali medeTsizi mwvervalis _ 3524 m; simaRle mTa aRemateba aidosi _ 3000 3480 metrs m). (mTa

kilikiis

naxevarkunZulis samxreT nawilSi centraluri Tavris mTaTa sistema uaxlovdeba xmelTaSua zRvis sanapiros. sanapiros zogierT monakveTSi aris aluviuri vakis zolebi (alaniis, anamuris, manavgaTis, silifqies raionebi). silifqiedan mTebi mkveTrad uxvevs Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT da qmnis TurqeTSi

yvelaze did aluviur vakes _ adanis vakes. centraluri Tavris Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT, gagrZelebaa binbogisa cnobilia da beidaRis mTaTa saxeliT. jaWvebis, es romlebic aseve

antiTavris

qedebi

TandaTanobiT

dabldeba da uerTdeba uzunialis zegans, romelic mdebareobs aRmosavleT-anatoliis

orografiul

raionSi.

centraluri

Tavri - e.w. `torosis mTebi~

32

Tavri qmnis cnobil xeobas _ kilikiis karebs, romelzec gadis mcire aziis aRmosavleTTan damakavSirebeli rkinigza da

avtomagistrali. aRmosavleT (`didi somxeTis~) Tavri gadaWimulia

samxreTiT md. muraTidan (evfratis Senakadi) da vanis tbidan qveynis aRmosavleT sazRvrebamde. misi aRmosavleTi nawili (haqqaris raioni) yvelaze amaRlebulia, rigi mwvervalebisa cildeba 4000 metrs (mTa buluzi _ 4116 m). aRmosavleT Tavris samxreTiT mdebareobs diarbaqiris qvabuli, romelic

samxreTiT dabldeba. CrdiloeT anatoliisa da samxreT anatoliis mTaTa

Soris ganlagebuli anatoliis zegani iyofa sam orografiul raionad: dasavleTi, Sida da aRmosavleT anatolia. dasavleT anatoliis orografiuli raioni moicavs

egeosisa da marmarilos zRvebis sanapiro raionebs. zRvebis napirebidan wamosuli qedebi mdinareebis xeobebTan

monacvleoben. mTebi umetes SemTxvevaSi saSualo simaRlisaa. maqsimaluri simaRle 2543 metri (mTa uludaRi). TurqeTis ukiduresi Crdilo-dasavleTi _ aRmosavleT

Trakia warmoadgens qvabuls (md. maricis marcxena Senakadis _ md. ergenes xeoba), romelsac samxreT-aRmosavleTiT

TeqirdaRis mTebi (maqsimaluri simaRle mTa ganosi, 924 m), xolo CrdiloeTiT balkaneTis mTebis ganStoeba istranjas mTebi (maqsimaluri simaRle mTa mahia, 1031 m) akravs. Sida anatolia warmoadgens anatoliis zeganis yvelaze amaRlebul Sorisac nawils. igi Sedgeba qvabulebisagan, qedebi. romelTa simaRle

gamoirCevian

dabali

simaRlis

matulobs dasavleTidan aRmosavleTiT _ 800-1200 metridan 1500 metramde. erT-erT aseT platoze, 850 metris simaRleze 33

ganlagebulia q. ankara. zeganis samxreT nawilSi aRmarTulia rigi Camqrali vulkanebi. [26-37] aRmosavleT anatoliis zegans, romelzec ganlagebulia maRali mTebi (1500 m-dan 2500 m-mde), CrdiloeTiT akravs pontos mTebi, xolo samxreTiT aRmosavleT Tavri. aq maRali qedebi erwymis Rrma qvabulebs. somxeTis sazRvris maxloblad

aRmarTulia TurqeTis yvelaze maRali mTa _ didi ararati, simaRle 5165 metri. gverdiT aRmarTulia mcire araratis

konusi _ 3896 metri [118]. rac Seexeba TurqeTis respublikis geopolitikur

mdebareobas, masSi igulisxmeba Cveulebriv qveynis sxvadasxva samxedro-politikuri da gansxvavebuli dajgufebebis, ekonomikuri trasebisa mqone

eTno-kulturuli [17-195].

tradiciebis vinaidan dinamiuri mdebareobac

saxelmwifoebis politika da

mdebareoba ekonomika

msoflio procesebis Zalze droSi. qveynis esenia

uaRresad

erTobliobaa, cvalebadia

geopolitikuri saxelmwifoebisaTvis

sivrcesa ama Tu

da im

politikur_geografiuli mdebareobis Sefaseba sam

TvalsazrisiT sivrciT

masStabSi

xdeba.

makro, mezo da mikro doneebi. makromdebareoba politikuri msoflio mimarT mniSvnelobis mdebareobas samxedro niSnavs. da am

centrebis

kvanZebTan siaxlove mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebs ama Tu im qveynis geopolitikur blokebSi, kurss, an mis monawileobas sxvadasxva [17_196]. agreTve da

samxedro

politikur

kavSirebSi eniWeba

makromdebareobis qveynis

Sefasebisas msoflio

mniSvneloba ekonomikuri

mdebareobas

centrebisa

satransporto magistralebis, xalxis, saqonlis, kapitalisa da informaciis gadaadgilebis arxebis mimarT. 34

samxedro respublikas iyos da misi

politikuri mdebareobis

TvalsazrisiT gamo aqvs didi

TurqeTis potenciali udides

momavalSic

gawevriandes,

msofliosaTvis

samxedro gaerTianebebSi. ekonomikuri Sefaseba xdeba, aseve TvalsazrisiT rogorc misi TurqeTis adgilobrivi komunikaciebis igi respublikis warmoebis saxeobebis

resursebiT, mixedviT. romlis

satransporto sazRvao oTxi da

TurqeTi irgvlivac

qveyanaa, zRvaa

naxevarkunZulia, Turqebi risi

ganlagebuli.

akontroleben

bosforisa

dardanelis

sruteebs,

mniSvnelobiTac maT (Savi zRvis sruteebis reJimis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi) gadaqceva. nebismier yovelive Soris, dros aqedan romlTa SeuZliaT Savi zRvis tbad im

gamomdinare

msoflioSi

saxelmwifoTa

makromdebareoba

idealuria,

rogorc samxedro-politikuri, ise ekonomikuri TvalsazrisiT, erT-erTi TurqeTis respublikac gaxlavT. mezomdebareoba regionSi mdebareobas niSnavs, magaliTad TurqeTis respublikis anatoliaSi mdebareoba, saqarTvelos samxreT kavkasiaSi da Savi zRvis regionSi mdebareoba da a.S. [17_197]. mezomdebareobis elementia aseve msoflios ,,cxeli wertilebis" mimarT mdebareoba. aRniSnul wertilebTan

siaxlove an daSoreba ganapirobebs ama Tu im qveynis dadebiT an uaryofiT mezomdebareobas. TurqeTis respublika ganekuTvneba maxlobel

aRmosavleTs, romelic, rogorc cnobilia mezomdebareobiT da Sesabamisi mimarTebebiT dRevandel msoflioSi erT-erTi

1952 wlidan TurqeTis respublika gaxlavT Crdilo atlantikuri aliansis

(NATO) sruluflebiani wevri.

35

urTulesi

regioni

gaxlavT

konfliqtebis

sferoSi.

amas

emateba uSualod ankaris problemebi mis evropel mezobel saberZneTis saxelmwifosTan, romelTanac mas uTanxmoeba da pretenziebi gaaCnia rogorc garkveul teritoriebTan, aseve orad gaxleCil kunZul kviprosTan dakavSirebiT, amasTanave TurqeTs udides problemas uqmnis 2003 wlis amerika-erayis omis Semdeg, axali erayis saxelmwifoSi arsebuli qurTebis avtonomiuri elementi, romelic aZlierebs da mxars uWers qurTul separatizms, Tavad TurqTa saxelmwifos teritoriaze. [75_253]. yovelive amasTan mudam meoce erTad Turquli nacionaluri mezobeli Zveli,

saxelmwifo sadac,

gaxlavT,

mSfoTvare saukunis

kavkasiis

gansakuTrebiT

bolodan,

dakonservebuli konfliqtebi mudmiv mimdinareobaSia. saxelmwifos ekonomikuri mezobeli ganviTarebis sagareo politikuri Tu da

pirobebi qveynebis

damokidebulia saxelmwifo

imaze, wyoba,

rogoria an

(msgavsi

gansxvavebuli), ekonomikis ganviTarebis done, aris Tu ara mdidari es qveyana bunebrivi resursebiT, aqvs Tu ara msgavsi samxedro orientacia, aris Tu ara dapirispirebuli mis

mokavSireebTan da a. S. am mxriv is regioni, romelSic TurqeTis respublika imyofeba, metad areuli da arastabiluri gaxlavT, radgan misi mezobeli saxelmwifoebis umetesoba, rogorc cnobilia, nebsiT Tu uneblied, CaTreuli rac problemas rom arian uqmniT regioni mravalgvari maT saxis

konfliqtebSi, amasTanave unda

ganviTarebaSi. mdidaria

aRiniSnos,

sakmaod

resursebiT uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT. magaliTad, Tavad axlo aRmosavleTi umdidresia navTobis resursebiT, ukraina mdidaria rkiniT, qvanaxSiriT, xorbliT, Sua azia gaziT, 36

navTobiT. ruseTis federaciuli respublika TiTqmis yvela saxis resursiT. ruseTiviT mdidari ara, magram TurqeTis

respublikaSic met-naklebad moipoveba TiTqmis yvela saxis resursebi. (ix. danarTi #_2). ekonomikuri ganviTarebadi ganviTarebuli respublikas, ganviTarebis qveynebis ekonomika aseve doneze aqvs TvasazrisiT imyofeba. Tavad da regioni yvelaze TurqeTis didi

saberZneTs, ruseTsa

israels,

irans.

ekonomikuri potenciali aqvs erays, ukrainas, azerbaijans da a. S. samxedro-politikuri saxelmwifoebs orientaciis mxriv regionis

Soris Zalian didi gansxvavebaa. erTdroulad

Tanaarseboben Crdilo atlantikuri aliansis, natos wevri ramdenime qveyana da yovelive amerikulisa da dasavleTis moZule ruseTis federacia da iranis respublika. regionis gansxvavebulia: demokratiuli demokratiuli imperiuli sparseTis qveynebSi saxelmwifo wyobis tipebic Zalze

TurqeTis respublikaa,

respublika ruseTis mqone,

prodasavluri TiTqosda realurad respublikaa absoluturi

federacia magram

Rirebulebebis irani

saxelmwifoa, Yyuris

islamuri umravlesoba

qveynebis

monarqiebia da a. S. religiuri umeteswilad saxelmwifo, kuTxiT Tu SevxedavT, aRniSnuli mxolod regioni, ebraelTa sadac

qristianul_musulmanuria. israeli gaxlavT

erTaderTi

qveyana,

oficialuri saxelmwifo religia iudaizmi gaxlavT. mikromdebareoba sxvadasxva monakveTis gulisxmobs ekonomikuri, qveynis sazRvrebis da

politikuri

samxedro_strategiuli TvalsazrisiT Sefasebas [17_198]. ase 37

magaliTad, Tavris

TurqeTis

respublikaSi

arsebuli

centraluri da aq da igi

reliefi,

gamoirCeva ekonomikuri

alpuri

tipiT

araxelsayrelia magistralebis,

kavSirebisaTvis. gzebis gayvana

Znelia sxva

sarkinigzo

komunikaciebis sistemebis amoqmedeba. magram arsebuli qedebi da mTebi, am mxriv realurad gavlenas qveynis ver makromdebareobaze radgan igi

veranair

uaryofiT

axdenen,

naxevarkunZulovani gaxlavT da amasTanave Zalian didi da gaSlili sivrcis baton_patronia. realurad TurqeTis

irgvliv mdebare zRvebi mis makromdebareobas xels uwyobs, rogorc ekonomikur, ise Tavdacvis sferoSi. amrigad, davaskvnaT, zemoT rom Cvens aRniSnulidan mier gamomdinare, regioni SeiZleba gaxlavT

ganxiluli

strategiuli mniSvnelobis teritoria, magram amasTanave igi metad mSfoTvare da arastabiluria. swored amitom

SemTxveviTi ar aris, rom Tanamedrove istoriisaTvis cnobilia aRniSnul teritoriaze momxdari, Tu mimdinare konfliqtebis Sesaxeb.

38

$ _ 2. saxelmwifo wyoba

,,civi omis" dasrulebam da msoflios meore

zesaxelmwifos, sabWoTa kavSiris saboloo daSlam, regionSi politikuri kavSirebisa da konfrontaciis geometria Secvala, [16-14] Zlieri istoriuli ruseTsa XX gavleniT da axlo sivrceSi: aRmosavleTs bolosa da evropas, Soris, XXI da

centralur TurqeTis saukunis

azias,

respublikam dasawyisSi

saukunis

gansakuTrebuli

geopolitikuri

geostrategiuli mniSvneloba SeiZina. TurqTa Tanamedrove saxelmwifo demokratiuli,

sekularuli da unitaruli respublikaa, romlis politikuri sistema Camoyalibda, mustafa qemal aTaTurqis meTaurobiT, romelic mTavrobaSi pirveli msoflio omis Semdeg,

osmaleTis imperiis dacemisa da revoluciis Sedegad movida. 1922 wels mustafa qemalis TaosnobiT TurqeTSi gauqmda sasulTno, 1923 wlis seqtemberSi dafuZnda saxalxo

respublikuri partia, romlis mTavari debulebebi gaxldaT:

mustafa qemal aTaTurqi ­ daibada 1881 wels q. salonikSi (axlandeli igi gaxldaT osmaleTis armiis oficeri da revolucioneri

Tesalonike)

saxelmwifo moRvawe, TurqeTis respublikis damaarsebeli da misi pirveli prezidenti. mustafa qemalma myisve daimkvidra Tavi, rogorc warmatebulma samxedro meTaurma galipolis brZolaSi divizionis meTaurad msaxurobis

ganmavlobaSi. osmanTa imperiis mokavSireTa mier damarcxebis Semdeg, rasac TurqeTis danawilebis gegma mohyva Tan, qemali win gauZRva Turqebis

nacionalur moZraobas, rasac SemdgomSi Turqebis damoukideblobisaTvis omi daerqva.

39

respublikuroba, laicizmi da

nacionalizmi, revoluciuroba.

xalxuroba, aRniSnuli

etatizmi, debulebebi

Setanili iqna axlad Seqmnili partiis pirvel programaSi. 1923 wlis 29 oqtombers saxalxo respublikurma partiam TurqeTi respublikad gamocxadda. imave dRes qemali TurqTa pirvel

gamarjvebis prezidentad

sulisCamdgmeli airCies.

mustafa

naklebad

konsolidirebuli

xelisuflebis pirobebSi respublikis pirvelma prezidentma Tavis momxreebTan erTad islamuri qveynebisaTvis 1924 wlis

uprecendento

sekularuli

reformebi

daiwyo:

martSi man gaauqma saxalifo, xolo 1928 wels TurqeTis didma erovnulma krebam konstituciidan amoiRo is fraza, sadac ewera: ,,TurqeTis saxelmwifo religia islamia" [29-433], amiT qemalma religia sabolood axali gamoyo saxelmwifos. kodeqsi, amave

periodisaTvis islamuri

Seiqmna

samoqalaqo

gauqmda

kalendari,

TurqeTi

evropul

grigorianul

kalendarze gadavida. aikrZala mravalcolianoba, dakanonda ganqorwineba, qalebi uflebrivad gauTanabrdnen mamakacebs da mieniWaT saarCevno uflebebi. daido zRvari religiasa da

saxelmwifos Soris, dakanonda saero ganaTleba, aucilebeli gaxda evropuli yaidis samosis tareba, SeizRuda ulemebis

etatizmi

­ da

gaxlavT kulturul

saxelmwifos cxovrebaSi,

Careva

sazogadoebis da sxva

ekonomikur, saqmianobaSi. rodesac cdilobs

socialur etatizmi politika

samecniero erT-erTi zRvars

sazogadoebis racionaluri

politizaciis

gamovlinebaa, scdeba da

urTierTqmedebis

gansazRvros cxovrebis TiToeuli sferos funqcionireba, ris Sedegadac zRudavs da aferxebs mas. aqve davZenT imasac, rom Cveni azriT im periodis TurqeTisaTvis etatizmi aucilebeli iyo.

laicizmi ­ gulisxmobs religiis gamoyofas saxelmwifoebisagan

40

(sasuliero

moZRvrebis) gauqmda

gavlena pirveli

saswavlo ulemis

procesze Tanamdeboba

da da

marTmsajulebaze,

SariaTis samonastro saswavleblebi, maT Soris religiuri skolebi, ganaTlebis saministros daeqvemdebara. 1928 wlis 1 noembers qemalis TaosnobiT didma erovnulma krebam miiRo kanoni, romlis meSveobiTac arabuli anbanidan Turquli damwerloba gadmovida laTinur alfavitze, raTa mosaxleobas mogaxsenebT, wera-kiTxvis rom aTviseba gaadvileboda [29-434],

nacionalistur

revoluciamde,

TurqeTSi

mosaxleobis mxolod oTxi procenti iyo wera-kiTxvis mcodne. 1934 wels miRebuli iqna kanoni gvarebis Sesaxeb, riTic mosaxleoba iZulebuli Seiqmna saxelTan da mamis saxelTan erTad sakuTari gvari SeeZina da etarebina, am kanoniT gauqmda aseve titulebi da mimarTvis Zveli formebi [29-436]. amave wels, am kanonTan dakavSirebiT, mustafa qemals didma erovnulma krebam mianiWa aTaTurqis anu TurqTa mamis gvari [15_21]. mustafa qemalma aRniSnuli reformebis meSveobiT

TurqeTi CamorCenil musulmanur saxelmwifoebs daacila da Tanamedrove evropul qveynebs dauaxlova, man sabolood

mravalerovnuli islamuri, imperiuli struqturis nacvlad, Seqmna axali respublikuri saxelmwifo nacionaluri wyobiT. igi reformebis gatarebisas Tavis gamosvlebSi Tamamad

mouwodebda Turq xalxs: ,,Cven civilizaciis gzas davadeqiT da mas aRar gadavuxvevT. vinc CamogvrCeba, civilizaciis iseTi Zlieri

boboqar

nakadSi

daixrCoba.

civilizacia

cecxlia, rom vinc mas ewinaaRmdegeba, ueWvelad daiwveba" [1157]. qemal aTaTurqi 1938 wlis 10 noembers q. stambolSi

gardaicvala, igi dakrZales q. ankaraSi, specialurad agebul 41

mavzoleumSi ewodeba. TurqeTis

[23_60],

romelsac

Turqulad

,,ANIT

KABIR"

respublika

gaxldaT

aRmosavleTis

pirveli

saxelmwifo, romelmac kavSiri gawyvita Tavis Zvel sulier, religiur da geopolitikur tradiciebTan, romelSic pirvel rigSi igulisxmeba osmaleTis imperiis agresiuli, dapyrobiTi da proislamuri politika. mustafa qemal aTaTurqis mier swori politikis

gatarebis Sedegad Seqmnilma axalma Turqulma nacionalurma saxelmwifom gauZlo osmaleTis imperiis sxva erebis zewolas da Tavisi, sakuTari istoriis aTvla daiwyo. gavida aTeuli wlebi, TiTqmis mTeli saukune da nacionalur TurqeTs, aqamde axsovs misi Semqmneli mustafa qemal aTaTurqi Tavisi

nacionaluri ideebiT, romlebic dResac Tanamedrove TurqeTis saxelmwifos RerZs warmoadgenen. qveynis politikur speqtrSi da sazogadoebaSi arian: memarjveneebi, memarcxeneebi,

respublikelebi, muslimanebi da a.S. magram miuxedavad amisa, yoveli Tanamedrove Turqi moqalaqisaTvis nacionaluri

saxelmwifo umaRlesi ganZia. 1987 wlis 14 aprils TurqeTis respublikis premier

ministrma TurguT ozalma evrokavSirSi Seitana oficialuri gancxadeba [29-540], romliTac igi TurqeTis evropul ojaxSi sruluflebian wevrad miRebas iTxovda. ramdenime wlis

Semdeg, iyo ra evropis ekonomikuri sabWos asocirebuli wevri 1963 wlidan da sabaJo kavSiris wevri 1995 wlidan, aseve mTeli rigi politikuri da ekonomikuri faqtorebis gamo, 1999 wlis oqtomberSi, helsinkis evrokavSiris samitis gadawyvetilebiT, TurqeTis respublika evropis kavSirSi gawevrianebisaTvis

oficialur kandidat qveynad dasaxelda [29-544]. 42

miuxedavad yovelive amisa, ankara rigi politikuri da ekonomikuri problemebisa da moTxovnebis gamo dRemde ver gaxda evrokavSiris sruluflebiani wevri, ra mizeziTac

oficialurad kvlavac grZeldeba molaparakebebi evropasa da TurqeTs Soris. dReisaTvis gaxlavT TurqeTis respublika araoficialurad romelsac kvlav

muslimanuri

saxelmwifo,

evropeizacia da evropasTan Serwyma surs, magram igi rogorc metwilad mahmadianuri qveyana, paralelurad agrZelebs axlo kulturul, politikur, ekonomikur da industriul

urTierTobebs aRmosavleTis qveynebTan, gansakuTrebiT axlo aRmosavleTsa da centralur aziasTan. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis centraluri sadazvervo sammarTvelos ganviTarebuli klasifikaciiT qveyanaa, xolo TurqeTis msoflios respublika saerTaSoriso

eqspertebis, politikuri mecnierebisa da ekonomistebis didi nawilis SefasebiT is regionuli saxelmwifoa. respublikaSi dReisaTvis moqmedebs 1982 wlis

konstitucia cvilebebiTa da damatebebiT, romelic Sedgeba preambulisagan da 7 nawilisagan. konstituciis preambulaSi da mis pirvel nawilSi (1-11 muxlebi) gansazRvrulia qveynis saxelmwifo respublikuri saero qveynisa wyobis wyoba, ZiriTadi principebi: aRiareba mmarTvelobis demokratiul, saxelmwifod; uzenaesoba;

respublikis

(laicistur), da eris

socialur-samarTlebliv ganuyofloba;

konstituciis

sakanonmdeblo, aRmasrulebeli da sasamarTlo xelisuflebis

regionuli saxelmwifo - ewodeba iseT qveynebs, romelTa gavlenis sfero: ekonomikuri, kulturuli Tu sxva, scildeba mezobel

politikuri,

saxelmwifoebs da vrceldeba mTels regionze.

43

erTmaneTisagan damoukidebloba.

meore Tavi (12-74 muxlebi)

eZRvneba moqalaqeTa pirad, socialur-ekonomikur, politikur uflebebs, uflebebis Tavisuflebebsa garantiebs. da movaleobebs, nawilSi (75-160 aseve am

mesame

muxlebi) da

reglamentirebulia sasamarTlo

sakanonmdeblo,

aRmasrulebeli

xelisuflebebis organoTa _

kompetenciebi; parlamentis,

gansazRvrulia prezidentis da

xelisuflebis

ministrTa kabinetis arCevis wesebi; Camoyalibebulia sagangebo, saalyo da saomari mdgomareobis gamocxadebis normebi da wesebi, aseve adgilobrivi TvimmarTvelobis formirebis wesebi. meoTxe nawilSi (161-173 muxlebi) finansuri da ekonomikuri mdgomareobaa ganxiluli. mexuTe nawilSi (muxli 174)

CamoTvlilia `revoluciuri kanonebi~, romlebic saxelmwifos saero xasiaTis gamyarebisaTvis, miRebul iqna 1924-34 wlebSi. meeqvse nawilSi dafiqsirebulia iqna 16 droebiTi dadgenileba, reJimidan meSvide muxlebs,

romliTac

dadgenil

droebiTi

saomari

warmomadgenlobiT nawili (175-177

demokratiaze

gadasvlis

wesebi.

muxlebi)

warmoadgens

daskvniT

romlebic adgenen konstituciis cvlilebis wesebs [60-82], aseve ZiriTadi kanonis ZalaSi Sesvlis pirobebs. konstituciis funqcia TurqeTis romelic ekisreba did 550 Sesabamisad erT palatian krebas TurqeTSi parlaments sakanonmdeblo (mejliss) _

erovnul

(Türkiye Büyük Milli Meclisi), deputatebi airCevian

deputatisagan

Sedgeba.

sayovelTao, pirdapiri arCevnebis meSveobiT 5 wlis vadiT. arCevnebi romelTac monawileoba tardeba faruli 19 da wesiT. weli, TurqeTis ufleba moqalaqeebs, aqvT miiRon

SeusruldaT arCevnebsa

referendumebSi.

sayovelTao

arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba ara aqvT vadiani samxedro 44

samsaxuris

rigiTebsa

da

unter-oficrebs, da msmenelebs,

samxedro aseve

saswavleblebis

kursantebsa

msjavrdebulebs, romlebic ixdian sasjels [29_519]. deputatobis kandidatebisaTvis asakobrivi cenzi ufro maRalia _ kandidats unda Seusruldes 30 weli (Tumca 59-e mTavrobis programaSi gaTvaliswinebulia aRniSnuli

asakobrivi cenzis 25 wlamde daweva). deputatobis kandidatebi ZiriTadad registrirdebian partiuli siebiT an

damoukideblad. parlamentSi ar SeiZleba arCeul iqnas piri, romelsac ar aqvs dawyebiTi ganaTleba, ar aqvs moxdili savaldebulo Cadenili samxedro samsaxuri, aseve nasamarTlevia ar SeuZliaT da ganzrax sakuTari

danaSaulisaTvis. wardgena

kandidaturis umaRlesi saxelmwifo

mosamarTleebsa

prokurorebs,

saswavleblebis seqtoris

profesor-maswavleblebs, da sawarmoebis

organizaciebisa

TanamSromlebs, Tu dadgenil vadebSi ar ganTavisufldebian dakavebuli Tanamdebobebidan [64-34]. erTad arsebobs sxva SezRudvebic, saamomrCevlo cenzTan romelTa meSveobiTac

SesaZlebelia moqalaqis deputatobis mandatisagan CamoSoreba. kerZod, zemoT aRniSnuli kategoriis pirebs ar aqvT ufleba iyvnen romelime partiis wevri, rac gamoricxavs maT CarTvas partiulAsiebSi. TurqeTSi komisiis Sedgeba arCevnebi tardeba centraluri da saarCevno igi

saerTo Svidi

xelmZRvanelobiTa da oTxi

kontroliT.

ZiriTadi

sarezervo

wevrisagan.

komisiis eqvsi wevri airCeva umaRlesi sakasacio sasamarTlos kolegiis mier, xolo xuTi saxelmwifo sabWos kolegiaze aRniSnuli kenWisyris sasamarTloebis meSveobiT. Semadgenlobidan saarCevno faruli komisiis 45

centraluri

gadawyvetileba protestebis eqvemdebareba.

arCevnebTan Sesaxeb

dakavSirebuli da

sarCelebisa gasaCivrebas

da ar

sabolooa

yvela amomrCeveli Seitaneba administraciuli olqebis mixedviT Sedgenil siebSi, romlebic mudmivmoqmedia da

yovelwliurad xdeba maTi gadaxedva, dadgena da damateba adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebis mier. saarCevno

postze kandidatis wardgena xdeba partiebis mier, romelTa xelmZRvanelobac amzadebs kandidatTa siebs. deputatobis

`damoukidebel kandidatebs~ praqtikulad mcire Sansi aqvT. moqmedi saarCevno kanonmdeblobiT TurqeTSi gamoiyeneba

proporciuli sistema, romlis mixedviTac partiam deputatebis mandatebis mosapoveblad unda gadalaxos 10%-iani barieri. TurqeTis cnobs sakonstitucio-samarTleblivi mandats da deputatebis doqtrina ar

imperatiul

gamoTxovnis

uflebas. isini iTvlebian mTeli eris warmomadgenlebad da ara olqebisa da im moqalaqeebisa, romlebmac maT misces xma. sxva qveynebis msgavsad deputatebs konstituciiT aqvT

miniWebuli xelSeuxeblobis imuniteti, romliTac maT maRali anazRaureba ganesazRvrebaT. konstituciiT kerZo deputats ekrZaleba profesiul vaqifebSi sazogadoebriv kavSirebsa SeTavseba. da da am (utoldeba ministrebis anazRaurebas)

organizaciebSi, fondebSi,

saqvelmoqmedo

postebis

imperatiuli mandati ­ amomrCevelTa ganawesi, romlis aucileblad

Sesruleba evaleba amorCeul pirs an organos.

vakif - (Turq) fondi

46

wesis gamonaklisi daiSveba mxolo im SemTxvevaSi Tu deputati ministris postze dainiSneba. TurqeTis didi erovnuli krebis sesia yovelwliurad, pirvel oqtombers specialuri mowvevis gareSe ixsneba. sesiis sxdomebs Soris Sesvenebebi da saparlamento ardadegebi

saerTo jamSi sam Tves ar aWarbebs. sagangebo sxdomis mowveva SeuZliaT qveynis przidents Tavisi an ministrTa kabinetis moTxovniT, aseve mejlisis Tavmjdomares an deputatebs [118], 1/5 nawilis iniciativis safuZvelze. mejlisis sxdoma ixsneba qvorumis (deputatebis 1/3 raodenoba) arsebobis SemTxvevaSi, xolo gadawyvetileba miiReba deputatebis saerTo

ricxovnobis 1/4-iT. deputats, romelic 1 Tvis ganmavlobaSi arasapatio mizeziT gaacdens 5 sxdomas, SesaZloa, mandati CamoerTvas. parlamentis plenaruli sxdomebi ZiriTadad Ria xasiaTisaa da deputatebis gamosvlebi mejlisis oficialur macneSi ibeWdeba, aseve centraluri gazeTebis furclebze. SesaZlebelia

daxuruli

sxdomis

masalebis

gamoqveyneba

mxolod mejlisis Sesabamisi nebarTviT. axali TurqeTis mowvevis didi parlamentis erovnuli pirvel krebis sesiaze organoebi iqmneba da

dawesebulebebi, irCeva mejlisis prezidiumi, romelic Sedgeba Tavmjdomarisagan, misi moadgileebisagan, mdivnebisa da saqmeTa mwarmoeblebisagan. dakompleqteba, jgufebi xdeba palatis mudmivmoqmedi formireba. da komisiebis partiuli

partiuli

fraqciebis organoebisa

parlamentis aqtiur

dawesebulebebis aseve axdenen

CamoyalibebaSi zegavlenas maT

monawileobas

iReben, da

yoveldRiur

muSaobaze

sakanonmdeblo

organos saerTo moqmedebebze.

47

deputatebi,

romlebic

ZiriTadad

partiuli

siebiT

irCevian, valdebulni arian partiuli lideris gankargulebebs daeqvemdebaron. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi SesaZloa maT mandati dakargon, radganac partiidan garicxva safrTxes uqmnis

deputatis mier mandatis SenarCunebas. mejlisis kompetenciis ZiriTadi nawilia sakanonmdeblo moRvaweoba. mxolod TurqeTis did erovnul krebas SeuZlia miiRos, Secvalos an gaauqmos kanonebi. mejlisis normatiul aqtebs, sxva organoebis iuridiuli Sedis: aqtebTan Zala da koliziis gaaCniaT. calkeuli SemTxvevaSi parlamentis ministrebis `kanonis miniWeba da omis

gadamwyveti kompetenciaSi momqmedebaTa Zalis

mTavrobisa

kontroli,

ministrTa

kabinetisaTvis uflebis

mqone~

dadgenilebis kanonmdebloba); Sesaxeb da kanonis

miRebis

(delegirebuli gadasaxadebis gamocxadebisa gadawyvetilebis

saxelmwifo ganxilva da

biujetisa miReba,

mSvidobis miReba,

damyarebis

Sesaxeb

dadebuli

saerTaSoriso

xelSekrulebebisa da SeTanxmebebis ratificireba. mas evaleba, miiRos gadawyvetileba sayovelTao da nawilobrivi aministiis Sesaxeb (im pirebis gamoklebiT, romelTac Cadenili aqvT

gansakuTrebiT mZime saxelmwifo danaSauli). aseve parlamentis uflebamosilebaSi Sedis qveynis prezidentis arCeva. sakanonmdeblo iniciativa ekuTvnis deputatebsa da

ministrTa kabinets. mTavrobis mier Semotanili kanonproeqtebi da deputatebis sakanonmdeblo gadaecema winadadebebi Sesabamis da saboloo komisias,

damuSavebisaTvis romelic mejliss mas

palatis

sakuTari

rekomendaciebiTa mier

komentarebiT kanonproeqti awers da 48

warudgens.

mejlisis

miRebuli kanons

gadaegzavneba

prezidents,

romelic

xel

promulgirebas ukeTebs 15 dRis ganmavlobaSi an sakuTari SeniSvnebiT abrunebs (biujetis Sesaxeb kanonis garda)

parlamentSi xelaxali ganxilvisaTvis (gadasavadebeli veto) [29_521]. im SemTxvevaSi Tu TurqeTis didi erovnuli kreba xmaTa absoluturi umravlesobiT erTxel kidev miiRebs igi. Tu

kanonproeqts, prezidents

prezidenti

valdebulia, kanonproeqti

daamtkicos (mTavrobis

gadaegzavneba

kanonis

Zalis mqone dadgenileba an mejlisis Sida wesdeba), romlis calkeuli muxlebi, misi azriT, ar Seesabameba konstitucias, xolo mejlisi, xelmeore kenWisyris Sedegad, kvlav moiTxovs mis miRebas, maSin aRniSnul kanonproeqts prezidenti agzavnis sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi, romelsac saboloo

gadawyvetileba 60 dRis vadaSi gamoaqvs [118]. TurqeTis mTavrobis mier, respublikis saxeliT dadebuli saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi da konvenciebi eqvemdebareba mejlisis mier ratifikacias. savaWro-ekonomikuri xasiaTis

saxelmwifoTaSoriso SeTanxmebebi, romelTa moqmedebis vadac ar aRemateba 1 wels, Tu isini saxelmwifo biujets ar

akisrebs finansur valdebulebas da ar exeba TurqTa qonebas ucxoeTSi, oficialur moqmedebaSi macneSi _ Sedis `Resmi misi xelis mowerisa da GazeTe~-Si

gamoqveynebis

momentidan. aseTi xelSekrulebebis Sesaxeb mTavroba mejlisis wevrebs acnobebs ori da gavlis iZenen Tvis ganmavlobaSi. romlebic oficialuri dadgenili Sevlen ikrZaleba

xelSekrulebebi procedurebis moqmedebebSi,

SeTanxmebebi, Semdeg,

wesebis amis

dacviT Semdeg

kanonis

Zalas.

sakonstitucio sasamarTloSi misi kanonierebis gasaCivreba.

`Resmi GazeTe (Turq) - ,,suraTebiani gazeTi"oficialuri gazeTis saxelwodeba

TurqeTSi

49

qveynis

ZiriTad

kanonSi

xazgasmiT

aris

aRniSnuli,

rom

kanonis Zalis mqone mTavrobis dadgenilebebi ar SeiZleba exebodes adgilebisa, moqalaqeTa sadac politikur saalyo an uflebebs, sagangebo garda im

mdgomareobaa

gamocxadebuli. TurqeTis mniSvnelovani didi sferoa erovnuli _ krebis moRvaweobis aseve

saxelmwifo

biujetis,

sagadasaxado kanonmdeblobis SemuSaveba da miReba. biujetis kanonproeqti mTavrobis mier sagegmo-sabiujeto komisiasTan mWidro TanamSromlobiT (marti) 75 mzaddeba dRiT da finansuri gaaqvs wlis

dawyebamde

adre

mejlisSi

gansaxilvelad. komisiis SemadgenlobaSi Sedis 40 deputati da kompleqtdeba proporciulad. mejlisSi aqedan partiebis 25 warmomadgenlobis adgili gamoyofilia

aranakleb

mmarTveli partiisaTvis, romlis wevrebisagan dakompletqebul mTavrobasac zegavlena aqvs momzadebis, ganxilvis, miRebisa da Sesrulebis procedurebze [188]. Zalauflebis sakanonmdeblo da gayofis principis Sesabamisad xelisuflebebi

aRmasrulebeli

damoukidebelni arian. miuxedavad prezidentis da mTavrobis farTo uflebebisa, parlaments Seswevs unari zemoqmedeba

moaxdinos aRmasrulebel xelisuflebaze. prezidentis mier wardgenilma premier-ministrma, ministrTa kabinetma da axali mTavrobis programam unda miiRon mejlis ndobis votumi.

votumi ­ inglisurenovan politikur literaturaSi zogadad kenWisyris

aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneba. qarTul politikur praqtikaSi igi damkvidrda ufro viwro mniSvnelobiT, rac gulisxmobs mTavrobis an misi romelime wevris politikisadmi undoblobis gamocxadebas kenWisyris saSvalebiT.

undoblobis v-is gamotanas mTavrobis gadadgoma mosdevs. kenWisyra SeiZleba ganxorcieldes xelis aweviT an eleqtronuli saSvalebis gamoyenebiT.

50

parlaments sxva

xelisuflebaze maTgan

zemoqmedebisaTvis sakiTxebi

aqvs

mravali aris

meqanizmi.

ZiriTadi

pirdapir

naCvenebi konstituciaSi: premier-ministris da ministrebisaTvis zepiri da werilobiTi kiTxvebis dasma, mTavrobis moqmedebisa da moRvaweobis Seswavla da Semowmeba, saxelmwifosa da

sazogadoebis

umTavresi

problemebis

mejlisis

plenarul

sxdomebze ganxilva da sxv. ministrTa kabineti koleqtiurad aris pasuxismgebeli mejlisis winaSe, romelsac SeuZlia

Tanamdeboba daatovebinos rogorc calkeul ministrs, aseve mTel mTavrobas. ZiriTadad ndobis gamocxadeba xdeba premierministrisaTvis. undoblobis Tanamdebobis mejlisis mier premier-ministrisaTvis premier-ministris sisxlis mier

votumis

gamocxadebis, an misi

datovebis

samarTlis

pasuxisgebaSi micemis SemTxvevaSi mTeli mTavrobis moqmedebis uflebamosileba Sewydeba. mTavrobis pasuxismgeblobis Sesaxeb interpelacia SesaZlebelia modiodes partiuli fraqciidan, risTvisac saWiroa 20 deputatis xelmowera [188]. interpelaciis Setanidan sami Sesaxeb vadaSi winadadeba, dabeWdili misi saxiT spikeratSi urigdeba

dRis

deputatebs da 10 dRis vadaSi miiReba gadawyvetileba misi dRis wesrigSi CarTvis Sesaxeb. ndobis votumis Taobaze

ganxilvebi SesaZloa daiwyos aranakleb 2 dRis Semdeg da araugvianes Svidi dRisa, xolo interpelaciis Sesaxeb

gadawyvetileba

miiReba

xmaTa

absoluturi

umravlesobiT.

daTvlis dros yuradReba eqceva mxolod im xmebs, romlebic emxroba mTavrobis gadadgomas. amrigad, mTavrobas ar aqvs imis riski, rom SesaZloa,

konkretuli

gadayenebul

saxe

iqnas

xmaTa

ubralo

proceduris

damokidebulia

qveynis

saparlamento

tradiciasa da reglamentze.

51

umravlesobiT.

im

SemTxvevaSi,

Tu

sayovelTavo

arCevnebis

Semdeg Semdgari mTavroba an mTavroba, romelic Sedgeba wina ministrTa kabinetis gadadgomis Semdeg 45 dRis vadaSi ver miiRebs mejlisis ndobis votums, prezidents mejlisis

TavmjdomaresTan konsultaciebis Semdeg, SeuZlia, daiTxovos parlamenti da daniSnos axali sayovelTavo arCevnebi. gansxvavebiT gamoxatuli krebas ar im saxelmwifoebisagan, reJimia, sadac did mkveTrad erovnul

saparlamento SeuZlia, Soris

TurqeTis

pretenzia wamyvan

gamoacxados rolze.

xelisuflebis prezidentis

organoebs

hipertrofirebuli uflebebi da aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis farTo SesaZleblobebi amcirebs erovnuli warmomadgenlobiTi organos uflebebis mniSvnelobas. arsebobis amasTan garkveuli aqvs konstituciuri SesaZlebloba,

gamo,

parlaments

moaxdinos mniSvnelovani zegavlena saqmeTa mdgomareobaze da qveynis politikur koniuqturaze. saxelmwifo meqanizmSi wamyvani adgili respublikis

prezidents ukavia. igi saxelmwifos meTauria da konstituciis Tanaxmad simbolos. warmoadgens saxlmwifosa gaaCnia da eris farTo ganuyoflobis uflebebi

prezidents

aRmasrulebeli, sakanonmdeblo da sasamarTlo xelisuflebis sferoebSi. igi airCeva parlamentis mier 7 wlis vadiT [23_8]. prezidents ar aqvs ufleba, arCeul iqnes xelmeored.

konstituciiT dadgenilia saprezidento arCevnebis Catarebis vadebi, romelic ar unda aRematebodes 30 dRes. respublikis TurqeTis prezidentad romelsac SesaZloa, Seusrulda arCeul 40 weli, iqnas aqvs

moqalaqe,

umaRlesi ganaTleba da gaaCnia yvela piradi da politikuri ufleba, romlebic saWiroa deputatobis kandidatobisaTvis. 52

prezidentobis

kandidatma

pirvel

an

meore

turSi

unda

moagrovos xmaTa 2/3, xolo mesame turis gamarTvis SemTxvevaSi igi airCeva xmaTa absoluturi umravlesobiT. Tu mesame

turSic ar moxerxdeba prezidentis arCeva, iniSneba meoTxe turi. aRniSnuli xdeba turis mejlisis warumateblobiT daTxovna da dasrulebis gadaudeblad

SemTxvevaSi

imarTeba saparlamento arCevnebi. konstituciiT daSvebulia prezidentis kandidatad piris wamoyeneba, romelic ar aris deputati. es SesaZlebloba

SeiZleba ganxorcieldes im SemTxvevaSi, Tu deputatTa 1/5 parlamentis werilobiT. upartio da spikeratSi konstituciis neitraluri mis kandidaturas prezidenti arsebul waradgens unda iyos

Tanaxmad

parlamentSi

partiuli

Semadgenlobis mimarT. amitom prezidentad arCeuli deputati wyvets kavSirs mis partiasTan. TurqeTSi ar arsebobs viceprezidentis posti. misi avadmyofobis, sazRvargareT vizitis an sikvdilis SemTxvevaSi prezidentis movaleobebs mejlisis Tavmjdomare asrulebs. prezidenti ar atarebs politikur pasuxismgeblobas mis mier uflebamosilebis ganxorcielebis gamo. yvela mis

dadgenilebas, romelic exeba aRmasrulebel xelisuflebas, xels awers premier-ministri an Sesabamisi ministri, ris gamoc isini iReben personaslur pasuxismgeblobas. prezisdentis

vadaze adre gadayeneba SesaZlebelia mxolod gansakuTrebul SemTxvevebSi samarTlis mejlisis samarTlis _ samSoblos RalatisaTvis. sakiTxis misi sisxlis xdeba

pasuxisgebaSi deputatTa saqme

micemis

dayeneba xolo 3/4

1/3-is

moTxovniT,

sisxlis xmebis

aRiZvreba

parlamentarTa

mogrovebis SemTxvevaSi. 53

amasTan, faqtiurad parlamentis winaSe pasuxismgeblobis armqone prezidenti did rols TamaSobs saxelmwifo

cxovrebis yvela sferoSi. konstituciis Tanaxmad, prezidents ufleba aqvs gamovides saprogramo sityviT mejlisis sesiis yovelwluirad gaxsnis dRes ­ 1 oqtombers [188]. mas aqvs ufleba moiwvios sagangebo sxdoma. daiTxovos mejlisi da daniSnos axali sayovelTao arCevnebi, daamtkicos parlamentis mier miRebuli kanonproeqti da gamoaqveynos isini; mas aqvs ufleba xelaxli ganxilvisaTvis daubrunos parlaments

miRebuli kanonproeqti; saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi mas SeuZlia referendumze sakonstitucio sasamarTlos, gaitanos kanonproeqtebi, mimarTos da kanonis romlebic exeba

cvlilebebs, gadaxedos kanonebs

sakonstiucio Zalis mqone

dadgenilebebs, paerlamentis Sida wesdebas an maT nawilebs, Tu misi azriT, isini ewinaaRmdegeba konstitucias. aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis TvalsazrisiT prezidents gaaCnia Semdegi uflebebi: niSnavs premier-ministrsa da misgan iRebs gadadgomis Sesaxeb moTxovnas, niSnavs da aTavisuflebs Tanamdebobidan SeuZlia, ministrebs premier-ministris kabinetis wardginebiT, Tavisi

moiwvios

ministrTa

sxdoma

TavmjdomareobiT, ucxo saxelmwifoebSi agzavnis oficialur diplomatiur diplomatiur pirebs da iRebs sxva saxelmwifoebis akreditirebulni

warmomadgenlebs,

romlebic

arian TurqeTSi; amtkicebs saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebsa da SeTanxmebebs; umaRlesi SeuZlia sakuTar funqcia Tavze da aiRos TurqeTis TurqeTis

mTavarsardlis

imoqmedos

didi eerovnuli krebis saxeliT; iwvevs erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWos sxdomebs da Tavmjdomareobs mas; SeuZlia, qveyanaSi gamoacxados saalyo da sagangebo mdgomareoba da miiRos 54

kanonis

Zalis

mqone

dadgenileba. aqvs

amtkicebs an

mTavrobis mouxsnas

gadawyvetilebebs;

ufleba

Seumsubuqos

sasjeli patimrebs maTi xangrZlivi avadmyofobis, invalidobis an asakis mizeziT; niSnavs saxelmwifo kontrolis sabWos

Tavmjdomaresa da wevrebs; irCevs umaRlesi saswavleblebisa da universitetebis sabWos wevrebs. sasamarTlo sferoSi prezidents ufleba aqvs: daniSnos saxelmwifo sabWos, sakonstitucio sasamarTlos wevrebis 1/4, respublikis generaluri prokurori da misi moadgile,

samxedro-sakasacio sasamarTlos wevrebi, umaRlesi samxedroadministraciuli sasamarTlos wevrebi, ¼ mosamarTleTa da

prokurorTa umaRlesi sabWos wevrebi. aRsaniSnavia, rom prezidentis aramed postebi

60-iani wlebis dasawyisidan TurqeTis xSirad ekavaT ara arCevnebis 1971, gziT, an

saxelmwifo

gadatrialebebis

(1960,

1980)

parlamentze da politikur partiebze samxedroebis uSualo zemoqmedebis Sedegad mosul pirebs. TurqeTis generaliteti axerxebda prezidentis postze moeyvana sakuTari

warmomadgeneli, riTac uzrunvelyofda qveynis SeiaraRebul Zalebsa da administraciul-biurokratiul aparats Soris

uwyvet kavSirs [18_17]. aRniSnuli konstituciaSi sakanonmdeblo da amocanis warmatebiT iqna SesrulebisaTvis prezidentTan, aseve

gaTvaliswinebul aRmasrulebeli faqtiurad sabWosa

xelisuflebisagan,

amomrCevlebisagan erovnuli

damoukidebeli da saxelmwifo

organoebis: kontrolis

uSiSroebis

sabWos Seqmna. erovnuli Tanamdebobrivad uSiSroebis Sedian: sabWos SemadgenlobaSi premier55

prezidenti

(Tavmjdomare),

ministri,

gen.Stabis

ufrosi,

erovnuli

Tavdacvis,

Sinagan

saqmeTa da sagareo saqmeTa ministrebi, saxmeleTo Zalebis, samxedro-sahaero Jandarmeriis Zalebis, samxedro-sazRvao [23_10]. sabWos 10 Zalebisa wevrisagan da 5

meTaurebi

samoqalaqo da 5 samxedro piria. sabWos SekrebaSi mis wevrTa garda dRis wesrigis Taviseburebidan gamomdinare SeiZleba monawileoba miiRon sxvadasxva ministrebma da pirovnebebma. sabWos muSaobaSi xmis uflebis gareSe monawileobs erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWos generaluri mdivani. prezidenti premierisa da generaluri Stabis ufrosis winadadebebis gaTvaliswinebiT adgens dRis wesrigs. sabWo moiwveva ikribeba minimumi TveSi erTxel. da amasTan misi

xdeba

premier-ministrisa

generaluri

Stabis

ufrosebis winadadebebis Sesabamisad prezidentis mier. erovnul uSiSroebis sabWoSi gadawyvetilebis miReba

xdeba xmebis ubralo umravlesobiT. xmebis Tanabrad gayofis SemTxvevaSi upiratesoba eniWeba im mxares, romelsac

Tavmjdomare dauWers mxars. sabWos usafrTxoebis gamoyenebasTan saWiro movaleobebia: politikis saxelmwifos erovnuli da da

gansazRvris,

damtkicebisa miReba

dakavSirebuli

gadawyvetilebebis

koordinaciis

gaweva;Asaxelmwifos

erovnuli

usafrTxoebis politikis ganmamtkicebeli erovnuli miznebisa da mosamzadebeli erovnuli gegmebisa da programebis gansazRvra;

ganxorcielebasTan

dakavSirebuli

zomebis

saxelmwifos erovnuli usafrTxoebis politikaze gavlenis mqone, qveynis politikuri, social-ekonomikuri, kulturuli da teqnologiuri situaciisa devneba da da movlenebis Sefaseba; ganviTarebis saxelmwifos 56

mudmivi

Tvalyuris

arsebobis, damoukideblobis, qveynis teritoriuli mTlianobis da erTobis, sazogadoebrivi saWiro zomebis simSvidisa miReba; da usafrTxoebis miznebis erovnuli

dacvisaTvis

erovnuli da

gansaxorcieleblad

konstituciuri

wyobisa

erTobis damcveli, qemalisturi da erovnuli ideebis garSemo Turqi saSinao eris da gamaerTianebeli sagareo da saWiro zomebis Tavdacvis gansazRvra; strategiis aucilebeli

safrTxisagan

SemuSavebisa

gamoyenebis

sakiTxebisaTvis

RonisZiebebis Catareba; sagangebo, saalyo, samobilizacio an saomari mdgomareobebis gamocxadebis Sesaxeb rekomendaciebis momzadeba; omisSemdgom Cveulebriv saomar, omisaTvis saxelmwifo, dacva, mosamzadebel Tu an

situaciebSi da

kerZo

dawesebulebebisa

moqalaqeebis

sayovelTao

mobilizaciis da sxva sakiTxebis organizacia da gegmebis momzadeba; saxelmwifos erovnuli usafrTxoebis politikis ZiriTad sakiTxebSi, TavdacvisTvis saWiro finansuri, socialekonomikuri, kulturuli da sxva zomebis miReba da erovnuli usafrTxoebis sferoSi Semavali xelmowerili an xelmosaweri saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebis Sesaxeb Tvalsazrisis

gamoTqma da damtkiceba [23_11]. konstituciis iuridiuli uSiSroebis Sesabamis Tu muxlebSi naCvenebia imis

meqanizmi, sabWos

rogor

xorcieldeba da

erovnuli

Sexedulebebisa

gadawyvetilebebis

miwodeba ministrTa sabWosadmi. saxelmwifo konstituciis kontrolis da sabWo misi iqmneba saqmianoba prezidentTan, regulirdeba

safuZvelze

specialuri kanoniT. saxelmwifo kontrolis sabWos wevrebi SeirCeva da iniSneba prezidentis mier. saxelmwifos meTauri aRniSnul organos iyenebs saxelmwifo aparatis mniSvnelovani 57

rgolebis

kontrolisaTvis.

prezidentis

davalebiT

saxelmwifo kontrolis sabWo axorcielebs organizaciebis, dawesebulebebisa da Sereuli kapitalis, saxelmwifo an kerZo sawarmoebis, profesiuli kavSirebis, socialuri mniSvnelobis vaqufebis kontrolisaTvis. prezidentis organizaciuli uzrunvelyofisaTvis masTan iqmneba generaluri kancelaria, romelic awarmoebs mimoweras, yvela saxis dokumentaciis aparatis da Sedgenas da a.S. prezidents aqvs

kancelariis xelisuflebisa

meSveobiT

mudmivi

kavSiri

mmarTvelobis

centraluri

organoebis

xelmZRvanelebTan, presasTan da sxva uwyebebTan. aRmasrulebel kabineti, xelisuflebas warmoadgens ministrTa

romelsac

xelmZRvanelobs mixedviT,

premier-ministri. qveynis prezidenti partiis

Camoyalibebuli premier-ministrad

tradiciis niSnavs

arCevnebSi

gamarjvebuli

Tavmjdomares, xolo misi rekomendaciis Sedegad ministrebs. ministrTa kabinetis kompetenciis formireba rom ar xdeba misi

funqcionirebis konstitucia

periodSi. ministrTa

aRsaniSnavia, kabinets

TurqeTis aZlevs

uflebas

damoukideblad miiRos normatiuli aqtebi. qveynis ZiriTadi kanonis Tanaxmad, ministrTa kabineti kanonebisa da wesdebebis SesrulebasTan dakavSirebiT miiRebs mxolod instruqciebs. magram ministrTa kabinetis normatiuli uflebebis SezRudva mxolod formaluria. sinamdvileSi ministrTa kabineti TviTon axdens saxelmwifos saSinao da sagareo politikis

sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli mravali dadgenilebis gamocemis inicirebas, romlebsac xels aweren prezidenti da Sesabamisi ministrebi da qveyndeba oficialur macneSi _ `Resmi GazeTe~-Si. aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis organoebis politikuri 58

uflebamosileba

farToa

da

xorcieldeba

prezidentis,

premier-ministrisa da ministrebis mier. saministroebis raodenoba da struqtura drodadro

icvleboda. 1983 wels Camoyalibebul mTavrobaSi 14 saministro Sedioda. saxelmwifos moRvaweobis sferos gafarToebasTan

erTad gaizarda saministroebis ricxvic, aseve Seicvala maTi moqmedebis mimarTulebebi. 2003 wels formirebul 59-e

mTavrobis SemadgenlobaSi Sedian: premier-ministri; 3 vicepremieri, romelTagan erTi maTgani amavdroulad sagareo

saqmeTa ministria, xolo 2 _ saxelmwifo ministri; amasTan damatebiT kidev 5 saxelmwifo ministri; iusticiis ministri; erovnuli finansTa Tavdacvis ministri; ministri; erovnuli da Sinagan saqmeTa ministri; ministri; ministri; ministri;

ganaTlebis gansaxlebis transportis

urbanizaciis, janmrTelobis

mSeneblobisa dacvis

ministri;

soflis meurneobis ministri; Sromisa da sicialuri dacvis ministri; mrewvelobisa da vaWrobis ministri; energetikisa da bunebrivi resursebis ministri; kulturisa da turizmis

ministri; garemos dacvisa da satyeo meurneobis ministri. saministroebis saxelmwifo (saxelmwifo komiteti garda da mTavrobasTan umaRlesi moqmedebs 15

sakoordinacio umaRlesi

sabWo

dagegmarebis

organizacia,

samxedro

sabWo, mecnierebisa da teqnikis umaRlesi sabWo, samTavrobo kontrolis umaRlesi sabWo, umRlesi saarbitraJo sabWo da sxva.), aseve 17 sax. damoukidebeli samecniero sammarTvelo centri, da instituti saqmeTa atomuri

(aTaTurqis sammarTvelo, energiis

religiis instituti,

statistikis

saxelmwifo

sammarTvelo, da

metrologiis sityvis

mTavari mTavari

sammarTvelo, sammarTvelo, 59

informaciisa

beWdviTi

saxelmwifo

standartis

instituti,

saxelmwifo

kadrebis

sammarTvelo, samecniero-teqnikuri kvlevebis sabWo da a.S.), romlebic ministrebis samrewvelo funqcionireben premier-ministris da an saxelmwifo samxedroda saSinao

xelmZRvanelobiT kompleqsis, saxalxo

ganageben

meurneobisa

cxovrebis sxvadasxva mniSvnelovan sferoebs. ministrTa sabWos prezidentis TavmjdomareobiT,

erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWos mxardaWeris Sedegad, epidemiis, ekonomikuri niSnebis krizisis, masiuri da daumorCileblobis omis, aSkara

arsebobis

samoqalaqo

respublikis

winaaRmdeg ajanyebis an saxelmwifosa da eris ganuyoflobis principis aSkara safrTxis SemTxvevaSi, qveynis mTel

teritoriaze an mis romelime nawilSi 6 Tvis vadiT SeuZlia gamoacxados sagangebo, saomari mdgomareoba, an mobilizacia. mTavrobis gadawyvetileba sagangebo situaciis gamocxadebis Sesaxeb qveyndeba `Resmi Gazete"-Si da igzavneba mejlisSi

dasamtkiceblad. zemoT aRniSnuli 6 Tviani periodis gasvlis Semdeg mejliss SeuZlia 4 Tvis vadiT ramdenjerme kidev gaagrZelos sagangebo mdgomareoba. teritoriaze, sadac

gamocxaddeba sagangebo da salyo mdgomareoba, moqmedebaSi Sedis kanonis Zalis mqone da mTavrobis dadgenileba. mis

Sesabamisad

saxelmwifo

sazogadoebrivi

organizaciebi

gadadian samxedro xelmZRvanelobis kontrlis qveS, xolo saxelmwifo usafrTxoebis sasamarTloebi SesaZloa,

gadakeTdnen sagangebo mdgomareobis samxedro sasamarTloebad. aseT SemTxvevaSi samxedro nawilebsa da samarTaldamcav

organoebs SeuZliaT gamoiyenon samxedro-administrciuli da sasamarTlo-policiuri preventuli dakaveba, Zaldatanebis saxlebis xerxebi da (eWvmitanilTa moqalaqeTa 60

Cxreka

gadasaxleba, Sekrebebis,

masmediaze mitingebisa

cenzuris da

daweseba,

gaficvebis, akrZalva,

demonstraciebis

mosaxleobis mobilizacia iZulebiT samuSaoze). .

61

$ _ 3. Tanamedrove TurqeTis partiebis sagareo da saSinao politikuri koncefcia

TurqeTis respublikaSi dReisaTvis arsebobs

mravalpartiuli sistema, romelic Camoyalibda XX saukunis 50-70-ian wlebSi. Tumca misi funqcionireba 1980 wlis 12

seqtembris

samxedro

gadatrialebis

Sedegad

droebiT

SeCerebul iqna. gadatrialebis Semdeg, 1982 wels, qveyanaSi miRebuli iqna axali konstitucia, partiebis msxvil raTa romelic mniSvnelovnad da zRudavda iyo

politikuri iqiTken, rom

SesaZleblobebs partiebs

mimarTuli

maqsimaluri

SesaZlebloba mTavrobis

miscemoda,

sabolood

erTpartiuli

Camoyalibeba moxerxebuliyo. 1983 wels samxedro reJimis moqmedebis dasrulebis Semdeg daiwyo partiebis brZola maTi moRvaweobis pirobebisa da mTlianad politikuri sistemis demokratizaciisaTvis. mxolod 1995 wels moxerxda 1982 wlis konstituciaSi cvlilebebis Setana, maT Soris politikur partiebisadmi miZRvnil

debulebebSi. cvlilebebis Sedegad mniSvnelovnad Semcirda politikuri partiebis programebis akrZalvaTa CamonaTvali. asakobrivi cenzi partiaSi gawevrianebaze 21 wlidan daiwia 18 wlamde, gauqmda debulebebi, romlebic krZalavdnen

partiebTan qalTa, axalgazrdul da sxv. saxis organizaciebis Seqmnas, aseve akrZalvebi profesiul organizaciebTan politikuri kavSirebTan partiebis da sxva gauqmda

kooperativebTan, sazogadoebriv

TanamSromlobaze.

debuleba, romelic krZalavda profesorebis, leqtorebisa da 62

studentebis

romelime

partiis

wevrobas,

magram

gansazRvrulia, rom aRniSnuli saxis wevroba regulirdeba specialuri kanoniT, romelic awesebs garkveul SezRudvebs 115-102]. partiaSi gawevrianeba da im ekrZalebaT moswavleebs, mosamarTleebs, romlebic ar

saxelmwifo

moxeleebs

swavloben universitetebSi (liceumi, koleji da sxva saxis sawavleblebi). 1982 wlis konstituciiT, akrZaluli politikuri

partiebis xelmZRvanelebs ekrZalebaT axali partiis Seqmna, Tu misi wevrebis umravlesobas Seadgenen gauqmebuli partiis wevrebi. cvlilebaSi da gansazRvruli romelTa iyo, rom partiis gaxda wliT

xelmZRvanelebs partiis

wevrebs, mizezi,

moRvaweobac, moRvaweoba 5

gauqmebis

politikuri

ekrZalebaT. qvemoT moyvanilia Tanamedrove TurqeTis respublikis

msxvili politikuri partiebi da maTi prioritetebis mokle daxasiaTeba, zemoqmedeben monawileoben. ADALET VE KALKINMA PARTISI (AKP) (samarTlianobisa da ganviTarebis partia). dafuZnda 2001 wlis 14 agvistos. romlebic da politikur brZolaze qveynis realurad marTvaSi

garkveulwilad

generaluri Tavmjdomare rejef Taif erdoRani. faqtiurad warmoadgens `saTnoebis partiis~ samarTalmemkvidres, romelic akrZalul AKP-m iqna. partia 2002 wlis 3 noembris arCevnebSi

gamarjvebis Semdeg, dRemde qveynis mmarTveli Zala gaxlavT. ukanasneli 15 wlis SeZlo ganmavlobaSi, erTpartiuli TurqeTis mTavrobis

respublikaSi Camoyalibeba.

pirvelad

63

partiis ZiriTadi programa gaxlavT ekonomikuri zogadi principebi: makroekonomikis da stabilizacia; mikroekonomikis mozidva.

liberalizacia partiisaTvis ekonomikis

sagareo ekonomikis

investiciebis mTavari

prioritetebia: ekonomikis

reabilitaciis

procesis

dasruleba;

zrdis procesis xelaxla dawyeba; siRaribisa da umuSevrobis donis Semcireba; biurokratiis Semcireba; korufciasTan

brZola; evrokavSirSi gawevrianebisaTvis saWiro ekonomikuri reformebis gatareba; TurqeTis regionalur ekonomikur Zalad da finansur centrad gadaqcevisaTvis saWiro garemos

momzadeba. samarTlianobisa politika gaxlavT da da ganviTarebis TurqeTi partiis warmoadgens aziis sagareo axlo

Semdegi:

aRmosavleTisa

kavkasia-centraluri

regionis

stabilurobis erT-erT garants. am Tvisebidan gamomdinare valdebulia krizisebis meti iniciativa aiRos regionSi arsebuli erayis

daregulirebis

procesSi.

miuxedavad

garSemo Seqmnili daZabulobisa, aSS rCeba TurqeTis mTavar mokavSire qveynad. evrokavSirSi gawevrianeba miiCneva qveynis sagareo politikis prioritetad da mTavrobam da parlamentma unda gadadgan evropelTa moTxovnebis dakmayofilebisaTvis saWiro qmediTi nabijebi, rac qveyanaSi demokratiuli

reformebis gatarebaSi unda aisaxos [92-487]. nato-s egidiT ganxorcielebul TurqeTma qveynis RonisZiebebSi unda monawileobis paralelurad aseve egidiT

aqtiurad

iTanamSromlos nato-s da

euTo-sTan. gaero-s

SeiaraRebulma unda

Zalebma miiRon

monawileoba

saerTaSoriso

samSvidobo

operaciebSi. TurqeTma qveynis interesebis Selaxvis gareSe unda uzrunvelyos ruseTTan keTilmezobluri urTierTobebis 64

ganmtkiceba. centraluri

aseve aziisa

mniSvnelovania da

kulturulad

axlo

kavkasiis damyarebuli

saxelmwifoebTan urTierTobebis rogorc

urTierTTanamSromlobaze gagrZeleba. saberZneTi ar

unda

aRiqmebodes

mowinaaRmdege da mteri, aramed urTierTobebi unda iyos ori xalxisaTvis sargeblobis momtani. saberZneTTan ormxrivi

urTierTobebi unda emyarebodes ekonomikur miznebs, risTvisac mniSvnelovania arsebuli politikuri dapirispirebis

aRmofxvrisaTvis safuZvlis momzadeba. aucileblad unda mogvardes kviprosis problema da

daregulirebis meTodi safrTxes ar unda uqmnides kunZulze mcxovrebi Turqebis interesebs. didi mniSvneloba eniWeba

islamur samyarosTan urTierTobas. erTis mxriv am qveynebTan ormxrivi urTierTobi unda ganviTardes, xolo, meores mxriv, saWiroa islamuri konferenciis organizaciis roli da

pativiscema gaizardos saerTaSoriso arenaze. erdoRanis eris ganaTleba partiisaTvis warmoadgens axalgazrdobisa yvela dargis da mTlianad

ganviTarebis

ZiriTad xelSemwyob pirobas. ganaTlebis xarisxis gazrda, ganaTlebis miRebis SesaZleblobis Tanasworobis

uzrunvelyofa da ganaTlebis sistemis ideologiuri brZolis arenisagan CamoSoreba maTi ZiriTadi prioritetia. rac Seexeba jandacvas, partiis liderebis azriT,

janmrTeli Taobis aRzrdis mizniT, jandacvis sfero yvela socialuri fenisaTvis xelmisawvdomi unda iyos, risTvisac Sesabamisi reformebis gatarebaa saWiro. CUMHURIYET HALK PARTISI (CHP) (saxalxo respublikuri partia). dafuZnda 1923 wlis 11 seqtembers. pirveli generaluri Tavmjdomare iyo TurqeTis respublikis damaarsebeli mustafa 65

qemal

aTaTurqi

[32_45].

amJamad

generaluri

Tavmjdomarea

deniz baiqali. 2002 wlis noembris saparlmento arCevnebis Sedegad warmoadgens erTaderT opoziciur partias TurqeTis did erovnul krebaSi. (parlamentSi) CHP memarcxene-centristuli orientaciis partiaa. mas

gaaCnia `eqvsi isris principi~, rac qemalizmis da TurqeTis saxelmwifos ideologiuri safuZvelicaa. esenia:

respublikanizmi, erovnuloba, xalxuroba, etatizmi, laicizmi (religiis gamoyofa saxelmwifosagan) da revolucionizmi. partiis sagareo politikis kursi mimarTulia qveynis

evropeizaciisaken, amasTanave, maTi azriT, sagareo politika ganuyofelia TavdacviTi politikisagan. regionis qveynebs

Soris urTierTkavSirebi ndobis faqtors unda efuZnebodes. saSinao politikaSi partiis ZiriTadi programa gaxlavT: tradiciuli saxelmwifo monopoliebis garda yuradReba unda mieqces mZime mrewvelobasa da janmrTelobis dacvis sakiTxebs; adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis mixedviT unda ganisazRvros gaficvis da nebismieri profesiuli pirovnebis kavSirebis ufleba; Seqmnis muSebs aqvT

xelSeuxebeli

ufleba; gadasaxadebi saxelmwifosaTvis ara marto Semosavlis wyaroa, dagegmili samuSaoebis, warmoebis da mowesrigebuli urbanizaciis ganviTarebiT ganxorcielebis produqciis saSualebacaa; zrda teqnologiis da am mizniT

raodenobis

wvrili da saSualo glexobis waxaliseba; aseve Tavisuflad unda ganviTardes nebismieri ganaTlebam pirovnebis pirovnebis xeli unda da niWi da

SesaZleblobebi. damoukidebeli

Seuwyos erovnuli

Camoyalibebasa

erTobis grZnobis gaZlierebas.

66

ANAVATAN

PARTISI

(ANAP) (dedasamSoblos partia) _

dafuZnda 1983 wlis 20 maiss. pirveli generaluri Tavmjdomare iyo TurguT ozali. amJamindeli generaluri Tavmjdomarea mesuT ilmazi. ANAP-is memarjvene-centristuli mimarTulebis partiaa [12-192] . partias sagareo politikaSi prioritetad

miaCnia mWidro kavSiri Crdilo atlantikur aliansTan, magram isini amasTanave aucileblad Tvlian axlo aRmosavleTis urTierTobebis

muslimanur

qveynebTan,

megobruli

ganviTarebasa da gaRrmavebas. saSinao politikis prioritetebia: privatizacia,

Tavisufali sabazro ekonomika, inflaciis SeCereba, sagareo vaWrobaze pirovnebis gadasaxadebi gadasaxdelad. saxelmwifo uflebebisa unda kontrolis da gauqmeba; nebismieri

Tavisuflebis mcire, advili

xelSeuxebloba; gasagebad da

iyos

soflis

meurneobaSi

aucilebelia

axali

teqnologiis ganviTareba da reformebis gatareba; adamianebs unda mieceT kavSirebis dafuZnebis da gaficvis uflebebi; aucileblad unda Seewyos xeli ucxouri kapitalis mozidvas. rac Seexeba ganaTlebis sferos, maTi azriT, ganaTlebis mTavari movaleobaa TurqeTis aTaTurqis idealis, principebis erovnuli da erTguli, moraluri saxelmwifo iyos kerZo

Tanamedrove faseulobebis

gaTavisebuli erTad

adamianis

gazrda. unda

ganaTlebasTan

SesaZlebeli

ganaTlebis miRebac. DOGRU YOL PARTISI (DYP) (WeSmariti gzis partia) dafuZnda 1983 wlis 23 ivniss. partiis generaluri

Tavmjdomarea mehmed aRari. aRniSnuli partiis SeqmnaSi didi wvlili miuZRvis TurqeTis uaxlesi istoriis erT-erT

gamoCenil moRvawes suleiman demirels [29-532]. 67

DYP memarjvene-centristuli mimarTulebis organizaciaa. iTvleba `samarTlianobis partiis~ (moqmedebda 1961-1980

wlebSi) memkvidred. sagareo politikaSi partiis ZiriTadi programa gaxlavT; qveynis usafrTxoebisa da mSvidobis SenarCuneba. aseTi

politika gaero-s ZiriTad principebs unda emorCilebodes. gansakuTrebuli yuradRebis Rirsia urTierTobebi axlo

mezoblebTan; saWiroa ucxouri kapitalis waxaliseba, radgan igi marto imiT ki ar aris momgebiani, rom qveyanaSi valuta Semodis, aramed imiTac, rom viTardeba sagareo ekonomikuri urTierTobebi, rac Zalian mniSvnelovania srulyofili

saxelmwifosaTvis. saSinao politikaSi ,,WeSmariti gzis partiis"

warmomadlenlebi Tvlian, rom: ekonomikuri wyoba Tavisufal da demokratiul reJims unda aZlierebdes; ufleba. yvelas aqvs

profesiuli

kavSirebis

Seqmnis

anazRaurebis

raodenobaze samuSaos mimcemi da Semsrulebeli TviTon unda SeTanxmdnen; sagadasaxado sistema moqalaqis finansur

SesaZleblobebs unda pasuxobdes da, rac mTavaria, unda iyos samarTliani; xeli unda Seewyos soflis meurneobis

aRorZinebas. am mxriv TurqeTi unda gauTanabrdes evrokavSiris qveynebs; ganaTlebis mTavari mizania Tavisufali, erovnuli sakiTxebiT dainteresebuli, idealisti, fizikurad da

sulierad janmrTeli, erovnul tradiciebze damokidebuli, morwmune Taobis aRzrda. ILLYETCI HAREKET PARTISI (MHP) (nacionaluri

moZraobis partia) dafuZnda 1969 wels. partiis generaluri Tavmjdomarea devleT bahCeli.

68

partiis mizania `axali saxelmwifo wesrigis~ damyareba. es wesrigi MHP-s ver ganxorcieldeba verc kapitalizmiT da verc

komunizmiT. amisaTvis saWiroa mesame `idealuri gza~. gaaCnia 9 aris principi, cnobili romelic [29-534], esenia: `cxra sxivis~

saxelwodebiT idealizmi, Tavisufleba MHP-s xSirad moiazreba.

nacionalizmi, glexoba, da

zneobrioba, da

codna,

sazogadoebrioba,

individualizmi,

progresuloba

xalxosnoba, industrializacia da teqnikuroba. ZiriTadi principi nacionalizmi da da islamia, rac

ultranacionalizmsa

ultrakonservatizmSi

DEMOKRATIK SOL PARTISI (DSP) (memarcxene-demokratiuli partia) dafuZnda 1985 wlis 14 noembers. partiis generaluri Tavmjdomarea biulenT ejeviTi. DSP memarcxene-centristuli mimarTulebis organizaciaa. mxars uWers socializmis Svedur models. amrigad TurqeTis dReisaTvis daaxloebiT partiebi ase da gamoiyureba maTi xedvebi

respublikis

wamyvani

sagareo da saSinao politikaSi.

69

Tavi II TurqeTis geopolitikuri koncefciebis evolucia meore msoflio omis Semdeg $ _ 1. geopolitikis tradiciuli safuZvlebi da Tanamedroveoba

tradiciuli gagebiT geopolitika gaxlavT xelisuflebis msoflmxedveloba, xelisuflebisaTvis. mniSvnelobas, miuaxlovdeba abstraqciad mecniereba igi xelisuflebis maSin Sesaxeb da

mxolod

amJRavnebs roca

Tavis

azrs, garkveul aRiqmeba.

sargeblianobas, socialur geopolitika

adamiani manamde ki

simaRles, politikuri

elitebis

disciplinaa. mTeli misi istoria damajereblad adasturebs, rom masze muSaobdnen swored is pirovnebebi, romlebic an aqtiurad monawileobdnen qveynebisa da erebis marTvis

procesSi, an am rolisaTvis emzadebodnen. geopolitika aris mecniereba marTvis Sesaxeb, romelic Seiswavlis saxelmwifos sagareo politikaSi geografiuli

faqtoris rols da mis gavlenas qveynis erovnuli interesebis Camoyalibebaze. geopolitikis, rogorc sagareo politikuri praqtikis, mTavari mizania e. saxelmwifos i. geografiuli arsi

mdgomareobis

gaumjobeseba,

geopolitikis

mdgomareobs nebismieri qveynis geostrategiis SemuSavebaSi [3126]. geopolitika sizusteze Rirebuli da da ar acxadebs gansazRvravs, humanitarul mxolod pretenzias Tu da maSin, ra mecnierul aris misTvis

TviTon ra ara.

sabunebismetyvelo rodesac isini 70

disciplinebs

iSveliebs

geopolitikuri

meTodebis

ZiriTad

principebs

ar

ewinaaRmdegebian. geopolitika garkveulwilad, TviTon irCevs misTvis sasargeblo mecnierebebsa da samecniero

mimdinareobebs, xolo danarCens yuradRebis gareSe tovebs. Tanamedrove msoflioSi [40-39], igi warmoadgens ,,mokle cnobars

mbrZaneblisaTvis"

xelisuflebis

saxelmZRvanelos,

sadac mocemulia daskvnebi, romlebic unda gaviTvaliswinoT globaluri an sabediswero gadawyvetilebebis dros, iseTebis magaliTad rogoricaa: omebis dawyeba, kavSirebis Seqmna,

mniSvnelovani struqturuli

reformebis gardaqmna,

ganxorcieleba, masStaburi

sazogadoebis da

ekonomikuri

politikuri sanqciebis SemoReba da a. S. geopolitikuri midgomis sinTezuri Seswavla gulisxmobs nebismieri qveynis an regionis geografiul, socialur-

politikur, samxedro, demografiul, ekonomikur da qveynis sxva simZlieris ganmsazRvrel faqtorTa kombinirebul

Seswavlasa da Sefasebas. ,,geopolitis", rogorc terminis, mniSvnelobas xSirad

gaafarToeben xolme imgvarad, rom igi SeiZleba moicavdes damatebiT sxva socialur da zogadkulturul aspeqtebsac, magram Tu am terminis sakuTrivi sazrisis SenarCuneba gvsurs, yovelTvis unda vigulisxmoT, rom geopolitika aris

geografiuli da politikuri faqtorebis imgvari kombinacia, romelic zegavlenas iqoniebs qveyanasa Tu regionze. qveynis geopolitikuri mdebareobis Sefasebisas udidesi yuradReba eqceva, rogorc geografiul faqtors, aseve

ekonomikur da strategiul poziciebs, qveynis warsuls, mis urTierTobas mezoblebTan an msoflios nebismier

71

saxelmwifoebTan,

aseve

regionSi

arsebul

politikur

Tu

ekonomikur viTarebas. aRsaniSnavia, geopolitikuri msoflios rom kodebi, yvela saxelmwifos gaaCnia qveynis Tavisi mier

romlebic

calkeuli da

xedvas

gulisxmobs

msoflios

calmxriv

tendenciur suraTs iZleva. Cvens realobaSi arsebobs sami donis geopolitikuri kodi: lokaluri, regionaluri da

globaluri [17-82]. lokaluri kodi mosazRvre qveynebis Sefasebas

gulisxmobs. nebismier qveyanas, patarasa Tu dids, Zliersa Tu susts, aucileblad unda hqondes aseTi kodi. regionaluri romelTa kodebi gaaCniaT iseT saxelmwifoebs, ekonomikuri,

gavlenis

sfero:

politikuri,

kulturuli Tu sxva scildeba mezobel qveynebs. arsebuli da potenciuri regionaluri mniSvnelobis saxelmwifoebisaTvis saWiroebas moiTxovs aseTi kodebis SemuSaveba. globalur geopolitikur kodebs dRevandel msoflioSi mxolod ramdenime saxelmwifo flobs, radgan marto am

qveynebs SeuZliaT awarmoon globaluri politika da mxolod maT xelSia msoflios umniSvnelovanesi problemebis gadaWris gasaRebebi. meoce saukunis istoriam udidesi gavlena iqonia araerTi didi qveynis geopolitikuri amis naTeli mdgomareobis magaliTia ganviTarebis ruseTis

Taviseburebaze.

Tundac

saxelmwifo da misi ,,regaliebis" cvla saukuneTa manZilze. mniSvnelovani cvlilebebi moxda aseve dasavleT evropisa da aRmosavluri (mag: TurqeTis) qveynebis geopolitikuri

faqtorebis ganviTarebis TaviseburebebSi [124].

72

nebismieri

qveynis,

iqneba

igi

TurqeTis

respublika,

amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi Tu saqarTvelo, geopolitikuri simZlavreebis ZiriTadi kriteriumebia: teritoriis zedapiri; sazRvrebis raodenoba; ekonomikisa buneba; bunebrivi da zRvaze gasasvleli; finansuri done; done; mosaxleobis siZliere; eTnikuri politikuri

resursebi;

teqnikis socialuri

ganviTarebis integraciis

erTgvarovneba;

stabiluroba da erovnuli suli. rogorc zemoT iTqva, termini ,,geopolitika" exeba

msoflio politikur rukas da geografiul faqtorebs, aseve cvlilebebs istoria. politikur terminis dagegmarebaSi. uSualo igi Zvelia rogorc uamravi

Camoyalibebamde gavlenas

ineleqtuali

aRniSnavda

geografiis

politikuri

strategiis regulirebaSi. antikuri xanis berZeni filosofosi aristotele geografiisa idealuri sakmarisad iyo da pirveli, politikis vinc yuradReba igi gaamaxvila ra iyos

kavSirze.

gvTavazobs rom unda

saxelmwifos Zlieri,

models, raTa

Tvlis,

SeinarCunos aqcevs mocemuli agresiisagan

ekonomikuri teritoriis Tavdacvis faqtorebis

damoukidebloba, geografiul sawarmoeblad.

yuradebas

mdebareobas xazs

ucxouri

usvams

topografiuli

politikur da strategiul Rirebulebas da gvTavazobs, rom adgili unda iyos xelsayreli mterze TavdasxmisaTvis, unda Seuqmnas bunebrivi amasTanave winaRoba simaRleebi, teritoria potenciur mTebi iolad da dampyrobels, gadaulaxavi unda rogoricaa mdinareebi. gaxldes

misawvdomi

transportaciisaTvis zRvidan da miwidan [40_39], swored aseTi geografiuli mdebareobaa misTvis Rirebuli idealurad

ganlagebuli qveynisaTvis. 73

Tanamedrove rusi geopolitikosi aleqsandre dugini aseT paralels Tavsdeba avlebs: adamianis marqsizmi arsebobis da liberalizmi Tanabrad magram

ekonomikur

mxareSi,

,,ekonomikuri ideologiisagan" geopolitika emyareba Teziss ,,geografiuli reliefi rogorc bedi" [43-27]. geografia da sivrce geopolitikaSi asruleben iseTive funqcias, rogorc fulisa da warmoebis urTierToba marqsizmsa da

liberalizmSi, maTTanaa dakavSirebuli adamianis arsebobis umTavresi aspeqtebi, isini warsulis interpretaciis ZiriTad meTods umTavres warmoadgenen, faqtors, aseve warmoadgenen Tavis adamianuri irgvliv yofis

romlebic

ajgufebs

arsebobis sxvadasxva sakiTxebs. erT-erTi bJezinski gaxlavT wamyvani amerikeli geopolitikosi zbignev (Zbigniew Brzezinski) aRniSnavs, rom geopolitika, es poziciuri TamaSis Teoria "msoflios saWadrako

dafaze" [52-7]. bJezinski aris polonel-amerikeli politologi, sociologi da saxelmwifo moRvawe. didi xnis ganmavlobaSi igi amerikis sagareo politikis erT-erTi wamyvani ideologi iyo, amasTan jon hopqinsis universitetis strategiuli da saerTaSoriso marTvis centris mrCeveli da wevric gaxldaT. geopolitikis koncefcia warmoiqmna XIX saukunis bolosa da XX saukunis dasawyisSi, Tumca mecnierebi rogorc jer kidev

adreul

SromebSi

gamoiyenebdnen,

termins

,,politikuri geografia". TviTon sityva-cneba ,,geopolitika" Tanamedrove

literaturaSi sami sxvadasxva gagebiT ixmareba: pirveli reaqciuli gagebiT, termini doqtrina, ,,geopolitika" romelic gaxlavT

politikuri

araxelsayreli

geografiuli pirobebis gaumjobesebis mizniT amarTlebs da 74

asabuTebs eqspansiur politikasa da teritoriul dapyrobebs, xelsayreli, aucileblobas teritoriebis gaigivebulia praqtikasTan, e. sxva w. ,,sasicocxlo da sivrcis" Seqmnis qveynebis

susti

,,arasrulfasovani" aseTi gagebiT

xarjze im

[161].

geopolitika da

oficialur

politikur

ideologiasa

rasac

magaliTad

axorcielebda

nacisturi

germania da rac amjerad sayovelTaodaa uaryofili. meore romelic gagebiT, geopolitika aris iseTi da moZRvreba,

saerTaSoriso

urTierTobebsa

saxelmwifoTa

sagareo politikur qcevas safuZvlad udebs, ukve Cvens mier zemoT CamoTvlil iseT geografiul mdebareoba, reliefi maxasiaTeblebs, teritoriisa da a.S. da aseT

rogoricaa: mosaxleobis SemTxvevaSi

geografiuli sidide,

klimati,

geopolitikis

gageba

yalibdeba

rogorc

damoukidebeli mecniereba. mesame gagebiT, termins iyeneben iseT SemTxvevaSi, rodesac xdeba qmedebani saxelmwifoTa TavianTi konkretuli da sagareo-politikuri gaZlierebisaTvis

rolisa

gavlenis

sxvadasxva geografiul regionSi. xmeleTi da zRva geopolitikis sawyisi cnebaa. swored es ori stiqia, miwa da wyali udevs safuZvlad adamianis

miTologiur warmodgenas dedamiwis sircis Sesaxeb. xmeleTisa da zRvis, miwisa da stiqiebis gaazrebis dros adamiani

urTierTobaSi Sedis Tavisi arsebobis ganmapirobebel ZiriTad aspeqtebTan. xmeleTi es aris stabiluri, mWidro, mdgradi sivrce. wyali ki moZraoba, moqniloba, dinamika, dro. es ori stiqia samyaros sagnobrivi bunebis arsis yvelaze Zveli da naTeli gamovlinebaa. isini adamianis gareT

75

arseboben, es aris yvelaferi, rac mdgradi da Txevadia, isini TviTon adamianSic sufeven, es aris sisxli da xorci. istoriulad wyali anu Talasokratia dasavleTTan da atlantikis okeanesTanaa dakavSirebuli, xolo xmeleTi anu Telulokratia aRmosavleTTan anu evraziis kontinentTanaa gaigivebuli. dedamiwaze yvela geopolitikosis mier gaziarebul

saerTo meTodologiur formulas warmoadgens fundamenturi istoriuli dualizmis mtkiceba, erTi mxriv xmeleTi,

Telulokratia, miwa ,,nomosi", evrazia, hartlandi, ,,Suamdebare miwa", RerZi" ideikratiuli da meore civilizacia, mxriv, zRva, ,,istoriis geografiuli ,,sazRvao

Talasokratia, atlantika, ,,gare anu

Zalaufleba", msoflio,

,,zRvis

nomosi",

anglosaqsuri kunZulovani

savaWro

civilizacia,

naxevarmTvare". geopolitikosTa xedvebiT swored am or mxares Soris mimdinareobs geopolitikuri dapirispireba, romelic ar dasruldeba manam, sanam erT-erTi srul gamarjvebas ar miaRwevs. pirveli da meore msoflio omebi, aseve ,,civi omi", sxva araferi iyo, Tu ara brZola hartlandisaTvis, 1917 wels mefis ruseTSi momxdarma revoluciam Zireulad Secvala ZalTa

balansi, industrializaciam da komunikaciebis swrafi tempiT ganviTarebam gardaqmniliyo gamomdinare ruseTs da saSualeba hartlandis batonobis misca sabWoTa kavSirad

gulis

kontrolidan gamoeTqva,

msoflioze

pretenzia

sabednierod, Tu saubedurod, mxolod sabWoTa kavSirs ar hqonda msgavsi pretenzia igi am da resursebi mesame mis raixis imaze 76

gansaxorcieleblad, pirispir aRmoCnda.

dapirispirebaSi ar

dasavleTisaTvis

arsebobda

saSineli

koSmari,

vidre

germaniisa

da

sabWoTa

kavSiris

SeTanxmeba aRmosavleT evropis gayofaze. 1939 wlis ribentropmolotovis paqtiT isini faqtiurad Tanxmdebodnen erTobliv kontrolze, batonobaze, aRmoCnda. meore msoflio omSi gamarjvebam aRmosavleT evropaze sabWoTa kavSiris ambiciebi da gavlena ganuzomlad gazarda, aucilebeli gaxda misi izolacia da am gziT neitralizacia, saWiroebam gagrZelebac hartlandis miwodeba moeZebna. ganapiroba arsebuli da hartlandis Teorias gavlenis magram, sferoebis aRniSnuli dayofasa SeTanxmeba da msoflio ar

xangZlivi

sinamdvilidan

gamomdinare, Canda,

gakontrolebis

perspeqtiva

ararealuri

saWiro iyo misi ganeitraleba da amis erTaderT saSualebad ganxiluli iqna hartlandis garSemo arsebuli rkalis (evropa, axlo aRmosavleTi, samxreTi da samxreT-aRmosavleTi azia) ­ anu rimlandis kontroli da dasavleTis mier am gziT sabWoTa Setevebis eqspansia. swored zustad am periodisaTvis mieqca udidesi mniSvneloba, zRvis saxelmwifoebis mier, TurqeTis respublikis sabolood geografiul ankaris da geopolitikur faqtors, rac

Crdilo-atlantikur

aliansSi

gawevrianebiT dasrulda. hartlandis neitralizacia mxolod mecnierebis mier wamoWrili Teoria ar gaxldaT, swored am saqmes emsaxureboda msoflios udidesi movlena ,,civi omi", romelic kavSiris yvelasaTvis daSliT naTelia, rom sabolood im sabWoTa

damTavrda,

amasTanave,

periodisaTvis

damTavrda hartlandisaTvis brZolis mniSvnelovani etapic ­ aRmosavleT evropa sabolood Camoscilda rusul orbitas da dasavleTsa da ruseTs Soris saimedo izolatoris roli daekisra, swored aman ganapiroba am qveynebis swrafi 77

integracia dasavlur struqturebsa da upirveles yovlisa natoSi, Tu gavixsenebT imave versalis 1919 wlis

xelSekrulebas, es saxelmwifoebi swored am mizniT Seiqmna Tavis droze, am azrs isic ganamtkicebs, rom amerikis

SeerTebulma Statebma Tavisi antisaraketo sistemebi swored CexeTsa da poloneTSi ganaTavsa, nato ki warmatebiT

uzrunvelyofs baltiispireTis sahaero sivrcis kontrols. berlini _ korea _ axlo aRmosavleTi _ vietnami _ avRaneTi Cvens uaxloes warsulSi da dasavleTsa da Talasokratiasa Telurokratias gamoxatulebaa,

aRmosavleTs,

Soris es

rimlandisaTvis

dapirispirebis

dapirispireba dResac grZeldeba da raoden samwuxaroc ar unda iyos, realobaa, Cveni qveynisa da qarTveli xalxisaTvis zemoT moyvanil cxel wertilebTan erTad, dRes ukve ,,zRvisa da miwis nomosebis" dapirispirebis erT-erTi poligoni

kavkasiacaa. amasTanave aRsaniSnavia, rom TurqeTis respublika, Tu XX saukunis meore da naxevridan gaxldaT myarad amerikis idga zRvis

saxelmwifoebis

mxareze

SeerTebuli

Statebis mokavSire, XXI saukunis dasawyisisaTvis is, rogorc saxelmwifo, ise gaZlierda, rom nel-nela iwyebs

damoukidebeli politikis gatarebas [146], amasTanave qveyanaSi sakmaod momravldnen iseTi politikuri da arasamTavrobo aqtiurad

organizaciebi,

romlebic

evraziulobis

proeqts

uWeren mxars. ra Tqma unda, geopolitikurad Zlieri, TurqeTis saxelmwifos Tanadgoma da mis mier warmoebuli politika

Talasokratia ­ (bberZn.) ,,sazRvao Zlevamosileba", ganviTarebuli sazRvao

saxelmwifoebis dasaxeleba

Telurokratia ­ (berZn.) ,,saxmeleTo Zlevamosileba", Zlieri, saxmeleTo

geopolitikuri orientaciis mqone saxelmwifoebis daxasiaTeba.

78

gansakuTrebulad

mniSvnelovania

rogorc

dapirispirebuli

mxareebisaTvis, ise kavkasiis regionisaTvisac. geopolitikuri terminebiT Tu visargeblebT da

dasavlel politologebsa da eqspertebs davujerebT, dRes ruseTis federaciam ,,civi omis" dasrulebis Semdeg kvlav gamoacxada geopolitikuri Soris. henri udides omi Telulokratebsa politologsa amerikul da da

Talasokratebs sovetologs,

amerikel erT-erT

kisinjers

gazeT

,,vaSington post"-Si gamoqveynebuli aqvs werili, sadac ambobs, rom Telulokratebisa da Talasokratebis dapirispirebaSi Tu Telulokratebma gamarjvebis mopoveba SeZles, msoflio srul qaosSi da axal globalur omSi gadavardeba. maSin, Tu es ukanasknelni sasaubro enas gamonaxaven da saerTo intersebs ipovian, es ukve axali msoflio wesrigi iqneba. amerikuli azriT, gaxldaT geopolitikuri skolis warmomadgenlebis saSualeba e. w. Sida axlo azia)

hartlandis mis

neitralizaciis arsebuli

erTaderTi rkalis ­

garSemo anu

naxevarmTvaris, aRmosavleTi,

rimlandis da

(dasavleT

evropa,

samxreTi

samxreT-aRmosavleTi

kontroli amerikis SeerTebuli Statebisa da dasavleTis sxva qveynebis mier, rac Tavis mxriv, uzrunvelyofda sabWoTa, anu komunisturi politika). hartland_rimlandis Teoria iyo meore msoflio omis Semdgomi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis sagareo politikis konceptualuri baza, xolo misi praqtikuli ganxorcielebis iaraRs warmoadgenda natos, sentos da seatos samxedro safrTxis eqspansiis SeCerebas (Sekavebis

politikuri blokebis Seqmna.

79

amerikuli koenis

geopolitikuri

Teoriebidan da

aRsaniSnavia

s.

geostrategiuli

arealebisa

geopolitikuri

regionebis Teoria, romlis Sesabamisadac msoflio batonoba dayofilia or geostrategiul samyaros Soris: I. vaWrobaze damyarebuli sanaosno zona (amerika,

dasavleT evropa, afrika, avstralia). II. kavSiri, evraziuli kontinenturi zona (yofili sabWoTa

centraluri da aRmosavleT evropis da monRoleTis

CaTvliT) [188]. rogorc cnobilia, bolo ori-sami aTwleulis

ganmavlobaSi situacia axlo aRmosavleTSi dasavleTisaTvis arasasurveli miayena scenariT da warimarTa. amerikis palestina gansakuTrebuli SeerTebuli israelis da ziani

evropisa

Statebis konfliqtma, avRaneTSi,

geopolitikur iranis

interesebs

fundamentalizmisaken

Semobrunebam

Semdgom ki eraySi, damkvidrebulma arastabilurobam da omebma. persreqtivaSi arasaTanado partniorebad aRiqmebian

regionis arabulenovani qveynebic. rogorc Cans, swored amis gamo aRmosavleT afrikisa da aziis islamuri saxelmwifoebi e.w. gamyof qamars qmnian. es faqtiurad evropas aziaSi

(harTlandisagan anu ruseTisagan) damoukidebel gasasvlels uketavs. am mxriv aseve aRsaniSnavia i. galtungis ,,panregionebisa da zesaxelmwifoebis Teoria", sadac avtors kargad aqvs

axsnili msoflio geopolitikaSi ra roli akisriaT zRvis zesaxlmwifoebs da ra rols TamaSoben regionaluri qveynebi. aseve sainteresoa s. hantingtonis ,,civilizaciaTa Sejaxebis Teoria" da sxv.

80

alternatiul safrangeTis

geopolitikur

Teoriebs gmirisa da

miekuTvneba prezidentis

ganmanTavisuflebeli

Sarl de golis gaerTianebuli evropis Tezisi da indoeTis premierministris javaharlal nerus miumxroblobis moZraobis Tezisi. Tanamedrove liberalizacias saerTaSoriso msoflio politikaze urTierTobaTa samxedro faqtoris

ganmsazRvreli rolis SedarebiT Sesusteba mohyva da wina planze wamoiwia ekonomikuri keTildReobisa da saxelmwifoTa kompleqsuri zogierTi geoekonomikiT dasawyisi urTierTdamokidebulebis daaskvnis, rom faqtorebma. geopolitika Tumca rom amitom icvleba

mkvlevari da

geoinformaciiT. ,,geo" migvaniSnebs,

kompozitis Tanamedrove kvlav

nawili

saerTaSoriso

urTierTobebSi,

geografiul

faqtors

didi roli akisria. politikuri geografiisa da geopolitikis warmoSoba me19 saukunis miwurulSi ZiriTadad aixsneba im dros mimdinare istoriuli msoflio

procesebiT.

iqamde ukve

met-naklebad isaxeboda

stabilur

politikur

rukaze

mniSvnelovani

geoekonomika ­ erTi mniSvnelobiT aris qveynis qveynis geografiuli da

ekonomikuri urTierTkavSiri da, aqedan gamomdinare, saxelmwifos ,,qceva", rac gansazRvravs misi warmoebisa da vaWrobis dones da saqonlisa da momsaxurebis moxmarebis moculobas. meore mniSvnelobiT, g. ganisazRvreba rogorc

geopolitikis gansakuTrebuli versia, romelic prioritetulad miiCnevs ara geografiul, dakavSirebul safuZvels kulturul, wminda eTnikur da a.S. faqtorebs, g. aramed sivrcesTan ganviTarebis birJebis

ekonomikur Tu sad

realobebs. iqneba

msoflio

xedavs

imaSi,

ganlagebuli

msoflio

centrebi, sasargeblo wiaRiseuli, sainformacio centrebi, msxvili sawarmoebi da sxv. g.-is koncefciis avtori J. atali Tvlis, rom ,,civi omis" Semdeg geopolitika g.-iT Seicvala da igi Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso sistemis mTavari modelia

81

cvlilebebi. msoflioSi

bevri ingreva

mecnieri is

grZnobda,

rom

evropasa

da

,,geopolitikuri

wesrigi",

romelic

napoleonis omebis da misi damarcxebis Sedegad Camoyalibda da modifikaciebiT, anu balkaneTSi axali saxelmwifoebis

SeqmniT, germaniisa da italiis gaerTianebiTa da koloniuri dayrobebis swored es warmoebebiT mTeli gaxda saukune sababi iarseba. sabolood ZalTa

modifikaciebi

msoflioSi

balansis darRvevisa. am saqmeSi mowinave gaxldaT germaniis imperia, romelic miiswrafoda msoflio hegemonTa rigSi didi britaneTis imperiis xarjze SeWriliyo. am swrafvis finalma saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba miiyvana xalxTa gamanadgurebel, pirvel da meore msoflio omebamde, rasac, Tavis mxriv, moyva mkveTri geopolitikuri Zvrebi msoflioSi. ,,civi omis" dros geopolitikis gansazRvra TavSekavebis strategiis samxreTisaken amrigad, CarCoebSi sabWoTa ,,civ ­ amerikis eqspansiis oms" taqtika iyo, rogorc

SemaCerebeli

instrumenti. konfliqtad metoqeobis

sanam

geopolitikur kavSiris

SevracxavT,

amerika

sabWoTa

dominanturi TaviseburebebiT ideologiuri da ekonomikuri, aseve teritoriuli, sazRvao-sanaosno da sahaero gavlenis mosapovblad, termini ,,geopolitika" gaxda ZiriTadi elementi aRmosavleTsa gansasazRvrad. Tanamedrove urTierTobis msoflio wyobaSi ,,civi omis" Semdgomi da da dasavleTs Soris daZabulobis

specifika

geografias,

Zalauflebasa

msoflio wyobas Soris mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba, radganac geopolitikuri xedvebi winaaRmdegobaSi modian axali

geopolitikis sazRvrebis dasadgenad. erTis mxriv ,,civi omis" dasasrulma gamoamJRavna axali geopolitikuri wyoba geo82

ekonomikuri saqmianobis investiciebi suverenitets,

sakiTxebiT. globalizacia, da saqoneli

msoflio, vaWrobis cvlis

sadac

ekonomikuri nakadi,

globaluri

rogorc

saxelmwifos struqturas.

aseve

planetis

geopolitikur

meores mxriv, axali geopolitika ganmartavs msoflios, sadac adgili aRar aqvs mxares teritoriul Soris, daZabulobas xazs or usvams

dapirispirebul transnacionalur

magram rogoricaa

problemebs,

terorizmi,

birTvuli zrda da civilizaciaTa Widili. sxva mxriv ki politikisa da samyaros urTierToba axla yvelaze

mniSvnelovania, radgan saxelmwifo da xalxi ibrZvis, raTa Tavi gaarTvan garemo degradacias, bunebrivi da resursebis globalur

amowurvas, daTbobas. garemos

transnacionalur

dabinZurebasa

dacvaze

orientirebuli

inteleqtualebisa

da

umaRlesi politikuri wreebisaTvis ara geo-ekonomika, aramed

axali geopolitika aris politika anu

ekologiuri

ekopolitika. strategebi daoben, rom ,,neo-geopolitika" - erebs Soris fsiqologiuri warmoSobs da kulturuli dinamikis aqtivacia -

grZnobas, aRqmasa da swrafvas, romelic exeba

jgufis identifikaciasa da cxovrebis stils, iseve rogorc erTaSorisi da kulturaTaSorisi eqsperimenti. am konteqstSi geopolitikis gansazRvra moiTxovs terminis sxvadasxvagvari ganmartebisa da ganzomilebis mxedvelobaSi miRebas. cnebis dinamikisa da mzardi bunebis gamo, analizis gakeTebis dros zogma SeiZleba iyoymanos im analogiuri parametrebis

gamoyenebisas, romlebic geopolitikasTanaa dakavSirebuli.

83

miuxedavad

axali

geopolitikuri

realobisa,

unda

aRvniSnoT isic, rom rigi mecnierebi XXI saukunis dasawyisSi ganviTarebuli movlenebidan gamomdinare samarTlianad

Tvlian, rom dasavleTsa da aRmosavleTs Soris dapirispireba SesaZloa, kvlav ganaxldes [113], radgan, rogorc zemoT ukve aRvniSneT, miwa da wyali amasTanave erTmaneTTan dRes ukve yovelTvis naTlad Cans

dapirispirebaSi

iqneba.

ruseTis federaciis dRevandeli xelmZRvanelobis agresiuli, iperialisturi sagareo da saSinao politika. ,,civi omis" dasrulebis Semdeg 90-ian wlebSi ruseTis mTavrobam dasavleTis sityvieri mier mzadyofna gamoxata principebi, gaeTvaliswinebina magram mxolod

miwodebuli

sityvieri da nawilobrivi, anu ,,saSinao sargeblobisTvis" da ZiriTadad CeCneTTan mimarTebaSi. im droisaTvis ruseTi aTvicnobierebda, rom igi

ekonomikuri da politikuri ganviTarebis TvalsazrisiT jer kidev ar iyo mzad xelaxla gamxdariyo supersaxelmwifo da amisaTvis gardamaval periods saWiroebda. amdenad maSin, rodesac ruseTi axali msoflio wesrigis Camoyalibebisa da saerTaSoriso terorizmis winaaRmdeg

brZolaSi, sityviT amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis partnior qveynad gvevlineboda, da sinamdvileSi misi mizani am axali

principebisa

lozungebis

saTavisod

gamoyenebaSi

mdgomareobda, Tavdapirvelad CeCneTSi da yofili sabWoTa kavSiris qveynebis sxva teritoriebze, Semdeg ki axlomdebare regionebSic. kremlis dRevandeli revanSistuli da imperialisturi miznebi kargad aqvs gaxmovanebuli vladimer putinis axlo megobarsa da cnobil rus geopolitikos, aleqsandre dugins 84

naSromSi

,,geopolitikis

safuZvlebi"

(Tb.1999w.),

romelic

ruseTSi jer kidev me-20 saukunis 90 ian wlebSi gamoica. ,,geopolitikis safuZvlebSi" gaxmovanebuli gegmebisa da imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom swored aleqsandr duginis arsis da misive msolmxedvelobis ,,kgb"-s oficrisa mqone da mrCevelebis ruseTis ideebi momavali

daemTxveoda

prezidentis vladimer putinis

(romelsac piradad mravaljer

gauxmovanebia da Riad ganucxadebia is gamoTqma, rom ,,yofili Cekistebi ar arseboben") ideebsa da saqmeebs, sruliad

dabejiTebiT SeiZleboda imis prognozireba, rom Tanamedrove ruseTis federacia yvelafers statusi da gaakeTebda, revanSi raTa aRedgina omSi"

,,supersaxelmwifos" droebiT

aeRo

,,civ

damarcxebisaTvis

(rac

TavisTavad

logikuri

survilia). amisaTvis pirvel rigSi qveyanaSi, tradiciulad, saWiro damyareba gaxdeboda [21_48], ,,mtkice rac xelis" meSveobiT wesrigis yvela

SeuZlebelia

mmarTvelobis

saTaveebis e. w. ,,Zalovnebis" mier xelSi Cagdebisa, presisa da televiziis gakontrolebisa da sxva demokratiuli procesebis SezRudvis gareSe. sagareo politikaSi a. duginis moTxovniT gamoyenebuli unda iqnas rogorc tradiciuli meTodebi: winaaRmdegobis

gaRviveba amerikis SeerTebul Statebsa da evropas Soris, birTvuli damyarebuli da Cveulebrivi dasavleTis (CineTi, samyaro) SeiaraRebis winaaRmdeg indoeTi, aliansebis Semcirebaze aRmosavleTis irani Sekvra; ise da axlo

SantaJi,

saxelmwifoebTan mTlianad islamuri

aRmosavleTSi amgvari politikis Sedegad axlad warmoqmnili ekonomikuri saSualebebi, magaliTad,Ffasebis arnaxuli zrda energomatareblebze da energetikuli politikis berketebi. 85

swored politikis am mimarTulebiT svlam XXI saukuneSi ruseTis federacia kvlav daubruna mmarTvelobis tradiciul, Zalaze damyarebul avtoritarul reJims, ris gamoc

dasavleTSi gamoCndnen ,,specialistebi", romlebmac im azris kultivireba daiwyes, rom ,,CineTsa da ruseTs SeuZliaT

Seqmnan ekonomikurad ganviTarebuli, magram arademokratiuli axali msoflio" [113], rac TavisTavad, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, aucileblad gamoiwvevs morig dapirispirebas ,,xmeleTsa da wyals" Soris. ,,civi omis" da damTavrebasTan, axal mowinaaRmdege mxareebis

SerigebasTan dakavSirebiT, rediard

geopolitikur cnobili igi

realobasTan mwerlis

sainteresoa azri,

ingliseli wers: da

kiplingis

,,aRmosavleTi isini erTmaneTs

aRmosavleTia,

dasavleTi

dasavleTi

arasodes ar Sexvdebian" [178]. aRniSnuli sityvebidan kargad Cans, rom ,,civi omis" dasruleba ver gadawyvetda im did problemas, rasac aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis dapirispireba hqvia. amrigad, geopolitikaze saubrisas, mniSvnelovania qveynis geografia, romelic erTi SexedviT, ucvleli faqtoria, magram specifikur Seicvalos teritoriaze saerTaSoriso droTa Zalebis ganmavlobaSi balansis SeiZleba cvlilebis,

teqnologiuri ganviTarebisa da ekonomikuri faqtorebis gamo. maSasadame, argumenti adasturebs, rom arsebobs permanentuligangrZobiTi da gardamavali-cvalebadi geopolitikuri sivrce mocemuli qveynisa. maSin, roca permanentuli maxasiaTebeli warmoiqmneba xangrZlivi istoriuli gamocdilebiTa da Tavad teritoriis maxasiaTebeli mdidari gaxlavT memkvidreobiT, moklevadiani. xolo magaliTad droebiTi "TurqeTi 86

aris

xidi

evropasa maSin,

da

azias

Soris"

aris

permanentuli barieria

argumenti,

rodesac

gamoTqma

"TurqeTi

samxreTSi sabWoTa eqspansiisaTvis", droebiTia. erTi SexedviT, ,,geopolitika" terminia ,,geografiisa" da bevrs da

,,politikisagan" politikuri Soris

warmoebuli

SecdomiT maT

geografiis

sinonimi

hgonia.

sinamdvileSi

realuri

gansxvavebaa.

politikuri

geografia,

Cveulebriv, swavlobs politikur ZalTa ganlagebas ama Tu im geografiuli sivrcis SigniT. es sivrce SeiZleba iyos qveyana, mxare, raioni, Stati, saarCevno ubani da sxv. geopolitika gulisxmobs erTeulebs urTierTobebs Soris, iseT sivrcul-geografiul qveynebi, regionebi da

rogorebicaa

kontinentebi [37-11]. geopolitika SinaarsiT. igi ar Semoifargleba mxolod aRniSnuli

saxelmwifoTaSorisi mTel speqtrs moicavs,

sagareo-politikuri radganac yovel

urTierTobebis

politikur gadawyvetilebas sivrculi gamoxatuleba gaaCnia. amrigad, Tanamedrove xedviT, geopolitika warmoadgens saxelmwifoTa sagareo politikis axleburad gagebuli

Teoriisa da praqtikis erTobliobas, romelic geografiuli faqtoris, erovnuli interesebis, politikuri da ekonomikuri prioritetebis, politikuri procesebisa da saerTaSoriso

krizisebis regulirebis kombinirebul analizs efuZneba.

87

$ _ 2. TurqeTis geopolitikis veqtorebi XX saukunisis meore naxevridan: tradicia da cvlilebebi

TurqeTis zegavlena iqonia

respublikis meore

geopolitikaze omma. misi

seriozuli geografiuli

msoflio

mdebareobis gamo dapirispirebuli mxareebi cdilobdnen Tavis sasargeblod gamoeyenebinaT TurqeTis saxmeleTo Tu sazRvao privilegiebi. Turq diplomatebs omis dawyebidan mis

dasrulebamde, udidesi Zalisxmeva dasWirdaT imisaTvis, rom maTi qveyana sabediswero brZolaSi ar CaTreuliyo da amiT samudamod ar daRupuliyo igi. jer kidev meore msoflio omis dawyebamde maTi lideri, mustafa qemal aTaTurqi Turqebs afrTxilebda msoflioSi mosalodneli areulobis Sesaxeb, mas miaCda, rom hitleri da musolini ambiciebis aucileblad daiwyebdnen da axal oms TavianTi TurqTa

dasakmayofileblad

mouwodebda

mmarTvel wreebs, rom arasdidebiT ar ayolodnen nacistebis provokaciebs. mustafa qemalis gardacvalebis Semdeg, maleve, 1939 wlis aprilSi TurqeTSi, uSualod fiureris davalebiT Camovida gaxldaT iaponiis germaniis TurqeTis kavSirSi elCi fon papeni, misi mTavari mizani da

respublikis CaTreva.

germaniis,

italiisa

germaneli italiis

generali

Turqebs myof

mokavSireobis

sanacvlod

mflobelobaSi

dodekanozis kunZulebidan oTxi patara kunZulis gadacemas dahpirda [29-462], sabolood molaparakeba ar Sedga, radgan musolinma da misma gundma TurqTaTvis italiis teritoriebis gadacemaze uari ganacxades. 88

germaniis mcdeloba TurqeTis gadabirebisaTvis inglisisa da safrangeTisaTvis uyuradRebod ar darCenila, radgan

maTTvisac Zalian mniSvnelovani gaxldaT TurqeTis samxedro strategiuli mdebareoba da resursebi. TurqTa mmarTveli wreebi, am droisaTvis orad iyvnen gayofili. inglisTan sabolood nawili da germanelTa mxares ixreboda, nawili ki

safrangeTTan

TanamSromlobas iqna qemalis

moiTxovda. anderZi da

gaTvaliswinebuli

upiratesoba inglisis bloks mieniWa. 1939 wlis 12 maiss didma britaneTma da TurqeTma xeli moaweres winaswar SeTanxmebas, romliTac isini acxadebdnen, rom xmelTaSua zRvis regionSi sabrZolo efeqturad daxmarebas moqmedebebis dawyebis SemTxvevaSi da aqtiurad da

iTanamSromlebdnen aRmouCendnen.

erTmaneTs

yovelgvar ar

inglis-TurqeTis

SeTanxmeba

iqneboda efeqturi da nayofieri xmelTaSua zRvis regionSi safrangeTis monawileobis gareSe [29-462]. aRsaniSnavia, rom am periodisaTvis haTais provinciasTan dakavSirebiT safrangeTsa da TurqeTs erTmaneTTan sakmaod daZabuli urTierToba am or

hqondaT,

magram

britanelebis

Carevis

Sedegad

saxelmwifos Soris urTierTobebi danormalizda da ukve 1939 wlis 19 oqtombers ankaraSi TurqeTma inglisma da

safrangeTma xeli moaweres xelSekrulebas, romliTac isini valdebulebas iRebdnen xmelTaSua zRvis regionSi agresiis SemTxvevaSi erTmaneTisaTvis mniSvnelovani daxmareba

aRmoeCinaT. am gadawyvetilebas aseve mniSvnelovnad uwyobda xels is faqti, rom 1939 wlis 23 agvistos sabWoTa kavSirsa da germanias paqti, Soris moskovSi daido urTierTTavdausxmelobis paqtis

romelic

istoriaSi

ribentrop-molotovis

saxeliT aris cnobili. 89

aRniSnuli xelSekrulebiT sabWoTa kavSiri da germania iyofdnen aRmosavleT evropas, amasTanave stalinis brZanebiT, rusebi nacistebs uyenebdnen sakiTxs da bosforisa da

dardanelis

sruteebSi

saxmeleTo

samxedro-sazRvao

bazebis Seqmnis Sesaxeb. am informaciam rogorRac miaRwia ankaris yuramde, ris gamoc saxelmwifos xelmZRvanelobam

daaCqara Tavisi gadawyvetilebis sisruleSi moyvana. aRsaniSnavia, bolosaTvis rom Turqebs 1939 wlis gazafxulis dadebis

urTierTdaxmarebis

xelSekrulebis

moTxovniT sabWoTa kavSirmac mimarTa, maisSi ankaras ewvia sabWoTa kavSiris sagareo saqmeTa komisris am moadgile v.

potiomkini. droulad

TurqTa garkveuli

mTavrobam pasuxi ar

sabWoebs misca.

moTxovnaze 1939 wlis 1

male

seqtembers nacisturi garmania Tavs daesxa poloneTs, rac sabolood gaxda meore msoflio omis dawyebis sababi. 1939 wlis seqtembris bolos ukve Turqebma scades

sabWoTa kavSirTan xelSekrulebis dadeba. am mizniT moskovSi gagzavnil iqna sagareo saqmeTa ministri sarajoRlu, man

rusebs SesTavaza urTierTdaxmarebis paqtis dadeba, romelic gavrceldeboda sruteebsa da balkaneTze. sabWoTa kavSirma uaryo TurqTa sagareo saqmeTa ministris winadadeba, radgan maTTvis cnobili gaxldaT is faqti, rom aseTive

xelSekrulebas debdnen Turqebi inglissa da safrangeTTan [29-463]. stalinma da misma Tanamoazreebma kargad icodnen, rom am yvelafers SeiZleba sabWoTa kavSiris germaniasTan omSi CaTreva mohyoloda. 1940 wlidan meore msoflio amave wlis omi gavrcelda da ukve

xmelTaSuazRvispireTSi.

aprilsa

ivnisSi

germaniam daipyro dania da norvegia, ris Semdegac faSistebi 90

SeiWren

belgiasa xazi

da da

holandiaSi, gezi

gaarRvies aiRes. 10

safrangeTis amavdroulad ivniss omi da

TavdacviTi germaniis gamoucxada

parizisaken 1940

mokavSirem,

italiam

wlis rogorc

safrangeTs.

TurqeTi,

inglisisa

safrangeTis mokavSire, valdebuli iyo megobari qveynebisaTvis samxedro daxmareba aRmoeCina, magram mustafa qemalis

memkvidreebma cbieri politikis Sedegad omSi Cabmisagan Tavis acileba ganacxada, Tanaxmad, moaxerxes. rom isini TurqeTis respublikis dadebuli ,,arameomari mTavrobam

mokavSireebTan sargeblobdnen

xelSekrulebis saxelmwifos"

statusiT [29-484]. TurqeTis safrangeTTan saxelmwifo dadebuli miuxedavad inglissa da

xelSekrulebebisa,

yovelTvis

cdilobda germaniasTan kargi urTierTobis SenarCunebas. amis utyuar magaliTad SeiZleba moviyvanoT is, rom mas, miuxedavad mokavSireebTan germanelebTan daaxloebisa, savaWro arasodes ar Seuwyvetia xolo,

ekonomikuri

TanamSromloba.

rac ufro met warmatebas aRwevdnen RerZis saxelmwifoebi, Turqebic miT ufro metad ixrebodnen germanelebisaken, radgan ankaris xemZRvaneloba maqsimalurad cdilobda qveynisaTvis Tavidan aecilebina gamanadgurebel omSi CaTreva. 1941 wlis ianvarSi didi britaneTis premier-ministrma uinston gaugzavna CerCilma, werili, TurqeTis prezidents, is ismeT inonius Turqebs

romliTac miecaT da

iTxovda, maT

ingliselebisaTvis aeSenebinaT sazRvao

ufleba

teritoriaze bazebi, razec

sahaero,

samxedro

britanelebma kategoriuli uari miiRes [29-465]. paralelurad, safrTxe TandaTan TurqeTSi ufro germanelTa izrdeboda. intervenciis vermaxtis 91

xelmZRvanelobidan, TurqeTis winaaRmdeg laSqrobis dawyebis erT-erTi Zlieri mxardamWeri gaxldaT. rom mesame raixis

mniSvnelovani

elita

moiTxovda,

balkaneTis

naxevarkunZulis qveynebis dapyrobis Semdeg aucilebeli iyo TurqeTis respublikis okupacia. sabolood, saqmis germanelebma mizniT afrikaSi ufro mniSvnelovani TurqeTis unda

mogvarebis

droebiT dakavebaze,

uari

Tqves

teritoriebis

iZulebiT

magram

isic

aRiniSnos, rom adolf hitlers aRniSnuli qveynis okupaciaze saboloo uari ar ganucxadebia, is darwmunebuli gaxldaT, rom sabWoTa kavSiris ganadgurebis Semdeg aucileblad

dauTmobda mniSvnelovan yuradRebas TurqTa saxelmwifosac [29-466], magram sanam vermaxti sabWoebis winaaRmdeg brZoliT iqneboda dakavebuli, maTTvis Zalze mniSvnelovani iqneboda TurqTa neitraluri pozicia. am mizniT 1941 wlis 18 ivniss, sabWoTa kavSirze germaniis Tavdasxmamde oTxi dRiT adre qalaq ankaraSi xeli moewera germaniasa da TurqeTs Soris xelSekrulebas ,,teritoriuli xelSeuxeblobisa da

megobrobis Sesaxeb" [16_361]. aRniSnuli xelSekrulebiT orive mxare valdebulebas iRebda Tavi Seekavebina erTmaneTis da

winaaRmdeg saxelmwifoebs

sabrZolo Soris

kampaniebis Tbili

Catarebisagan

megobruli

urTierTobebi

SeenarCunebinaT. 1941 wlis 25 ivniss TurqeTis saxelmwifom oficialurad gamoacxada neitraliteti, magram realurad is xels uwyobda faSistur germanias sabWoTa kavSiris winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. man daarRvia montres konvencia Savi zRvis sruteebis Sesaxeb, radgan germanelTa da italielTa samxedro gemebs ufleba misca Sav zRvaSi Semosuliyvnen. aseve didi arapirdapiri 92

samsaxuri

gauwies

Turqebma

germanelebs

imiT,

rom

mobilizebuli hyavdaT Tavisi milioniani armia, romelTa didi nawili ganlagebuli iyo samxreT kavkasiis sazRvrebTan, ris gamoc sabWoTa kavSiri iZulebuli gaxda jaris garkveuli nawili aRniSnul teritoriaze ganelagebina TurqTa SesaZlo intervenciis mosagerieblad. 1941 dadebis wlis Semdeg zafxulidan TurqeTsa da megobrobis germanias xelSekrulebis Soris gaformda

ramdenime ekonomikuri xelSekruleba, romelTa ZaliTac orive mxare mniSvnelovan sargebels poulobda, magram germaniis TurqeTma uari

samxedro

mdgomareobis yovelgvar

gauaresebis ekonomikur

Semdeg,

germanelebTan

saqmianobaze

ganacxada. miuxedavad am gancxadebisa isini mainc cdilobdnen, rom faSistebTan megobruli damokidebuleba jer kidev

SeenarCunebinaT. TurqeTis saxelmwifos omis msvelobis dros

mniSvnelovan rols aniWebda orive mebrZoli mxare, inglisis premier-minitris germanelTa uinston CerCilis azriT, meore fronti

winaaRmdeg

unda

gaxsniliyo

ara

safrangeTSi,

aramed balkaneTSi. am mizniT aucilebeli xdeboda TurqeTis omSi Cabma. CerCilis Statebis am gegmas mxari dauWira amerikis

SeerTebuli

prezidentma

franklin

ruzveltma.

inglisisa da Statebis xelmZRvaneloba Tvlida, rom TurqeTis omSi Cabma, rac SeiZleba swrafad unda momxdariyo, am mizniT maT 1943 wlidan daiwyes am ukanasknelis sabrZolo iaraRiT momarageba [29-468]. 1943 wlis noember-dekemberSi moxda sami da TeiranSi wamyvani Catarda

konferencia, meTaurebis

sadac stalinis,

saxelmwifos Sexvedra. 93

CerCilis

ruzveltis

konferenciaze molaparakebebis dros mniSvnelovani adgili eWira sakiTxs, romelic dakavSirebuli gaxldaT TurqeTis saxelmwifosTan. sabolood gadawyda, rom meore fronti

gaixsneboda dasavleT evropaSi, xolo TurqeTs SesTavazebdnen winadadebas, rom ara ugvianes 1944 wlis TxuTmeti Tebervlisa, Cabmuliyo omSi germaniisa da misi mokavSireebis winaaRmdeg. Teiranis saxelmwifos konferenciis xelmZRvanelebi Semdeg amerikisa da inglisis TurqeTis

kairoSi

Sexvdnen

respublikis prezidents ismeT inenius, romelsac Seaxsenes misi qveynis valdebulebebi. Tavis mxriv, TurqeTis prezidentma brZolis dawyebisaTvis moiTxova SeiaraRebis iseTi raodenoba, romelis miwodebac mcire droSi TiTqmis SeuZlebeli

gaxldaT. miuxedavad amisa, inglis-amerika ganagrZobda TurqTa SeiaraRebas, ingliseli samxedro specialistebi ki

uwvrTnidnen armias [29-469]. TurqeTis prezidenti da mTavroba cdilobda frTxili politikiT gamosuliyven am rTuli mdgomareobidan da maTi qveyana arc erTi omSi. mxaris es sasargeblod TurqeTis ar CaeTriaT

gamanadgurebel udidesi

gaxldaT

diplomatiis inglisTan maT

warmateba, da

omis

msvlelobaSi

SeZles

mokavSireobisa

germaniasTan

megobrobis

pirobebSi

SeZles faqtobrivi neitralitetis SenarCuneba. mxolod 1945 wlis 23 Tebervals simbolurad gamoucxades omi germaniasa da iaponias. realurad meore msoflio omSi arc erTi Turquli qvemexi ar gavardnila, magram germanelTa winaaRmdeg omis gamocxadebam TurqeTi moaxvedra antihitlerul koaliciaSi, ris Semdegac man moipova mowveva 1945 wels san-franciskos konferenciaze da Sesabamisad gaeros wevris statusi.

94

sagareo

politikaSi

warmatebebis

miuxedavad,

ismeT

inonius mTavrobam ver SeZlo aseTive warCinebiT gaerTva Tavi saSinao politikas. mTeli meore msoflio omis msvlelobaSi TurqTa xelmZRvaneloba iZulebuli gaxldaT srul

mzadyofnaSi hyolodaT jari, omis periodSi samxedro xarjebi omamdelTan SedarebiT daaxloebiT xuTjer iqna gazrdili. milioniani armiis Senaxvas mTavroba mTel Zalisxmevas

andomebda. qveynis ekonomika da soflis meurneoba ZiriTadad jaris Senaxva-gamokvebaze iqna gadayvanili, rac sabolood qveynis ekonomikis ganadgurebis mTavari mizezi gaxda. meore msoflio omis dasrulebis Semdeg, saerTaSoriso sistemaSi ZalTa ganawilebis axali xasiaTi Seiqmna [28-116] da gamoCnda sruliad sxva geopolitikuri realoba: Camoyalibda e. w. socialisturi banaki, aziisa da afrikis qveynebSi daiwyo ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobebi da nel-nela daiZaba

urTierTobebi aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTs Soris. aseT rTul saerTaSoriso viTarebaSi TurqeTis xelisuflebas samoqmedo gza aRar hqonda, rogorc sagareo, ise saSinao politikaSic, radgan qveyanaSi mZime ekonomikuri krizisi idga.

gansakuTrebiT rTul mdgomareobaSi iyo soflis meurneoba da glexoba, radgan miwebis udidesi nawili memamuleebis xelSi iyo. xelmZRvanelobam mdgomareobis gaumjobesebis mizniT

gaatara rigi reformebi, magram sasurvel Sedegs mainc ver miaRwia. saerTo ukmayofilebam imoqmeda, mmarTvel, igi aqamde saxalxoqveyanas

respublikur

partiazedac

erTpirovnulad, monopoliurad marTavda. TurqeTis progresuli Zalebi partiisagan moiTxovdnen antixalxuri kanonebis gauqmebasa da qveyanaSi demokratiuli reformebis Catarebas. cvlilebebis gatarebis momxreebi 95

saxalxo-respublikur partiaSic gamoCnden. 1945 wlis 7 ivniss partiis ramdenime wevrma (jelal baiari, adnan menderesi, fuad qofrulu, refik qoralTani) parlamentSi Seitana paketi

demokratiuli cvlilebebis Sesaxeb [29-472], aRniSnuli paketis ganxilvaze mejlisma uari ganacxada, rasac demokratiuli

reformebis gatarebis momxreebidan moyva seriozuli protesti da kritika mmarTveli partiidan partiis garicxa mimarT. sapasuxod opozicioneri

xelisuflebam

cnobili

liderebi, romlebmac Tavis mxriv axali politikuri partiis Sesaqmnelad mzadeba daiwyes. aseT iZulebuli nebarTva mZime viTarebaSi sxva saxalxo-respublikuri patiebis daiwyo partia

gaxda 1946

politikuri qveyanaSi

daarsebis politikuri

gaeca.

wlidan

partiebis daarseba [29-472]. nel-nela izrdeboda opoziciuri partiebis reitingi, ris gamoc mmarTveli partia iZulebuli gaxda vadamdeli arCevnebi Caetarebina. 1946 wlis ivlisSi Catarda arCevnebi, sadac gamarjveba kvlav saxalxo respublikurma partiam moipova. miuxedavad

damarcxebisa, mejlisSi mainc moxvdnen opoziciuri Zalebi, romlebmac jamSi 74 mandati moipoves. mmarTevlma partiam qveynis prezidentad kvlav ismeT inoniu airCia, mTavrobis premier-ministri gaxda rejeb feqeri, mejlisis Tavjdomare ki generali axali qiazim qarabeqiri. Seecada ganaxlebuli xelmZRvaneloba reformebis

energiiT

qveynisaTvis

sasikeTo

gatarebas. pirvel rigSi maT moaxdines liras devalvacia da dolarTan erovnuli fulis kursi orjer Seamcires [29-473]. TurqeTis mTavrobas sagareo politikaSic mZime viTareba hqonda. iseTi didi da Zlieri saxelmwifo rogoric gaxldaT sabWoTa kavSiri, TurqeTTan mosalodneli konfliqtisaTvis 96

emzadeboda. stalins samamulo omis sawyis periodSi, im dros, roca sabWoTa kavSiri germaniasTan marcxs ganicdida, mudam hqonda SiSi imisa, rom Turqebi SeiZleba omSi RerZis

saxelmwifoebis mxareze CarTuliyvnen da kavkasiis mxridan gamanadgurebel Setevaze gadmosuliyvnen. msoflio omis dasrulebis Semdeg ki sabWoTa kavSirma mniSvnelovnad gaafarTova Tavisi gavlenis sferoebi evropasa da aziaSi. mis omamdel samflobeloebs dasavleTSi daemata kenigsbergi da fineTis teritoriis nawili. aRmosavleTSi

sabWoTa kavSirma miitaca kuriliis kunZulebi da port-arturi kvlav rusuli samxedro-sazRvao baza gaxada. moskovis gavlenis sferoSi moxvda manjuria, CrdiloeT korea, poloneTi, Cexoslovakia, rumineTi, ungreTi, bulgareTi, albaneTi, iqedan iugoslavia. ar rusuli tankebi idgnen Zalze elbaze da

arsad

apirebdnen kavSiris

wasvlas. gavlena

mniSvnelovani CrdiloeT

gaxldaT

sabWoTa

iranis

raionebsa da avstriaSi. iq sabWoTa jarebi dabanakdnen. omiT dasustebul did britaneTsa da safrangeTs,

danarCen evropul qveynebTan erTad, ar SeeZloT komunisturi eqspansiisaTvis winaaRmdegoba gaewiaT. imis Sesaxeb, rom igi TurqeTis mimarT realurad mzaddeboda, mravalricxovani

faqtebi mowmobs. magaliTad: potsdamis konferenciaze ioseb stalini moiTxovda, sabWoTa kavSirsa da TurqeTs erToblivad gaekontrolebinaT Savi zRvis sanapiroebi da sruteebi, razec man evropelebisa da amerikelebis mxardaWera ver moipova. amis Semdeg, sabWoTa beladma gamoTqva mosazreba, rom TurqeTis aRmosavleT raionebi unda mierTeboda somxeTs, xolo iranul azerbaijanisa da qurTebiT dasaxlebul teritoriebze

sabWoTa kavSiris mxardaWeriT Seqmniliyo avtonomiebi, radgan 97

es

ukanasknelni

uars

ambobdnen

Teiranisa

da

ankaris

xelisuflebis morCilebaze. am periodisaTvis sabWoTa jarebi ukve kargad iyvnen gamagrebulni manjuriis teritoriaze da arsad ar fiqrobden iqidan wasvlas, amasTanave aRniSnuli teritoria bazebadac. ukve 1945 wlis bolodan Tavis sabWoTa kavSiri TurqeTTan da aqtiurad gamoiyeneboda CineTis wiTeli armiis

mimarTebaSi

cvlis

geopolitikis

mimarTulebas

TavdacviTi politikidan aqtiur, SeteviT politikaze gadadis. 1945 wlis 19 marts kremlma calmxrivad gaauqma 1925 wlis 17 dekemberis dadebuli Tavdausxmelobisa xelSekruleba da neitralitetis ufro metic, Sesaxeb sabWoTa

TurqeTTan.

kavSiris sagareo saqmeTa saministrom amave wlis 7 ivniss wamoWra 1921 wlis qarTuli moskovis SeTanxmebiT yarsis, TurqeTisaTvis arTvinis da

gadacemuli

teritoriebis,

artaanis ukan dabrunebisa da Savi zRvis sruteebSi sabWoTa samxedro samxedro bazebis Seqmnis sakiTxebi. sruteebSi moTxovna sabWoTa sabWoTa

bazebis

daarsebis

xelmZRvanelobam Zalian kategoriulad, TiTqmis ultimatumis formiT daayena 1946 wlis 7 agvistos notaSi [29-478]. jer brZanebiT kidev 1945 wlis bolodan sabWoTa Semzadeba aRniSnuli da mTavrobis TurqeTan sakiTxiT somxeTSi,

daiwyo

sazogadoebis

mosalodneli gansakuTrebiT

konfliqtisaTvis. dainteresdnen

saqarTvelosa

qarTuli inteligencia didi sixaruliT gamoexmaura moskovis survils samSoblosaTvis ZirZveli miwebis dabrunebis Sesaxeb. TurqeTis respublikis xelmZRvanelobisaTvis naTeli iyo, rom maTi qveyana marto ver SeZlebda sabWoTa kavSiridan

98

wamosuli agresiisagan Tavi daecva, amitom daxmareba sTxoves did britaneTsa da amerikis SeerTebul Statebs. inglisi dasustebuli TurqeTisaTvis londonma Statebis meore msoflio ris omis gamoc Semdeg man ver sakmaod SeZlo

gaxldaT, pirdapiri roli

daxmareba iTamaSa

aRmoeCina. amerikis

samagierod, SeerTebuli gawevis

aqtiuri

darwmunebaSi,

TurqeTisaTvis

daxmarebis

aucileblobaSi, radgan amerikelebs Tavdapirvelad miaCndaT, rom sabWoTa kavSirsa da sakiTxebi pirispir, TurqeTis respublikas piradi sadao erTmaneTTan molaparakebebiT

mxolod

unda gadaewyvitaT. amerikelebs, miRebisaken axalma ingliselebTan geopolitikurma erTad gadawyvetilebis ubiZga. 1945

realobam

wlidan geopolitikuri situacia msoflioSi Zalze cvalebadi da aramyari iyo. ,,didi sameulis" wevrebs erTmaneTisagan

mniSvnelovnad gansxvavebuli prioritetebi da miznebi hqondaT. amerikis SeerTebul Statebs mkafiod gamoxatuli

ekonomikuri gaTvlebi hqonda: misi mizani iyo biznesisaTvis maqsimalurad xelsayreli pirobebi Seeqmna mis teritoriasa da mTels msoflioSi, britaneTis prioritetebi politikuri xasiaTisa iyo. mas surda darCeniliyo imisa, rom erT-erT wamyvan mizniT

saxelmwifod.

miuxedavad

gadarCenis

britaneTs amerikisagan didi sesxis aReba mouxda, igi mainc rCeboda kavSiris msoflio istoriaSi udides imperiad, sabWoTa

prioriteti

dasavleT

flangis

usafrTxoebis evropaSi

uzrunvelyofaSi

mdgomareobda,

rac

aRmosavleT

buferis Seqmnas da aseve msoflioSi komunizmis gavrcelebas gulisxmobda.

99

amerikis trumens

SeerTebuli saerTaSoriso etapze

Statebis

axal

prezidents

hari

urTierTobebis etvirTa

gardamtex, zesaxelmwifos samyaros omi, ara

uprecendento meTauroba lideroba. da

mouwia

Sesabamisad

mTeli meore

dasavluri msoflio

rogorc

cnobilia,

mxolod masStabebiT aRemateboda yvela uwindels, aramed mas Tvisobrivad gansxvavebuli ganzomilebebic SemdgomSi Sedegebis drosac iCina Tavi axlda, romlebmac da saerTaSoriso

sistemaSi arsebiTi cvlilebebi moitana. Tu omiT gamowveulma saxelmwifoebrivi interesebis Tanxvedram erT banakSi moaqcia komunistur-totaluri demokratiuli britaneTis saxiT, sabWoTa kavSiri da liberalurda didi

anglo-saqsuri

samyaro,

amerikisa

faSistur

(agreTve

totalitaruli) ganadgurebis

eqspansionisturi Semdeg, sakuTari

RerZis:

berlini-romi-tokio, koaliciis samma

antihitleruli interesebis mihyo

,,mZimewonosanma" da miznebis rom

uzrunvelyofasa xeli. gamomdinare medroSe

ganxorcielebas

iqidan,

marqsistul-leninuri

moZRvrebis

sabWoTa

kavSiri,

Tavisi ,,istoriuli materializmiT", klasTa brZolis TeoriiT da ukve mopovebuli gamarjvebebis stimuliT, SeerTebuli

Statebisa da aseve, didi britaneTisTvis omis droindeli mokavSire saxelmwifo ki aRar iyo, romelTan uTierTobasac ruzvelti ase Tu ise warmatebiT arTmevda Tavs, aramed

,,kapitalisturi samyaros" ukompromiso antagonisti, romlis bunebasa da zraxvebze ki ver xirosimasa moaxdina da nagasakis atomurma da

dabombvebmac

mosalodneli

efeqti

romanuli safrangeTi, rogorc viciT, garkveul momentamde orad gaixliCeba

Tavis orientaciaSi

100

amitomac, trumeni did xans ver darCeboda ruzveltis kursis meqanikur prezidentis gamgrZeleblad. mdgomareobas SeerTebuli arTulebda Statebis isic, morigi mas

rom

saerTaSoriso politikis sibrtyeze ori giganturi figura, i. stalini da u. CerCili ,,eTamaSeboda". marTalia, es ukanaskneli male oficialurad ,,TamaSgare mdgomareobaSi" aRmoCnda,

magram didi britaneTis interesebi premieris gadarCevasTan erTad ar Secvlila gavrcelebis da erT sakiTxSi mainc, komunizmis amerikul-

Semdgomi

aRkveTis

aucileblobaSi,

britanul urTierTobas bzari ar gasCenia. piriqiT, swored premierobas Camocilebulma CerCilma Semohkra ,,civi omis"

zars fultonSi, 1946 wels, mis cnobil gamosvlaSi, romelsac Tavad ,,mSvidobis kunTebi" daarqva [27-291]. aRsaniSnavia, rom am gamosvlas amerikis prezidenti hari trumenic eswreboda. saerTaSoriso wesrigis Camoyalibeba yovelTvis rTuli da mtkivneuli procesia. XX saukunis 40-iani wlebis meore naxevrisa tranzicia da am 50-iani mxrivac miiRo wlebis dasawyisis geopolitikuri trumenma sadac

gansakuTrebuli saerTaSoriso

aRmoCnda. viTareba,

,,memkvidreobiT

sademarkacio xazebs aRmosavleTsa da dasavleTidan mosuli armiebis erTmaneTze mibjenili avanpostebi gansazRvravda" [60231]. trumenis Tavdapirveli, instiqturi swrafva iyo

SeTanxmeboda stalins. sabWoeTTan uTanxmoebas trumeni xsnida ara sapirispiro geopolitikuri interesebiT, aramed maTi

,,politikuri

umwifarobiT,

TavdaWeris

qcevis

wesebis

arasakmarisi CvevebiT", xolo rodesac cno, rom SeerTebul

tranzicia

­

gulisxmobs

,,win"

moZraobas

erTi

socialuri,

ekonomikuri

da

politikuri wyobilebidan meorisaken. politikur garemoSi tranzicia ganisazRvra, rogorc cvlileba erTi saxelmwifo wyobilebidan meorisaken.

101

Statebsa

da

sabWoTa mizezi ki

kavSirs ar

Soris

daZabuloba

raime

gaugebrobis

aris,

aramed

Tandayolili

xasiaTisaa, maSin ,,civi omis" istoriac daiwyo, sadac TurqeTis respublika udides saxelmwifoebTan erTad, TviTgadarCenis mizniT, dasavleTis banakis mxares aRmoCnda CaTreuli. 1946 wlidan amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma daiwyo

TurqeTis respublikis aSkara lobireba da naTlad agrZnobina sabWoTa dauSvebda. axlo aRmosavleTisa da xmelTaSuazRvispireTisaTvis kavSirs rom, samxreTisaken mis eqspansias ar

udidesi geopolitikuri mniSvnelobis mqone movlena gaxldaT ,,trumenis wayenebuli doqtrina". sabWoTa da kavSiris mier TurqeTisadmi komunistebis

moTxovnebisa

saberZneTSi

ajanyebis Sedegad warmoqmnili sirTuleebis gamo 1947 wlis 12 marts amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis prezidentma hari

trumenma kongresis sagangebo gaerTianebul sxdomaze gaakeTa moxseneba, romliTac is hpirdeboda srul politikur da

samxedro daxmarebas im qveynebs, romlebsac sagareo safrTxe emuqrebodaT, eqspansiis am droisaTvis winaSe ki sabWoTa aSkarad kavSiris idga mxridan TurqeTis

safrTxis

respublikas da saberZneTi. swored amitom, doqtrina xazs usvamda amerikis mier TurqeTisa da saberZneTis usafrTxoebis garantiis dacvas. trumenis doqtrinis Sesabamisad amerikam aRniSnuli qveynebisaTvis didi samxedro, ekonomikuri da

politikuri daxmarebebis gaweva daiwyo. 1949 wevrad, warmateba msoflio wels rac TurqeTis sagareo amave respublika miiRes evrosabWos didi

misi

politikisaTvis 4 aprils

uTuod moxda

gaxldaT.

wlis

udidesi (amerikis 102

politikuri

movlena,

orma

amerikulma

SeerTebuli

Statebi,

kanada)

da

aTma

evropulma

(didi

britaneTi, safrangeTi, beniluqsi, italia, dania, islandia, norvegia, portugalia.) saxelmwifom Sekra samxedro aliansi, ,,Crdilo organizacia atlantikuri kavSiri" ­ nato. aRniSnuli da

uzrunvelhyofda

koleqtiur

Tavdacvas

sagareo safrTxis SemTxvevaSi masSi gawevrianebuli qveynebis erTian brZolas samxedro mtris winaaRmdeg. iaponiis kapitulaciis Semdeg misi yofili kolonia ­ korea orad gaiyo. 1948 wels CrdiloeT gamocxadda. samxreTs ki korea ,,saxalxo

demokratiul saTaveSi

respublikad" movidnen.

xelisuflebis saprezidento

komunistebi

reJimi marTavda. 1950 wlis ivnisSi CrdiloeT koream, sabWoTa kavSiris aSkara mxardaWeriT, wamoiwyo laSqroba samxreTis winaaRmdeg, qveynis erTiani misi xelmZRvanelobisagan aRdgenis motiviT. unda gaTavisuflebisa bunebrivia, da

mTlianobis saxelmwifo

koreis rac

komunisturi

gamxdariyo,

TavisTavad dasavleTis interesebs ewinaaRmdegeboda. gaero-m CrdiloeT dakavebuli koreas saomari moqmedebebis Sewyveta da rasac

teritoriebis

gaTavisfleba

mosTxova,

agresori, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, ar daemorCila. maSin gaerom samxreT koreisaTvis daxmarebis aRmoCenis mizniT iq saerTaSoriso Zalebi gagzavna. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebisa da dasavleT evropis

mimarT Tavisi madlierebis gamosaxatavad TurqeTma aqtiuri monawileoba miiRo koreis omSi. ankaris xelmZRvanelobam, 1950 wels mejlisis Tanxmobis gareSe Tavisi samxedro danayofebi amerikelTa da maTi mokavSireebis dasaxmareblad gagzavna. Turqi samxedroebi CrdiloeT koreidan wamowyebuli agresiis

beniluqsi ­ belgia, niderlandebi, da luqsenburgi

103

winaaRmdeg

amerikelTa

gverdiT

ibrZodnen

da

didi

brZolisunarianobac gamoamJRavnes [16_364]. swored aRniSnul omSi warmatebiT CarTva gaxda sxva geopolitikur faqtori 1952 movlenebTan wels erTad, erT-erTi xelSemwyobi ris

TurqTa

natoSi

gawevrianebisa,

Sedegadac dasavluri samxedro gaerTianebis flangi uSualod sabWoTa kavSiris samxreT sazRvarTan gadaadgilda. natoSi gawevrianeba TurqeTisaTvis sagareo safrTxis acilebisa

garanti gaxda. aliansSi gawevrianebis Semdeg ankaram aqtiuri monawileoba miiRo yvela im aqciaSi, romlebic dasavleTis saxelmwifoebma axlo aRmosavleTis qveynebis winaaRmdeg

moawyves. 1956 wlis ivlisSi TurqeTma gailaSqra egviptis mier suecis arxis nacionalizaciis winaaRmdeg da mxari dauWira inglis-safrangeT-israelisa ankaram Ria Tanadgoma da egviptis oms. da 1958 wels

gamoucxada

inglissa

amerikas,

rodesac am ukanasknelebma libanisa da iordaniis winaaRmdeg intervencia moaxdines [29-492]. paralelurad mas Semdeg rac TurqeTi natos wevri gaxda SeerTebulma Statebma ankaras daxmarebis paketebi kidev ufro gauzarda. vaSingtonma axal mokavSires gaugzavna sxvadasxva samxedro da samoqalaqo

misiebi, mrCevlebi da eqspertebi, romlebic xelmZRvanelobdnen samxedro bazebis mSeneblobebsa da TurqeTis armiis

SeiaraRebas. 1959 wlis martSi ankarasa da vaSingtons Soris daido ormxrivi samxedro mTavar SeTanxmeba, romlis mizani iyo,

gadaeqcia

TurqeTi

atomur-raketul

bazad

sabWoTa

kavSiris sazRvrebTan [29-493]. swored am mizniT, aRniSnul teritoriaze ganlagda amerikuli samxedro bazebi, sadac

teqnikasTan erTad amerikelebma Seitanes birTvuli iaraRic, romelic 1963 wlamde TurqeTis teritoriaze inaxeboda. 104

rac

Seexeba

uSualod

sabWoTa

kavSiris

pretenziebs

ankaris mimarT, 1953 wels gardaicvala qveynis xelmZRvaneli ioseb besarionis Ze stalini. misi gardacvalebidan 3 TveSi axalma mTavrobam uari Tqva Tavis teritoriul pretenziebze TurqeTis mimarT, sruteebSi samxedro bazebis Seqmnisa da misi reJimis gadasinjvis moTxovnebze, riTac sabolood

dadasturda, rom TurqeTis respublikis winaaRmdeg warmoebul agresiul politikas uSualod ioseb stalini edga saTaveSi [30-72]. amrigad, Seicvala TurqeTis sagareo politikaSi sivrcis 1945-52 mimarT, wlebSi rasac

daintereseba

politikuri

mohyva misi geopolitikuri Zvra anu geopolitikuri bruni da didxniani faqtobrivi neitralitetis mkveTrad prodasavluri veqtoriT Secvla.

105

$ _ 3. islamis islamis politikuri faqtori Turqul geopolitikur strategiaSi

Tanamedrove religias TurqeTis geopolitikur roli Soris uWiravs. umTavresi koncefciaSi qveyanaSi gaxlavT

gansakuTrebuli sxva religiaTa

gavrcelebul

islami, sunituri mimdevrobiT. islami arabuli sityvaa da erTgulebas niSnavs, mas

msoflioSi daaxloebiT 1,3 miliardi mimdevari hyavs. yvela muslimi, miuxedavad misi eTnikuri da rasobrivi warmoSobisa, an moqalaqeobrivi kuTvnilebisa, maTive religiis mixedviT, Teoriulad erT Tems ekuTvnis. muslimebs sakmaod Zlieri politikuri erTianobac axasiaTebT. dReisaTvis arsebobs 1971 wels Seqmnili organizacia ,,islamuri konferencia",

romelSic iseTi sekularuli qveynebic ki Sevidnen, rogoricaa TurqeTis realurad respublika, msoflio azerbaijani da albaneTi, politikaSi magram am

saerTaSoriso

organizaciis reitingi Zalze umniSvneloa. islami msoflio religiaTa Soris yvelaze axalgazrdaa [16_183]. igi meSvide saukuneSi arabeTis naxevarkunZulze islamuri

warmoiSva,

fuZemdebelia

muhamedi,

romelic

swavlebis mixedviT RmerTis ukanaskneli winaswarmetyveli iyo. dRes islami gavrcelebulia mTels msoflioSi, kerZod axlo aRmosavleTSi, CrdiloeT afrikaSi, samxreT da samxreT-

aRmosavleT aziaSi. Tavdapirveli cnobebi muhamedis Sesaxeb eyrdnoba ibnisakis mier VIII saukuneSi daweril hagiografiul Txzulebas [16_184], romelic gaxlavT islamis fuZemdeblis biografia. nawarmoebis mixedviT, rodesac muhamedi ormoci wlis 106

Sesrulda,

mas

daewyo qadageba

xilvebi, daiwyo. misi

romelTa mowodebiT da rom erTi

ZaliTac arabebs RmerTis, wigni

erTRmerTianobis uari unda

eTqvaT

mravalRmerTianobaze islami miiCnevs,

alahis

unda

erwmunaT.

wminda

,,yurani" maradiulad arsebobda da muhameds euwya misi teqsti, romelsac igi zepirad gadascemda Tavis mimdevrebs. qalaq meqas mcxovreblebma axali religia ar miiRes da muslimTa lideri iZulebuli gaxda, sxva arabul qalaqSi medinaSi

gaqceuliyo. iq mas bevri Tanamzraxveli gamouCnda da 630 wels gamarjvebuli muhamedi meqaSi dabrunda, ris Semdegac irwmunes misi. Zalian male muhamedis garSemo Semokrebilma arabobam alahis erTgul morwmuneTa saxelmwifo Seqmna (xalifati),

romelic ramdenime aTeuli wlis Semdeg did imperiad iqca. muhamedis sikvdilis Semdeg arabTa saxelmwifos misi

Semcvlelebi, xalifebi marTavdnen [66_43]. islami religias, warmoadgens magram didma TurqeTis erovnulma respublikis krebam ZiriTad qemal

mustafa

aTaTurqis TaosnobiT, 1924 wels gaauqma saxalifo [23-21] da 1928 wels qveynis konstituiciidan amoiRo Tavi, romelic

islams gansazRvravda saxelmwifo religiad. amrigad, religiuri pirvelad Tavisuflebis me-2 muxliT muslimur qveyanaSi damkvidrda moqmedi TurqeTis

demokratiuli

principi. rom

konstituciis

gansazRvrulia,

respublika warmoadgens demokratiul, saero da socialursamarTlebliv saxelmwifos. aRniSnuli principebis gamyareba warmoadgenda qemalisturi demokratiuli reformebis Sedegs, ris Semdegac TurqeTSi nebismier an moqalaqes aTeisti. aqvs ufleba

gaaCndes

Tavisi

religia

iyos

aRniSnuli 107

principebi gamoricxavs TurqeTis respublikaSi legalurad SariaTis aRdgenas. unda aRiniSnos, rom SariaTis xelaxla damkvidrebisaken mimarTuli nebismieri mowodeba kvalificirdeba, rogorc

saero xelisuflebis Zalismieri xelyofis faqti. TurqeTis konstituciis qmedebebi, qveynisa me-14 muxlSi CamoTvlili antikonstituciuri erTianobis, TurqeTis

romlebic da eris

mimarTulia

saxelmwifos uqmnis

winaaRmdeg,

safrTxes

saxelmwifoebriobas da respublikas, aseve ZiriTad uflebebsa da Tavisuflebebs [130]. zemoT aRniSnuli qmedebebi moicavs xalxis dayofas enis, rasis, religiisa da aRmsareblobis

niSnis mixedviT. aseve iseTi saxelmwifo wyobilebis Seqmnas, romelic efuZneba aRniSnul koncefciebs da Sexedulebebs. TurqeTis kanonmdebloba ar Semoifargleboda mxolod konstituciuri CarCoebiT da didi xnis ganmavlobaSi

moqmedebda sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 163-e muxli, romelic iTvaliswinebda morwmunis Tavisuflebis aRkveTas xangrZlivi vadiT,

religiuri

grZnobebis

eqspluataciisaTvis,

religiis gamoyenebisaTvis romelime piris an organizaciis mier politikuri Tu piradi miznebisaTvis. miuxedavad aseTi mkacri kanonebisa, islams mainc myari safuZveli aqvs, respublikuri TurqeTis politikur istoriaSi. qveyanaSi aTaTurqis mier Catarebuli reformebis Semdeg, 50iani wlebidan religiuri potencialis gamoRviZeba kvlav

daiwyo, rac mniSvnelovan politikur faqtorSi gadaizarda. gaZlierdnen proislamisturi partiebi. 1960 wlis maisSi

SariaTi (arab.) - muslimTa samarTali, religiuri da iuridiuli normebis

krebuli, romelic dafuZnebulia yuranze

108

samxedroebis mier mowyobili amboxebisa da adnan menderesis xelisuflebis partiebis damxobis Semdeg, romlebic TurqeTSi aikrZala iseTi

dafuZneba,

religiur

moZRvrebebs

eyrdnoboda da gamodioda saxalifos aRdgenisaTvis, magram miuxedavad am akrZalvisa, TurqeTSi religiuri programebis mqone politikuri partiebi realobad iqca. am hqonda mimarTulebiT 1967 wels, erT-erT pirvel mcdelobas adgili iqna

rodesac

Camoyalibebul

,,ganTavisuflebis partia." misma erT-erTma damfuZnebelma e. ozkanma ganacxada: ,,Cveni mizania, Seiqmnas saxelmwifo,

romelic daeyrdnoba islamis koncefciebs. dRemde arsebuli kapitalisturi reJimebi gamoicada, Tumca am reJimebma vercerT saxelmwifoSi ver moipova stabiluroba. Cven miviswrafiT

imisken, rom SevqmnaT osmalTa imperiis msgavsi saxelmwifo" [184]. aRniSnuli partiis wevrebma gaavrceles TurqeTis

konstituciis proeqti, romlis mixedviTac, SemoTavazebuli iyo qveyanaSi Teokratiuli reJimis damyareba. es mcdeloba warumatebeli aRmoCnda mmarTveli partiis (,,xsnis partia") sastiki winaaRmdegobis gamo. 1970 partia wlidan TurqeTSi gamoCnda axali proislamuri partia". misi

saxelwodebiT: gaxldaT

,,erovnuli nejmeTin

wesrigis erbaqani

xelmZRvaneli moiTxovda

[29-529],

romelic swavlebis

qveyanaSi

religiisa

da

religiuri

Tavisuflebas, islamis moraluri faseulobebis win wamowevas sazogadoebaSi dasavluri kulturis sapirispirod da

Telulokratia ­ saxelmwifos mmarTvelobis forma, romlis dros umaRlesi

xelisufleba aris samRvdeloeba, an iTvleba RmerTis mier legitimirebulad an xeldasmulad, mixedviT. xolo mmarTveloba xorcieldeba religiuri principebis

109

politikuri

kursis

prioritetad

muslimur

qveynebTan

urTierTobis gamocxadebas. 1971 wlis maisSi, qemaliseuli Rirebulebebis uaryofisa da laicizmis principis sasamarTlos aikrZala, darRvevis gamo, umaRlesi ,,erovnuli wels man

sakonstitucio wesrigis

gadawyvetilebiT magram maleve 1972

partia"

ganaaxla Tavisi moRvaweoba amjerad ,,erovnuli xsnis partiis" saxelwodebiT saqmianobis [185]. proislamuri aqtiurad partia politikuri ucxouri

dawyebisTanave

gamovida

Zalmomreobis winaaRmdeg. man mokle droSi moaxerxa, sakmaod gaefarTovebina gavlena da 1973 wlis Semodgomaze, qveynis religiur wreebze dayrdnobiT, warmatebiT mieRo monawileoba saparlamento arCevnebSi. ,,erovnuli faseulobebs wesrigis partia" da dasavleTs islamis

upirispirebda

qveyanas

reislamizaciisaken

mouwodebda, rasac Sedegad 1980 wlis 12 seqtembris samxedro gadatrialeba da represiebi mohyva. amboxebulebma daiTxoves mTavroba da parlamenti, ris Semdegac xelisufleba gadavida erovnuli uSiSroebis sabWos xelSi, romelic Tavad

samxedroebma Camoayalibes. maTive xelmZRvanelobiT SemuSavda axali konstitucia, romelic 1982 wels sayovelTao

referendumis safuZvelze miiRes. masSi xazgasmiT aRiniSna, politikaSi religiis Carevis akrZalvis Taobaze [3]. 90-iani wlebidan TurqeTSi kvlav izrdeba islamisturi organizaciebis ricxvi, radgan 1991 wels gauqmda sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis 163 muxli [29-532]. amasTanave islamistebis popularobas xels uwyobda qveyanaSi arsebuli mwvave

socialur-ekonomikuri krizisi, umuSavrobis zrda, inflaciis maRali done da sxv. aRsaniSnavia is garemoebac, rom 110

qemalistebi mxilebuli iyvnen korufciaSi da garkveulwilad amiTac iyo ganpirobebuli maTi opoziciis reitingis zrda. 1995 morigi wlis dekemberSi TurqeTis respublikaSi Catarda partiam" 1996 wels

arCevnebi, yvelaze partiis

romelSic meti

,,keTildReobis moagrova.

parlamentSi aRniSnuli

adgili n.

lideri

erbaqani

dainiSna

premier-

ministrad. man Tanamdeobis dakavebisTanave partiasTan erTad daiwyo aqtiuri mowodebebi: da evrokavSirSi ,,demokratiuli [29-533]. ,,WeSmarit sagareo aRniSnul islamur

demokratiaze" politikis" moTxovnebSi

gadasvlisa

gatarebis pirvel

aucileblobaze rigSi

igulisxmeboda

saxelmwifoebTan daaxloeba, rwmenis Tavisuflebis aRiareba, skolebSi da saxelmwifo dReSi dawesebulebebSi locva, Cadris tarebis skolebis

Tavisufleba,

xuTjer

religiuri

Tavisufali saqmianoba, locvaSi arabuli enis gamoyeneba da sxva [29-533]. igi aseve Tamamad da Riad akritikebda TurqeTis swrafvas evrokavSirSi SesvlasTan dakavSirebiT. xelusuflebis saTaveSi TeqvsmetTviani yofnis manZilze ,,keTildReobis partiam" SeZlo islamistebis moyvana yvela ZiriTad postze. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom maTi xelSewyobiT 1997 wels Seiqmna ,,muslimanuri irani, rviani", romelSic Sevidnen indonezia,

TurqeTi,

egvipte,

pakistani,

bangladeSi,

malaizia da nigeria. islamizaciis danaxvis Semdeg samxedro elita. winaSe samoqalaqo Zalebis umweobis

qveynis politikur cxovrebaSi kvlav Caeria maT mTavrobas SesTavazes antiislamuri

RonisZiebebis sia, romelic Tvrameti punqtisagan Sedgeboda. aqedan ZiriTadi uflebebi exeboda islamuri politikuri

partiebis SezRudvas, yuranis Semswavleli kursebis daxurvas 111

da sxv. swored amis Sedegi gaxldaT n. erbaqanis partiis akZalva qveynis sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mier. Tumca

maleve misma yofilma wevrebma Seqmnes ,,saTnoebis partia", romelic aikrZala imave sakonstitucio sasamarTlos mier 2001 wels ,,islamizaciis mcdelobis" gamo [12-1289]. amave 2001 wlis zafxulis dasasruls, partiis zomieri frTis momxreebma partia", Seqmnes axali ,,samarTlianobisa xalxSi da

ganviTarebis

romelsac

meTaurobda

metad

popularuli stambolis yofili meri rejef Taif erdoRani (1994-1998ww.). wina proislamisturi partiebisagan gansxvavebiT aRniSnuli partia proevropuli orientaciis gaxldaT. 2002 politikuri wlis saparlamento arCevnebSi, TurqeTSi

eqspertebis da

umravlesoba

winaswarmetyvelebda gamarjvebas,

,,samarTlianobisa

ganviTarebis

partiis"

magram aravin eloda, rom es gamarjveba amdenad STambeWdavi iqneboda. rom wina arCevnebis Sedegebma yuradReba imiT miiqcia, vercerTma

xelisuflebaSi

myofi

partiebidan

ver gaimarjva, rac iseTma faqtorebma ganapiroba, rogoric aris ekonomikuri krizi, umuSevrobis zrda, sagareo valebis dagroveba, samTavrobo wreebSi arsebuli korufcia da a.S. xelisuflebaSi damaxasiaTebeli mosuli axali da ZalebisaTvis dasavleTTan

gaxldaT

liberalizmi

daaxloebis tendencia. gamarjvebuli partiis liderma siebSi ar

Seiyvana

radikali

kandidatebi

da

arCevnebis

Semdeg

rejef Taif eRdoRani ­ (2003 wlidan dRemde TurqeTis respublikis premier-

ministri) daibada q. stanbolSi, 1954 wlis 26 Tebervals, igi gaxlavT qarTveli emigrantebis STamomavali, misi winaprebi gadasaxlebuli arian q. baTumidan q. rizeSi. erdoRanma adreuli bavSvoba gaatara rizeSi da 13 wlis asakSi

dabrunda stanbolSi.

112

ganacxada, rom misi politika ar efuZneba religias da qveynis sagareo miiCnevs. r. edoRanis damsaxurebaa aseve is faqti, rom qveyanaSi amoqmedda 1982 wlis konstituciis is debuleba, romelSic saubari gaxlavT religiis politikuri da piradi prioritetad kvlav evrokavSirSi gawevrianebas

miznebisaTvis gamoyenebis akrZalvaze, ris Semdegac TurqeTis respublikaSi kvlav aikrZala moqmedi radikali islamisturi partiebi. aRniSnuli politikiT r. erdoRanma da misma

Tanamoazreebma SeZles da zomierebiT daaregulires islamis momxreebsa da nacionalistebs Soris urTierToba. amrigad, rogorc TurqeTis axalgazrda respublikis

uaxlesi istoriidan Cans, miuxedavad sekularuli mowyobisa, saxelmwifoSi radikali islamistebi yovelTvis cdilobdnen qveynis reislamizacias. aRsaniSnavia, rom Turqul

saxelmwifos radikalebisagan SeiZleba momavalSic Seeqmnas igive problemebi. aris magaliTad dRes, aRniSnuli qveynis sakiTxi

sasicocxlod integraciasTan,

dakavSirebuli Tu ankara

evrokavSirSi sabolood

radgan

evropelebma

uariT gamoistumres, maSin igi iZulebuli gaxdeba, Tavadac uari Tqvas prodasavlur politikaze da axali ekonomikuri da politikuri mokavSireebi eZebos. yovelive amis Semdeg, savaraudod, mosaxleobaSi kvlav gaZlierdeba SeizRudeba fundamentalisturi demokratiuli ideebis gavrceleba da

institutebi.

Sedegad

TurqeTis

respublika an samoqalaqo dapirispirebamde miva, an iranis msgavsad, islamuri fundamentalizmis mimdevari gaxdeba, rac kidev erT ,,cxel wertils" da Tavsatexs gauCens rogorc regions, ise mTels msoflios. 113

Tavi IV

114

TurqeTis respublikis geopolitika 90-iani wlebis Semdeg. $ _ 1. xmelTaSuazRvispiruli geopolitika.

sayovelTaod istoriis

cnobilia,

rom

TiTqmis

kacobriobis regioni

dasabamidan

xmelTaSuazRvis

aRmosavleT

yovelTvis warmoadgens cxeli wertilebisa da konfliqtebis keras. es tradicia gagrZelda Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso

urTierTobebSic, risi erT-erTi naTeli magaliTia kviprosis saxelmwifos sakiTxi, romelic meoce saukunis meore naxevarSi ganviTarda. kviprosi gaxlavT kunZulovani qveyana, igi mdebareobs xmelTaSuazRvaSi, saxelwodeba ,,kuprum", misi farTobi spilenZis uxsovari Seadgens laTinuri droidan 9.251 km-s.

momdinareobs es

saxelidan spilenZis

radgan

qveyana

sabadoebiTaa cnobili. dReisaTvis teritoriis 63% kunZuli ukavia orad kviprosis aris gayofili. misi

berZnul

saxelmwifos,

romlsac marTavs prezidenti da oTxmoci kacisagan Semdgari erTpalatiani parlamenti. qveynis moqmedi xelmZRvaneli

gaxlavT tasos papandopulosi, kunZulis danarCeni teritoria, 37% ukavia kviprosis Turqul respublikas, romelsac marTavs aseve prezidenti da ormocdaaTi kacisagan Semdgari

erTpalatiani enciklopediis

parlamenti. versiis

vikipedias 2005 wlis

eleqtronuli monacemebiT,

Tanaxmad,

kunZulis mosaxleoba Seadgens 780 000 adamians, amaTgan 85 procenti danarCeni erovnebiT 3 berZenia, 12 procenti Turqi, xolo

procenti

sxvadasxva

eTnikuri

jgufebis

warmomadgenlebi arian [24-17]. 115

Suaze gaxleCil kunZulze sasaubrod miRebulia ori ena: berZnuli da Turquli. kunZul kviprosis msgavsad, qveynis dedaqalaqi niqoziac gayofilia or nawilad, romlis

CrdiloeTi mxare TurqeTuli nawilis dedaqalaqia, danarCeni nawili ki berZnuli mxaris mflobelobaSia da maTTvisac

dedaqalaqis funqcias asrulebs. kunZuli kviprosi 1878 wlidan didi britaneTis kolonia iyo. inglisis mmarTvelobis periodSi aRniSnul teritoriaze yovelTvis arsebobda eTnokofliqtebi, berZnebsa da Turqebs Soris. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom berZnuli Temi damoukideblobis mopovebis britaneTis awarmoebda. meore msoflio omis dasrulebis Semdeg, miuxedavad imisa, rom brZolisagan dasustebulma inglisma SeZlo darCeniliyo msoflioSi veRar erT-erT mniSvnelovan da misma saxelmwifod, koloniebi mizniT eTno dapirispirebasTan erTad didi

winaaRmdegac

antikolonialistur

brZolas

SeinarCuna

dakavebulma

saxelmwifoebma

TandaTan damoukidebloba moipoves. kviprosis did interess sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT TurqeTis saberZneTTan respublika, erTad rac

gamoxatavda

sabolood gaxda kidec sababi xmelTaSuazRvis am ori didi saxelmwifosa da istoriuli mtrebis kvlav dapirispirebisa. 1959 wels TebervalSi ciurixsa da londonSi gaformda xelSekrulebebi, damoukideblad romelTa arsebobis ZaliTac ufleba, kviprosma ris moipova

garantadac

gamodiodnen didi britaneTi, saberZneTi da TurqeTi. damoukideblobisadmi miZRvnil oficialur ceremoniaze ukanasknelma Zalaufleba britanelma axlad mmarTvelma huji futma gadasca

Seqmnili

respublikis

arqiepiskoposs 116

makarios III, romelic amave wels arCeuli iqna axlad Seqmnili respublikis prezidentad. ciurix-londonis SeTanxmebisa da kviprosis respublikis konstituciis safuZvelze daarsda ori ­ berZnuli da

Turquli TemTa palata. palatebSi wyvetdnen am or TemTan dakavSirebul saganmanaTleblo kanonmdeblobis arCevnebi, 7 yvela kulturul, 31 religiur ivliss, pirveli Tu

sakiTxebs. safuZvelze

koloniuri saparlamento arCevnebi.

Catarda ki TemTa

agvistos

palatis

warmomadgenelTa saerTo raodenoba Seadgenda ormocdaaTs, aqedan samocdaaTi procenti (35 wevri) berZnuli Temis mier iyo arCeuli, ocdaaTi procenti (15 wevri) ki Turqebma airCies [81-52]. 1960 wels axlad Seqmnili saxelmwifo saerTaSoriso erebis

sazogadoebis organizaciis qveyanaSi

ZalisxmeviT wevri. es da

gaxda

gaerTianebuli unda

faqti

TiTqosda

yofiliyo magram,

mSvidobisa

stabilurobis mopovebis movlenebma

garanti, Semdeg da

samwuxarod, respublikaSi

damoukideblobis ganviTarebulma

kviprosis

politikurma

ambebma, Tavis mxriv, qveyanaSi mimdinare procesebSi mTeli rigi cvlilebebi gamoiwvies, ramac kidev ufro gaaZliera saberZneTsa da TurqeTs Soris dapirispireba da kunZulze mosaxle Turqul da berZnul Temebs Soris eTnikuri

uTanxmoeba. yovelive amas piradi interesebisaTvis, farulad Tu aSkarad xels uwyobdnen mezobeli saxelmwifoebis

specialuri organoebis TanamSromlebi. amasTanave berZnuli

117

mosaxleobis umravlesoba momxre iyo kviprosis enosisisa [80172]. sabolood am dapirispirebam mxareebi miiyvana 1964 wlis krizisamde. amave wlis 4 marts gaeros uSiSroebis sabWom miiRo rezolucia, romelic da mouwodebda dapirispirebul mSvidobis

mxareebs

TavSekavebisa

wesrigisaken.

dasamyareblad kviprosze gaigzavna gaeros jarebi, romlebic situaciis gasaneitraleblad dRemde iq rCebian. aRniSnuli konfliqti did problemas uqmnida Crdilo atlantikur alianssac [47-59], radgan, rogorc zemoT

aRvniSneT, es ar gaxldaT mxolod TemTa dapirispireba, masSi ukve erTmaneTis winaaRmdeg gamodiodnen saberZneTi da

TurqeTi, romlebic orive natos wevri qveynebi iyvnen da maTi dapirispireba aucileblad Sida areulobas gamoiwvevda

dasavlur samxedro aliansSi. situacia kunZulze kidev ufro daiZaba 1967 wlis aprilis Semdeg, radgan am dros saberZneTSi moxda areuloba,

gadatrialebis safuZvelze xelisuflebaSi movida samxedro xunta. aRniSnuli revolucia istoriaSi ,,Savi polkovnikebis" diqtaturiT aris cnobili [94-89]. maTi zewoliT kviprosze gvardiis mas meTaurad dainiSna mieca generali davaleba grivasi. saswrafod da

xelmZRvanelobidan kunZuli

gaeTavisuflebina

Turquli

elementebisagan

daewyo zrunva kviprosis saberZneTTan SeerTebisaTvis [94-89]. 1967 wlis noemberSi general grivasis xelSewyobiT

kunZulze moxda sisxliani Setakebebi, ris gamoc TurqeTis

enosisisi ­ ase uwodebdnen berZnebi da kunZul kviprosis berZnuli Temis

warmomadgenlebi maTi saxelmwifos saberZneTTan gaerTianebas.

118

respublikis meamboxe

xelmZRvanelobam, da misi

ultimatumis sabrZolo berZnebi

saxiT

aTens ukan

ganerlisa gawveva

diviziebis

saberZneTSi daTmobebze

mosTxova.

iZulebuli

gaxdnen

wasuliyvnen,

maT

gamoacxades amasTanave

mzadyofna rom

molaparakebebis

dawyebisaTvis,

ganacxades,

mzad iyvnen Setakebebis dros Turquli soflebisaTvis maT mier miyenebuli zarali aenazRaurebinaT. TemTaSoris dawyebuli molaparakebebi didxans ar

gagrZelebula. 70-iani wlebisaTvis kvlav wamoiwia kunZulis saberZneTTan SeerTebis sakiTxma, ramac, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, Turquli mxaris ukmayofileba gamoiwvia. 1974 wlis 15 ivliss erovnulma gvardiam kviprosSi

amboxeba daiwyo. maTi mTavari mizani gaxldaT mTeli kunZulis saberZneTis saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi maT SeZles Seyvana. da ,,Sav

polkovnikebTan"

SeTanxmebiT,

gadaayenes

kviprosis respublikis kanonieri prezidenti, arqiepiskoposi makariosi, ris Semdegac, aqtiurad Seudgnen mTeli kviprosis saberZneTTan enosisisaTvis mzadebas. progresuli xelisuflebis damxobis Semdeg reaqciulma Zalebma qveynis prezidentad gamoacxades nikolas sampsoni, romelmac movaleobis Sesrulebis SedgomisTanave, kviprosis damoukideblobisaTvis mebrZoli berZnebis winaaRmdeg mkacri angariSsworeba daiwyo. paralelurad TurqTa masobrivi

ganadgureba mimdinareobda. rasakvirvelia, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, amas ar

dauSvebda TurqeTis respublikis xelmZRvaneloba da maleve, ukve 1974 wlis 20 ivliss, mizniT Turqi mosaxleobis CrdiloeT berZnuli nawilSi

agresiidan

Tavdacvis

kunZulis

119

gadasxa

desanti

[24_40],

romelic

40

aTasi

jariskacisagan

Sedgeboda. TurqeTis mier kviprosis teritoriaze jarebis Seyvana saerTaSoriso sazogadoebam intervenciad Seafasa. amave dRes gaeros uSiSroebis saomari sabWom miiRo rezolucia, dauyonebliv romelic Sewyvetas,

moiTxovda

moqmedebebis

kviprosidan gareSe Zalebis, anu Turqi samxedroebis gayvanasa da konstituciuri mTavrobis dauyonebliv aRdgenas. ukve 22 ivliss uSualod saerTaSoriso TurqeTma sazogadoebis da saberZneTma zewolis moaweres Sedegad, xeli

xelSekrulebas, sabrZolo moqmedebebis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb. 24 ivliss nikolas adgilobrivi sampsoni mosaxleobis gaxda ukmayofilebis prezidentobaze gamo, uari

iZulebuli

ganecxadebina da nebayoflobiT gadamdgariyo. prezidentobis movaleobis Semsruleblad mis magivrad dainiSna kliridisi. 1974 wlis ivlisis bolos kviprosis sakiTxTan

dakavSirebiT daiwyo molaparakeba did britaneTs, saberZneTsa da TurqeTs Soris. molaparakebas awarmoebdnen aRniSnuli

qveynebis sagareo saqmeTa ministrebi. miuxedavad ingliselTa didi mondomebis, iseTkompromiss mainc ver miaRwies, rom konfliqtis orive mxare kmayofili darCeniliyo, ris gamoc molaparakebebi uSedegod dasrulda. 1974 wlis ris 37 Semdeg 16 agvistos TurqeTma daikava da ganaaxla gamagrda nawilis sabrZolo kunZulis sruli

moqmedebebi, teritoriis okupaciis

Sedegadac procentze. TurqTa

CrdiloeT jarebma

daiwyes ayra da

dakavebuli gaZeveba, ris

teritoriebidan

beZeni

mosaxleobis

gamoc berZnulma mxarem miiRo 200 aTasamde

ltolvili, Tavis

120

mxriv

samxreTidanac

saberZneTis

mier

gamoZevebul

iqnen

Turqebi, daaxloebiT 40 aTasi adamiani. TurqeTis respublikas enosisis ideis msgavsad

Cafirebuli hqonda kunZulis okupirebuli teritoriis mis mflobelobaSi Seyvana, magram politikuri viTarebis Sedegad, naTlad gamoCnda, rom am ideas ukve arafriT ar dauSvebda rogorc amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi, ise mTeli msoflios saerTaSoriso sazogadoeba [82-189]. TurqeTi iZulebuli gaxda ukan daexia da kviprosis CrdiloeT nawilis SeerTebis

magivrad, misi federalurad mowyoba moiTxova. 1975 wlis 13 Tebervals Turquli Temis xelmZRvanelobam, maT mier kontrolirebad teritoriaze Seqmnes gancalkevebuli saxelmwifo warmonaqmni ,,kviprosis Turquli federaciuli

saxelmwifo", romlis prezidentadac dainiSna rauf denqTaSi. kunZul kviprosTan erTad gayofili iqna misi dadaqalaqi

niqoziac, im nawils romelic Turqebis mxares darCa, ewoda Turquli saxeli ,,lefkoSa" (Lefkoa). axlad sazogadoebam Seqmnili ar cno. federaciuli ufro metic, saxelmwifo gaero msoflio masze

daiwyo

sanqciebis daweseba. TurqeTis respublika mouwodebda gaeros, ar Careuliyo TemTa Soris molaparakebebSi, magram uSedegod. ukve 1983 wlis 15 noembers kunZulis Turquli Temis xelmZRvanelobam TurqeTis respublikis mmarTvelTa karnaxiTa da mxardaWeriT gamoacxada ,,CrdiloeT kviprosis Turquli respublika", romlis prezidentadac rauf denqTaSi darCa [79103]. amis Semdeg ankaram daiwyo zrunva imisaTvis, rom axlad Seqmnili saxelmwifo msoflios eRiarebina, magram uSedegod, igi dRemde mxolod ankaris mier aris aRiarebuli. amasTanave TurqTa maSindelma mmarTvelobam teritoriis kargad 121

aTvisebisaTvis

gaatara

mizanmimarTuli

demografiuli

politika, 100 aTasze meti moqalaqe Caasaxla kunZulze da daakavebina maT berZnebis mier iZulebiT datovebuli saxlebi. amis Sedegad kviprosze eTnikuri Turqebis raodenoba orjer da metad gaizarda. politikam rogorc kidev mosalodneli ufro iyo, aseTma

agresiulma

gaamruda

viTarebis

gamosworebis gza. saberZneTisa da berZnuli mxaris kviprosis daJinebuli moTxovnis Sedegad, kviprosis Turquli respublikis

winaaRmdeg evrokavSirma ekonomikuri embargo SemoiRo, rac am ukanasknelisaTvis Zalian mZime dartyma gamodga. 90-iani wlebis dasawyisSi saberZneTma moiTxova kunZulis samxreT nawilis evrogaerTianebaSi gawevrianeba, rac kidev erTxel gaxda sababi, im periodSi berZnul-Turquli

urTierTobebis daZabvisa. Tanamedrove etapze TurqeTis urTierTobebi saberZneTTan da kviprosis problemis daregulireba evrokavSiris WrilSi ganixileba. rogorc cnobilia, or qveyanas Suaze Soris gaxleCil

urTierTobebSi

arsebul

uTanxmoebas

kviprosis problemasTan erTad, safuZvlad udevs berZnuli kunZulebis pretenziebi statusis sakiTxis dauregulirebloba, Selfze, egeosis mxareTa zRvis

kontinentalur

akvatoriasa da sahaero sivrceze. me-20 saukunis 90-iani wlebis Semdeg, TurqeTis

respublikaSi arsebuli mTavrobebi sagareo urTierTobebSi Tavidanve prioritets aniWebdnen evrokavSirSi gawevrianebas, maT surT, gaxdnen evrogaerTianebis aziuri gagrZeleba,

risTvisac mzad arian evrokavSiris moTxovnebis Sesabamisad saxelmwifoSi reformebi gaataron [100-69]. TurqeTis 122

mmarTvelobisaTvis warmatebas moutans

kargad

aris

cnobili ekonomikas

Tu

rogor

Turqul

evrokavSiris

gaerTianebaSi Sesvla. Tumca jerjerobiT qveynebs misi TurqTa respublikis aRniSnuli rCeba. miswrafeba evropul

ganuxorcielebel evrokavSirSi

mcdelobad miRebis

mimarT

ukanasknel

periodamde gaaCndaT da gaaCniaT seriozuli problemebi, rac gamoixateba Semdeg faqtebSi: TurqeTis mosaxleoba Seadgens 70 milionamde mcxovrebs da hyavs mravalricxovani SeiaraRebuli Zalebi, amasTanave unda aRiniSnos, rom Turquli mosaxleoba mzardi dinamikiT gamoirCeva, germaniis axdenen rac da evrokavSirSi safrangeTis Sesvlis msgavsad,

SemTxvevaSi, romlebic ganxilvebis

TurqeTs dRemde

zegavlenas da iwveven

mniSvnelovani ganxeTqilebas struqturebSi,

msvlelobisas

evrogaerTianebis

biurokratiul

gadawyvetilebebis miRebis dros mniSvnelovani sityvis Tqmis saSualebas miscems; adamianis uflebebs oficialuri ankara aRiarebs mxolod misTvis xelsayrel xarisxSi, rac ar

akmayofilebs gamomdinareobs aRmosavleTSi politikis

evrokavSirs. araeTgvarovani mcxovrebi

aRniSnulidan damokidebuleba sakiTxTan; SeiaraRebuli

pirdapir qveynis qveynis Zalebis aris

qurTebis

erT-erTi evropis

warmmarTveli, mimarT

generaliteti

sakmaod

negatiurad

ganwyobili; saxelmwifo wyobis evropuli modelis da mzardi ekonomikis miuxedavad, islamuri tradiciebis gamo TurqeTi aRmosavleTs organizaciebi miekuTvneba, daufaravad rasac evropuli da saerTaSoriso evropis

acxadeben

TurqeTs

nawilad ver moiazreben. TurqeTis evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis pretenzia amerikuli lobis saSualebiT SeiZleba 123

ganxorcielebuliyo, Tumca antiamerikulad ganwyobili evropa yvela saSualebiT cdilobs, ar miiaxlovos TurqeTi. miuxedavad sakiTxTan poziciam amisa ukanasknel evropis periodSi aRniSnul

dakavSirebiT TiTqosda

wamyvani

saxelmwifoebis maT mier

mkveTri

cvlileba aSkarad

ganicada.

gakeTebuli Tavadac

gancxadebebidan mowadinebuli

gamoCnda,

rom

evropa ojaxSi

iyo

TurqeTis

Tavis

miRebisaTvis. rac gamoixateboda imaSi, rom evrostruqturebi dadebiTad afasebdnen qveynis sagareo da saSinao politikaSi mimdinare reformebs maqsimalur da akeTebdnen gancxadebebs miznis

TurqeTisaTvis miRwevaSi. marTlac

mxardaWeraze

dasaxuli

aRniSnuli

saxelmwifos

evrokavSirSi

gawevrianeba warmoadgens regionis axlidan mowyobis ZiriTad faqtors, rac mniSvnelovania kontinentis am nawilSi

stabilurobis SenarCunebisaTvis. dasaxelebuli problemebi ase Tu ise mogvarebadia, magram orive mxarisaTvis rCeba erTi mniSvnelovani winaaRmdegoba kunZuli kviprosi. kviprosis sakiTxis droulad gadaWra

pirdapir kavSirSia TurqeTis evrokavSirSi integraciasTan. TurqTis mxridan am problemis mogvarebis mcdelobad SeiZleba CaiTvalos is faqti, rom CrdiloeT kviprosis

Turquli respublikis prezidentma rauf denqTaSma, kviprosis respublikis prezidentTan tasos papandopulosTan erTad

miaRwia mniSvnelovan SeTanxmebas, romlis Tanaxmadac mxareebi mzad iyvnen jer kidev 2004 wlisaTvis gaemarTaT mniSnelovani molaparakebebi da mieRoT imJamindeli gaero-s generaluri mdivnis kofi ananis mier 2003 wels momzadebuli misive gegma, TqmiT, 124

kviprosis

gaerTianebis

Sesaxeb,

romelic,

saSualebas

miscemda

orive

mxares,

misi

ganxorcielebis

SemTxvevaSi, mogebuli darCeniliyo [179]. mas Semdeg, rac kviprosi evrokavSiris wevrobis kandidati gaxda, dRis wesrigSi dadga Seqmniliyo pirobebi qristiani da muslimi mosaxleobis Tanacxovrebis uzrunvelsayofad. kofi ananis gegmis mixedviT, saxelmwifos mowyobisa da qveynis

simboloebis Seqmna nawilobriv gadaWrili iyo. gaerTianebuli qveynis axal droSaze lurji feri saberZneTis

warmomadgenlobis simbolo gaxdeboda, wiTeli _ TurqeTis, SuaSi moqceuli spilenZisferi ki gaerTianebul kvipross

gamoxatavda. uprecedento suraTi iqmneboda im mxriv, rom muslimebs dasveneba qristianul dResaswaulebze mouwevdaT, xolo

qristianebs _ muslimur uqme dReebze. amave kofi ananis gegmiT, gaerTianebuli kviprosi evrokavSirSi warsdgeboda ori

lideriT. qveynis marTva unda ganexorcielebina prezidents da premier-ministrs, romelTagan erTi berZeni iqneboda, meore ki Turqi. maTi postze monacvleoba ki yovel oc TveSi

ganxorcieldeboda. gaeros winandeli dokumentebisagan gansxvavebiT

aRniSnuli gegmiT regionSi mxolod im raodenobis berZeni unda dabrunebuliyo, rac Turqi mosaxleobis mxolod Tvramet procents Seadgenda, gansxvavebiT manamde dafiqsirebuli

ocdaerTi procentisa. Turqul sajariso nawilebs saSualeba eZleodaT, samudamod darCeniliyvnen kviprosis teritoriaze sademarkacio xazis gaswvriv, magram evrokavSirSi

gawevrianebis Semdeg, maTi raodenoba 40 aTasidan 6500mde unda Semcirebuliyo. berZnul-Turquli Sereuli mmarTveloba da

125

gardamavali

periodi

gaeros

gaangariSebiT

eqvs

weliwads

gagrZeldeboda [182]. gaero-s generaluri mdivnis kofi ananis gegmis ZiriTadi principebi gaxldaT Seqmniliyo: ori Tanabaruflebiani

subieqtis ,,ganuyofeli" kavSiriT saerTo saxelmwifo; saerTo moqalaqeoba; ori mxaris mosaxleobis proporciulad arCeuli eqvswevriani rotaciis manZilze; wevriT; mmarTveli sabWo, Tavjdomareobis mTavroba TiToeul ufleba aTTviani wlis 48

safuZvelze; orpalatiani saberZneTsa

gardamavali parlamenti, da

sami

palataSi

TurqeTs

eZleodaT

SeenarCunebinaT kunZulze 6000 kaciani samxedro kontinenti kofi ananis gegmiT ZiriTadad ukmayofilo berZnuli

mxare aRmoCnda. maT miaCndaT, rom generaluri mdivani aSkarad Turqebs lobirebda. berZnebi Tvlidnen, unda rom 1974 gegmiT wlis yvela maTi

aucileblad Turquli ltolvilis azriT, aseve

gaTvaliswinebuli intervenciis saxlSi yovlad

yofiliyo

Sedegad da

dazaralebuli maTi iyo kompensireba. Turquli

dabruneba

dauSvebeli

samxedro

kontigentis ganusazRvreli droiT kunZulze darCena. 2004 wlis aprilSi, kunZul kviprosis orive nawilSi, gaeros generaluri mdivnis gegmis Tanaxmad, Catarda

referendumi mis gaerTianebasTan dakavSirebiT. Turqul mxareSi gaerTianebis survili gamoTqva

mosaxleobis 64,90 procentma, xolo berZnul mxareSi Tanxmoba ganacxada mosaxleobis mxolod 24,17 procentma, rac

adasturebs imas, rom berZnuli mxare bolomde ukmayofilo gaxldaT gegmisa. evropelebis mier SemoTavazebuli samSvidobo

126

gaeros kviprosis

generaluri berZnuli mxare

mdivnis

gegmis

CaSlis

Semdeg,

evropuli

qveynebis

daxmarebis

Sedegad gaxda evrokavSiris wevri, rac TurqeTis mxarisaTvis kidev ufro gamaRizianebeli aRmoCnda, radgan, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, evropuli ojaxis wevroba, TurqeTis sagareo

politikis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani prioritetia, aRniSnulis misaRwevad ki isini ukve aTeuli wlebia iswrafian, magram

samwuxarod, dRemde Sedegs ver miRwies. berZnuli nawilis evropasTan gaerTianebis Sedegad misi ekonomika da mosaxleobis socialuri mdgomareoba kidev ufro gaumjobesda. gayofili kunZulis mxareebi, dReisaTvis TiTqmis iseve gansxvavdebian erTmaneTisagan, da rogorc Tavis droze

germaniis

demokratiuli

federaciuli

respublikebi

gansxvavdebodnen [183]. unda aRiniSnos, rom ukanasknel periodSi TurqeTisa da saberZneTis xelmZRvaneloba, samxedro sakiTxebis gadawyvetis saqmeSi, garkveulwilad cdilobda mxareTa poziciebis

gaTvaliswinebas. aRniSnulze metyvelebs is faqtic, rom 1997 wlidan periodulad xdeba TurqeTis samxedro-sahaero da

samxedro-sazRvao Zalebis mier egeosis zRvasa da kviprosis kunZulebTan dagegmili wvrTnebis gadadeba [134]. am

TvalsazrisiT aRsaniSnavia 2003 wlis oqtomberSi, TurqeTis q. antaliaSi, saberZneTis sagareo saqmeTa ministr giorgo

papandreusa da TurqeTis sagareo saqmeTa ministr abdulah giuls Soris miRweuli SeTanxmeba, romlis ZaliTac, aTenSi Casatarebuli olimpiuri TamaSebis usafrTxoebis mizniT, unda gadadebuliyo mxarem gadado samxedro swavlebebi, ris Sedegadac TurqeTis wrTvnebi saxelwodebebiT _ `Torosi~ da

127

`barbarosi~, xolo Tavis mxriv, saberZneTma gadado samxedro swavlebebi saxelwodebebiT _ `Toksadisi~ da `fotorosi~. miuxedavad rigi mcdelobebisa, samwuxarod, mxareebma

saboloo SeTanxmebas jerjerobiT mainc ver miaRwies, ris gamoc CixSi Sevida molaparakebebi evrokavSirTanac. es

ukanaskneli kategoriulad iTxovs TurqeTis mier kviprosis damoukidebel saxelmwifod aRiarebas, rac TurqTaTvis dRemde miuRebeli da mtkivneuli sakiTxia. 2008 wlis aprilidan TiTqosda kvlav gaCnda kviprosis or Tems Soris urTierTobaTa daTbobis niSnebi, rodesac

molaparakebis Sedegad gaixsna adre blokirebuli gasasvleli kunZulis dedaqalaq niqoziaSi da dapirispirebul mxareebs kvlav miecaT saSualeba normaluri urTierTobis aRdgenis daewyebisa. miuxedavad dadebiTi Zvrebisa, kviprosis konfliqtis

regulirebis procesSi, jer-jerobiT naadrevia konfliqtis sabolood aRmofxvraze adrec saubari, radganac mxareebs Soris rasac amisa,

molaparakebebi Semdgomi

misula ar

mocemul mohyolia. rom

wertilamde, miuxedavad

gagrZeleba is

gasaTvaliswinebelia

faqtic,

wina

molaparakebebis

dros TurqeTi ar iyo kunZulis sakiTxis daregulirebaSi dainteresebuli im xarisxiT, ra xarisxiTac dRes aris. marTalia, cdilobs TurqeTis respublikis sazogadoebis warmomadgenloba TvalSi Seamciros

saerTaSoriso

kunZulis problemebi da mxolod TemTaSoris mourigeblobad aCvenos, magram realurad kviprosis sakiTxi Tanamedrove

saerTaSoriso politikuri urTierTobebis erT-erTi umwvavesi problemaa, romelic, samwuxarod, dResac gadauWreli rCeba. aRniSnuli problema ukve didi xania gascda sakuTriv 128

kviprosis

sazRvrebs.

man

didi

garTuleba

gamoiwvia

or

saxelmwifos saberZneTsa da TurqeTs Soris. iseTi amerikis Tavisi globaluri saxelmwifoebi, da yofili rogorebic sabWoTa arian kavSiri kunZul

SeerTebuli

Statebi

mokavSireebiTurT, datrialebuli misaRwevad aSorebda

yovelTvis tragedia

cdilobdnen Tavisi rac, ra

kviprosze miznebis yovelTvis

politikuri Tqma unda

gamoeyenebinaT. dapirispirebul

mxareebs

konfliqtis

saboloo mogvarebisagan. faqtobrivad, kviprosis respublika msxverplad Seewira jer ori saxelmwifos da Semdeg zemoT naxsenebi ori samxedro politikuri banakis geopolitikur interesebs, SfoTian mxolod da imitom, rom ase axlos mdebareobda arabul

navTobis

resursebiT

mdidar

aRmosavleTTan. aSkaraa, rom kunZul kviprosis problemas mravalmxrivi ganxilva sWirdeba, vinaidan igi dakavSirebulia TemTaSoris damokidebulebasTan, TurqeTisa da saberZneTis istoriul

metoqeobasa da aseve evropis didi qveynebisa da amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis politikasTan. amrigad, kunZul kviprosis sakiTxi DdRevandelamde

rCeboda da momavalSi kvlav darCeba Tanamedrove TurqeTis respublikis geopolitikuri xedvis areSi, ris gamoc mas didi problemebi eqmneba rogorc evrokavSirTan, ise mis uSualo mezobel saberZneTTan urTierTobaSi. miuxedavad amisa, mTel rig mkvlevarebsa da eqspertebs miaCniaT, rom dRevandeli

TurqeTis xelmZRvaneloba kvlav didi mondomebiT gaagrZelebs konfliqtis mogvarebis iseTi xerxis Zebnas, romelSic pirvel rigSi gaTvaliswinebuli iqneba rogorc kunZulze mcxovrebi Turqebis, iseve ankaris geopolitikuri interesebi, Tundac 129

aman daazianos TurqeTis respublikis sagareo politikis erTerTi mTavari mizani evropasTan mimarTebaSi. amasTanave aucileblad unda aRiniSnos isic, rom Tavis mxriv dRes ukve evropis umetesi wamyvani qveynebis

xelmZRvaneloba yuradRebas amaxvilebs TurqeTis respublikis geostrategiul, geoekonomikur mdebareobasa da mis

mniSvnelobaze, swored aRniSnuli mizezebis gamo evrokomisia miesalmeba ankaris xelmZRvanelobis samSvidobo mcdelobebs rogorc axlo aRmosavleTSi, ise kavkasiis rTul regionSi. ocdameerTe respublikisadmi ruseTis saukunis evropelebis dasawyisidan aseTi interesi politikaze TurqeTis ganapiroba gadasvlam,

federaciis

imperialistur

kremlis ambiciebma da iperiis aRdgenis mcdelobebma, rasac Sedegad agvistoSi mohyva: omi ruseT_ukrainis dapirispireba, 2008 wlis da

saqarTvelosTan,

separatistuli

saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis mier araRiarebuli, TviTmarqvia reJimebis damoukideblobis cnoba, 2008 wlis zamTarSi mTeli evropisaTvis gazis miwodebis Sewyveta, Seferxeba da a.S. amasTanave, rogorc ukve zemoT aRvniSneT Zalze

mniSvnelovania isic, rom TurqeTis saxelmwifo dReisaTvis ukve sakmaod gaZlierda da cdilobs Tavisi politika ukve piradad, martom gankargos. aseve Tu gavixsenebT imasac, rom Turqi eri sakmaod ambiciuri brZandeba, Tavis

saxelmwifoebriobasTan mimarTebaSi, ar iqneba gasakviri, rom XXI saukunis dasawyisidan ukve man Seaqcios evropa-amerikas zurgi da axali strategiuli partniorebis Zebna daiwyos. miT umetes, rom TurqeTis maRali wreebidan, (rogorc politikuri, ise mecnieruli) ukve mkafiod ismis iseTi gancxadebebi, Turquli 130

rogoricaa

magaliTad

erT-erTi

umsxvilesi

developeruli kompaniis xelmZRvanelTa warmomadgenlis hasan aratis gancxadeba: Cven Turqebi amayi xalxi varT da ar gvinda im saxlSi Sesvla, sadac jer dagvpatiJes, magram Semdeg yovel jerze maspinZeli cxvirwin kars gviketavs" [182]. 2009 wlis 21 oqtombers stambulSi moewyo didi Sexvedra, sadac mezobel saxelmwifoebTan sakiTxebs TurqeTis respublikis floridis

urTierTobebis

ganixilavdnen.

demokratma kongresmenma, warmomadgenlobiTi palatis wevrma da kongresSi evropis sakiTxebis qvekomitetis wevrebs Tavjdomare ,,Tqven

robert

ueqslerma

Sexvedrisas

mimarTa:

kiTxulobT, ratom dainteresda TurqeTi sxva mimarTulebiT? evropa, daakvirdi sakuTar qmedebebs da sakuTar mosazrebebs" [182]. yovelive xedavs, rom amis Semdeg, TurqeTi dRes evropa ukve kargad Tavisi amasTanave

dasavleTisaTvis partnioria.

geostrategiulobiT

aucilebeli

evropuli saxelmwifoebisaTvis ukve naTelia, rom 2008-09 wlis zamTarSi movlenebis ganviTarebuli, gamo, yvelasaTviis sferoSi kargad mxolod nacnobi ruseTze

energetikis

damokidebuleba ar SeiZleba, radgan naTlad Cans, rom igi arastabiluri partnioria da energo resursebs misi ambiciuri miznebisaTvis alternatiuli Sesruleba misi iyenebs. aqedan gamomdinare, povna, aucilebelia rolis mxolod

momaragebis

wyaros

romlis gamo

geografiuli

mdebareobis

TurqeTs SeuZlia.

131

$ _ 2. qurTebis problema da TurqeTis saxelmwifoebriv - politikuri usafrTxoeba

axlo romelTac

aRmosavleTSi Tavisi

mcxovreb ar

im

EeTnosTa gaaCniaT,

Soris, yvelaze

saxelmwifo

mravalricxvovani da uZvelesi nacia gaxlavT qurTebi. es aris eri, romelic miekuTvneba indoevropuli ojaxis indoiranul enobriv jgufs. istoriulad isini ZiriTadad qurTistanis

teritoriaze saxlobdnen. qurTistans ukavia axlo aRmosavleTis regionis Sida

nawilSi mdebare mTiani mxare, romelic daaxloebiT 350 aTas kv. kilometrs moicavs. aRmosavleTidan mas emijneba urmiis tba (iranSi), samxreTidan al-jazira (siriasa da eraySi) da mardinis dablamTianeTi (TurqeTSi). dasavleTidan qurTistans esazRvreba aRmosavleT tavrosis qedi (TurqeTSi),

CrdiloeTiT misi geografiuli sazRvari Znelad dasadgenia, radgan am mxridan igi aRmosavleT anatoliaSi mdebareobs. aRniSnul qurTebi meoce teritoriaze saukunemde uZvelesi osmaleTis droidan imperiis mcxovrebi erzerumis,

erzijanis, vanis, muSis vilaieTebSi TurqebTan da somxebTan Sereulad cxovrobdnen. maTi mosaxleobis didi nawili

sunituri mimdevrobis muslimi gaxlavT, Tumca maT Soris arian orTodoqsi Siitebi, iezidebi da seqta ahli hakis

mimdevrebic. qurTebi ZiriTadad saubroben sam dialeqtze. esenia:

qurmanji, zaza da surani. bolo periodisaTvis tomTa Soris moxda SeTanxmeba, ris mixedviTac qurmanji aRiarebuli iqna, rogorc qurTuli literaturuli enis safuZvli. 132

miuxedavad imisa, rom ,,qurTistani" mdgradi geografiuli terminia da TviTon qurTi eri, rogorc eTnosi, istoriaSi uZvelesi droidan moixsenieba, maT arasodes ar SeuqmniaT raime umaRlesi politikuri erTeuli. qurTTa wridan

yovelTvis gamodiodnen saxelganTqmuli da Zlieri adamianebi, magaliTad marto muslimTaTvis samagaliTo gmiri, salah

addinic gveyofa. kaci, romelmac gaaerTiana egviptis samefo da ierusalimi jvarosnebisagan gaanTavisufla, magram raoden sakvirvelic ar unda iyos, mas arc ki ufiqria Seeqmna erTiani qurTuli saxelmwifo. qurTTa aseTi infantiloba sakuTari damoukidebeli

qveynis Seqmnis Sesaxeb ganpirobebulia imiT, rom maT garSemo yovelTvis arsebobda urTierTdapirispirebuli Zlieri

imperiebi: romi-parTia, bizantia-irani, bizantia-saxalifo da osmaleT-irani. xSirad swored am uZlieresi saxelmwifoebis teritoriaze interesebi rac

qurTistanis

ikveTeboda,

TavisTavad aRniSnuli teritoriis omis qarcecxlSi gaxvevas da dasaxlebebis ganadgurebas moaswavebda. qurTTa

saxelmwifos arSeqmnis mizezia aseve endogenuri faqtoric, maT Soris ar gamokveTila iseTi pirovneba, romelsac

qurTistanis damoukideblobaze ezruna, Zveli tomTa beladebi da Seixebi maqsimumis miRwevad Tvlidnen sulTnis nominaluri vasalobis xalifas, Sahis an aseve did

mopovebas.

problemas uqmnidaT qurTebs gautanloba da Suri, romelic Tanamedrove epoqaSic ki igrZnoboda, rodesac partiaTa

liderebs SeeZloT erTmaneTis jibrze mosisxle mtrisaTvis daeWiraT TurqeTis mxari, damdgariyvnen xan iranis, xan erayis, da xan

oficialuri

xelisuflebis

mxares

metoqe

qurTuli partiis ganadgurebasaTvis SeewyoT xeli. 133

bolo

periodis

urbanizaciam,

qurTuli

inteligenciis

warmoSobam, rasac umeteswilad dasavleTSi swavla-ganaTlebis miRebam Seuwyo xeli, Seqmna ukeTesi pirobebi erovnuli

TviTSegnebisa da nacionalizmis ganviTarebisaTvis, rac maTSi paralelurad dResdReobiT realurad separatizmis damoukidebeli da ganviTarebasac qurTistanis did uwyobs Seqmnis stimuls xels. idea aZlevs

arsebobs

moqmedebis

qurTul mosaxleobas. qurTTa raodenoba dRevandel msoflioSi 45 milionamde aRwevs. aqedan 30 maTi umetesoba, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, TurqeTSi,

daaxloebiT

milionamde

adamiani

cxovrobs

eraySi, iransa da siriaSi [71_72]. qurTuli mosaxleobis zusti raodenobis dadgena Zalian rTulia, radgan axlo

aRmosavleTis saxelmwifoTa oficialuri statistika saerTod gverds uvlis eTnikuri jgufebis, gansakuTrebiT ki qurTebis arsebobis faqts. aRniSnul qveynebs rogorc saSinao, ise sagareo

politikaSi, qurTuli Temebi dRemde seriozul problemebs uqmnian. gansakuTrebiT mZimea mdgomareobaa eTnikurad 12 TurqeTis qurTuli milions

respublikasTan mosaxleobis scildeba [119].

mimarTebaSi,

sadac

raodenobis

ricxvi

daaxloebiT

pirveli msoflio omis dasrulebis Semdeg gamarjvebulma didma britaneTma da safrangeTma 1920 wels sevris xelSekrulebaSi Seitanes qurTistanis saxelmwifos Seqmna,

sevris xelSekruleba ­ iyo samSvidobo xelSekruleba dadebuli 1920 wlis 10 osmaleTis mis imperiasa Semcvlel da mokavSireebs 1923 Soris wels pirveli moaweres msoflio xeli omis

agvistos xolo

dasasruleblad. igi gauqmebuli iqna TurqeTis damoukideblobis omis msvlelobisas, mxareebma SeTanxmebas (lozanis xelSekruleba)

134

magram

TurqeTis

1923

wlis

revoluciis

gamarjvebisa

da

mustafa qemal aTaTurqis xelisuflebis saTaveSi mosvlis Semdeg es piroba gadaisinja da qurTistanis sakiTxi

daviwyebas mieca. am faqts, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, mohyva qurTTa ukmayofileba, qveyanaSi romelic amboxeba sabolood mimidinareobda ajanyebaSi mustafa

gadaizarda.

qemalisa da misi xelisuflebis mier gatarebuli erovnuli da nacionaluri reformebis winaaRmdeg religiuri reaqciis

droSis qveS, amitom qurTTa am gamosvlebisaTvis evropelebs yuradReba ar miuqceviaT. 1925 wels TurqeTis respublikis erovnuli krebis

brZanebiT aRmosavleT anatoliaSi qurTTa amboxeba sastikad iqna CaxSobili. amis Semdeg qurTebma ramdenjerme scades

ajanyeba, magram Turqi samxedroebi maT yovelTvis sastikad uswordebodnen. meoce saukunis bolos, kerZod 1984 wlidan TurqeTis respublikaSi kampania aRniSnuli misi lideri daiwyo seriozuli muSaTa 1978 qurTuli separatistuli

,,qurTuli partia

partiis" wels

xelmZRvanelobiT. [56-49].

Camoayalibda

gaxldaT

qurTistanis

damoukideblobisaTvis

mebrZoli abdula ojalani. romelic dRes ukve saerTaSoriso

abdula ojalani _ daibada 1949 wlis 4 aprils TurqeTSi, sofel omrelSi. 1971_1974

wlebSi ojalani swavlobda ankaris universitetSi politologiis fakultetze, magram misi damTavreba ver moaxerxa. 1974 wels, jer kidev studentma, Seqmna erovnul wels miiRo sawyisebze samxedro dafuZnebuli gadatrialebis maoisturi moxdenamde politikuri ojalani moZraoba, romelsac sadac 1978 man

,,qurTuli muSaTa partiis" saxelwodeba mieniWa. 1980 wels TurqeTis respublikaSi siriaSi gaiqca, politikuri TavSesafari. siriaSi CasvlisTanave ojalanma adgilobrivi xelisuflebis xelSewyobiT daiwyo samxedro danayofebis organizeba, romlelTa meSveobiTac 1984 wlidan qurTistanis damoukideblobis moTxovnis sababiT, aqtiurad daiwyo samxedro operaciebi TurqeTis respublikis winaaRmdeg.

135

sazogadoebis mier teroristad aris aRiarebuli. TurqeTis respublikas sakmaod didi ziani miayenes qurTma mebrZolebma, sabolood im periodisTvis, maT SeZles ajanyebulebis

damarcxeba da qurTTa didi masebis asimilaciis mizniT, maTi qveynis siRrmeSi gadasaxleba [57-184]. miuxedavad saxelmwifos damarcxebisa, qveS, abdula ojalani siriis da

mfarvelobis TurqeTis

damaskoSi cxovrobda winaaRmdeg

SeZlebisdagvarad

respublikis

kvlav

aqtiur brZolas ganagrZobda. siriis saxelmwifos xelmZRvanelobas Turqebi daJinebiT sTxovdnen amboxebulTa lideris gadacemas, sabolood,

ankaris mkacri ultimatumis Semdeg, siriis prezidenti hafez asadi iZulebuli gaxda, 1998 wlis oqtomberSi ojalanisaTvis qveynis datoveba moeTxova [69_247]. abdula ojalani da misi momxreebi bevrs ecadnen moeZebnaT axali politikuri

TavSesafari ruseTSi, italiaSi, saberZneTSi da sxvagan, magram uSedegod. 1999 wlis 15 Tebervals da keniaSi TurqeTis, amerikis mier

SeerTebuli Catarda

Statebisa

israelis romlis mier

specsamsaxurebis

specoperacia,

Sedegadac teroristad

daapatimres aRiarebuli

saerTaSoriso

sazogadoebis

abdula ojalani. patimari gadaeca TurqeTis saxelmwifos, romlebmac is gadaiyvanes marmarilos zRvis erT-erT kunZul imralze, ganTavsebul mkacri reJimis sapatimroSi. Turqulma sasamarTlom ojalans sikvdiliT dasja miusaja, romelic Semdeg msoflio sazogadoebis moTxovniT, samudamo

patimrobiT Secvales. amboxebis lideris dapatimrebis Semdeg Turqulma xelmZRvanelobam daiwyo ZaldatanebiTi asimilacia,

136

aikrZala abdula ojalanisa da saerTod sityva ,,qurTi"-s gamoyeneba mTels respublikaSi, evropelTa gulis mosagebad Turqebma ocdameerTe

saukunis dasawyisSi sakmaod Searbiles politika qurTebis mimarT, magram miuxedavad amisa, lideris gareSe darCenili ,,qurTebis muSaTa partia" kvlav agrZelebda brZolas

damoukideblobis mopovebisaTvis. regionSi viTareba daiZaba 2003 wels amerikis mier, SeerTebuli eraySi sadam Statebisa huseinis da misi

mokavSireebis

diqtatoruli

reJimis damxobis Semdeg. amerikis sabrZolo periodSi SeerTebuli Statebis administracia Tvlida, rom eraySi brZolis povna, am

moqmedebebis aucilebeli

dawyebamde iyo Sida

mokavSiris

TvalsazrisiT

amerikelebs

erayeli

qurTebis

saxiT

gamouCndaT bunebrivi mokavSire, radgan isini sistematiurad iCagrebodnen sadam huseinis reJimis mier, rac TavisTavad

aZlevdaT maT uflebas yvelaze proamerikuli yofiliyvnen erayis eTno religiur StatebTan Temebs Soris. magram qurTebis ar

mokavSireoba

geopolitikuri

TvalsazrisiT

aRmoCnda martivi saqme, radgan igi miuRebeli Seiqna regionSi, amerikis erT-erTi yvelaze Zveli mokavSiris TurqeTisaTvis, ,,qurTebis problema" ukve didi xania Zalian mtkivneuli Temaa. erayis omma Seqmna axali geopolitikuri situacia axlo aRmosavleTSi TurqeTis qurTebi rogorc SeerTebuli Tu da StatebisaTvis, ise

respublikisaTvisac. sadamis maT winaaRmdeg gamoyenebas

amerikelebma omis

gamoiyenes Semdeg

dasrulebis

cdilobdnen

forsirebul

daregulirebaSi siriis

israel-palestinis

krizisisa,

gansakuTrebiT

mimarTulebiT, ankara aRmoCnda iseTi dilemis winaSe, rogoric 137

iyo

konfliqtis

axali

garTuleba

da

SeiaraRebuli

dapirispireba qurTul moZraobasTan, TurqeTsa da CrdiloeT eraySi. yovelive aman, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, gamoiwvia TurqeTis urTierTobebis daZabva amerikis SeerTebul Statebsa da evropis rig qveynebTan. erayis omis mimdinareobaSi pirvelad 80 wlis manZilze, lozanis xelSekulebis Semdeg TurqeTis respublikas mouwia im faqtTan Segueba, rom qurTuli rogorc moZraoba Camoyalibda aseve ara da

damoukidebel saerTaSoriso mxolod kirkukis

faqtorad, doneze.

regionalur, gamodiodnen

erayeli

qurTebi

mokavSireni

antierayul

koaliciaSi

mosulisa

ganTavisuflebis

dros,

aramed

rogorc

Tanamonawileni omis Semdgom erayis saxelmwifos mowyobisa, federalur safuZvelze. ankarisaTvis erayel qurTTa aseTi warmatebis miRweva gangaSis stimuli signali brZolis iyo, radgan es gaxda precendenti da

koreqtirebisa

TurqeTis

teritoriaze

macxovrebeli qurTebisaTvis. erayel TanamoZmeTa mibaZviT, maT daiwyes im miznebis gamoyeneba, rasac jer kidev am movlenebis moxdenamde qadagebda ,,qurTuli muSaTa partiisa" da

ganmanTavisuflebeli moZraobis lideri abdula ojalani. misi koncefcia gaxldaT: ,,uari separatizms da qurTuli

saxelmwifos federaluri mowyoba, mravalmxriv safuZvelze" [69-247]. amgvarad, qurTebis qurTistani, romelic adre miRebuli aziaSi, iyo axal

kompaqtur

dasaxlebad

dasavleT

geopolitikur pirobebSi isev yalibdeba ara mxolod eTnikur, aramed saxelmwifoTa dapirispirebis kvanZad axlo

aRmosavleTSi. amas Tan erTvis jerjerobiT mcire gacieba 138

amerikisa da TurqeTis respublikis urTierTobebSi, berZnebisa da Turqebis (natos wevri qveynebis) mravalwliani

dapirispireba. amasTanave aucileblad unda gaviTvaliswinoT rogorc ruseTis federacia Tavisi ambiciuri politikiT da 300 000 qurTi mosaxliT, erTi ise danarCeni ,,post sabWoTa"

saxelmwifoebi romlebsac interesebic

milioni

qurTi

erovnebis

mcxovrebiT, aramed sxva am

aqvT

ara

mxolod

saxelmwifo, da ar

musulmanur

samyarosTan

SeuZliaT

regionSi arsebuli daZabuli situaciis mimarTb gulgrilni iyvnen. erayis krizisis eTnografiaSi TurqeTisa da qurTistanis geopolitikuri kvanZi iZens gacilebiT met mniSvnelobas,

vidre TalibTa reJimis damxoba avRaneTSi, an analogiuri kvanZi pakistanelebsa da puStunebs Soris. eTnikuri problemebis gadauWreloba uqmnis did

sirTuleebs demokratiisa da Tavisuflebis pirobebis Seqmnas, iqneba es TurqeTSi, israelSi, palestinasa Tu eraySi. brZola, religiuri terorizmTan Tu sxva erTi raime iqneba is, Tu separatizmTan, yovelTvis sazRvrebiT wlebiT ar da Tu

SeferilobiT, saxelmwifos drois

Semoifargleba ver

ganisazRvreba

CarCoebiT,

aTwleulebiT. ase iyo da aris magaliTad avRaneTSi. didi xnis manZilze gagrZelda sparseTis yuris krizisi, romelSic

srulad aRmoCndnen CaTreulni is aRmosavluri saxelmwifoebi, romlebmac Tavis droze moaxerxes da gaiyves qurTistanis istoriuli regionSi teritoria, romelic, rogorc da iTqva, dResac erT-erTi

arsebuli

daZabulobisa

areulobis

139

mTavari TurqeTis

sababia

sparseTis

yureSi

meore

omis

dawyebisas, SeerTebul

respublika

didxans

ewinaaRmdegeboda

Statebs, ar CarTuliyo ,,operacia udabnos qariSxalSi", magram miuxedavad amisa, vaSingtonma igi politikuri zewoliT mainc aiZula gaegzavna erayis sazRvarze daaxloebiT 40 000 kaciani samxedro kontigenti. amasTanave TurqeTma gaezardaT neba darTo

amerikelebs,

mniSvnelovnad

sabrZolo

TviTmfrinavTa raodenoba sahaero samxedro Zalebis bazaze, injirliySi [85-94]. mTeli rigi daTmobebis moaxerxa sabolood moipova miuxedavad, ankaram Tavis

sasargeblodac samwuxarod, parlamentisagan

nabijis ar sakuTari

gadadgma, gaamarTla. jaris

romelmac, mTavrobam

sazRvargareT

gayvanis ufleba, ris Semdegac aRar daayovna, SeiWra erayis teritoriaze, navTobsadenis urTierToba TurqeTma gadaketa toti mezobel da erayidan Sewyvita gamomavali yvelanairi orive

ekonomikuri misia erayis

saxelmwifosTan. radgan

aRniSnuli ver SeZlo

kraxiT

daasrula,

teritoriaze

moqmedi

qurTuli

samxedro

danayofebis

ganadgureba da saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis zewolis Sedegad iZulebuli gaxda samxedroebi ukan gamoewvia [85-107]. dasavleli saboloo jamSi da Turqi eqspertebis udabnos daskvnebis qariSxalis" mixedviT Sedegad

,,operacia

TurqeTis respublikas Svidi miliardi dolaris Rirebulebis

,,sparseTis yuris meore omi" - ewodeba oms, romelic axlo aRmosavleTSi 1990 erayis mier quveiTze aSS) TavdasxmiT erayis daiwyo da 1991 wels 34 qveynis am da

wels

koaliciis

(meTauri

mier

damarcxebiT

dasrulda.

aSS-Si

samxedro operaciebs uwodeben ,,udabnos fars" (ingl. "Operation Desert Shield") ,,operacia udabnos qariSxals" (ingl. "Operation Desert Storm").

140

zarali

miadga. 4,5

konpensaciis miliardis

saxiT

man miiRo

mokavSireebisagan erTi Seejaxa miliardi TurqeTi

Sepirebuli dolari.

nacvlad

gansakuTrebiT

did

sirTuleebs

erayidan maT qveyanaSi 500 aTasze meti qurTi ltolvilis masiuri gadasvlisas. aseve didi zarali naxes qurTul

sabrZolo dajgufebebTan moulodneli SetakebebiT. TurqTa xelmZRvaneloba sayovelTaod adanaSaulebda ,,qurTistanis

muSaTa partias" sazRvris orive mxares teroristuli aqtebis mowyobaSi. omis msvlelobis dros, dasavleli eqspertebis azriT, ankaris mtice poziciam Seasrula erT-erTi mniSvnelovani

roli amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis dayoliebaze, raTa ar daesrulebina omi sadam huseinis reJimis damxobiT. TurqTa azriT, amas SeiZleba erayi mieyvana srul dezintegraciamde da Seeqmna piroba, Camoyalibebuliyo qveynis CrdiloeTiT

qurTistanis saxelmwifo warmonaqmni, raSic ankara xedavda ,,gadamdeb magaliTs qurTi separatistebisaTvis TurqeTSi" [83214]. Tumca miuxedavad Semdeg win amisa veRar TurqeTis aRudga respublika urTierTobasa omis da

damTavrebis aviareisebis

ganxorcielebas

erayis

teritoriaze

arsebul

qurTTa avtonomiaSi. omis dasrulebis Semdeg ankaram politika Secvala da mWidrod dauaxlovda sadam huseinis reJims, raTa qurTuli separatizmis winaaRmdeg erToblivad ebrZolaT. 1998 wels, rodesac axali antierayuli kampania daiwyo da bil klintonis administraciam amave wlis da didi britaneTis opericia

xelmZRvanelobam

dekemberSi,

Caatara

,,mela udabnoSi", TurqeTis respublikis premier-ministrma b. ejeviTma mouwoda dasavlel partniorebs, ar gamoeyenebinaT 141

Zala baRdadis winaaRmdeg, radgan, rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, TurqeTisaTvis sasicocxlo mniSvneloba hqonda erayis

teritoriuli mTlianobis SenarCunebas. 2001 wlis 11 seqtembris teraqtebis Semdeg, roca dadga sakiTxi avRaneTis Semdgom, samxedro moqmedebebi

gavrcelebuliyo erayzec, b. ejeviTma kvlav gaakeTa ganacxadi, rom TurqeTi ewinaaRmdegeboda eraySi dasavluri koaliciis SeWras. man aseTi omi Seafasa rogorc ,,agresia romelsac SeeZlo regionSi wonasworoba srul qaosamde mieyvana" [85-126]. swored qurTuli am wonosworobis problemebis darRvevis wamowevas ukan, pirvel rigSi ankaris

varaudobda

xelmZRvaneloba, amas adasturebs Tundac is faqti, rom eraySi omis dawyebis ramdenjerme cudad Sefasebis Semdeg, ukve 2002 wlis 25 seqtembers igive b. ejeviTma ganacxada: ,,imis

miuxedavad, rom amboben, Cven qurTul saxelmwifos ar vqmniTo, de-faqto aseTi saxelmwifo Camoyalibebis gzazea. Tuki es oficialurad gancxaddeba, amas seriozuli problemebi

moyhveba" [16-418]. ejeviTis aseTi mZafri reaqcia im periodSi mTeli TurqeTis politikuri elitis azrs gamoxatavda. ukve 2002 wlis 3 noembrs TurqeTis respublikaSi Catarda axali arCevnebi, romlis Sedegadac qveynis xelmZRvanelobaSi movida r. erdoRanisa da da a. gulis partia. proislamuri ankaris axalma

,,samarTlianobisa

ganviTarebis"

xelmZRvanelobam daiwyo politikuri lavireba amerikasa da musulmanur qveynebs Soris. SeerTebuli Statebisa da erayis krizisis gamwvavebis pirobebSi TurqeTis axali

xelmZRanelobis umetesi nawili gamodioda Zalis gamoyenebis winaaRmdeg da gmobda gaeros rezolucias erayTan mimarTebaSi.

142

yovelive aman miuxedavad didi sifrTxilisa, mainc gamoiwvia urTierTobebis garTuleba aSS-sTan. TurqeTis erayis samxedro kampaniisadmi uaryofiTi

damokidebulebas ramdenime obieqturi da subieqturi mizezi gansazRvravda: 1) koaliciis mier Catarebuli samxedro operaciis Semdeg, arsebobda erayis danawevrebisa da damoukidebeli an farTo avtonomiuri uflebebis mqone qurTistanis Seqmnis albaToba, rac kidev ufro gaamwvavebda TurqeTis samxreT-aRmosavleT regionebSi arsebul qurTul separatistul moZraobas. amasTan damoukidebeli qurTistanis SemadgenlobaSi navTobiT mdidari kirkukisa TurqeTis interesebs. 2) samxedro moqmedebebis Sedegad eraySi warmoiqmneboda qaosi, rac uaryofiT asaxvas hpovebda TurqeTze, rogorc mis uSualo mezobel saxelmwifoze. 3) 1990 wlidan sparseTis yuris krizisis Sedegad yvelaze didi ekonomikuri zarali, TurqeTma ganicada. axali samxedro kampania gamoiwvevda TurqeTSi turistuli sezonis CaSlas, rac mniSvnelovnad Searyevda, im periodisaTvis isedac mZime mdgomareobaSi myof Turqul ekonomikas. savaraudo gaTvlebiT eraySi, sadam huseinis winaaRmdeg, samxedro kampaniis dawyebis SemTxvevaSi, TurqeTis respublika ganicdida yvelaze mcire, daaxloebiT 17 mlrd. aSS dolaris odenobis zarals [85-133]. yovelive amis Sedegad, samxedro moqmedebebis droSi da mosulis raionebis Sesvla da ewinaaRmdegeba strategiul

respublikis

geopolitikur

gaWianurebis SemTxvevaSi arsebobda erayidan ltolvilebis didi nakadis Semosvlis albaToba, rasac ewinaaRmdegeboda

143

ankara, radgan maTi gaTvlebiT ltolviTa umetesoba iqneboda qurTuli warmoSobis. sabolood standartebis mxolod omis sawyis periodSi, ormagi politikuri ara

pirobebSi, aramed

mZime

viTarebaSi radgan

aRmoCnda orive

ankara,

vaSingtonic,

rTul

politikur viTarebaSi Cavarda, erayis krizisisa da masTan mWidrod dakavSirebuli qurTTa problemebis gadaWris dros. erayTan omis mzadebisas amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis samxedro xelmZRvaneloba dajgufebebs, udides romelTa rols aniWebda im qurTTa

SeiaraRebul

ricxvi

droisaTvis

saxalxo razmelebis CauTvlelad, daaxloebiT 150 aTas kacs aRwevda [85-157]. vaSingtoni daJinebiT moiTxovda ankarisagan daeTmo teritoriebi samxedro operaciebis Casatareblad da imavdroulad TurqeTs hpirdeboda, rom ar miaRebinebda mas uSualo monawileobas samxedro moqmedebebSi da Tuki Turqebi Tavis teritoriaze ganaTavsebdnen 62-aTas kacian jars, maSin isini kompensaciis saxiT miiRebdnen 6 milioni dolaris

arapirdapir daxmarebebs da 26 miliard dolars miznobrivi kreditis saxiT, im SemTxvevaSi Tu qveynis ekonomika eraySi saomari moqmedebebis dros dazaraldeboda. realurad

amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis am dapirebebis mTavari mizani gaxldaT TurqeTis respublikis gamoTiSva erayis omSi

pirdapiri monawileobis miRebisagan, radagan ankara arasodes ar malavda Tavis Zvel ganzraxvas, aRedgina kontroli

mezobeli saxelmwifos navTobiT mdidar raionebze: kirkuksa da mosulze. SemdegSi, teritoriebiT radgan TurqeTma uari amerikelebs ganucxada Tavisi pentagoni

sargeblobaze

iZulebuli gaxda, kirkukisa da mosulis raionebze kontrolis 144

dasaweseblad, quveiTidan, desantis saxiT gadmoesrola Tavisi samxedro misatanad, Zalebi, ise rogorc mterze Zalebis am mxridan ieriSis mokavSiris·

regionSi

mosalodneli

SeWris SesaCereblad. sabolood amerikelebma politikuri da samxedro zewolis Sedegad SeZles, SeeCerebinaT ankara, rom ar Seeyvana Tavisi msxvili samxedro kontigenti CrdiloeT eraySi, raTa iqidan gamoedevnaT qurTuli samxedro

formirebebi. amerikis SeerTebul StatebTan erTad TurqTa jarebis eraySi Seyvanis winaaRmdeg gamodioda natosa da

evropuli qveynebis umetesi nawili. sayuradReboa isic, rom erayis winaaRmdeg arsebuli

bolo samxedro konfliqtis Tavisebureba mdgomareobs imaSi, rom is viTardeboda da ukve saerTaSoriso TiTqmis terorizmTan saukunis brZolis manZilze fonze. am

pirobebSi mimdinare,

naxevari

axlo

aRmosavleTis

konfliqtebis

yvelafers ar SeeZlo misTvis ar mieca axali geopolitikuri ganzomileba. istoriul retroperspeqtivaSi igi iTvleba

lozanis xelSekrulebis geopolitikur sicocxlisunarianobis yvelaze seriozul gamocdad, romelmac gansazRvra oTxmoci wlis win dadgenili TurqeTis respublikis sazRvrebi,

dasavleTisagan Tavsmoxveuli qurTistanis gayofis pirobebiT. amasTanave krizisma pirdapiri konfrontaciis axal xazze,

arabul qvenebTan erTad gamoiyvana ara marto israeli, kidev ufro gamwvavebuli irib palestinuri Tanamonawiled sakiTxiT, gaxada aramed natos axlo ojaxis Tavisi

aRmosavleTis erTaderTi

musulmanuri

saxelmwifo

TurqeTic,

qurTul mosaxleobasTan arsebuli problemebiT.

·

am SemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba TurqeTis respublika.

145

erayis krizisis mimdinareobis fonze, rac ufro Rrmad erTvebian axlo aRmosavleTis konfliqtSi, Turqebi da natos sxva wevri saxelmwifoebi, Cndeba SemaSfoTebeli tendenciebi, lokaluri kerebis regionaluri maStabebis konfliqtur

kvanZSi gadazrdisa, am mxriv sul ufro metad SeiniSneba Crdilo atlantikuri blokis wevrebs Soris faruli

ganxeTqilebis niSnebi. erayis qurTistanis krizisTan, kunZul kviprosis sakiTxTan midgomis da gamo,

problemebTan

sxvadasxva

dasavleli politologebis azriT, am niadagze aRmocenebulma uTanxmoebebma pirvelad miiyvanes natos wevri saxelmwifoebi ,,civi omis" dasrulebis Semdeg, seriozul krizisamde, romlis mogvareba SesaZlebeli gaxda mxolod, uSualod samxedro

komitetis Carevis Semdeg [47_178]. rac eqspertebs Seexeba isinic rus politikosebs, politologebsa Tvals da

gafacicebiT

adevneben da

axlo Tavis

aRmosavleTSi sasargeblod

mimdinare gamoiyenon

movlenebs

cdiloben Soris

mokavSireebs

arsebuli

uTanxmoebebi. kremlis politikis apologeti, geopolitikosi al. dugini, presasa da publicistikaSi, aseve satelevizio gamosvlebiT (mecnieri, romelic Tavis wignSi ,,geopolitikis safuZvlebi" TurqeTis respublikas osmaleTis imperiis

parodias uwodebs), dRes Tamamad acxadebs, rom TurqeTi aris ruseTis potenciuri mokavSire da sruliad miesalmeba ankaris politikas, ,,Tu TurqTa jari eraySi qurTTa gasanadgureblad SeiWreba", ufro metic, is Turqul situacias, ruseTisa da

apologeti ­ adamiani, romelic visime an risame apologiiT gamodis,

damcveli, momxre.

146

CeCneTis araswori

situacias da

adarebs,

rac

TavisTavad

sakiTxisadmi marTalia,

mikerZoebuli

midgomaa,

ragdan,

CeCneTis respublikis damoukidebloba marto saqarTvelom da avRaneTma aRiara, magram mas xalxis mier arCeuli prezidenti johar dudaevi marTavda, amasTanave yvelasTvis naTelia, rom ruseTis prezidenti boris elcini jer kidev 1991 wels

mouwodebda

avtonomiebs,

rom

,,aeRoT

imdeni

suvereniteti

ramdenic surdaT" [186]. amis Semdeg ki rusma politikosebma da samxedroebma gaaCaRes CeCneTSi mmarTvelobis ris aRdgenisaTvis Sedegadac orjer

samxedro

kampaniebi,

faqtiurad

miwasTan gaaswores mTeli CeCneTi da adgilobrivi mSvidobiani mosaxleobis masobrivi ganadgureba moawyves. es, ra Tqma unda gansxvavdeba Turquli politikisagan, radgan isini uSualo brZolas awarmoeben msoflio Tanamegobrobis mier

saerTaSoriso

teroristul

organizaciad

aRiarebul

,,qurTistanis muSaTa partiasTan". omis daskvniT etapze ara mxolod TurqeTi da erayi, aramed maT teritoriaze mxares mcxovrebi qurTebic, roca frontis erayeli Statebis mxares masiur

sxvadasxva qurTebi

aRmoCndnen.

situaciaSi,

gamodiodnen

amerikis omSi,

SeerTebuli sazRvris meore

mokavSireebad qurTuli

antierayul

mosaxleoba

awyobda

omis

sawinaaRmdego

gamosvlebs. ,,qurTuli muSaTa partia", romelic 1999 wels misi lideris abdula ojalanis dapatimrebis Semdeg sagrZnoblad iyo dasustebuli, kvlav gamoCnda sabrZolo asparezze da TurqTa winaaRmdeg damoukideblobisaTvis omi terorizmis

meSveobiT ganaaxla. erayis aRvniSneT, SesaZlo ankara dezintegraciaSi, xedavs arcTu rogorc zemoT

mcire

saSiSroebas 147

TurqeTis

respublikis

usafrTxoebisa

da

teritoriuli

mTlianobisaTvis. sayuradReboa isic, rom msoflioSi ,,civi omis" msvlelobis dros maqsimaluri mizani qurTTa erTiani saxelmwifos ar dasmula. Seqmnisa, brZolis realur simZimis sibrtyeSi centri, arasodes qurTuli

saxelmwifoebriobis an avtonomiis miRwevisaTvis periodulad inacvlebda erayidan (1943-1945w.w.) iranSi (1945-1946w.w.) da isev (1960-1970w.w.) iranidan erayis CrdiloeTSi [74-87]. 1980-90-ian

wlebSi qurTuli moZraoba arnaxulad gafarTovda da miiRo organizebuli brZolis TurqeTSi. miuxedavad ganmaTavisuflebeli brZolisa, qurTebi saxe SeiaraRebuli ukve gamosvlebisa da da partizanuli

aRmosavleT

samxreT-aRmosavleT

erTiani Zala mianc arasodes yofilan, radgan maT Soris yovelTvis iyo Sidasatomo da Sidapartiuli uTanxmoebebi, metoqeoba mimdinareobda, rogorc TurqeTis teritoriaze a. ojalanis momxreebsa da mowinaaRmdegeebs Soris, aseve

CrdiloeT eraySi myofi qurTi liderebis, m. barzanisa da d. Talabanis momxreebs Soris [73-241]. TumcaRa aRsaniSnavia rom erayel qurTebs erTmaneTTan dapirispireba xels ar uSlida drodadro teritoriaze erayis gaeerTianebinaT SeWrili Turqi Zalebi, ara imdenad winaaRmdeg, maTive sakuTar aramed a.

meomrebis

CrdiloeT

nawilSi

SeRweuli,

Tvistomis

ojalanis momxreebisa da mebrZolebis gasanadgureblad. politikuri ganxeTqilebebi da uTanxmoebani, aseve Temuri dapirispirebebi sxvadasxva qurTul dajgufebebs Soris iyo da iqneba uaxloes momavalSi erT-erTi ZiriTadi mizezi TurqeTSi qurTuli nacionaluri moZraobis sisustisa [65-187]. swored es gaxda mTavari faqtori imisa, rom qurTulma moZraobam 148

qurTistanis

eTnografiul

sazRvrebSi

farTomaStabiani

da

sayovelTao xasiaTi ver miiRo. zemoT moyvanil mizezTa gamo, qurTTa moZraobam miiRo separatistuli erTmaneTis xasiaTi, rogorc am qveynebs SigniT, aseve

mimarT, da

saerTo

qurTuli maT

moZraobis Soris

CarCoebSi. ufro

winaaRmdegobebi

uTanxmoebebi

kidev

Rvivdeba Sida regionaluri da saerTaSoriso Zalebis Carevis Sedegad. qurTTa moZraobis daqucmacebuloba, kidev ufro

Rrmavdeba gadauWreli sasazRvro konfliqtebiT da davebiT, rogorc saxelmwifoTa Soris, aseve TviTon qurTul TemTa kavSirebs Soris, romlebic cxovroben saerTaSoriso

sazogadoebis mier aRiarebuli sazRvrebis orive mxares. globalizaciis gaZlierebis pirobebSi qurTulma

moZraobam TurqeTSi abdula ojalanis dapatimrebis Semdeg, Tavdapirvelad uaryo SeiaraRebuli meTodebiT brZola da dagmo teroristuli meTodebis gamoyeneba. es gansakuTrebiT kargad aisaxa a. ojalanis gamosvlaSi evropuli sasamarTlos winaSe. aseve mniSvnelovani evolucia ganicada erayis qurTulma moZraobamac. Tu manamde qurTi liderebi m. barzani da d. Talabani erTmaneTTan TavianTi momxreebiTurT mudmiv

dapirispirebaSi imyofebodnen, sadam huseinis sawinaaRmdego kampaniis dawyebis win, orive mxare erTmaneTTan Sejerda da gaakeTes saerTo gancxadeba, rom mzad iyvnen ara marto

urTierTTanamSromlobis

dasawyebad,

saerTo

antierayuli

frotis CarCoSi, aramed uaryves yovelgvari separatistuli miznebi erayidan gamoyofis Sesaxeb da Tanasworuflebiani

wevris statusiT, federaciul safuZvelze mis SemadgenlobaSi darCenis survili daadastures. miznebis droebiT aseTi saxiT 149

koreqtireba rogorc Cans, atarebda taqtikur xasiaTs da is nakarnaxevi iyo TurqeTis respublikis mxridan

farTomaStabiani SeiaraRebuli SeWris saSiSroebiT erayul qurTistanSi. ankaris erdoRanisa SezRuduli Turquli axalma a. proislamisturma mmarTvelma Zalam r.

giulis

xelmZRvanelobiT, saSualeba maT misca,

amerikelebs gamoeyenebinaT Zalian didi

uflebebiT

samxedro

bazebi.

gamoiCines

sifrTxile, raTa ar daeSvaT movlenebis arakontrolirebadi da dramatuli ganviTareba. im SemTxvevaSi Tu eraySi omi ar

didxans

gagrZeldeboda,

ankaris

xelmZRvaneloba

gamoricxavda damoukideblobis msurveli qurTebis calkeul saprotesto gamosvlebs, recidivebs da teroristul aqtebs. am periodisaTvis ki qurTulma moZraobam, sapirispirod, droebiT mxardaWera Secvala mieRo Tavisi politika da daiwyo swrafva

antierayuli

koaliciisagan,

umTavresad

Statebisa da dasavleT evropis lideri saxelmwifoebisagan. aseT situaciaSi TurqeTis teritoriaze mcxovrebi meamboxeebi iZulebulni gaxdnen, moCvenebiT Tavi SeekavebinaT

separatizmisagan, rac, saxeldobr, SemdegSi ar gamoricxavda SesaZleblobas, mezoblad avtonomiuri raionis gaCenis

SemTxvevaSi, maT saxecvlilebas iseT separatizmad, romlis SemTxvevaSic meamboxeebs esaxebaT mizani SeuerTden ara TviT erays, aramed sakuTar mezobel qurTul avtonomias. erayis Tvlida, tendencia: pirveli ­ separatistuli moZraoba titularul omis Semdgom unda qurTuli nacionalur ori moZraoba

rom

ganviTarebuliyo

paraleluri

erovnebebTan mimarTebaSi. maT gaiyves, magram sabolood ver 150

moaxerxes

qurTebis

sruli

integrireba

im

sazRvrebSi,

romlebic Camoyalibda ori msoflio omis Sedegad. meore nel-nela etapobrivad unda ganxorcieldes mTavari mizani da Seiqmnas erTiani qurTuli saxelmwifo qurTistanis

geografiul sivrceSi. erayis omma kidev ufro romelsac meti Zala STabera erTad

globalizaciis

process,

gaZlierebasTan

yovelTvis Tan erTvis brZola antiglobalizmis ZalebTan. globalizmi, rogorc a. panarini wers: ,,damaxasiaTebelia uTavbolo Sejaxebebis romlebic da eTnocentrizmis separatizmsa sxva da

gamovlinebebiT,

miekuTvnebian

terorizms" [147]. erayis ,,reformirebebis" dros globalistebi kvlav agrZeleben TamaSs saxelmwifoTa Soris, eTnoreligiur da SidaqurTul winaaRmdegobebze. ankaris uaryofa da azriT, wina saukuneSi dadgenili sazRvrebis da

geografiuli

qurTistanis

teritoriebisa

resursebis xelaxali araTanabari gadanawileba an aRniSnul sivrceSi nebismieri avtonomiuri erTeulis Seqmna, gamoiwvevs regionSi seriozul am ZalTa sababiT balansis darRvevasa da

destabilizacias.

TurqeTis

respublikis

xelisufleba kategoriuli winaaRmdegia Tavis teritoriaze raime avtonoomiis Seqmnisa amavdroulad isini wina planze ayeneben eraySi mcxovrebi TurqmenebisaTvis Seiqmnas

damoukidebeli saxelmwifo. ankaras surs, rom am axal qveyanas miakuTvnos umetesi nawili erayuli qurTistanisa,

gansakuTrebiT navTobiT mdidari qalaqi kirkuki. swored es qalaqi gaxlavT mTavari sadao sakiTxi TurqeTs, eraysa da mis qurTistans Soris, miT umetes, rom transqurTuli

151

navTobsadeni kirkuk-jeihani uzrunvelyofs erayuli navTobis gadinebas Turqul da xmelTaSuazRvis msoflio bazarze. qalaqi kirkuki am periodisaTvis erayeli qurTebis

mflobelobaSia, isini mas qurTistanis ,,ierusalims" uwodeben. SeerTebuli Sedegad Statebis Ria mxardaWerisa TavianT da daxmarebebis raionSi

erayelma

qurTebma

avtonomiur

SeZles aRedginaT rigi sawarmoebisa, daiwyes reabilitacia socialuri da kulturuli programebisa. qurTebma TiTqosda daamtkices TavianTi aRmSeneblobis unari, magram realurad am regionSi maT ukan dgas da Cans, Tavis SeerTebuli gegmebiT. ar Statebi Tavisi

politikuri miswrafebebi, interesebs, teritoria.

miznebiTa rogorc romlebmac

Statebis im

aRniSnuli qveynebis

eTanxmeba gaiyves

droze

qurTistanis

dReisaTvis sakmaod

TurqeTsa maT

da

erays Semdeg

Soris

urTierToba miaRwies magram,

daZabulia.

omis

ramdenjerme Sesaxeb,

SeTanxmebebs

urTierTanamSromlobis

samwuxarod, jerjerobiT regionSi mSvidoba ver daamyares. ,,qurTistanis muSaTa partia" kvlav ganagrZoobs teroristuli aqtebiT da Turq samxedroebze moulodneli Tavdasxmebis

ganxorcielebiT brZolas ankaris winaaRmdeg, erdoRani da misi mTavroba iZulebuli isini mdebare gaxda samxedro uyeneben muqarebze erayis mTavrobas:

gadasuliyvnen, CrdiloeTiT

ultimatumebs qurTistanis

regionalur

Sewyviton teroristebisa da separatistebis mxardaWera da aRar miscen maT TavSesafari sakuTar teritoriaze, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi Caatarebs TurqeTis xelmZRvaneloba irwmuneba, rom

farTomaStabian

antiteroristul

operacias,

erayuli qurTistanis teritoriaze. 152

TurqTis

respublikis

mTavroba

da

samxedroebi

imedovneben, rom Zalismieri muqara da ultimatumi Sedegs gamoiRebs, rogorc es zemoTxsenebul SemTxvevaSi siriis

saxemwifosTan 1998 wels moxda. mogexsenebaT, maSin samxedro intervenciis muqaram damaskos mmarTveloba aiZula, meamboxe qurTTa lideri a. ojalani, sakuTari qveynidan gaeZevebina. Tumca, amJamad im ki dRevandeli sirias viTareba ar hyavda sruliad Zlieri

gansxvavebulia.

droisaTvis

mokavSireebi, xolo dReisaTvis, rodesac erayis avtonomiuri qurTistanis erays, regionalur mTavrobas, romelic CrdiloeT sruliad

erayis

centraluri

xelisuflebisagan

damoukideblad akontrolebs da marTavs, amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi Zlieri mfarvelebi hyavs. cnobilia, rom mahmud barzani 1991 wels ,,qurTistanis muSaTa partiis" ganadgurebaSi Turq samxedroebTan erTad

aqtiurad TanamSromlobda. rac Seexeba meore lider jalal Talabanis, romelic amJamad erayis prezidentia, Tavis droze isic xan ibZoda ,,qurTistanis muSaTa partiis" wimaaRmdeg, xan kidev Tavis kontrolqveS myof ,,qurTistanis aZlevda patriotuli TurqeTis

kavSiris"

teritoriaze

TavSesafars

respublikis teritoriidan gamoqceul a. ojalanis mebrZolebs [87-214]. amJamad gavlenian qurT liderebs ,,qurTistanis muSaTa partiis" winaaRmdeg brZola aRar surT, radgan miuxedavad maTi saqmianobis xasiaTisa ukve isini maT TavianT umcros Zmebad aRiqvamen. barzanisaTvis TurqeTTan TanamSromlobaze uaris Tqmas kidev erTi seriozuli mizezi aqvs, kerZod,

rogorc aRvniSneT, Turqebs ar surT navTobiT mdidari qalaqi kirkuki qurTistanis regionaluri mTavrobis kontrolis qveS 153

gadavides

[89-144].

barzanis

poziciis

fonze,

TurqeTis

xelisuflebam saqme pirdapir erayis centralur mTavrobasTan daiWira, romelmac ,,qurTistanis muSaTa partiis" winaaRmdeg brZolis piroba dado, magram am pirobas amerikis SeerTebuli Statebisa uweria. ,,qurTistanis muSaTa partiasTan" brZolaSi da barzanis mxardaWeris gareSe Sesruleba ar

Semaferxebeli faqtoria amerikis poziciac, romelic dilemis winaSe dgas. qurTistanis regionuli mTavrobis mier

kontrolirebadi teritoria erayis erTaderTi regionia, sadac Statebis moqalaqeebi Tavs mSvidad grZnoben, vaSingtonSi zogi miiCnevs, aRniSnuli rom iranze SesaZlo SeiZleba partia", zogjer Tavdasxmis placdarmadac romlis SemTxvevaSi gadaiqces. Tavs

teritoria muSaTa miiCneven,

,,qurTistanis marqsistebad

wevrebic

islamistebis

sapirwone

Zaladac iTvleba, rac maT vaSingtonis zogierT politikur Tu samxedro wreebSi amerikisaTvis sasargeblo Zalad

warmoaCens. amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi ankaris bolodroindeli politikis gamo, TurqeTis mxardaWerisagan garkveulwilad

Tavsac ikavebs. maSin, roca vaSingtoni siriisa da iranis sawinaaRmdego politikas awarmoebs, amerikelebisaTvis raoden sakvirvelic ar unda zrdis. aseve iyos, ankara am qveynebTan

TanamSromlobas ukmayofileba energetikul memorandumze sakuTari

Statebis iransa da

gansakuTrebuli TurqeTs Soris

gamoiwvia sferoSi

TanamSromlobaze, am SeTanxmebis

urTierTgagebis ZaliT, irans gatanis

xelismoweram.

energoresursebis

evropul

bazarze

SesaZleblobac ki eZleva. ankara Tavis saqciels imiT xsnis, 154

rom

mas

surs,

yvela

mezobelTan

kargi

da

megobruli

urTierToba hqondes. miuxedavad muSaTa zemoT Tqmulisa, vaSingtonSi agresiul ,,qurTistanis qmedebebs ar

partiis"

bolodroindel

amarTleben da baRdadsa da erayis qurTistanis regionalur mTavrobas saswrafo, adekvaturi nabijebisaken mouwodeben,

ankaris xemZRvaneloba ki amerikisagan sityvier Tanadgomasa da daxmarebaze ,,qurTistanis mets moiTxovs, partiis" radgan CrdiloeT eraySi gareSe,

muSaTa

neitralizaciis

TurqeTi iZulebuli iqneba, 2007 wlis 17 oqtombers, misive parlamentis erayis mier miRebuli rezoluciiT samxedro moTxovna isargeblos Zala TviTon da

teritoriaze rom ukve

sakuTari msgavsi

Seiyvanos. Turquli

miTumetes,

saxelmwifos, sazogadoebis mxridanac sul ufro da ufro intensiurad gaismis. rac sabolood erTaderTi Seexeba aSS-s politikas: SesaZloa, rogor vaSingtoni SeinarCunos da ar

aRmoCndes mokavSire

dilemis

winaSe,

qurTebis

saxiT

eraySi

daazaralos TurqeTis republikis strategiuli interesebi, radgan es ukanaskneli aris misi erTaderTi Zveli

musulmanuri da strategiuli mokavSire axlo aRmosavleTSi. saerTaSoriso jamSi iqneba globaluri mitanili eqspertTa umetesobis azriT, saboloo zvarakad magram

geopolitikis qurTebis

samsxverploze interesebi,

erovnuli

regionis cvalebadi geopolitikis fonze, savaraudod, mainc SesaZlebelia, rom qurTebma garkveul Sedegs miaRwion.

gansakuTrebiT im SemTxvevaSi Tu amerikasa da TurqeTs Soris faruli daZabuloba Ria politikur dapirispirebaSi

gadaizrdeba. yovelive es ki SeiZleba gamoiwvios vaSingtonis 155

geopolitikam

axlo

aRmosavleTsa

da

samxreT

kavkasiaSi.

ankaris mxridan ki ruseTis saxelmwifosTan gaRrmavebulma urTierTobebma da somxeTis genocidis aRiareba

araRierebasTan dakavSirebulma politikam.

156

$ _ 3. TurqeTis geopolitika XXs-is bolosa da XXIs-is dasawyisSi

,,civi omis" dasrulebisa da uzarmazari saxelmwifos, sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg, mis yofil teritoriebze Camoyalibda ,,ZalTa vakuumi", romlis Sevsebasac, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, imTaviTve TurqeTis respublika Seecada [104_105]. 1990 wlidan TurqeTSi TandaTan Cndeba evraziulobis

geopolitikuri koncefcia, iwyeba saubari imis Sesaxeb, rom TurqeTi esaa evraziis geografiulad centraluri qveyana,

mowodebuli, raTa transkontinenturi gavlenebi gaavrcelos. amave periodidan TurqeTis respublika iwyebs mcdelobas,

gamoiyenos Tavisi strategiuli, geografiuli mdebareoba da gaxdes ,,RerZuli qveyana", xidi dasavleTsa da aRmosavleTs Soris, mastabilizebeli Zala Tavis sazRvrebTan, raSic

upirvelesad igulisxmeba kavkasia, centraluri azia da axlo aRmosavleTi. aRniSnuli miznebisaTvis ankaram 90-iani wlebidan daiwyo axali geopolitikuri daukavSira rasac, koncefciis centralur mxriv, SemuSaveba, aziur xels da romelic kavkasiur ssrk-s Sida

uSualod politikas,

Tavis ruseTis mis

uwyobda arsebuli

samarTalmemkvidris, areulobebi da

saxelmwifoSi axali

regionSi

damoukidebeli

saxelmwifoebis Seqmna. ankara, Tvlida ra Tavs Turqulenovani saxelmwifoebis liderad, swrafad da gaacnobiera sakuTari geostrategiuli Turquli

mdgomareoba

aamoqmeda

regionSi

mcxovrebi

am SemTxvevaSi saubaria kavkasiasa da centralur aziaze

157

warmoSobis xalxebisaTvis mxardamWeri fondebi, romlebSic mniSvnelovani mizezebis gamo, mravlad iyvnen gaerTianebuli TurqeTis specsamsaxurebis warmomadgenlebi. regionSi ankaris gavlenis gafarToebas aqtiurad uwyobdnen xels, rogorc

amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi, ise dasavleTis sxva Zlieri saxelmwifoebic, radgan isini imedovnebdnen, rom TurqeTs

kvlav gamoiyenebdnen, rogorc erT-erT Semakavebel berkets, ruseTis winaaRmdeg politikuri TamaSis dros. miuxedavad didi mondomebisa da mcdelobisa, TurqeTma sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg aSkarad gadaWarbebiT Seafasa zogierTi eTnobrivi Turqulenovani naTesaoba qveynis kulturuli faqtori ar siaxlove. aRmoCnda.

sakmarisi

cetraluri aziis Turqulenovanma qveynebma marTvis sakuTari politikuri sistemebi SeimuSaves, romlebic, rbilad rom

iTqvas, evropuli demokratiis modelisagan sakmaod Sorsaa. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom TurqeTis garkveul politikur wreebSi am sakiTxis mimarT interesi ar gamqrala da isini, SeZaZlebelia, dRevandeli demokratiuli mTavrobis faruli xelis SewyobiTac, dResac aqtiurad cdiloben, grZelvadiani evraziuli politikis da gatarebis didi Sedegad erTiani sabolood mainc

ganaxorcielon saxelmwifo,

Seqmnan maTi

Turqulenovani imperiis

rac,

azriT,

iqneba

osmaleTis

mkvdreTiT aRdgena, oRond ukve XXI saukuneSi. bolo periodSi mimdinareobs TurqeTis respublikis

mTeli sagareo politikis gadasinjva, romlis mizania, Seiqmnas megobruli saxelmwifoebis rkali misi sazRvrebis perimetrze. amis magaliTebia, miuxedavad misi Zveli da strategiuli daaxloeba

mokavSiris,

vaSingtonis

ganawyenebisa,

erTgvari

iranTan, am mxriv gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia premier-ministris 158

r. erdoRanis viziti iranSi, romelic im moments daemTxva, roca oficialuri Teirani garkveuli pirobebiT daTanxmda atomuri energiis saerTaSoriso saagentos winadadebas Tavisi urani sazRvargareT brali gaamdidros. dasavleTs miuxedavad ,,ormagi amisa r.

erdoRanma

dasdo

standartebiT

moqmedebaSi" da iranis mimarT usamarTlo damokidebulebaSi, amasTan ganacxada, rom ,,xmebi iranis samxedro birTvuli

programis Sesaxeb dausabuTebelia da SesaZloa simarTles ar Seesabamebodes" [116]. aRniSnuli pozicia TurqeTis mxridan moulodneli gaxldaT dasavleTisaTvis, radgan erdoRanis am gamosvliT saxelmwifo irani ara agresor, Tavis aramed mxriv, piriqiT Teirani daCagruli dReisaTvis

gamodis.

ankarasTan farTod TanamSromlobs, rogorc sadazvervo, ise samxedro doneze mis brZolaSi ,,qurTistanis muSaTa partiis" winaaRmdeg. yuradRebis Rirsia aseve is faqti, rom TurqeTsa da irans samxedrosTan erTad sakmaod kargi ekonomikuri

urTierTobebic aqvT. gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia 2010 wlis dasawyisSi ankarisa da Teiranis mier xelmowerili xuTwliani ZviradRirebuli garigeba, romelic TurqeTis navTobisa da bunebrivi airis industriis modernizebas iTvaliswinebs. aseve mniSvnelovania TurqeTis respublikis mier

urTierTobaTa normalizacia arabul qveynebTan, upirvelesad siriasTan, romelTanac, sul raRac ramodenime wlis win

sakmaod daZabuli urTierToba hqonda [90-17]. amrigad, mimdinare periodSi ankaras yvela mezobel

saxelmwifosTan, garda somxeTisa, aqvs mWidro megobruli da ekonomikuri urTierToba. TurqeTis respublikas dRes ukve veRar ganvixilavT, rogorc ,,vaSingtonis nebis Semsrulebels" 159

[72-582],

rasac

Zalian

xSirad

abralebdnen

zogierTi

dasavleli da rusi eqspertebi da politologebi. TurqeTis respublika keTilmezoblur politikasTan

erTad, paralelurad, Tavis axlo aRmosavleTel mezoblebs mkafiod uCvenebs ,,mZlavr kunTebs". is monawileobda 1990-91 wlebis koaliciaSi quveiTidan erayis saokupacio jarebis

gasadevnad. 90-ian wlebSi man ramdenjerme Seiyvana CrdiloeT eraySi Tavisi samxedro nawilebi meamboxe ,,qurTistanis muSaTa partiis" bazebis gasanadgureblad da miuxedavad vaSingtonis ukmayofilebisa, imaves akeTebs 2007 wlidan [16_370]. mimdinare dRevandeli periodisaTvis, TurqeTis respublikis SesaZlebelia geopolitikis

ganuwyveteli istoriuli-permanentuli da cvalebadi-droebiTi maxasiaTeblebis naerTi Semdegnairad CamovayaliboT: aTasobiT wlis ganmavlobaSi xmelTaSua zRvis irgvliv yalibdeboda civilizaciebi, romlebic maSindeli maStabebiT did, msoflio politikas politika, Tanamedrove qmnidnen. ekonomika saerTaSoriso xmelTaSuazRvispira da socialuri urTierTobebis

sazogadoebis urTierTobebi

prototipia. amrigad, SegviZlia vTqvaT, rom xmelTaSua zRva iyo ,,aramarto msoflios da centri, aramed Tavad da msoflio, siRaribe,

sadac

CrdiloeTi

samxreTi,

simdidre

axalgazrdoba da xandazmuloba, sami monoTeisturi religia da sami kontinenti iyrida Tavs" [108-38]. aristoteles azriT, anatoliel xalxs ­ anatoliel

berZnebs, evropasa da azias Soris Sualeduri geografiuli pozicia ukaviaT. swored amitom erTiandeba maTSi orive

kontinentis xalxebis pozitiuri xasiaTi, ris gamoc SeiZleba vikamaToT, rom istoriulad es teritoria warmoadgens sami 160

kontinentis kulturebiT,

kombinacias enebiT, miTebiTa

sxvadasxva, da

gansxvavebuli amis

SexedulebebiT.

gaTvaliswinebiT anatoliisaTvis msoflios centris wodeba ar iqneba adekvaturi, radganac unda vaRiaroT, rom is yovelTvis iyo ,, " (sadnobi Rumeli) sxvadasxva samyaros kerZod, xalxisa, ki misi misi gardamavali geografiis wyalobiT, da

adgilmdebareobiT

aRmosavleTisa

dasavleTis, aseve CrdiloeTisa da samxreTis gzajvaredinze. TurqeTi mdebareobs evraziis centralur nawilSi. is

aris rogorc xidi, aseve mudmivi kavSiris wertili evropasa da azias Soris. aseT SemTxvevaSi, aucileblad mxedvelobaSi unda miviRoT Semdegi argumenti: ,,Zala, romelic batonobs evraziaze, akontrolebs msoflios or udides nawils, sam yvelaze warmatebul da ekonomikurad produqtiul regions...... evraziis kontrols avtomaturad mohyveba afrikis

subordinacia, rac msoflios centraluri kontinentisaTvis dasavleT periferiad naxevarsferosa gadaaqcevs.... da okeanias evrazia geopolitikur Wadrakis dafaa,

amrigad,

romelzedac globaluri pirvelobisaTvis brZola grZeldeba" [52_33].AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA TurqeTis roli respublika rasac misi iZulebulia regionSi wamyvani

iTamaSos,

zbignev azriT,

bJezinski

,,geopolitikur sayrdenebi

sayrdens"

uwodebs.

geopolitikuri

arian saxelmwifoebi, romelTa mniSvnelobamac wina planze gadainacvla ara maTi Zalidan da motivaciidan, aramed maTi mdebareobidan da maTi potenciurad mtkivneuli viTarebidan gamomdinare, romelic geo-strategiuli geopolitikuri rac moTamaSeebisaTvis sayrdenebi xSir maTi

mniSvnelovania. geografiiT

umetesad

ganisazRvrebian,

SemTxveaSi 161

maT

gansakuTrebul

rols

aniWebs an

an

mniSvnelovan rangis [52-41].

teritoriebTan moTamaSeebisaTvis

dasakavSireblad, resursebze

maRali saTqmelad

uaris

TurqeTis mdebareoba am SemTxvevaSi orives moicavs. ,,civi omis" dros TurqeTis roli sabWoTa kavSiris SeCereba iyo da ,,civi omis" dasavleTisaTvis warmatebiT dasrulebis Semdgom ki, es roli gadaizarda yofili sabWoTa miwebisaken gzis gaxsnis misiaSi, Turqulad molaparake musulmanuri

sazogadoebebis SekvriT. samwuxarod, es misia mtrulad aRiqva zogierTma rusma politikosma da TurqeTi Seiracxa amerikis mokavSire destabilizatorad, mTel islamur samyaroze

TurqeTis gabatonebis mcdelobisas, balkaneTidan yirimamde da kavkasiamde, volgispireTidan aziis centralur nawilamde da aRmosavleT cimbiramdec ki. unda aRiniSnos isic, rom

TurqeTis geopolitikuri siaxlove, isevev rogorc istoriuli kavSirebi am regionis mosaxleobasTan, yovelTvis aSinebda ruseTis kavSiri. evraziis udides mdidari energoresursebi, aniWebs, gaxda rac am regions faqtori saxelmwifos, iyo is mefis ruseTi, Tu sabWoTa

mniSvnelobas

ZiriTadi

regionaluri saxelmwifoebisa da sxva qveynebis urTierTobis mTavari regionis dinamikis gansazRvrisas, navTobis maT Soris TurqeTisac. daaxloebiTi barelamde

maStabiT 35

warmoeba 300 miliard

gaangariSebiT

miliardidan

meryeobs, romlis mTliani Rirebuleba 5 trilioni dolaria. dRiurma warmoebam ki 2020 wlisaTvis SesaZlebelia, 6 milion barelsac miaRwios [167]. maSin, roca regionze dominirebis mcdeloba aqtiur fazaSi Sevida, axali didi TamaSi daiwyo. regionis energiaze damyarebuli ekonomikuri da politikuri 162

mniSvnelobis SenarCunebis mravalricxovani amocanebi,

kaspiis

zRvis resursebis gamoyeneba, gazisa da navTobis satranzito marSutebis dacva, SemuSaveba, regionis sadenebis eTnikur usafrTxoebis sadac

amSvidebs

konfliqtebs,

,,Turquli"

faqtori da

aucilebladEmxedvelobaSiaEmisaRebi. msoflio mniSvnelobis globalur

gansakuTrebul

konteqstSi unda ganvixiloT kaspiis regionidan gazisa da navTobis transportirebis problema. dReisaTvis yvelaze

mniSvnelovani misia gaxda sisxlZarRvebis - milebis dacva, romelic tumbavs sisxls_navTobs, gulidan_evraziidan,

sxeulis_samyaros kargi da jansaRi formis SesanarCuneblad [42-156]. aseTi regionis rogorc mezoblobam kaspiuri sakiTxSi, ankaras navTobisa ise didi da

upiratesoba gazis

misca,

transportaciis saxelmwifoebis

mezobeli uTanxmoebis

regionaluri fonze.

saerTaSoriso

anatoliis naxevarkunZuli satranzito zonaa, romelic ZiriTadad abreSumis antikuri gzebze dasavleT-aRmosavleTis alternatiuli savaWro, gzis

mdebareobs.

savaWro

ganviTarebamde, romelsac adgili hqonda aRmoCenebis epoqaSi, anatolia iyo erTaderTi satranzito marSruti saerTaSoriso ekonomikuri akontrolebda dasavleT egviptis aqtivobisaTvis. sazRvao, osmalTa droidan marSrutebs suecis imperia aziidan da

satransporto yuris,

evropamde, gavliT.

sparseTis sakuTari

arxisa

mdebareobis globaluri

upiratesobis Zalauflebis

gaTvaliswinebiT

otomanebi

mopovebis Sanss xelidan ar uSvebdnen. magram revoluciurma miRwevebma, romelic satransporto sistemasTan iyo

dakavSirebuli, warmoSva axali

kavSirebi Soreul

qveynebs 163

Soris da anatoliis gavliT saxmeleTo gadazidvebma dakarges TavianTi strategiuli miSvneloba sahaerosa da sazRvao

marSutebTan SedarebiT. aseT viTarebaSic ki Tuki ganvixilavT mxolod saxmeleTo gadazidvebs, anatoliiis marSruti isev rCeba uiafes da umokles gzad aRmosavleTsa

daEdasavleTsESoris. dardanelisa da bosforis sruteebi, romlebic Sav zRvas egeosisa da xmelTaSua zRvebTan akavSirebs, isev rCebian

gadamwyveti mniSvnelobis ZiriTad geo-strategiul elementad, da regionSi stabilurobasa da usafrTxoebas uzrunvelyofen. es ori srute SavizRvispira da mis qveynebisaTvis okeaneebSi Zalas arxebis

gasasvles unari gavliT

warmoadgens sruli

makontrolebel iqonios samxedro am

Seswevs mimdinare

gavlena da

komerciul memkvidre

aqtivobebze. am

osmalTa misias

imperiis

TurqeTis Tavs

respublika, da

dResac

warmatebiT

arTmevs

inarCunebs

strategiul pozicias, magram sruteebis miSvneloba didia ara marto TurqebisaTvis, aramed mTeli msofliosaTvisac. ,,civi omis" periodSi TurqeTis geopolitikis mniSvnelovani nawili iyo sabWoTa kavSirisaTvis barieris Seqmna, misi xmelTaSua zRvaSi SeRwevis sawinaaRmdegod. strategiuli TvalTaxedviT, TurqeTis pozicia gaxldaT arsebiTi Crdilo atlantikuri aliansisaTvis, romelic bosforisa da dardanelis sruteebs akontrolebda da qmnida usafrTxo zonebs TurqeT-sabWoTa kavSirisAsazRvarze. TurqeTis roli Tbili wylebisaken ruseTis eqspansiis SeCerebis saqmeSi ara marto ,,civi omis" droindeli

araCveulebrivi movlenaa, aramed istoriuli faqtic. rusebTan

164

quCuk-kainarjis xelSekrulebamde, osmalebi iyvnen aRniSnuli sruteebis reJimis kontrolis erTaderTi Zala. me-19 saukuneSi brwyinvale portam britaneTis daxmarebiT aRidgina statusi sruteebis kontrolis ganwyoba sakiTxSi.

ingliselebis

pro-otomanuri

mniSvnelovnad

ganapiroba geostrategiulma faqtorebma. britaneTis imperia ruseTis Tbili wylebisken swrafvas windaxedulad da

frTxilad ekideboda. ruseTi, rogorc xmelTaSuazRvispireTSi erT-erTi potenciuri Zala britaneTis winaaRmdeg, mis

politikur gavlenas TurqeTze, axlo aRmosavleTze, Crdilo afrikasa da Soreul aRmosavleT aziaze seriozul safrTxes Seuqmnida. miuxedavad imisa, rom osmaleTisa da britaneTis urTierToba gauaresda brwyinvale portis mier balkaneTis ajanyebis mkacri darbevis gamo XIX saukunis bolos inglisma berlinis kongresze (13 ivnisi_13 ivlisi 1878w.) mainc osmalTa imperias dauWira mxari, riTac Tavidan aicila sruteebis

mimarT ruseTis agresia.

quCuk-kainarjis sazavo xelSekruleba ­ 1774 wlis 10-21 ivliss sofel quCuk-

kainarjSi dadebuli xelSekrulebaa, romliTac damTavrda ruseT-osmaleTis 1768-1774 wlebis omi. evropeli diplomatebis mtruli poziciisa da rTuli saSinao viTarebis miuxedavad, ruseTma mniSvnelovan Sedegebs miaRwia: gadaeca teritoria dneprsa da bugs Soris, simagreebi Sav zRvaze, kinburni, qerCi da ienikale, ruseTis savaWro flots Sav zRvaze Tavisufali naosnobisa da

sruteebSi gavlis neba darTo, kavkasiaSi ruseTis sazRvari mdinare eisa da Tergis xazze gavida, yirimis saxanos damoukidebloba mieniWa da

ganTavisuflda osmaleTis batonobisgan (Tumca batonis Secvla Tavisuflebas ar niSnavs). quCuk-kainarjis da sazavo ruseTis xelSekrulebam samxedro xeli Seuwyo zRvaze

vaWrobis

ganviTarebasa

strategiuli

poziciebis

ganviTarebas.

brwyinvale porta ­ ase uwodebdnen osmaleTis imperiis xelisuflebas

165

pirveli msoflio omis Semdeg, rodesac xalxi mixvda, rom es ar iyo omi, romelic daasrulebda yvela oms, 1923 wlis lozanis xelSekrulebiT sruteebi kvlav moeqca

saerTaSoriso politikis yuradRebis centrSi. sabolood, 1936 wlis 20 ivniss montreSi xeli moewera Savi zRvis sruteebis konvencias, romlis ZaliTac gauqmda sruteebis respublikis saerTaSoriso komisia da aRdga TurqeTis da mis

suvereniteti

sruteebsa

sanapiroebzeE[29_450]. axalma konvenciam TurqeTs mravalmxrivi ufleba-

movaleobebi moutana da saerTaSoriso konsesusis Tanaxmad, usafrTxoebis mizezebis gamo is sabolood aRiWurva

sruteebis kontrolis uflebiT. meore msoflio omis Semdeg, rodesac, rogorc

mogexsenebaT sabWoTa kavSiris saxiT gamoCnda realuri Zala, romelsac britaneTi rom misi SeeZlo ukve safrTxe aRar dabalanseba Seeqmna iyo ankarisaTvis, im SeZleboda. didi

mdgomareobaSi, TurqeTis

avanpostis dacva ruseTis agresiisagan amerikis SeerTebul Statebsa dasavluri da Crdilo atlantikur wevris alianss statusis gadaebara. mopovebis

aliansis

sistemis

Sedegad TurqeTma mSvidobian periodSi upiratesoba mianiWa sruteebis CarCoebSi, reJimis vidre ganxilvas imave globalur ganxilvas politikur calmriv,

sakiTxis

individualurEbazisze. montres konvenciiT gansazRvrulia sruteebSi savaWro da samxedro gemebis gavlis pirobebi. savaWro gemebisaTvis formalobebi,

mSvidobianobis xolo saomari

dros

dadgenilia

umniSvnelo dros

mdgomareobis

gaTvaliswinebulia 166

sxvadasxva SezRudvebi da pirobebi, omSi monawile mxareebis transportisaTvis. samxedro gemebisaTvis SemoRebul iqna

SezRudvebi tonaJze, SeiaraRebaze, aseve sruteebSi erTdroulad gamavali gemebis saerTo raodenobaze Seexeboda da saerTo tonaJze.

SezRudvebi

ZiriTadad

araSavizRvispira

saxelmwifoebs [187]. ankarisaTvis mdgomareobs, gatarebis rom konvenciis omis an dros gansakuTrebuloba sruteebSi samxedro imaSi gemebis

SezRudva

akrZalva

mTlianad

damokidebulia

TurqeTze da erTnairad vrceldeba yvela saxelmwifoze. konvencias safuZvlad udevs savaWro gemebis gavlis

Tavisuflebis principi. magram aris gansxvaveba maT mimosvlaSi mSvidobianobisa da saomari moqmedebebis dros. mSvidobian dros savaWro gemebi sargebloben Tavisuflad naosnobis sruteebSi uflebiT. Sesvlisas amasTan Semowmebis isini gavlis valdebulni mizniT, arian

gaCerdnen

sanitarul sadgurTan. amavdroulad Sesabamis uwyebebs unda acnobon monacemebi droSaze, tonaJze, marSrutze da a. S. aRniSnuli monacemebis Sesabamisad dgindeba sanitaruli

kontrolis Rirebuleba. konvenciis me-5 muxliT omis dros, roca TurqeTi ar warmoadgens sargebloben warmoadgens ekuTvnian romelime zemoT meomar monawile mxares, uflebebiT. gemebi, savaWro Tu gemebi TurqeTi ar

moyvanili mxares,

maSin

romlebic

TurqeTTan

dapirispirebul

qveyanas,

sargebloben

sruteebSi navigaciis Tavisuflebis uflebiT, im pirobiT, rom araviTar mxardaWeras ar aRmouCenen TurqeTis mowinaaRmdeges. amasTan sruteebSi isini Sedian dRisiT da sargebloben

TurqeTis xelisuflebis mier dadgenili marSrutebiT [86-18]. 167

aRniSnuli

muxlis

gansakuTrebulobas

warmoadgens

is

faqti, rom masSi gaTvaliswinebuli pirobebi moqmedebs im SemTxvevaSic Tu TurqeTi ar monawileobs omSi, magram Tvlis, rom mas uSualod emuqreba gayvana omis safrTxe. amasTan mier,

gaTvaliswinebulia

gemebis

Turqi

locmanis

magram momsaxurebis anazraurebis gareSe. amrigad, TurqeTs micemuli aqvs ufleba, Tavisi SexedulebiT gaataros an ar gaataros sruteebSi savaWro gemebi omis dros, im SemTxvevaSic ki, Tu igi ar monawileobs masSi. mSvidobianobis dros, Savi zRvis saxelmwifoebis

samxedro gemebs sruteebis gavlisas upiratesoba aqvT sxva saxelmwifoebis gemebTan. SavizRvispira qveynebis gemebma sruteSi Sesvlamde 8 dRiT adre unda samxedro acnobon

TurqeTis xelisuflebas da miawodon Sesabamisi monacemebi maTi gemis Sesaxeb. araSavizRvispira saxelmwifoebisaTvis es vada

ganisazRvreba 15 dRiT. sruteebis tranzitulad gavlis dros samxedro gemis kapitnebi, zust monacemebs gemis Sesaxeb

gauCereblad, sruteebSi Sesvlamde sadgurebs acnobeben. samxedro gankuTvnilia arian flotis mxolod damxmare sawvavis gemebi, romlebic ar

Txevadi

gadatanisaTvis,

valdebulebi

gaafrTxilon

TurqeTis

mTavroba.

aRniSnuli gemebis tonaJi ar aris gansazRvruli. sruteebs isini TiTo-TiTod gadian. maT SeiaraRebaSi SesaZlebelia iyos ori an naklebi qvemexi, romelTa kalibric ar aWarbebs 105 mms, da ori an naklebi haersawinaRo danadgari, romelTa

kalibric ar aWarbebs 75 mm-s.

168

mSvidobian

dros

sruteebSi

gamavali

yvela

ucxouri

samxedro gemis saerTo tonaJi ar unda scdebodes 15 aTas tonas, xolo gemebis raodenoba ar unda aRematebodes cxras. mxolod Savi zRvis saxelmwifoebs aqvT ufleba

garkveuli pirobebiT, tonaJis SezRudvis gareSe, sruteebSi gaiyvanon samxedro gemebi, maT Soris saxazo gemebi (saxazo gemebad iTvleba gemebi, romelTa wyalzidvac aRemateba 10 160 t-s da gaaCnia 203 mm-ze meti kalibris qvemexi). amasTan 8 128 t naklebi wyalzidvis gemebi, romelTa qvemexis kalibric aseve aRemateba naklebi wyalwevis gemebi, romelTa qvemexis kalibri ar aRemateba 155 mm).203 mm-s) [187]. akrZalulia aviamzidebis gasvla. saxazo gemebi sruteebs gadian saTiTaod erTi an ori naRmmzidis eskortiT. mSvidobian periodSi, rogorc Savi zRvis, aseve sxva

saxelmwifoebis msubuq da mcire samxedro da damxmare gemebs aqvT ufleba unda Tavisuflad daiwyos gaiaron sruteebi, zemoT magram maTi

gasvla msgavsad

dRisiT. arian

isini

aRniSnulis TurqeTis

valdebulebi

gaafrTxilon

xelisufleba da miawodon mas Sesabamisi informacia (msubuqi samxedro gemebi _ 102 t meti wyalwevisa da 10 160 t nakleni wyalwevis gemebi, romelTa qvemexebis kalibri ar aRemateba 203 mm. mcire samxedro gemi _ 102 t meti da 2 032 t) [86-48]. (swored aRniSnuli konvenciiT isargebla TurqeTis xelisuflebam da sruteSi Sesvlis ufleba ar misca saqarTvelo-ruseTis 2008 wlis agvistos omis msvlelobisas, SeerTebuli Statebis mier, humanitaruli misiiT gamogzavnil or samxedro gems, radgan isini ar Seesabamebodnen konvenciiT dadgenil standartebs, ris Semdegadac amerikis xelisufleba iZulebuli gaxda

169

saqarTvelos mimarTulebiT SedarebiT mcire zomis xomaldebi gamoegzavna). amrigad, konvenciis gansakuTrebulobas warmoadgens is faqti, rom TurqeTis xelisuflebis ufleba, miiRos

gadawyvetileba samxedro gemebis gatarebis Sesaxeb vrceldeba im situacizaec, rodesac TurqeTi fiqrobs, rom igi imyofeba saomari an politikuri safrTxis winaSe. aseT SemTxvevaSi TurqeTis mTavrobas SeuZlia, TavianTi portebisakenac ki, ar gaataros im saxelmwifoTa gemebi, romlis poziciac mas

saxifaTod eCveneba. konvenciis meore gansakuTrebulobaa sruteebis

gavlisaTvis saWiro uflebis miRebis formalurobebis dadgena da gasvlis procedura. isini zRudaven Savi zRvis

saxelmwifoebis samxedro gemebis operatiul SesaZleblobebs da warmoadgenen, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, romelime raionSi, raime flotis koncentrirebis iwvevs xelis SemSlel faqtors.

aRniSnuli

sakiTxi

ruseTis

mxaris

ukmayofilebas,

radganac miuxedavad im faqtisa, rom xmelTaSua zRvaSi myof ruseTis eskadras teqnikurad SeuZlia miiRos daxmareba Savi zRvis flotisagan sami-oTxi dRis ganmavlobaSi, magram im SemTxvevaSi miscems. miuxedavad mniSvneloba satransporto radgan mas zemoT aRniSnulisa, dReisaTvis yureebis da Tu mas amis uflebas TurqeTis xelisufleba

samxedro sferosTan Semdeg, rac

TvalsazrisiT SedarebiT kaspiuri

savaWro

gacilebiT navTobi

naklebia.

ukanaskneli yvelaze is

aTwleulebis popularuli industrialur

saerTaSoriso Tema gaxda, portebs,

politikis

erT-erTi

SekiTxvam,

rogor

mivawodoT

saerTaSoriso

sazogadoebis 170

yuradReba

daimsaxura.

sazRvao

gadazidvebi,

rogorc

milsadenebiT gadazidvis alternativa, Zalzed mniSvnelivania. yureebSi garemos usafrTxoebis mizniT TurqeTis uaris

miuxedavad am sakiTxis ganxilva kvlavac grZeldeba. amrigad, TurqeTis respublikis yureebi, ara marto inarCuneben TavianT geopolitikur da strategiul mniSvnelobas, aramed maTi

saerTaSoriso da komerciuli mniSvnelobaDdRiTidRe Zalian swrafAaRmasvlasEganicdis. anatolias adgili uWiravs msoflio sami kunZulebs Soris aziis, centraluri evropisa da

kontinentis

xmelTaSua zRvis gavliT manZilze derefani jvarosnuli

afrikis gadakveTasTan. saukuneebis is gamoiyeneboda da rogorc piriqiT. miwisaken

dampyrobelTaTvis dasavleTidan omebis dros

aRmosavleTisaken anatolia iyo

wminda

mimavali gza, romelic musulmanebs, ebraelebsa da qristianebs Soris kulturaTaSoris am gavlenasa da gamocdilebebs daaCqara

afarToebda.

multikulturulma

interaqciam

tradiciuli feodaluri sistemis rRveva, romelsac dasavleT evropaSi mxars eklesia uWerda da evropelebs socialuri da ekonomikuri cxovrebis axali stili gaacno. anatoliis miwaze cxovrebis sxvadasxva stili da religiis axleburi gageba erTmaneTs harmoniulad Seewyo. es maxasiaTebeli iyo

yvelaze mniSvnelovani elementi osmalTa saxelmwifos Sida mSvidobisa (otomanTa imperiaSi 3 oficialuri religia iyo _ islami, iudaizmi da qristianoba), romelic TiTqmis 600 weli gagrZelda. miuxedavad TrakiiT hqondaT imisa, rom osmalTa teritoria didi evropaSi survili

SemoisazRvreba, dasavleTiT

maT

mmarTvelebs

gafarToebisa,

rasac

warmatebiT 171

arTmevdnen kidec Tavs, swored am dapyrobiTi omebis Sedegad osmaleTis imperia SeiZleba ganvixiloT rogorc balkaneTis imperia, imperia sxvadasxva aspeqtSi. XV dan XIX saukunis CaTvliT balkaneTis naxevarkunZulze ubadlo iyo da

balkaneTis didi

mosaxleobis hqonda

socialur-istoriuli sxvadasxva

evoluciaze gziT,

gavlena

mniSvnelovani

rogoricaa enebi, miTebi, tradiciebi da rwmenebi. Tavad sityva ,,balkan" Turqulia da "mTian areals" niSnavs. miuxedavad imisa, rom balkaneTi arastabiluri regioni iyo, sadac TurqeTis Tanamonawileobis SesaZlebloba aTwleulebis manZilze ,,civi omis" pirobebis wyalobiT friad SeizRuda, socialisturi blokis dezintegraciam TurqeTis respublika istoriuli kavSirebis gamosworebisa da balkaneTis regionSi ufro mniSvnelovani adgilis damkvidrebisakn waiyvana [55-146]. dReisaTvis procents, TurqeTis kavSiri mosaxleobis aqvs daaxloebiT 10

ojaxuri

balkaneTis

sxvadasxva

nawilis mosaxleobasTan. amitomac ankaras jer kidev aqvs mniSvnelovani gavlena aRniSnul regionze misi istoriuli, eTnikuri da religiuri kavSirebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

es gavlena kargad ganmarta maria todorovam, romelic wers: ,,osmaluri radgan Savi memkvidreobis Zieba balkanelebSi osmalebi uSedegoa, [97-68]. TurqeTis yvelaze am zRvas

balkanelebi zRvis 3 ­

Tavad Crdilo zRvisa, auzi

arian"

gagrZeleba aris erT-erTi regionSi.

garsSemortymuli strategiuli

sazRvao

evraziis

uZveles droSi arastumarTmoyvares anu ,,Axenos" magram Savi mogvianebiT

eZaxdnen,

,,Euxine", anu stumarTmoyvare zRva uwodes. gaanalizebisas mWidro es metafora naTlad da 172

zRvis

istoriis

gamoxatavs

geografiis

kavSirs

politikur

socialur

pirobebTan.

maSin,

roca

SavizRvispira omis"

qveynebis periodSi

mravalmxrivi

urTierToba

,,civi

,,dapirispirebulidan" ,,TanaarsebuliT" da ,,TanamSromluriT" Seicvala, bolo aTwleulebis statusi ganmavlobaSi, mniSvnelovnad Savi zRvis

geostrategiuli

gaizarda.

XV _ XVI saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi Savi zRva iTvleboda Siga wylad, did tbad mis statusTan da aranairi argumenti ar arsebobda XVII saukuneSi, Savi zRvis

dakavSirebiT.

teritoriul wylebSi ruseTis Sesvlidan arcTu didi xnis Semdeg, am sakiTxis mniSvnelobam saerTaSorisoExasiaTiEmiiRo. saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi zRvisa da sruteebis

kontrolisaTvis regionaluri dapirispireba ufro da ufro izrdeboda da kulminacias msoflio omis wlebSi miaRwia. ,,civi omis" periodSi, rodesc SavizRvispira qveynebi or

dapirispirebul

samxedro-politikur

banakebSi

iyvnen

ganawilebulni, romelTa Sorisac mxolod TurqeTi gaxldaT pro-dasavlurad garemocviT ganwyobili, ankaras cxovreba uxdeboda. mtris dacvaze TurqeTs aZlevdnen.

gamowveul

daZabulobaSi

orientirebuli damoukideblad

ucxoeli moqmedebis

politikosebi arasodes

saSualebas

aqamde arc mas da arc mis mezobel zRvispira saxelmwifos ar hqonda Sansi da saSualeba Savi zRvis ekonomikuri

Rirebulebis wina planze wamowevisa. ,,civi omis" dasrulebisa da sabWoTa kavSiris saaSkaraoze daSlis Semdeg, Savi zRvis grZelma

sanapirom

gamoitana

TurqeTis

respublikis

xedvebis axali areali da ganzomileba, aseTia magaliTad am auzis samxreT ganxilva aRmosavleT da Sua da dasavleT evropis, aseve am

kavkasiisa

aziis

koridorad

[76-161].

konteqstSi TurqeTis respublikis xelmZRvanelobam wamoayena 173

ramdenine geo-ekonomikuri proeqti, rogoricaa magaliTad, Savi zRvis qveynebis ekonomikuri TanamSromloba (BSEC) da

ekonomkuriATanamSromlobisAorganizaciaE(ECO). anatolia gagrZelebaa, religiuri religiis axlo sadac omi mier aRmosavleTis asobiT wlis teritoriis ganmavlobaSi sami Crdilo ramdenime

warmoiSva, wminda miwis

romelic

monoTeisturi miznad.

kontrols

isaxavda

regionis religiuri mniSvneloba XI saukuneSi

aRiniSna da

aqedan gamomdinare jvarosnuli omebi, romlebic mimarTuli iyo musulmanTaA batonobis winaaRmdeg, saukuneebi gagrZelda. XXI saukuneSi ,,civilizaciebis konfliqtTan" dakavSirebuli argumenti, rogorc saerTaSoriso, popularuli Tema, regionis multireligiurma kvlav win wamowia. regionis mimdinare komerciul saqmianobis istoriuli mniSvneloba ar is Semoifargleba aseve moicavs xasiaTma msoflio diplomatiur arenaze

religiuri komponents, centrs.

konfliqtebiT, rogorc Camoyalibda

mtkice axlo

ekonomikuri aRmosavleTis

istoriuli savaWro potenciali. regioni gaxda XX saukunis energo momaragebis ZiriTadi wyaro. am regionis qveynebi da

msoflios

umsxvilesi

energo

mimwodeblebi

arian

amitom axloAaRmosavleTiAglobalur politikur ekonomikaSi mniSvnelovaniErolisESesrulebasAganagrZobs. regionis politikuri kontrolisaTvis brZola didi xania interesebis permanentul dapirispirebis sferos warmoadgens. osmaleTis saxelmwifos imperiis dacemis Semdeg regionidan axlo otomanTa

gasvlam,

Sedegad

aRmosavleTis

politikuri sistemis Secvla moitana, romelic XX saukunis

174

adreul wlebamde globalur ZalTa dapirispirebis fokuss warmoadgenda. omTaSua periodSi britaneTma da safrangeTma

regionaluri qveynebis marTvis mandatebi miiRes, magram meore msoflio omis damTavrebasTan erTad gegmaSi axali

politikuri modelis Seqmnis sakiTxi dadga, romelic axlo aRmosavleTsac moicavda. axlo kategoriad aRmosavleTis iyofodnen: axladSeqmnili saxelmwifoebi da or pro-

pro-dasavlurad

socialisturad. maT Soris ideologiuri dapirispireba gaxda erT-erTi ZiriTadi damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba axlo

aRmosavleTis politikisa 1950-1980 wlebisaTvis. amasTanave uTanxmoebebi, navTobze dafuZnebuli omebTan krizisi erTad da

israel-arabeTis

regionis

politikis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani damaxasiaTebeli niSani iyo. miuxedavad imisa, rom TurqeTi araa navTobmwarmoebeli qveyana, misi, rogorc transportiori qveynis statusma, specifikuri datvirTva miiRo, xolo geografiulma mdebareobam mzardi energo moTxovnis gamo, dasavleTis industriuli qveynebis mxridan ufro didi mniSvneloba SeiZina. aqedan gamomdinare Tuki axlo aRmosavleTs ganvixilavT rogorc harthland-s, maSin igi SeiZleba CaiTvalos sistemis sisxlis mimoqcevis ZiriTad, mTavar organod. regionis politikis kidev erTi fundamentaluri sakiTxi iyo 1948 wels israelis saxelmwifos Seqmna. sakiTxi axali gaxda

saxelmwifos

warmoqmna

mniSvnelovani

adgilobrivi qveynebis urTierTobaSi da mTeli politikuristoriuli konteqsti xelaxla ganisazRvra israelamde da misi Semdgomi periodiT. am mxriv TurqeTisa da israelis 175

urTierToba ormxriv diplomatiur urTierTobaze ufro meti iyo. orive qveyanam, romlebic arabebisagan sakmaod

gansxvavebul ideebs iziarebda, Camoayaliba axali kavSiri, romelsac analitikosma alan makovskim "gansxvavebis SegrZneba" uwoda. es ki or qveyanas erTmaneTTan aaxloebda da aSorebda maT axlo aRmosavleTis sxva qveynebs. swored zemoT aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, 1991 wlis

bolos ankaram elCis doneze aamaRla Tavisi diplomatiuri urTierToba sistematiuri, sawarmoebi tel-avivSi. erToblivi 1994 wlidan xorcieldeboda israelis armiis,

samxedro TurqeTis

wrTvnebi,

uzrunvelyofen

respublikis

TviTmfrinavebisa, Sveulmfrenebis da tankebis modernizacias. ocdameerTe saukunis meore damdegisaTvis, adgilze iyo siaxloviT amerikis TurqeTi

israelisaTvis

SeerTebuli

Statebis Semdeg [16_369]. miuxedavad unda aRiniSnos, tradiciuli rom mokavSireobisa, aucieleblad am or wlis natos

dReisaTvis sagrZnoblad ankaram

urTierTobebi gacivda. 2009

saxelmwifos oqtomberis

Soris dasawyisSi

Tavis

teritoriaze

samxedro wrvTnebSi monawileobaze israels uari ganucxada. TurqeTis nabiji mas premier-ministris gadaadgmevina r. erdoRanis ganmartebiT, azrma, es

sazogadoebrivma

romelic

arcTu keTilganwyobilia maTi tradiciuli mokavSiris mimarT Razis seqtorSi maTi samxedroebis moqmedebebis gamo. Tumca zogierTi eqsperti erdoRanis am gadawyvetilebas sxva mizeziT xsnis nabiji, da varaudobs, rom TurqeTis premier-ministris es

SesaZloa, axlo

mianiSnebdes

mniSvnelovan kerZod:

geopolitikur

cvlilebaze

aRmosavleTSi,

,,TanamSromlobis

176

dasrulebaze TurqeTisa da israelis samxedro Zalebs Soris" [144]. zemoT aRniSnuli natos samxedro manevrebi 12 oqtombers unda dawyebuliyo, magram ganusazRvreli vadiT gadaido mas Semdeg, rac amerikis SeerTebulma Statebma da italiam,

israelisadmi solidarobis niSnad, masSi monawileobaze uari Tqves. TurqeTis CaiTvalos, Tu gadawyvetileba gaviTvaliswinebT moulodnelad ankarisa da ar unda

Telavivis

mravalwliani aliansis nen-nela Sesustebas ganvlili 2007 wlis manZilze. parizSi moRvawe eqspertis, doroTe Smidis SefasebiT: ,,erdoRanis nabiji aCvenebs, rom TurqeTis armia da umaRlesi oficrebi TandaTan kargaven Tavis Zlier gavlenas, romelsac mravali wlis manZilze axdendnen isini ankaris sagareo politikur kursze" [138]. Smidi aRniSnavs, rom

TurqeTi amJamad anviTarebs axal saxelmwifo xedvas mTels Tavis samezoblosTan procesi mimarTebiT. qveynis amave dros mimdinareobs

cvlilebebis

SigniT

Zalalauflebis

organizebaSi, ris Sedegadac, garkveulwil sustdeba TurqeTis armiis unari, Tavs moaxvios politikuri Sexedulebebi

mTavrobas. ,,am ori procesiT, romlebic, yovel SemTxvevaSi, TurqeTis mxridan moCans, SeiZleba nawilobriv aixsnas

bolodroindeli

uaryofiTi

procesi

israelTan

urTierTibaSi" [138], dasZens parizSi moRvawe eqsperti. aRniSnul sakiTxSi doreTe Smids srulyofilad ar

eTanxmeba, kembrijSi moRvawe politologi jorj jofe, misi SefasebiT, jer naTeli ar aris dasruldeba Tu ara es

procesi israelTan TurqeTis aliansis bolos moRebiT. jofe Razis incidents Tvlis iseT movlenad, romelmac daarwmuna 177

ankara, rom Tavs uflebas ver miscems israelTan metismetad axlo urTierToba SeinarCunos da amis gamo cdilobs misgan TandaTanobiT distancirebas. ,,jer ar aris naTeli, miva Tu ara saqme saboloo ganxeTqilebamde da urTierTobis

transformirebamde. magram savsebiT naTelia, rom garkveuli fundametaluri cvlileba xdeba" [144], ambobs jofe. magram unda aRvniSnoT, rom msgavsad doroTe Smidisa, misi azriTac, es cvlileba ireklavs saSinao-politikur da armiis cvlilebebs Soris

TurqeTSi,

mTavrobasa

sardlobas

urTierTobebis TvalsazrisiT [144]. TurqeTi aziis dasavleT nawilia da kavkasiisa da

centraluri aziis qveynebTan da xalxebTan teritoriuli da sulieri kavSirebi aqvs. am teritoriebTan kontaqtebisa da kavSirebis kavkasia da warmoSobasTan centraluri erTad azia ,,civi omis" periodSi, da

TurqeTis

politikuri

ekonomikuri interesebisaTvis yvelaze mimzidveli teritoria aRmoCnda [70-322]. kaspiis zRvis auzi, romelic kerZo da

saxelmwifo kompaniebis interesis sferos warmoadgenda da mTeli msoflios maStabiT regionis sasicocxlo mniSvnelobas erTiorad aamaRlebda, rogorc energo mowodebebis, aseve

saerTaSoriso bazris sferoSi. saSiSroebam geostartegiuli gacnobierebam CineTis pozicia mxridan gaamyara. da post-sabWoTa momavali amerikis regionis

konfliqtis SeerTebuli

ruseTis

federacia

Statebi, centraluri aziis qveynebis kontrolis mimarT ufro mgrZnobiareebi gaxada. amerikis gansakuTrebulma CarTvam axlo aRmosavleTis regionTan erTad post-sabWoTa sivrceSi 11

seqtembris teraqtis Semdeg, regionSi ZalTa balansis axali gageba ganapiroba. 178

uzbekeTSi samxedro Zalebis zrdasTan erTad amerikam yirgizeTSi regionis movaleobas yirgizeTi evraziisa istoriuli, daiwyo samxedro sahaero bazebis mSenebloba, lojistikuri unda zols romlebic centris rom

ZalebisaTvis amasTan ar

Seasrulebs. sakmaod da did

daviviwyoT, iyofs

sasazRvro Turqul da

CineTTan. misi

CineTis

sazogadoebasTan

politikuri

fsiqologiuri rogorc Cans,

kavSirebis axali

gaTvaliswinebiT.

TurqeTma,

pasuxismgebloba da davalebebi SeiZina. XX saukunis bolo periodis axlo aRmosavleTis

qveynebis politikuri arenis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani aspeqti hidro-politika gaxda, radganac globaluri

standartebis mixedviT axlo aRmosavleTi wylis resursebis mxriv mdidar regions ar warmoadgens. TurqeTis respublika ki akontrolebs maxlobeli aRmosavleTis wylis auzebs,

saxeldobr mdinareebs wylis resursebze axlo

_ evfratsa da tigross, misi batonoba gaxlavT is mniSvnelovani Soris faqtori, usvams axal

romelic ankaris

aRmosavleTis da

qveynebs

xazs

prioritets

TurqeTis

geopolitikas

ganzomilebas sZens. regionSi wylis simcire ar Semoifargleba mxolod israeliT, siriiT, iordaniiTa da erayiT, igi agreTve exeba marokos, tuniss, alJirs da arabeTis naxevarkunZulis im saxelmwifoebs, romlebic wylis resursebis krizisis saTaveSi dganan, mas Semdeg, rac gruntis wylebis maragis dawevam

saxifaTo zRvars miaRwia. sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg TurqeTis geopolitikis mTavari RerZi ar Secvlila, igi Tavis prioritetul mizanTan, evrokavSirSi gaerTianebasTan erTad, kvlav dasavleTisaken

anu zRvis saxelmwifoebisaken darCa mimarTuli. miuxedavad 179

amisa,

ankaris

sagareo-politikuri

prioritetebis

sistemam

mcire cvlilebebi mainc ganicada da regionSi Seqmnil axal viTarebasTan SesabamisobaSi iqna moyvanili. 90-iani wlebidan dRemde, ramdenjerme iyo da SeiZleba axlac aris SesaZlebloba, kidev erTxel momxdariyo an

moxdes mkveTri geopolitikuri Zvra da TurqeTi kvlav gaxdes mkacri Seaqcios islamuri zurgi saxelmwifo zRvis an ufro metic, da saerTod

saxelmwifoebs

dauaxlovdes

xmeleTs anu hartlands, romlis erT-erT mTavar RerZadac, rogorc mogexsenebaT, dRes sabWoTa kavSiris memkvidre,

ruseTis federacia iTvleba [75-139]. movlenaTa aseTi ganviTarebis perspeqtiva savsebiT

SesaZlebelia, Tuki gaviTvaliswinebT TurqeTis saxelmwifos istoriul fesvebs. sabazo impulsi TurqeTis geopolitikisa Cans Turquli eTnogenezisis udevs uZveles istoriul fenaSi,

romelic

safuZvlad

TurqTa

istoriul

amaRlebas,

romliTac SeZles maT giganturi msoflio saxelmwifos Seqmna, osmaleTis imperiis saxiT. rogorc Tanamedrove geopolitikosi a. dugini miuTiTebs, am didi sasulTnos birTvul fragmentad rCeba Tanamedrove TurqeTi. tramalis momTabare Zveli Turqebi iyvnen mkveTrad gamoxatuli kontinentaluri, saxmeleTo gadaadgilebis

tipiuri matarebelni. isini eTnosad Camoyalibdnen evraziis sivrceebSi. aqve Seiasixlxorces swrafva. eqspansiis sxva energia da

Zalauflebisaken

rogorc

evraziuli

momTabereebi: monRolebi, avarebi, goTebi alanebi da a. S. Turqebic iyvnen momTabare imperiis kulturis matarebelni, ipyrobdnen ra udabnos saZovrebsa da raionebs, romlebic dasaxlebuli iyo mSvidobiani mosaxleobiT. 180

momTabare imperiaTa istoria, ganuyofeli nawilia mTeli evraziis istoriisa. geopolitikis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli h. makinderi am imperiebs uwodebs ,,xmeleTis yaCaRebs" [41-98]. kerZod, es integrirebadi impulsi, romelic modis kontinentis siRrmidan zolidan, da maqsimalurad aris dacilebuli sazRvao am

warmoadgens

evraziis

geopolitikur

sivrces.

azridan gamomdinare Tanamedrove TurqeTs, rogorc osmaleTis imperias, fesvebi miudis pirdapir evraziuli stiqiisaken da amitom arqaistuli evraziis sawyisi TurqTa geopolitikur Wiplarad unda CaiTvalos [41-98]. meore done es sakuTriv osmalTa imeriis dros

Camoyalibebuli TurqTa geopolitikaa, sadac xdeba Tvisobrivi cvlileba, radgan moqmedebaSi Semodis islamis faqtori, rac iwvevs Turqebis mier dapyrobil teritoriaze rTuli eTnikurkulturuli struqturis Camoyalibebas. aq Cven saqme gvaqvs geopolitikur simbiozTan, romelic Camoyalibda da urTules moicavda

mravalsaukunovan

geopolitikur

sistemad

xmelTaSua zRvis da axlo aRmosavleTis SfoTian sivrces. arabuli misces laSqrobani, unda romlebmac islamis gavrcelebas saxmeleTo gamoirCeoda sadac

sawyisi,

mivakuTvnoT zRvis

kontinentur, auzi

laSqrobebs.

xmelTaSua

urTierTsawinaaRmdego erTmaneTs saxmeleTo

geopolitikuri da sazRvao

tendenciebiT,

principebi

enacvleboda. romis

magaliTisaTvis

SegviZlia

gavixsenoT

saxmeleTo

dapirispireba sazRvao karTagenTan. es dapirispireba moicavda qveynebs: sirias, egviptes, mesopotamias, saberZneTs, sparseTs da a.S.

181

osmalTa geopolitikuri

imperiam

Sekriba mkacri

mTeli

es

rTuli qveS da

konglomerati

kontrolis

SeZlo ubralo samxedro eTikiT mravalferovani masa erTian geopolitikur sistemad SeedeuRabebina. magram unda aRiniSnos isic, rom daamyares ra kontroli am veeberTela sivrceze, maRribidan dawyebuli balkaneTamde da kavkasiamde, Turqebi TandaTan iTvisebdnen im geopolitikur tendenciebs, romlebic am civilizaciebs axasiaTebda. TurqeTis saerTaSoriso poziciam otomanTa droidan

dRemde, imperialur ZalTa konfliqtebis pirobebSi, romlebic miwisa Tu bunebrivi simdidrisaTvis ibrZvian, aqcia is

geopolitikur saukunoebrivi osmaleTis klubis"

qvakuTxedad, brZolis

saerTaSoriso TurqeTis ,,imperialur

ZalTa winapari ZalTa misi

pirobebSi. ukve iyo

imperia

erTxel da

[75-275]

wevri

gasafarToeblad

gamoiyena

geografiuli

aqtivebi,

rogorc

politikuri

instrumenti.

magram dacemis periodSi, saxelmwifo, romelic marTavda did teritorias da akontrolebda axlo Crdilo afrikas, Sav

xmelTaSuazRvispireTs, zRvasa da anatolias, ,,mesame

aRmosavleTs, tipiuri

balkaneTs, didi

itanjeboda Tavis romis

qveynis

sindromiT. miznad

romad" yofili

gamocxadebiT, imperiis

osmalebi

isaxavdenen

sazRvrebamde

misvlas, maTTvis saubedurod isini

ver gaeqcnen igive beds,

rac gaiziara romis imperiam da sabolood meoce saukunis dasawyiSi, Sewyvita.

kerZod

1923

wels,

osmalTa

imperiam

arseboba

konglomerati ­ ,,Segrovebuli", ,,Semkvrivebuli", sxvadasxvagvari nawilebis an

sagnebis meqanikuri, SemTveviTi SeerTeba.

182

TurqeTis fundamentaluri Tanamedrove

geopolitikuri etapi SeiZleba anda

istoriis davaxasiaToT,

mesame rogorc

nacionaluri,

postimperiuli.

brwyinvale

portas Zalaufleba vrceldeboda ra mTel xmelTaSua zRvis sivrceze, droTa ganmavlobaSi Semcirda da moicva erTi faqtma Turqebi birTvs,

konkretuli warmoSva

saxelmwifos axali

sazRvrebi. problema;

aRniSnulma rodesac eTnikur

mravali

warmoadgendnen

imperiuli

administraciis

nacionaluri sawyisi emTxveoda geopolitikur, socialur da religiur gadaqcevis kerZod, misias, magram imperiidan erovnul saxelmwifod problema, da

Semdeg,

nacionalur somxebis,

umciresobaTa

berZnebis,

bulgarelebis,

lazebis

qurTebis warmoCnda axal WrilSi. CvenTvis kargad aris cnobili, rom Tanamedrove TurqeTi aris rkinis nebisyofiT SeduRabebuli da safuZvlad udevs mkacri samxedro sawyisi, Tandayolili sazogadoebrivi da nacionaluri principebiT. erToba magram, Sekruli mocemuli samxedro nacionalurpolitikuri

saxelmwifoebrivi

struqturebiT, qveyanas karnaxobda ukve axal geopolitikur xazs: axal TurqeTs aRar SeeZlo liderobis pretenzia

ganecxadebina musulmanur samyaroSi, radgan igi revoluciis Semdeg gaxda nacionaluri, sekularuli, saero saxelmwifo, romelsac Znelad Tu ukve misi sagareo da saSinao muslimuri politikis gamo

gaugebdnen umravlesi

tipiuri

saxelmwifoebi. warmoiqmna

amasTanave

musulmanuri

qveynebi

antiosmaluri, ganmanTavisuflebeli, nacionaluri politikis fonze ,,didi britaneTis mxardaWeris wyalobiT" [33-218]. osmalTa wlidan imperialisturi nacionaluri funqciis dakargvisa Seqmnis da 1923

axali

saxelmwifos

Semdeg, 183

TurqeTis gverdiT aRmoCndnen Zveli da axali mtrebi: arabeTis qveynebi, ruseTi, saberZneTi, bulgareTi, iugoslavia da irani. aseTi mZime situacia moiTxovda qveynis gareT Zlieri

mxardamWeris povnas, aseT mokavSired Turqebi, maTi winaprebis msgavsad, germaniis XX saukunis 30-iani magram II wlebidan msoflio moiazrebdnen omis Semdeg,

saxelmwifos,

rogorc zemoT aRiniSna, mTeli rigi mizezebis gamo, maTi strategiuli geopolitikuri partnioroba, interesebis pirvel rigSi, Tavisive amerikis

gaTvaliswinebiT,

SeerTebilma Statebma sakuTar Tavze aiRo [85-18]. aRniSnuli Tvalsazrisidan naTlad Cans, rom TurqeTi didi geopolitikuri, gadavida kontinentaluri mcire da da imperiuli praqtikul,

azrovnebidan

misTvis

regionalur geopolitikur azrovnebaze. unda aRiniSnos, rom am sworad mimarTuli nabijis Sedegad TurqeTis respublika gaxda ra Crdilo atlantikuri aliansis sruluflebiani

wevri (1952w.), oficialurad SeuerTda zRvis saxelmwifoTa jgufs da uaryo rom evraziuli ZiriTadad da saxmeleTo da faqtorebi.

aRsaniSnavia, mxardamWeri akritikeben

rusi da

evraziulobis dRemde rom

geopolitikosebi TurqeTis am

Teoretikosebi, da

gadawyvetilebas

Tvlian,

natosTan aliansi wyvets mxolod taqtikur amocanebs, magram ar gamodgeba maStabur geopolitikur perspeqtivad. sxva

sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, maTi azriT, TurqeTi rom gaxdes didi geopolitikis istoria,

moTamaSe: axali

unda

gadafaros

Tavisi

axali ipovos

dasaxos

politikuri

perspeqtivebi,

aq igulisxmeba germaneli generlis liman fon sandersis misia, romelic mTavrobam moiwvia 1913 wels, armiis reorganizaciisa da

osmaleTis

ganviTarebis mizniT.

184

ufro

saimedo

da

erTguli

partniorebi,

romelTa

geopolitikur proeqtebTan ankara unda iyos solidaruli [42213]. ra Tqma unda, rusi mecnierebis aRniSnuli mosazreba TurqeTis Rirebulebebs, respublikas daaSorebs Camoacilebs dasavluri demokratiul da

civilizaciisagan

miuxedavad imisa, rom qemal aTaTurqi Tavis droze momxre iyo ruseTTan urTierTobebisa, dRes misi qveynis zomaze metad daaxloeba ,,Crdiloel daTvTan", uSualod qemaliseul

nacionalur-demokratiul principebze uaris Tqmas gamoiwvevs. ,,civi omis" periodSi TurqeTis respublikasa da

dasavleT evropas Soris urTierTobebi iyo dominirebuli. Tuki 70-ian wlebSi ankaris evropasTan da urTierTobebs TavdacviTi

gansazRvravda

mxolod

ekonomikuri

TanamSromloba 90-ian wlebSi evropelTaTvis dadga sakiTxi qveyanaSi demokratiis gaZlierebisa da srulyofisaTvis.

TurqeTi ki, rogorc ukve zemoT mogaxseneT, gamomdinareobda ra sakuTari Tavis usafrTxoebis dasacavad, kvlav moqmedebda ,,civi omis" mentalitetis logikiT. es exeba represiebs

qurTuli umciresobisa da memarcxene, radikaluri partiebis mimarT. aRniSnuli sakiTxebisadmi sxvadasxvanairma midgomam

seriozuli dabrkolebebi warmoSva evropelebisa da Turqebis urTierTobebSi, ris gamoc dRemde gaurkvevelia TurqeTis

respublikis statusi evropul TanamegobrobaSi. am tendenciam, rogorc ukve mogexsenebaT, kunZul kviprosisa da qurTuli mosaxleobisadmi arsebuli problemebis gamo, Tavi iCina ukve 70 iani wlebidan: igi gamwvavda 90-ian wlebSi da seriozuli

185

uaryofiTi

roli

iTamaSa

TurqeTis

evrostruqturebSi

integrirebis gzaze. amavdroulad politikur da ankara ganicdida reformebSic. uiRblobas Sida da

ekonomikur

evrokavSirisa

TurqeTis urTierToba erT-erTi aqtualuri da mwvave sakiTxia Turquli sazogadoebisaTvis. es SeiZleba avxsnaT imiT, rom TurqeTis wevris mcdeloba, statuss, miaRwios aiZulebs mravali swrafva weli evrokavSiris mas srulyofili arCevani rac

gaakeTos mas

evropeizaciisaken. Turqebma daiwyes

gavida

Semdeg,

gamxdariyvnen

evropuli

ojaxis

wevrebi, magram miuxedavad amisa, jer-jerobiT mizans mainc ver miaRwies. icaven ra uflebebs evrosabWoSi gaerTianebaze, Turqebi xazs usvamen, sxva qveynebTan SedarebiT TavianT xangZliv

urTierTobebs evrosabWosTan, miRwevebs ekonomikur sferoSi, TavianT xangZliv wevrobas Crdilo atlantikur aliansSi da agreTve saerTaSoriso sazogadoebas axseneben rom islamuri TurqeTis

fundamentalizmis respublika musulmanur konstituciiT swored

safrTxes.

cnobilia, im romelic

erTaderTi saxelmwifoTa

gaxlavT Soris,

ormocdaTormet oficialurad,

upirispirdeba fundamentalizms. amitom zogierTi amerikeli strategi urCevs

amerikis xelmZRvanelobasa da evropis wamyvan saxelmwifoebs aqtiurad daiwyon moqmedebebi erT-erT aseT TurqeTis mxardamWerad evrokavSirSi gvevlineba

integraciisaTvis.

zbignev bJezinski: ,,xeli rom SevuwyoT stabilurobas samxreT kavkasiaSi, dauSvas agreTve TurqeTis centralur gaucxoeba aziaSi evropis amerikam mimarT... ar unda

TurqeTi,

romelic iqneba gariyuli evropisagan metwilad mogvevlineba, 186

rogorc

islamisturi sesiaze,

TurqeTi" rodesac ankaridan

[52_203]. uaryves

1997

wels

evroparlamentis gawevrianeba

TurqeTis sagareo

evrokavSirSi,

wargzavnilma

saqmeTa ministrma gaakeTa gancxadeba, romliTac agrZnobina dasavleTs, rom TurqeTs ar gauWirdeba sxva gzis moZebnac, man ganacxada, rom ,,evrosabWo ar aris erTaderTi alternativa TurqeTisaTvis da TurqeTs ar sWirdeba evrosabWo" [109-20-26 12. 1997]. cnobilma Turqma publicistma orhan Sahinlerma

aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ganacxada: ,,evrosabWos uari TurqeTis miRebaze es saxelovani warumateblobaa, romelic gvexmareba Cven SevinarCunoT erovnuli TviTmyobadoba" [11026.12.1997]. aseve mniSvnelovania am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, Cvens mier zemoT naxsenebi Cengiz aqtaris morigi gancxadeba aRniSnul sakiTxTan moZraobaze dakavSirebiT: nerviulobis ,,TurqeTis nacvlad, aRmosavleTisken imas unda

dasavleTi

ufrTxodes, rom nawyeni TurqeTi ruseTisaken ar wavides". igi Tvlis, rom ruseTi yvelanairad efereba am qveyanas, romelic misTvis energetikuli miwodebebis amis TvalsazrisiT gamoa, rom sakvanZo kremli

gamanawilebelia,

swored

gansakuTrebiT uwyobs xels ruseTSi Turquli investiciebis gazrdas [144]. 2001 wlis zafxulis bolos TurqeTi ekonomikuri da politikuri krizisis piks miuaxlovda. mTavroba iZulebuli gaxda mZime mdgomareobidan gamosvlisaTvis rigi ekonomikuri reformebi gaetarebina, magram amis Sedegad Turquli lira kidev ufro daeca da gaufasurda. paralelurad, mkveTrad

sagazeTo statia

187

gaizarda qveyanaSi kriminali, mmarTveli Zalis reitingi daeca 10 procentamde, yovelive amas daemata seriozuli safrTxe saerTaSoriso arenaze qveynis izolaciisa. 2001 wlis maisSi, msoflio savaluto fondma TurqeTs daxmarebis mizniT

gamouyo krediti rva milioni dolaris odenobiT, amasTanave vaSingtonma mkacrad gaafrTxila ankara, rom Semdeg

daxmarebaze zedmeti iqneboda laparaki, vidre TurqeTi ar moawesrigebda Sida saqmeebs. Turqi yvelaze samxedroebi proamerikulad da generaliteti tradiciulad TurqeTis politikam

ganwyobili

nawilia

sazogadoebaSi, magram aseTma xistma amerikulma

isinic ganxibla. TumcaRa 2001 wlis 11 seqtembris movlenam seriozuli urTierTobebze. mTavari teqnikuri sakvanZo da zegavlena iqonia Turqul amerikul gaxda

amerikisaTvis mimarTuleba,

TurqeTTan ara

kavSiri

mxolod

materialuraramed

samxedro

uzrunvelyofis

kuTxiT,

antiteroristuli omis propagandis TvalsazrisiT. 11 seqtembris Semdeg ankara ara marto erT-erTi pirveli musulmanuri qveyana iyo, romelmac amerikaze Seteva dagmo, aramed dauyonebliv ganacxada Tanxmoba imis Sesaxeb, rom

SeerTebul Statebs samxedro aviaciisaTvis Tavis aviabazebs da sahaero sivrces uTmobda [77_216]. amis Semdeg TurqeTis xelmZRvanelobam xeli Seuwyo vaSingtons daerwmunebina

daeWvebuli musulmanuri samyaro imaSi, rom antiteroristuli kampania mimarTuli iyo ara islamis winaaRmdeg, aramed

uSualod teroristebis gasanadgureblad. 2001 wlis 10 oqtombers TurqeTis mTavroba ufro Sors wavida da amerikelebs aramtrulad neba darTo Tavis magram teritoriaze mainc ucxo 188

ganeTavsebina

ganwyobili,

samxedro Zalebi. amis sapasuxod Statebi ara mxolod daexmara Turqebs msoflio savaluto fondisagan axali sesxis aRebaSi, aramed piradad ganacxada mzadyofna Camoewera ankarisaTvis Zveli validan Tanxa, xuTi milioni dolaris odenobiT.

amerikeli politologebi im periodisaTvis aRrfTovanebulni iyvnen TurqeTis erTgulebiT da warmoaCendnen mas danarCeni musulmanuri qveynebisaTvis misabaZ magaliTad. Turqi mtkicebuleba nacionalebisaTvis imisa, rom aseTi qeba-dideba gansxvavebiT, gaxda maT

evrosabWosgan

bolos da bolos gauges. vaSingtonma ,,qurTTa muSaTa partia" da ,,qurTistanis damoukidebeli partia" daaxasiaTa mogexsenebaT, teroristobisa,

teroristul dReisaTvis

organizaciebad. ukve mas,

(rogorc maTi

miuxedavad

araoficialurad, magram mainc aqvs faruli kavSiri aRniSnul organizaciebTan). amavdroulad amerika kidev erT daTmobaze wavida da Riad ganacxada Tanxmoba, rom garkveul SemTxvevaSi SenarCunebuli iyos TurqeTSi sikvdiliT dasja. paralelurad im periodisaTvis Statebis wamyvan wreebSi iSviaTad

axsendebodaT Turqebis mier qurTuli mosaxleobis uflebebis dacva. axalma misca strategiulma partniorobam adgili ankaras saSualeba moTamaSisa Tavisi

daekavebina

kanonieri da

ZiriTadi

saerTaSoriso

arenaze

ganexorcielebina

politikuri eqsporti danarCeni musulmanuri qveynebis mTel samyaroze. rodesac vaSingtonma mimarTa natos wesdebis me-5 muxliT, TurqeTi aRmoCnda erTaderTi musulmanuri qveyana, romelmac Tavis Tavze aiRo konkretuli valdebulebani amerikul

antiteroristul samxedro kampaniaSi [92-418]. am periodisaTvis 189

SeerTebuli Statebi eyrdnoboda TurqeTs, rogorc faseul mokavSires da ara rogorc mevales. amerikelebma

mizanmimarTulad daiwyes ankaris xelisuflebis gulismogeba da maTi keTiliganwyobis TurqeTis mopoveba. vaSingtoni TandaTan amaRlebda

amcirebda

respublikis

davalianebebs,

SesaZleblobebs mieRoT maT damatebiTi kreditebi msoflio savaluto arwmunebda, fondidan rom da saerTaSoriso SeeZlo sazogadoebas Seesrulebina

TurqeTs

damakavSirebeli xidis roli dasavleTsa da islamur samyaros Soris. 2001 wlis bolos Turquli ekonomika amerikelTa

daxmarebis Sedegad, damatebiTi sesxebis xarjze sagrZnoblad gamococxlda da daiwyo TandaTanobiT krizisidan gamosvla. saerTaSoriso vaSingtonTan xedze ankaris xelmZRvaneloba partniorobis tkbeboda

strategiuli

perspeqtiviT.

aRniSnuli politika Turqebis azriT, gaaZlierebda maT pirad politikur poziciebs evrosabWosTan urTierTobaSi, yovelive amas isic daemata. rom xeli moewera SeTanxmebebs, romelic exeboda evropul-strategiul Tavdacvis politikas [96-198].

yovelive amis Sedegad, Turqebma SeZles kvlav warmoeCinaT maT mierve okupirebuli da saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis mier ar aRiarebuli kviprosis prezidenti rauf deqTaSi da

evropelebTan erTad molaparakebebis magidasTan daesvaT. pirveli konkretuli mtkicebuleba imisa, rom TurqeTi asrulebda erT-erT mTavar rols antiteroristul kampaniaSi, warmoCnda 2001 wlis noemberSi, rodesac TurqeTs sTxoves mievlinebina Tavisi SeiaraRebuli Zalebi usafrTxoebisa da urTierTdaxmarebis organizaciaSi, agreTve ekisrebina am

190

Zalebis

mTavarsardloba,

rodesac

britanelebs

2002

wlis

aprilSi mmarTvelobis mandati amoewurebodaT [98-179]. 2002 wlis dasawyisSi realoba mainc Tavisas amtkicebda. 15 Tebervals TurqeTma avRaneTis dedaqalaq qabulSi samxedro razmi miavlina, magram uari ganacxada finansuri garantiebis gareSe SeiaraRebuli Zalebis xelmZRvaneloba sakuTar Tavze aeRo. amerikelma samxedroebma eTqvaT ganacxades, rom iZulebuli valebi,

gaxdebodnen

uari

daefaraT

TurqeTis

iTvaliswinebdnen ra saSiSroebas, rom prezident jorj buSis administracia ver SeZlebda am Tanxebis kongresis miRma

gatarebas. 2002 wlis aprilSi iqmneboda StabeWdileba, rom TurqeTis respublika magram mainc ara aiRebda aprilis mTavarsardlis bolodan, aramed

uflebamosilebebs, ivnisidan.

amerikis axalma gegmebma, gaevrcelebina antiteroristuli samxedro axali kompania avRaneTis ankarasTan momentad, farglebs gareT, warmosaxes

konturebi

strategiuli rom

partniorobis uRrublo

TvalsazrisiT.

sadao

miRweuliyo

strategiuli TanamSromloba ankarasa da vaSingtons Soris, warmoiqmna erayis saxelmwifos sakiTxi. TurqeTi, rogorc SeteviTi

mogexsenebaT,

gansakuTrebiT

ewinaaRmdegeboda

operaciis Catarebas da gamoTqvamda saSiSroebas, rom es faqti gamoiwvevda Seamcirebda misi qveynis SigniT ukmayofilebas, agreTve radgan gazrdida

regionalur

vaWrobas,

ltolvilTa nakads, romelic 1991 wlis erayis omis dros dReSi 15 milioni dolari ujdeboda. agreTve Cndeboda

ankarisaTvis yvelaze mTavari, Cvens mier zemoT aRniSnuli, qurTTa damoukideblobis moTxovnisa da axali problemebis gamwvavebis saSiSroeba [95-76]. 191

imis gamo rom TurqeTis respublikis ekonomika uSualod damokidebuli iyo msoflio savaluto fondze, ankaris

oficialuri pirebi miiCnevdnen, rom rTuli iqneboda amerikis SeerTebuli StatebisaTvis uaris Tqma, gamoeyenebina maTi

samxedro sahaero bazebi, sadam huseinis reJimis dasamxobad eraySi. Turquli xelmZRvanelobis gaTvlebis mixedviT, miscemda

mxolod isev amerikasTan mWidro TanamSromloba Tu

ankaras SesaZleblobas, misive interesebidan gamomdinare, win aRsdgomoda omis Semdgom eraySi, qurTuli saxelmwifos an raime avtonomiuri erTeulis Camoyalibebas. im periodisaTvis ankaris xelmZRvaneloba realurad

grZnobda safrTxes da xvdeboda, rom maTi qveyana jer kidev ar iyo mzad imisaTvis, gatareba daewyo, rom Tavisi damoukidebeli politikis rogorc ukve zemoT aRiniSna, Tavisi

radgan,

centraluri

aziis

saxelmwifoebTan

miuxedavad

kulturuli da eTnikuri siaxlovisa, TurqeTs jer kidev ar hqonda didi politikuri wona da ifargleboda mxolod

kulturuli sferoTi. asevea igi kavkasiaSic, sadac wamyvani pozicia mainc moskovs siriasTan ukavia da ara lamis ankaras. omi Crdiloim

aRmosavleTiT

TurqeTma

gaaCaRa,

mizeziT, rom damasko emxroboda ,,qurTistanis muSaTa partias" da, rogorc viciT, TavSesafari aRmouCina mis liders, abdula ojalans. siriam ankarasTan urTierTobebis gaumjobeseba

moaxerxa, mxolod maSin, rodesac qurTTa meaboxe lideri gandevna Tavisi qveynidan [90-33]. urTierTobebis dalagebis

Semdeg, 2001 wels TurqeTma CrdiloeT siriisaken sarkinigzo xazi gaiyvana, ris Semdegac gamococxlda ormxrivi vaWroba, gaCaRda TanamSromloba mineralebis mopovebaSi da soflis meurneobaSi, magram SemdegSi urTierToba kvlav daiZaba, im 192

mizeziT,

rom

siriis

prezidentma

baSar

al-asadma

uari

ganacxada xeli aeRo TurqeTis provincia haTais moTxovnaze [117], romelic TurqeTma jer kidev 1938 wels SeierTa. aRsaniSnavia isic, rom miuxedavad amerikelebis

mowodebisa, sxva musulmanuri qveynebi ar miiswrafoden mxari daeWiraT Turquli politikuri modelisaTvis. realurad es ar iyo moulodneli, radgan ankaris politikuri sistema,

rogorc mogexsenebaT, dafuZnebuli iyo mustafa qemaliseul ideologiaze, sazogadoebas. samyarodan romelic amitomac dRemde axasiaTebs aris, rom mxolod udidesi Turqul

samuslimano mxolod

evropasTan

SeerTebisaTvis

TurqeTis respublika miiswrafis. 1999 wels, rac ankara oficialurad gaxda evrosabWos wevrobis kandidati, axal-axali reformebis gatareba misi

sagareo politikis ganuyofeli nawili gaxda [101-287]. Turqebis umravlesobisaTvis ara mxolod didi xnis ocnebaa misi qveyana evropis sruluflebiani wevri gaxdes, aramed, maTi azriT, erTaderTi gamosavalia TurqeTis saxelmiwifosa da misi

ekonomikisaTvis. 2001 wlis zafxulze miuxedavad imisa, rom TurqeTis

mosaxleoba eWvis TvaliT uyurebda mTavrobis mier dawyebuli politikuri da ekonomikuri reformebis aucileblobas da

yvelaze metad interesdebodnen imiT, rom saboloo jamSi ramdenad radikaluri iqnebodnen isini 2001 wlis 11 seqtembris movlenebis Semdeg, reformebis aucileblobam, CvenTvis ukve kargad cnobili mizezebis gamo, Tavisi mniSvneloba dakarga da gare daxmarebebis meSveobiT Zvelma sistemam kvlav SeiZina sicocxlisunarianoba.

193

am periodidan mosaxleobis didma nawilma daiwyo fiqri imaze, rom SesaZloa konservatorebi marTlebi iyvnen, rodesac amtkicebdnen, rom mxolod mciredi cvlilebebia saWiro. 2002 wlis dasawyisSi ukiduresi nacionalistebi da konservatiuli mTavrobis SeerTebul evrosabWosTan wevrebi ukve Tavazobdnen mejliss amerikis

StatebTan alternativis

partniorobis sanacvlod. isini

gaZlierebas, acxadebdnen,

rom evrosabWo realurad ar iyo mzad Tavis rigebSi mieRo TurqeTi, magram miuxedavad amisa, mainc moiTxovda ankarisagan Caetarebina qveynisaTvis mtkivneuli Sida reformebi da daeTmo kunZuli kviprosi. meores mxriv, amerikis SeerTebul StatebTan partnioroba, maTi azriT, ar moiTxovda aseT mZime msxverpls erT-erT da amis

gareSec

SeeZlo

gardaeqmna

TurqeTi

Zlier

saxelmwifod. ase miiRo ankaram misi xelmZRvanelobis azriT, axali Tumca strategiuli es pozitiuri mniSvnelobis cvlilebebi saerTaSoriso praqtikaSi statusi.

umniSvnelod

aisaxa da realurad gamoCnda imisaTvis, rom qveyanas moexdina Tavisi udaod didi potencialis realizeba da gamxdariyo sxva qveynebisaTvis samagaliTo saxelmwifo, misi politikuri sistema, im periodisaTvis kidev ufro Rrma rekonstruqcias saWiroebda. rac Seexeba sagareo politikas centraluri aziisa da amierkavkasiis praqtikulad Turqulenovan ukonfliqto saxelmwifoebTan, aqvs ankaras aRniSnul

urTierTobebi

qveynebTan. TurqeTSi Tvlian, rom geopolitikuri situacia Seicvala sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg da misca Sansi ankaras, ganemtkicebina Tavisi gavlena am mimarTulebiT. Cvens mier zemoT naxseneb regionebSi, arsebul saxelmwifoebSi 194

Turquli ekonomikuri ganviTarebis modeli mimzidveli gaxda [84-121], TumcaRa unda aRvniSnoT isic, rom dReisaTvis es

miswrafeba TandaTan modidan gamodis. zogierTi amerikeli politologi miiCnevs, rom TurqeTis aRmosavluri orientacia dasavleTis mier aucileblad unda iqnes gamoyenebuli. am politikis Sinaarsi mdebareobs

SemdegSi: dasavleTma kvlav unda daayenos da xeli Seuwyos panTurqistuli, gavlenis gavrcelebas Turquli modgmis

xalxebze, romlebic cxovroben dawyebuli CineTis provincia sinZianidan, damTavrebuli balkaneTis naxevarkunZuliT [149]. aRniSnuliT TurqeTi atarebda Semtev politikas centralur aziaSi, romelic, marTalia, Sida limitirebulad, resursebiT magram mainc

finansdeboda

qveynis

[54-49].

aRniSnuli

saqmianobiT ankara pirdapir dapirispirebaSi Sedioda ruseTis federaciasTan da mis interesebTan Sua aziaze zegavlenis SenarCunebis sakiTxSi. axali sakuTari Turquli gavlenis da geopolitika metnaklebad mimarTulia ,,axlo da unda

gaZlierebaze xmelTaSua da

samxreTiT regionze" aziaze".

aRmosavleTze aRmosavleTiT

zRvis centralur

,,kavkasiasa

aRiniSnos, rom TurqeTis respublika TandaTanobiT emsgavseba iseT moTamaSes, romelsac aqvs sakuTari, piradi interesebi, romlebic gansxvavdeba tradiciuli mokavSireebis

interesebisagan, igulisxmeba amerikis SeerTebuli Statebi da Crdilo atlantikuri aliansis evropuli qveynebi. aseT

viTarebaSi TandaTan ufro naTlad Cdeba faqtorebi, romlebic metyveleben Turquli politikisa da musulmanuri politikis identurobaze [77-35].

195

$ _ 4. axali Turquli geopolitikis rusuli veqtori

Tanamedrove

TurqeTis

geopolitikis

ganxilvisas

aucilebelia visaubroT ruseT-TurqeTis urTierTobebze. jer kidev gasul saukuneebSi da TurqeTis respublikis saxelmwifo sivrceSi, winapari xSirad rac

osmaleTis iWrebodnen TavisTavad

imperia

Zveli

ruseTis

erTmaneTis

geopolitikur

saxelmwifoTaSoris

sasikvdilo,

sabrZolo

dapirispirebebiT sruldeboda. ruseTs zRvebisaken, yovelTvis magram ainteresebda man ukve ukve winsvla gaiazra Tbili Tavisi Turqebi,

rodesac iq

geopolitikuri romlebic

interesebi,

imyofebodnen da

akontrolebdnen

bosforisa

dardanelis

sruteebs, Sesabamisad imis patronebi gamodiodnen, riskenac miiswrafoda ruseTi. swored es gaxldaT mTavari mizezi imisa, rom am saxelmwifoebs xan erT Soris xSirad imarTeboda xan omebi, meores.

romelSic aRniSnuli

mxares

uwevda

ukandaxeva,

mdgomareoba

gamodga

xangZlivi

geopolitikuri

brZola, ase rom Turqebica da rusebic mieCvivnen erTmaneTis saxelmwifoebSi mtris xatis danaxvas. miuxedavad Teoretikosebi, amisa vinc iyvnen rigi rusi filosofosebi politikas da da

ganixilavdnen

ruseTis

Turqebs ar Tvlidnen absolitur mtrebad. kerZod, cnobili rusi filosofosi k. leontievi, romelic gaxldaT ruseTis konsuli TurqeTSi meTvramete saukunis dasasruls, yovelTvis momxre iyo ruseTisa da TurqeTis imperiebis solidarobisa da mokavSireobisa. igi Tvlida, rom aRniSnul saxelmwifoebs 196

urTierTobaSi britaneTis

yovelTvis saxiT.

xels

uSlida

mesame

Zala,

didi

(sxvaTaSoris

kremlis

interesebis

gamomxatveli eqspertebis azriT dRes am rols, demokratias amofarebuli ambobda, amerikis SeerTebuli surs Statebi TamaSobs). igi ori

,,dasavleTs

moaxdinos

ganxeTqileba

tradiciuli eris, or tradiciul imperias Soris, es imperiebi ki ufro axloa erTmaneTisTvis, vidre dasavleTis qveynebi Tavisi Crdiloevropuli kulturiT" [42-82]. swored amitom k. leontievi Tavazobda orive mxares aliansis Sekvras,

winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi igi maT dacemas winaswarmetyvelebda, rac, rogorc mogexsenebaT, meoce saukunis dasawyisSi orive imperias auxda. axalma Turqulma nacionalurma saxelmwifom Tavisi

xelmZRvanelis, mustafa qemal aTaTurqis meSveobiT SeZlo da daumegobrda sabWoTa kavSirs, romlisganac ramdenimejer

seriozuli daxmareba miiRo iaraRisa da fulis saxiT, rac warmatebiT iqna gamoyenebuli, qveynidan ucxoel interventTa damarcxebisa da gandevnisaTvis. aTaTurqi sicocxlis bolomde momxre iyo ruseTTan dadebiTi urTierTobisa, radgan Tvlida, rom evraziul saxelmwifoebs aucileblad ganviTarebisa da

gaZlierebisaTvis

mWidro

urTierTkavSiri

esaWiroebodaT [75-399]. meore TurqeTsa radganac msoflio da sabWoTa omis dawyebis Soris Semdeg kvlav urTierToba garTulda, mainc

kavSirs

Turqebma

Tavdapirvelad,

farulad,

magram

,,RerZis saxelmwifoebis" mxare daikaves, rac gaxda mizezi i. stalinis Statebi ganawyenebisa da da rom ara amerikis SeeTebuli aucileblad

saerTaSoriso

Tanamegobroba,

daiwyeboda morigi omi rusebsa da Turqebs Soris. swored am 197

dapirispirebis

Sedegad

moxda

ise,

rom

TurqeTma

gezi

dasavleTisaken aiRo da gaxda Crdilo atlantikuri aliansis wevri, rasac saqarTvelos dRevandeli sagareo politikidan gamomdinare CvenTvis sasicocxlo mniSvneloba aqvs. meoce saukunis bolosa da ocdameerTe saukunis

dasawyisSi ruseTisa da TurqeTis daaxloeba saerTaSoriso politikur scenaze erT-erT mniSvnelovan da saintereso

realias warmoadgens. am procesma starti jer kidev sabWoTa kavSirisa stalinis gacivda da axali TurqeTis SeqmnisTanave aiRo, magram sakmaod sabWoTa

dros, da

rogorc ,,civi

aRvniSneT, omis"

urTierTobebi da

daiZaba,

dasrulebisa

kavSiris daSlis Semdeg, 90-iani wlebidan or qveyanas Soris urTierTobebis gaRrmavebam, starti Tavidan aiRo, rac dRemde grZeldeba da TandaTan sul ufro met siRrmes da aqtualobas iZens [61-38]. pirvel respublikasa etapze da daaxloebis procesi Soris TurqeTis savaWro

ruseTis

federacias

urTierTobebSi gamovlinda. dabali saeqsporto Rirebulebis wyalobiT TurqeTma SeZlo Tavisi savaWro niSa daekavebina sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Sedegad ekonomiurad dasustebul rusul, teritoriul sivrceSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom dReisaTvis ukve ruseTi TurqeTis erTerTi yvelaze didi ekonomikuri partnioria. mimdinare etapze TurqeT-ruseTs Soris savaWro tvirTbrunva weliwadSi

daaxloebiT 9-10 mlrd aSS dolars Seadgens da TurqeTis mxare aRniSnuli maCvenebelis kidev ufro gazrdas gegmavs [159].

198

rac Seexeba TurqTa erT-erTi mTavari Semosavlis wyaros turizms, mxolod gasul wels TurqeTis respublikas

daaxloebiT sami milioni rusi turisti stumrobda. ganviTarebuli sakmaod male ufro savaWro urTierTobebidan politikuri ori qveyana

seriozuli

mniSvnelobis

mqone TanamSromlobaze gadavida. 1997 wels xeli moewera e. w. ,,cisferi nakadis" proeqts. xelmoweridan 4 wlis Semdegac TurqeTma ruseTidan bunebrivi airi, ukve Savi zRvis gavliT pirdapiri ekonomikuri xaziT miiRo. proeqtis siZvirisa da saeWvo mainc

mizanSewonilobis

miuxedavad,

ruseTi

aqtiurad Seudga mis ganxorcielebas, radgan pirvel rigSi igi politikuri da strategiuli mosazrebebiT xelmZRvanelobda. aq aucileblad unda aRiniSnos, rom ,,cisferi nakadis"

swrafma winsvlam kiTxvis niSnis qveS daayena baqo-Tbilisierzerumis ramdenime gazsadenis wliT gadado. mSenebloba da misi realizacia

zemoT aRniSnuli `cisferi nakadi~ TurqeT-ruseTs Soris ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis sakiTxSi dResac urTierTobebis ZiriTadi ganmsazRvreli faqtoria. 2004 wlidan am proeqtiT ankaras ukve miewodeba 4 mlrd kuburi metri bunebrivi airi, aRsaniSnavia, rom igi manamde `cisferi nakadiT~ mxolod 1.1 mlrd kubur metr airs iRebda [90-88]. mxareebi did mniSvnelobas aniWeben saerTaSoriso

terorizmTan brZolaSi TanamSromlobis gaRrmavebas. am mxriv 2003 wels q. moskovSi TurqeT-ruseTis Sekrebisas terorizmTan umaRlesi miRweul donis iqna

erToblivi SeTanxmeba

samuSao

jgufis

saerTaSoriso

brZolaSi

TanamSromlobis gaRrmavebisTvis ori qveynis sagareo saqmeTa saministroebs Soris konsultaciebis gagrZelebis Sesaxeb. 199

jgufis muSaobaSi monawileoba miiRes TurqeTisa da ruseTis sagareo saqmeTa ministrebis moadgileebma ali Tuiganma da aleqsandre saltanovma. ministrebis moadgileebis Sexvedrisas ganxilul iqna eraySi Seqmnili situacia axlo aRmosavleTSi arsebuli sakiTxebis konfliqtebis gadaWris mogvarebisa da sxva regionaluri aseve

gzebi.

aRniSnul

Sexvedraze

ganixiles saerTaSoriso da regionaluri problemebi. mxareebi SeTanxmdnen, gaiolebisaTvis samarTlebrivi farglebSi rom or qveyanas Soris urTierTobis

kvlav gagrZeldeba muSaoba saxelSekrulebobazis srulyofisaTvis. amierkavkasiis jgufis muSaobis Sexvedrac,

Sedga

qvejgufis

romelzec ganixiles regionSi stabilurobis SenarCunebisa da arsebuli konfliqtebis mogvarebis sakiTxebi. 2003 wlisaTvis TurqeT-ruseTis urTierTobebSi

aRsaniSnavia ruseTis federaciis pleseckis kosmodromidan 27 seqtembers rusuli raketiT orbitaze Turquli Tanamgzavris `bilsaT-1~-is katastrofebis gayvana, Sedegad romlis daniSnulebac zaralis saWiro bunebrivi da

gamowveuli

aRricxva

qalaqmSeneblobis mowodebaa. politikuri strategiul TvalSisacemi

daproeqtebisaTvis

aerosuraTebis

urTierTobebis aisaxa. da

gaRrmaveba 2006 wlis

samxedro martSi interesTa

sakiTxebzec gaxda

ruseTisa

TurqeTis

Tanxvedra Savi zRvis akvatoriasTan dakavSirebiT. TurqeTma Crdilo atlantikur alianss, Savi zRvis akvatoriaSi, antiteroristuli sazRvao operaciis, ,,Operation Ative Endeavor" (,,operacia aqtiuri RonisZieba") Catarebis ufleba ar misca. Turqulma mxarem ganacxada, rom Savi zRvis qveynebis sazRvao flotebs msgavsi formatis operaciebis ganxorcieleba 200

sakuTari

ZalebiTac

SeeZloT

[63_157].

aRniSnul

pozicias

rogorc mosalodneli iyo, aqtiurad dauWira mxari ruseTis federaciam. ukve mogvianebiT, 2006 wlis dekemberSi, ruseTi

oficialurad SeuerTda TurqeTis mier inicirebul proeqts saxelwodebiT aRniSnuli ,,Bleck Sea Harmony" (,,Savi zRvis harmonia"). formatis ,,Operation Ative Endeavor"-is

iniciativa

analogia iyo, Tumca im gansxvavebiT, rom ,,Bleck Sea Harmony"-s monawileebi ara zogadad natos-s wevri saxelmwifoebi da maTi partniorebi, iyvnen aramed mxolod Savi zRvis akvatoriis swored

qveynebi

[63-184],

sadac

wamyvani

roli

ukve

TurqeTsa da garkveulwilad ruseTs hqondaT. ruseT-TurqeTis morigi politikuri siaxlovis mowmeni kidev erTxel gavxdiT 2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTvelos omis drosac, miuxedavd imisa rom omis dawyebidanve TurqeTis

respublika gvexmareboda, rogorc humanitaruli daxmarebebiT, ise politikuri gancxadebebiTac, magram paralelurad 2008 wlis 11 agvistos TurqeTis premier-ministrma sazogadoebas axali iniciativa gaacno, romelic ,,kavkasiis stabilurobisa da TanamSromlobis ZiriTad platformis" amocanas saxiT regionSi mogvevlina [143].

iniciativis

stabilurobis,

usafrTxoebisa da erTmaneTis saSinao saqmeebSi Caurevlobis uzrunvelyofa warmoadgenda. rogorc erdoRanma aRniSna, es iniciativa ukve SeTanxmebuli iyo ruseTis federaciis pirvel pirebTan. ,,platforma" usafrTxoebisa da stabilurobis

misaRwevad mxolod kavkasiis regionis qveynebis gaerTianebas gulisxmobda, rac mianiSnebda regionidan sxva gare

moTamaSeebis gamoTiSvas. am moTamaSeebSi ki pirvel rigSi

201

TurqeTis

Zveli

samxedro

partniori

da

saqarTvelos

strategiuli mokavSire aSS da evrokavSiri moiazrebian. erdoRanis es dokumenti pirveli Turquli iniciativa ar aris, romelic regionis stabilurobisa da usafrTxoebisaTvis Seiqmna. ,,kavkasiis win mier stabilurobisa yofili wels uswrebda. da TanamSromlobis suleiman ,,kavkasiis

platformas" demirelis

TurqeTis 2000

prezidentis,

gaJRerebuli am ori

stabilurobis

paqti"

radikalurad

gansxvavebuli dokumentis zedapiruli analizic ki naTlad gviCvenebs TurqeTis sagareo politikuri kursis mniSvnelovan cvlilebebs, Tumca CvenTvis jerjerobiT ucnobia amas ankara partniorebTan SeTanxmebiT akeTebs, Tu piradi iniciativiT. rusuli politikuri elitis warmomadgenlebi didi

interesiT akvirdebian Tavisi istoriuli mtris politikur nabijebs da TviTonac maqsimalurad cdiloben daaintereson, rogorc TanamSromlobaSi, aseve xeli Seuwyon rimlandidan hartlandisken gadaibiron igi. SemobrunebaSi cnobili da sabolood Tavis da mxareze putinis

rusi

geopolitikosi

axlo megobari aleqsadr dugini sajarod uxdis bodiSebs Turq xalxs, rom 90-ian wlebSi gamocemul wignSi

,,geopolitikis safuZvlebi", isini ruseTis mtrad gamohyavs. Cvens mier zemoT naxsenebi TurqeTis respublikis

prezident suleiman demirelis iniciativa euTos egidiT unda ganxorcielebuliyo. is kavkasiis regionis stabilurobisa da usafrTxoebis saqmeSi yvela dainteresebul mxares Riad

epatiJeboda [91_419]. erT-erT mTavar moTamaSeebad ki, pirvel rigSi SeerTebuli Statebi da evrokavSiri moiazrebodnen.

,,stabilurobis paqts" sajarod swored SeeTebuli Statebi lobirebda. savaraudod, swored aRniSnuli ,,paqtis" mimarT 202

ruseTis negatiuri damokidebulebac amerikis monawileobis gamo arsebobda. rac Seexeba erdoRanis ,,platformas", rva wlis Semdeg kavkasiaSi stabilurobisa da usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis gzebis Turquli xedva radikalurad Secvlilia [143].

savaraudod, am koncefciis mTavari mizani, regionSi TurqeTisa da ruseTis hegemoniis rolis arapirdapiri deklarirebaa. erdoRanis

radgan

demirelis

iniciativisagan

gansxvavebiT

proeqtSi wamyvan Zalad ar moiazreba dasavleTis arc erTi lideri da aralideri saxelmwifo, an maTi TaosnobiT

Seqmnili raime organizacia. ,,platformis" Tanaxmad, kavkasiis bedi regionis xuTma saxelmwifom unda gadawyvitos: TurqeTma, ruseTma, saqarTvelom, azerbaijanma da somxeTma. gasagebia, rom bolo sami qveynis pozicia pirveli oris siZlieris

fonze, did rols ver iTamaSebs da aseTi formatis saqmianoba ZiriTadad TurqeTisa da ruseTis nebiT iqneba nakarnaxevi da, Sesabamisad, regionis momavali imaze unda iyos damokidebuli, Tu raze moilaparakebs erTmaneTSi es ori saxelmwifo. kavkasiis regionSi dominireba orive qveynis tradiciul geostrategiul es amocanas warmoadgens. am sakiTxSi xSirad hqonda

saxelmwifoebi,

istoriulad, Tumca maT Soris

erTmaneTs garigebebsac

upirispirdebodnen,

adgili [42_269]. axali realiebis analizi aCvenebs, rom am SemTxvevaSi swored garigebasTan gvaqvs saqme. Tumca dRes es ori saxelmwifo axal kavkasiur TamaSSi gansxvavebuli

mdgomareobiT erTveba. ruseTi regionSi dros mimdinare periodisaTvis ibrZvis kavkasiis amave

mopovebuli cdilobs

upiratesobis

SenarCunebisaTvis. iseT

igi

gaumklavdes

mniSvnelovan 203

problemebs,

rogoricaa:

finansuri

krizisi,

teritoriuli

mTlianobis SenarCuneba, mZime demografiuli viTareba, rTuli ganmanTavisuflebeli CrdiloeT kavkasiaSi, da klanuri brZolebis Sekaveba gamo

Zalismieri

sagareo

politikis

rTuli urTierToba mezoblebTan da msoflio saerTaSoriso sazogadoebasTan, problemebi samxedro sferoSi, separatizmis mxardaWera da mis mierve gaCeneli ,,Savi xvrelebis"

TviTaRiarebuli afxazeTisa da samaCablos (samxreT oseTis) finansuri mxardaWera, romelic federaciis ekonomikis

sistemas kidev ufro rTul mdgomareobaSi ayenebs. rac Seexeba TurqeTs, man usafrTxoebis mTavari problema, sabWoTa da rusuli muqaris safrTxidan gamomdinare, Tavis droze amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis daxmarebiTa da 1952 wels Crdilo atlantikur aliansSi gawevrianebiT moagvara. dRes ukve mas analogiuri safrTxe aRar emuqreba. saSiSroeba eTnikuri separatizmis mxridanac praqtikulad daZleulia.

erTaderT problemas misTvis am kuTxiTYqurTistanis sakiTxi warmoadgens, Tumca am problemis Sesaxeb zemoT vrclad

visaubreT, saidanac naTlad Cans, rom misi seriozulobis miuxedavad qveynis erovnuli usafrTxoebisaTvis

gansakuTrebul safrTxes igi dRes ukve aRar warmoadgens. bolo warmatebas ori aTwleulis manZilze TurqeTma seriozul dRes

miaRwia

ekonomikuri

aRmavlobis

gzaze.

msoflio finansuri krizisis periodSi respublikis mTavar amocanas ekonomikis stabilurobis da ganviTarebis dinamikis SenarCuneba warmoadgens. Sav zRvaze da kavkasiis regionSi TurqeTisa da ruseTis tradiciuli ikveTeba maTi dapirispirebis interesebis miuxedavad, erTgvari dRes swored [63_106]. aq am 204

daaxloeba

SemTxvevaSi

imis

gadaWriT

mtkiceba,

rom

es

daaxloeba

taqtikur, an strategiul xasiaTs atarebs, jer kidev Zalian naadrevia. amas ganapirobebs is, Tu rogor ganviTardeba

situacia msoflioSi, regionsa da Tavad Cvens mier aRniSnul qveynebSi. jerjerobiT ki ruseTis federaciis mizania Savi zRvis akvatoriasa da kavkasiis regionidan sxva moTamaSeebis gamoTiSva, xolo TurqeTi, rogorc Cans, an eTanxmeba ruseTis am politikas, da an kidev am faqtis amerikis da misi SeerTebul sakuTari

Statebisa

evropis

dasaSantaJeblad

qveynis interesebis gamoyenebisaTvis amzadebs. miuxedavad albaToba imisa, yvelafrisa, rom politikaSi da mainc arsebobs dasavleTis

ruseTi

TurqeTi

mimarTulebiT sinqronuli politikis gatarebaze SeTanxmdnen. roca TurqeTs dRes ukve sabWoTa safrTxe aRar emuqreba, xolo misi evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis sakiTxi gaurkveveli vadiT aris gadadebuli, savsebiT SesaZlebelia am ori

saxelmwifos strategiuli daaxloeba. amasTanave, SesaZlebelia, rom ankara Seecdeba evropas misi mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb kidev erTxel Seaxsenos. evropis gazmomaragebis diversifikaciis TvalsazrisiT TurqeTi erTerTi mniSvnelovani qveyanaa. aqedan gamomdinare misi

evrokavSirSi mniSvnelobis

gawevrianeba sakiTxs unda

evropisaTvis warmoadgendes.

strategiuli winaaRmdeg

SemTxvevaSi ar aris gamoricxuli, rom TurqeTis respublikam da ruseTis federaciam, gazmomaragebis Temaze dayrdnobiT, evropis mimarTulebiT erTiani TamaSi awarmoon da

mniSvnelovan warmatebebsac miaRwion [159]. am TurqeTis mosazrebis gasamyareblad yoymani SeiZleba ,,nabukos" gamoviyenoT proeqtTan 205

respublikis

mimarTebaSi, romelic man politikuri vaWrobis sagnad aqcia. cxadia, ankaris yovel aseT pozicias ruseTis federaciaSi didi sixaruliTa da enTuziazmiT xvdebian. Tumca dReisaTvis TurqeTis sagareo saqmeTa ministri a. daviToRlu, rodesac mas ekiTxebian, Tu sad xedavs TurqeTis momavals 10 wlis Semdeg, Tamamad pasuxobs: ,,me vxedav qveyanas, romelmac SeZlo ekonomikuri integraciis dawyeba da Tavis mezoblebTan myari urTierTobebis damyareba. qveyanas,

romelmac SeZlo gamxdariyo evrokavSiris wevri. me vxedav qveyanas, romelic qmediT rols TamaSobs natos farglebSi, aseve sakvanZo moTamaSea ara mxolod usafrTxoebis iseTebSi, am

sakiTxebSi, rogoricaa

aramed ,,didi

ekonomikur oceuli".

organizaciebSi, 2023

vfiqrob,

wlisaTvis

miznebis miRweva Tavisuflad SeiZleba. am dros TurqeTis respublika Tavisi arsebobis asi wlisTavs aRniSnavs da es 14 wlis Semdeg iqneba" [113]. aRsaniSnavia, rom TurqeTsa da ruseTs Soris disonansis potencialic urTules metoqeebad sakmao doziT orive [155]. arsebobs, radgan kvlav kavkasiis tradiciul uaryofiTad

regionSi rCebian

saxelmwofo

ruseTis

federaciaSi

aRiqmeba misi gverdis avliT ganxorcielebuli yvela proeqti, maT Soris ukve ki Semdgari energetikuli proeqtebi, da amis tipis

gansakuTrebiT

baqo_Tbilisi_jeihanis gazsadeni. yovelTvis

navTobsadeni Tu

baqo_Tbilisi_erzerumis SesaZlebloba eqneba,

ruseTi,

Seecdeba,

msgavsi

proeqtebs xeli SeuSalos, radgan es kremls pirdapir uSlis xels misive geopolitikuri miznebis ganxorcielebaSi, ankaras ki piriqiT swored aRniSnuli proeqtebis ganxorcieleba

206

moupovebs Zlier berketebs, rogorc regionSi, ise evropasTan mimarTebaSi [37-330]. savaraudod, ori qveynis urTierTobebze, rogorc jer kidev 90-ian wlebis dasawyisSi, kvlav uaryofiT gavlenas

axdens Turanizmi anu igive gansakuTrebulad

panTurqizmi. dRes es realoba ruseTisaTvis TurqeTSi

mtkivneulia

mcxovrebi Crdilo-kavkasiuri diasporis aqtiuri politikuri faqtorisa da centraluraziaSi mcxovrebi Turqulenovani

xalxis gamo. winaaRmdegobis potencialis Semcvelia ekonomikuri

faqtoric. magaliTisaTvis, dabali saeqsporto Rirebulebis wyalobiT Turquli produqti ukve wlebia konkurencias uwevs rusul produqts iseT bazrebze, rogoricaa ukraina da Tavad ruseTi. Tumca, rogorc ekonomikuri eqspertebi aRniSnaven,

ruseTi finansuri krizisisa da geostrategiuli miznebis gamo, iZulebulia, Tvali daxuWos da Semagebebeli qmedebebi ar ganaxorcielos, finansuri stabiluri rac ganpirobebulia dros ruseTis CineTis Semdegi federacias ekonomikur faqtorebiT: esaWiroeba aqtivobas

krizisis

momwodebeli;

ruseTis federaciaSi isev TurqeTis aqtivobas amjobineben [140]. amave dros, ruseTisa da TurqeTis daaxloebisaTvis mzardi iseve

nayofier niadags SesaZloa, am qveynebSi arsebuli antiamerikuli rogorc is sazogadoebrivi sirTuleebi, ganwyobac romlebic qmnides, maT

gaaCniaT SeerTebul

saxelmwifoTaSoris StatebTan.

urTierTobebSi

amerikis

,,anti-amerikanizmi"

Turqul sazogadoebaSi 2005 wlis ,,bi-

bi-sis" gamokiTxviT piks aRwevda. es tendencia amerikis mier 207

qurTebis

mimarT

loialuri,

mxardamWeri

politikisa

da

kunZul kviprosis sakiTxTan dakavSirebuli poziciis gamo, dResac SenarCunebulia [82-186]. rac Seexeba mmarTvel wreebs, maT Sorisac politikuri urTierTobebi dRes iseTi uRrublo aRar aris, rogoric es adre iyo. am realobebma, rogorc mogexsenebaT, Turqulma mkafio gamoxatuleba da mis hpova, mokavSire maSin roca

mxarem

amerikel

samxedroebs

eraySi Sesasvlelad sabrZolo derefani ar misca. rusuli sazogadoebis antiamerikanizmi ki dRes albaT kidev ufro Zlieria, vidre es ,,civi omis" dros iyo. rac Seexeba saxelmwifo donis urTierTobebs, ruseTsa da amerikis SeerTebul Statebs Soris, sxvadasxva Rirebulebebis gamo, urTierTobebis problemuri xasiaTi sayovelTaod cnobilia [53-16]. unda vivaraudoT, rom ruseT-TurqeTis daaxloebis

procesze uaryofiT gavlenas iqoniebs globaluri finansuri krizisi. ar aris orive gamoricxuli, saxelmwifos da krizisis gaRrmavebis saerTaSoriso dasavluri ki orive

SemTxvevaSi finansuri

dasWirdes wamyvani es

institutebisa seriozuli

saxelmwifoebis

daxmareba.

saxelmwifos aiZulebs, amerikisa da evrokavSiris interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT, TavianT politikaSi koreqtivebi Seitanon. (aRsaniSnavia, metnaklebad, SeuZlia rom magram dRevandel mainc, krizisiT, amerikis SeZlos periodSi, SeerTebul ama Tu im marTalia, Statebs qveynis

finansuri

daSantaJeba) Tavis mxriv, evrokavSirs mouwevs izrunos TurqeTis

momavali politikuri orientaciis bedze. umjobesi iqneba Tu TurqeTis evrokavSirSi gawevrianebis survils saTanado 208

yuradReba gaRrmavebis

daeTmoba. procesSi

TurqeTis

dasavleTTan rolis

integraciis Sesruleba

mniSvnelovani

SeerTebul Statebsac mouwevs, radgan is unda iyos mTavari Zala, romelic dRes daarwmunebs evropas, rom TurqeTis

strategiuli mokavSireoba aucilebeli gaxlavT dasavluri, demokratiuli saxelmwifoebisaTvis. amrigad, aucileblad rodesac dasavleTisaTvis progresuli rom ZalebisaTvis is dro,

gasaTvaliswinebelia,

wavida

TurqeTisaTvis

evrokavSiri

,,erTaderT

sasurvel

saqmrod iyo miCneuli" [101-241]. mimdinare periodSi Aankara gaxlavT energetikulad mdidar damSeul centralur evropasa azias, da axlo

energoresursebiT

aRmosavleTsa da ruseTs Soris. es qveynebi kargi myidvelebi arian da isini TurqeTis samrewvelo produqcias didi

raodenobiT iZenen, rac mTavari pirobaa, isini dRes ukve mzad arian sarfiani ekonomikuri TanamSromlobisaTvis. TurqeTis respublikas evrokavSiri dReisaTvis sul ufro da ufro naklebad sWirdeba, radgan mas ukve aqvs sabaJo kavSiri evropelebTan da bevrma Turqulma kompaniam ase Tu ise miiRo is gasaRebis bazari, rac mas evrokavSiris Turqma

wevrobidan

sWirdeboda.

dReisaTvis

milionobiT

glexma icis, rom evrokavSiris

sasoflo-sameurneo politika

maT uqmad yofnis saSualebas ar miscems, iseve, rogorc erT dros ganebivrebul frang fermerebs. oficialurad TurqeTis respublikis yvela Zlieri

partia da politikuri Zala mxars uWers qveynis evrokavSirSi Sesvlis ideas. isini ar uxveven didi xnis win Mmustafa

qemalis mier datovebul anderZs da Tvlian, rom TurqeTi evropis gagrZelebaa, magram, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, ankaraSi 209

sxva alternativebsac ganixilaven da ruseTidan saparseTis yuremde geopolitikur naxevarwreSi arsebul axal

klientebTanac urTierToben [51-83]. yovelive ganagrZobs zomoTqmulis miuxedavad, mudmivi briuseli jildos kvlav gareSe

TurqeTis,

rogorc

darCenili mTxovnelis aRqmas. evrokratebs unda axsovdeT, rom qorwinebisaTvis oris Tanxmobaa saWiro, xolo gayrisTvis

erTis survilic sakmarisia [168]. Tuki ankara uars ganacxadebs naxevarsaukunovan arSiyobaze, maSin ukve sabolood Crdilo atlantikuri aliansic wagebuli darCeba. maSasadame, darCenis TurqeTis respublikis viTareba evrokavSiris SesaZloa, miRma

SemTxvevaSi,

sakmaod

arasaxarbielo

scenarebiT da

ganviTardes,

saerTaSoriso kavkasiis

sazogadoebisaTvis

gansakuTrebiT

samxreT

regionSi myofi sami patara saxelmwifosaTvis, romelTagan mTeli rigi mizezebis gamo, yvelaze rTul dReSi Cveni qveyana, saqarTvelo aRmoCndeba [112]. rogorc aRvniSneT, aseT SemTxvevaSi TurqeTi da ruseTi Seecdebian SeerTebuli Statebis kavkasiis regionidan

gamodevnas. Tu maT es moaxerxes, maSin, samwuxarod, arsebobs movlenebis ganviTarebis Semdegi variantebi: advili

SesaZlebelia, rom mas Semdeg, rac isini kavkasiaSi sxva didi moTamaSeebis gareSe marto darCebian da am rols TviTon SeiTviseben, SeiZleba maSinve daupirispirdnen erTmaneTs, raTa saboolood gaarkvion kavkasiur arenaze gamarjvebulis

vinaoba; SeiZleba yvelaferi konsesusamde mivides da moxdes ruseTsa mogvareba, da TurqeTs Soris urTierTobebis saboolood gavlenis

molaparakebebis

Sedegad

kavkasiaSi

sferoebis mkafio gadanawileba da axali ,,gamyofi xazebis" 210

gavleba. miTumetes gasaTvaliswinebelia, rom am ukanaskneli variantis istoriuli analogi arsebobs. gasuli saukunis dasawyisSi, im periodisaTvis axlad

Seqmnilma sabWoTa kavSirma da osmaleTis saxelmwifom SeZles, moenaxaT saerTo ena da samreT kavkasia gadaenawilebinaT. es yvelaferi gansakuTrebiT kargad Cans yarsis xelSekrulebaSi, romelic oficialurad gaxldaT samSvidobo xelSekruleba TurqeTsa da amierkavkasiis respublikebis sabWoTa mTavrobebs Soris, realurad ki es SeTanxmeba Turqebma ara mezobel respublikebTan, aramed uSualod kremlTan dades. aRniSnul xelSekrulebas xeli moewera 1921 wlis 13 oqtombers [29-406]. xolo ratificirebul iqna 1922 wlis 11 seqtembers erevanSi. aRniSnuli SeTanxmebiT TurqeTma aWaris nawili, qalaqi baTumi da q. giumri sabWoTa kavSirs gadasca, xolo nacvlad amisa, v. leninis damsaxurebiT, mis mflobelobaSi gadavida ZirZveli qarTuli miwebi yarsis, arTvinisa da artaanis saxiT.

amasTanave, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, sayovelTaod cnobilia, rom TurqeTis da ganmanTavisuflebeli TanamebrZolebi omis dros, mustafa

qemali

misi

sabWoTa

kavSirisagan

seriozul daxmarebebs Rebulobdnen. amrigad, nebismier SemTxvevaSi, kavkasiis regionSi aseTi tendenciebis gabatoneba ar unda Sediodes evrokavSirisa da zogadad aqedan dasavleTis, gamomdinare, zRvis TurqeTis saxelmwifoebis evrokavSirSi interesebSi. gawevrianeba

principul sakiTxs iZens. evropam unda ifiqros, ra ufro xelsayrelia misTvis, TurqeTis evrokavSirSi gawevrianeba

(yvela siZneleebis gaTvaliswinebiT, rac mas abrkolebs) Tu

yarsis

samSvidobo

xelSekrulebas

xeli

moewera

yarsSi

1921

wlis

13

oqtombers xolo ratificirebuli iqna 1922 wlis 11 seqtembers erevanSi.

211

rusul-Turqili

energetikuli

aliansi?

vfiqrobT,

am

viTarebaSi TurqeTis wevroba Crdilo atlantikur aliansSi, dasavleTisTvis myar garantiad albaT ver CaiTvleba, vinaidan dapirispirebis frontma, rogorc amas evropaSic aRiareben potenciuri brZolis velebidan ocdameerTe saukunisaTvis

milsadenebze gadainacvla [140].

212

$ _ 5. Turquli geopolitikis samxreT kavkasiuri mimarTuleba

sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdeg TurqeTis respublikis erT-erTi mTavari mizani gaxlavT samxreT kavkasiis regionSi lideris rolis mopoveba da Tavisi gavlenis gazrda. rodesac aRniSnuli regionis samma saxelmwifom (saqarTvelo,

azerbaijani, somxeTi) moipova Tavisufleba, ankaram qveynis axali sagareo-politikuri doqtrinis Tanaxmad, dauyonebliv aRiara maTi damoukidebloba, kerZod, da riTac Riad dauWira mxari

dasavleTis,

amerikis

SeerTebuli

Statebis aliansis

isTebliSmentisa

Crdiloatlantikuri

xelSekrulebis e. w. ,,gafarToebis koncefcias" [155]. amasTanave, aucilebelia xazi gaesvas, rom ukanasknelis mier xsenebuli qveynebis suverenitetis aRiarebis procesSi adgili ar hqonia araviTar diskriminaciul politikas, maT Soris TviT

somxeTTan mimarTebaSi. ,,civi omis" dasrulebamde TurqeTis respublika kargad arTmevda sabWoTa Tavs Crdilo atlantikuri aliansis davalebas samyaros

kavSirTan

mimarTebaSi,

bipolaruli

dapirispirebis periodSi igi warmatebiT asrulebda Sekavebis rgolis ZiriTadi bastionis funqcias da araferia sakvirveli imaSi, rom man da dasavleTis strategebma samxreT kavkasiisa Tu centraluri aziis regionis qveynebis suverenitetis

aRiarebiT, praqtikulad gaafarToves TavianTi geopolitikuri zegavlenis sfero, xolo ,,velikoderJavul" ruseTs ki

maqsimalurad Seumcires eqspansiuri zraxvebis ganxorcielebis

isTebleSmenti ­ (ingl) aSS-sa da did britaneTSi sazogadoebis mmarTveli,

privilegirebuli jgufebi: xelisuflebisa da mmarTvelobis mTeli sistema.

213

areali, ara mxolod samxreT kavkasiis, aramed centraluri aziisa da balkaneTis geopolitikur sivrceSic. sawyis ZalRones etapze, ar 1991-1994 wlebSi, Seeqmna oficialuri samxreT ankara

iSurebda,

raTa

kavkasiis

saxelmwifoebTan ormxrivi da mravalmxrivi TanamSromlobis ganviTarebis niadagi. somxeTis maTTan TvalsazrisiT, man maqsimalurad xelsayreli da daamyara oficialuri amisa,

saqarTvelos,

azerbaijanisa

damoukideblobis diplomatiuri gaxsna

aRiarebisTanave da

urTierTobebi am qveynebSi. civ

warmomadgenlobebi dRemde somxeTTan

miuxedavad

arsebul

urTierTobebs

mravali

analitikosi afasebs, rogorc TurqeTis sagareo-politikuri kursis fiaskos [139]. aRniSnuli nabijebis Semdeg, TurqeTis xelmZRvanelobis mier dRis wesrigSi daisva regionaluri integraciisa da

TanamSromlobisaken mimarTuli mravali iniciativa, maT Soris yvelaze TvalsaCino magaliTs warmoadgens prezident TurguT ozalis idea ,,Savi zRvis ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis

organizaciis" (BSEC) formirebis Sesaxeb. Aam organizaciis movlena Seqmnis gaxldaT Semdeg, kidev erTi didi IX

mniSvnelovani

TurqeTis

respublikis

prezidentis, suleiman demirelis mier, Cvens mier ukve zemoT naxsenebi, regionaluri usafrTxoebis uzruvlyofis mizniT ,,kavkasiis stabilurobis paqtis" ganxorcielebis idea,

romelic kvlavac, jer kidev inarCunebs sakmaod aqtualur xasiaTs. TurqeTis respublikis samxedro da politikuri elitis mier samxreT kaavkasiis qveynebTan mimarTebaSi gadagmul

esoden

mniSvnelovan

nabijebs,

wminda

savaWro-ekonomikuri 214

Sinaarsis RonisZiebebi mohyva, kerZod, aviakompania ,,TurqeTis aviaxazebma" stambolisa da ankaris meSveobiT daakavSira

Tbilisi da baqo dasavleT_evropuli sivrcis qveynebTan da aqtiurad Seudga ekonomikur saqmianobas zogadad aRniSnuli regionis qveynebSi. amis datvirTvis Semdeg mqone TurqeTis morig xelisuflebis ekonomikuri agreTve

iniciativas,

romelic

mimarTuli iyo ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis gaRrmavebisaken, warmoadgenda balkaneTis samxreT regionSi kavkasiis, ,,TurqeTis centraluri aziisa da da

TanamSromlobisa

ganviTarebis saagentos" (TIKA) daarseba, romlis meSveobiTac TurqeTma faqtiurad gza gauxsna Turq biznesmenebsa da kerZo seqtoris warmomadgenlebs post-sabWour sivrceSi mcire da msxvili investiciebis gansaxorcieleblad. TIKA-s warmomadgenloba SeZlebisdagvarad xels uwyobda ama Tu im qveynis sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebel ekonomikidan,

xelisuflebas

centralizebuli

gegmiuri

Tavisufal sabazro ekonomikaze gardamaval, metad mtkivneuli procesis daZlevaSi, amasTanave man safuZveli Cauyara mravali ekonomikuri xasiaTis proeqtebis ganxorcielebas. (mag.:

imereTis mxaris social-ekonomikuri aRorZineba, 2008 wlis agvistos omis Semdeg ltolvilebisaTvis asi sacxovrebeli saxlis aSeneba, centraluri aziisa da balkaneTis qveynebSi Zveli istoriuli Zeglebis aRdgena da a.S.). miuxedavad amisa, ar SeiZleba xazi ar gaesvas im arsebiT garemoebas, rom 1991-1994 wlebSi TurqeTi praqtikulad marto aRmoCnda xsenebul regionSi mitovebuli Tavisi tradiciuli mokavSireebis amerikis SeerTebuli Statebisa da evropis mier, romelTac im droisaTvis faqtiurad ar hqondaT mkveTrad 215

gansazRvruli samxreT kavkasiuri politika, rac, raRa Tqma unda, ufro aZnelebda dasaxuli amocanebisa da miznebis qveynebis

srulfasovan msgavsi

ganxorcielebas. rogorc kavSiris

evroatlantikuri mogexsenebaT,

ususurobiT, sabWoTa

brwyinvaled ruseTis

isargebla

samarTalmemkvidre

federaciam, romelic am drois manZilze Seudga e. w. ,,resovetizaciis" saboloo etapobrivi kidec gegmis ganxorcielebas, rac,

jamSi,

,,damoukidebel

saxelmwifoTa

Tanamegobrobis" formirebiT dasrulda. did yuradRebas imsaxurebs 1993 wlis agvistos TveSi ruseTis federaciis mier axali militaristuli doqtrinisa da e. w. ,,axlo sazRvargareTis" koncefciis gamocxadebis

faqti, romelmac praqtikulad gamoaRviZa dasavleTi. ruseTis am geopolitikuri nabijis Sedegad, mravali prioriteti iqna gadaxalisebuli evrokavSiris qveynebis sagareo-politikur

damokidebulebaSi samxreT kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis regionebTan aRniSnuli mimarTebaSi. evropasTan TviT erTad Seicvala SeerTebuli

problematikisadmi

amerikis

Statebis politikuri elitis midgomac. dasavleTma (NACC) ormxrivi da aliansma drois mcire monakveTSi

gaiTavisa, rom ,,Crdiloatlantikuri TanamSromlobis sabWo" aRmoCnda da araqmediTunariani aRniSnul qveynebTan ganviTarebis

mravalmxrivi

urTierTobebis

TvalsazrisiT. aqedan gamomdinare, evropuli geopolitikuri skolebisa dadgnen da institutebis warmomadgenlebi 1994 wels (Partnership for Peace) winaSe da

,,partnioroba praqtikaSi

mSvidobisaTvis" danergvis

koncefciis

aucileblobis

,,Crdiloatlantikuri TanamSromlobis sabWos SemadgenlobaSi" Semavalma qveynebma daiwyes PFP-s xelSekrulebis xelmoweris 216

procedura NATO-sTan erTad [141]. amas ki, ra Tqma unda, samxreT kavkasiis regionSi aRmocenebuli konfliqtebis

(samaCablo, afxazeTi, mTiani yarabaRi) erTian potenciurad saSiS keraSi konsolidacia-gaerTianeba mohyva, ris Semdegadac Tanamedrove evropa dadga maTi daregulirebis aucileblobis winaSe. paralelurad, TurqeTis respublikis xelmZRvaneloba

1994 wlidan iwyebs aqtiur muSaobas aRniSnul regionebTan ufro metad daaxloebisa mokle da dakavSirebisaTvis. SemuSavebul iqna am mizniT samxreT

maqsimalurad

droSi

kavkasiisa da centraluri aziis regionis qveynebTan mimdinare TanamSromlobis mkveTrad ganviTareba-gafarToebisaken sagareo-politikuri mimarTuli prioritetebis

gansazRvruli

sistema, romelic, Tavis mxriv, dRemde emyareba sam ZiriTad princips: 1. politikuri dialogis gafarToeba; 2. ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis sakiTxebSi [135]. pirveli principis mixedviT aRniSnul periodSi ankaris mier am regionTan mimarTebaSi warmoebuli sagareogaRrmaveba; 3. dialogi usafrTxoebis

politikuri veqtori umTavresad emyareboda umaRlesi donis ormxrivi vizitebisa da konsultaciebis princips, magram

xsenebuli vizitebis farglebSi SeuZlebeli iyo ama Tu im konkretuli SeTanxmebebis oficialuri, regionuli miRweva myari sakiTxebis da saqme detalebis mTavrdeboda xasiaTis Taobaze mxolod

deklaraciuli

gancxadebebis

gakeTebiTa da gadawyvetilebebis miRebiT. aqedan gamomdinare, TurqeTis sagareo saqmeTa saministros mier dRis wesrigSi daisva mezobeli regionis qveynebTan yovelwliuri

politikuri konsultaciebis gamarTvis aucileblobis sakiTxi. 217

dReisaTvis,

samxreT

kavkasiisa

da

centraluri

aziis

qveynebTan TurqeTis respublikas Catarebuli aqvs politikuri konsultaciebis sakmao raundebi. meore principi, romelsac CvenTan mimarTebaSi TurqeTis mier warmoebuli sagareo-politikuri veqtori emyareba,

gaxlavT, rogorc ukve aRiniSna, ekonomikuri TanamSromlobis gaRrmaveba. aRniSnuli miznis warmatebiT gansaxorcieleblad TurqeTis xelisuflebis mier wamoyenebul iqna ormxrivi ­ mTavroboTaSorisi ekonomikuri urTierTobebis komisiisa da gafarToebuli biznes-sabWos daarsebis iniciativa, romlis

farglebSic mxareebis mier permanentulad ganixileba wminda ekonomikuri sakiTxebi. da bolos, mesame mniSvnelovani

principi _ es aris TanamSromlobis ganviTareba usafrTxoebis sferoSi. rogorc cnobilia, gansakuTrebiT bolodroindeli movlenebis fonze, saerTaSoriso terorizmisa da separatizmis safrTxe regionis zogad politikur landSaftze seriozul zegavlenas axdens da potenciuri safrTxis winaSe ayenebs Cveni qveynebis stabilurobas. am mizniT, saqarTvelosa da TurqeTis sakanonmdeblo Tu aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis warmomadgenelTa Sexvedrebi, ra monawileobiT, drosac mxareebi periodulad axdenen imarTeba

mosalodneli

safrTxisa Tu problemebis Sesaxeb informaciis miwodebasa da gacvlas. erT-erTi Sinaarsobrivi mniSvnelovani datvirTvis samiti msgavsi xasiaTisa da

TurqeTis

respublikis,

saqarTvelosa da azerbaijanis prezidentebis monawileobiT gaimarTa TurqeTis SavizRvispireTis qalaq trapizonSi 2001 wlis 30 aprils, zemoTxsenebuli RonisZiebis farglebSi, Cveni qveynebis Sinagan saqmeTa ministrebis mier xelmoweril iqna 218

SeTanxmeba TurqeTis

,,azerbaijanis respublikas

respublikas,

saqarTvelosa

da

Soris

terorizmis,

organizebuli

danaSaulisa da sxva mniSvnelovani danaSaulebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb" [143]. rac Seexeba uSualod TurqeTisa da saqarTvelos

Tanamedrove urTierTobebs, saWiroa iTqvas, rom jer kidev 1923 wels, mustafa qemal aTaTurqi Tavis xalxs yovelTvis

mouwodebda

saqarTvelosTan

keTilmezoblobis

aucileblobaze. mimdinare etapze ki, TurqeTis respublika amerikis SeerTebul StatebTan mTavar da ukrainasTan da erTad

warmoadgens

saqarTvelos

mokavSire

partnior

qveyanas, rac aisaxeba rogorc samxedro da politikur, aseve ekonomikur sferoebSi daxmarebiT. 1992 wlis 30 ivliss saqarTvelosa da TurqeTs Soris daido megobrobisa da keTilmezoblobis ganaTlebis, pirveli mecnierebis,

srulmaStabiani

xelSekruleba.:

kulturisa da sportis dargSi urTierTTanamSromlobaze [2-1]. xelSekruleba Cvidmeti muxlisagan Sedgeba da Cveni xalxebis saerTo_kulturul farTo ganviTarebasa da sxvadasxva am dargebSi

TanamSromlobas

iTvaliswinebs.

xelSekrulebis

safuZvelze 1993 wels TbilisSi gaixsna koleji. saswavlebels wilad xvda pativi, etarebina suleiman TurqeTis demirelis respublikis saxeli. 1995

imJamindeli

prezidentis

wels, kerZo kolejTan dawyebiTi skolac Seiqmna. SemdgomSi aRniSnuli skolebi gaixsna saqarTvelos sxva qalaqebSic.

dReisaTvis ki ukve saqarTveloSi funqcionirebs TurqTa mier gaxsnili umaRlesi saswavlebeli, romelsac msoflioSi

,,Tbilisis Savi zRvis universitetis" saxelwodebiT icnoben.

219

TurqeTsa samecniero aRmosavluri

da

Cvens

qveyanas

Soris

sagamanaTlebloqarTulgafarToebis

kontaqtebis,

mravalsaukunovani Semdgomi

urTierTobebis

TvalsazrisiT, aseve uaRresad mniSvnelovani iyo 1994 wels xelmowerili saqarTvelos saxelmwifos meTauris

gankarguleba ,,saqarTveloSi aRmosavluri enebis swavlebis gaumjobesebis RonisZiebaTa Sesaxeb". 1996 da wlis 4 aprils Soris xeli teqnikisa TurqeTis moewera da [4-1]. respublikasa SeTanxmebas mecnierebis aRniSnuli

saqarTvelos

samxedro sferoSi

wvrTnis,

urTierTanamSromlobis

Sesaxeb

xelSekrulebis Semdeg samxedro sferoSi TurqeT-saqarTvelos urTierTobebi mravali aspeqtiT viTardeba, rac gamoixateba materialur-teqnikur daxmarebaSi, kadrebis momzadebaSi, aseve sxva samxedro programebis ganxorcielebaSi. am TvalsazrisiT aRsaniSnavia saqarTvelos gaerTianebuli samxedro akademiis reforma, kosovoSi TurqeTis samSvidobo batalionSi qarTuli oceulis monawileoba, aseve mniSvnelovania TurqeTis grantis programa saqarTvelosaTvis samxedro sferoSi da misi

mxardaWera evro-atlantikur sivrceSi integraciis gzaze da sxva [111-16]. TurqeT-saqarTvelos urTierTobebSi umniSvnelovanesi

adgili ukavia energoproeqtebis ganxorcielebas. swored baqoTbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenisa da baqo-Tbilisi-erzrumis

gazsadenis sakiTxebi warmoadgenda GTurqeTis sagareo saqmeTa ministris abdulah amasTan rinigzis giulis didi vizitis mniSvneloba ZiriTad eniWeba mizans yarsi-

saqarTveloSi. axalqalaqis

mSeneblobis

sakiTxs,

romelic

erTmaneTTan daakavSirebs aziisa da evropis bazrebs. 220

2004

wlis

TebervalSi

saqarTvelos

sagareo

saqmeTa

ministris Tedo jafriZis ankaraSi vizitis dros mxareebma ganixiles mSeneblobis baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis sakiTxi, romelic paraleluri milsadenis rusuli

uzrunvelyofs

navTobis evropisaken transportirebas. saqarTveloSi 2003 wlis noembris TveSi ganviTarebuli movlenebis fonze, TurqeTi iyo erT-erTi pirveli saxelmwifo, omelmac mzadyofna gamoTqva, TanamSromla axal

xelisuflebasTan da imedianad ganacxada, rom or qveyanas Soris arsebuli urTierTobebi kvlav darCeba

keTilmezobluri da warimarTeba strategiuli partniorobis principiT. am TvalsazrisiT aRsaniSnavia is finansuri

daxmarebac, romelic TurqeTma gauwia saqarTvelos ,,vardebis revoluciis" CatarebisaTvis. zemoT aRniSnulTan erTad sagulisxmoa, rom TurqeTi kvlav gaxldaT pirveli saxelmwifo, romelmac misi Sedegad, vadamdeli saprezidento arCevnebis

geografiuli mdebarebis gamo, 2008 wlis agvistoSi pirvelma gauwia saqarTvelos ruseTTan omis msvlelobis dros

humanitaruli daxmareba da meomar mxareebs omis Sewyvetisaken mouwoda. Tanamedrove TurqeTis geopolitikaze saubrisas dRes

ukve ar SeiZleba ar SevexoT aRniSuli qveynisa da somxeTis urTierTobebis warsulsa da momaval pespeqtivebs. ocdameerTe saukunis dasawyisidan somxur-Turquli urTierTobebis

ganxilvam Zalian farTo xasiaTi miiRo, pirveli seriozuli nabiji TurqeT-somxeTis poziciaTa daaxloebis mcdelobisa daiwyo 2003 wlis ivnisSi, madridSi gamarTul nato-s

ministrTa

Sexvedrisas,

rodesac

TurqeTis

imdroindelma 221

sagareo somxeTTan

saqmeTa

ministrma

a.

giulim

axlo

momavalSi isaubra. saqmeTa

sazRvris amisa

gaxsnis

SesaZleblobaze TurqeTis sagareo

miuxedavad

maSindeli

ministri, im periodisaTvis mkacrad usvamda xazs or qveyanas Soris arsebul politikuri xasiaTis problemebis mogvarebis aucileblobas, rac pirvel rigSi dakavSirebuli gaxldaT genocidis aRiarebis sakiTxTan da mTiani yarabaxis problemis mogvarebasTan. somexTa erT-erTi masobrivi xocva-Jleta osmaleTSi

daiwyo 1908 wels ,,axalgazrda TurqTa" mier revoluciuri gadatrialebis Semdeg [29-340]. qveynis saTaveSi mosuli

triumviratis: jemal faSas, TalaaT faSas da enver faSas TaosnobiT. avantiuristma mmarTvelebma 1914 wels erzrumSi somxebTan mosalaparakeblad gagzavnes warmomadgenlebi, raTa ruseT-

TurqeTis Sejaxebis SemTxvevaSi somxebis pozicia gaerkviaT. rodesac yvela SeTavazebaze kategoriuli uari miiRes, maSin ,,axalgazrda TurqTa" delegatebma sajarod ganacxades:

,,aSkaraa, rom kavkasiaSi somxebi rusebs emxrobian da TurqeTis interesebs ewinaaRmdegebian, osmaleTis warumateblobis

SemTxvevaSi mTeli pasuxismgebloba Tqven, somxebs dagawvebaT" [136]. delegaciis wevrTa gancxadeba srul simarTles Seicavda. dasavleT daSnakebi, winaaRmdeg somxeTidan ruseTis mis bevri mxares jarSi iqauri mkvidri, rom maT Soris

gadadiodnen, ebrZolaT.

TurqeTis mZime imperiis erTgan

aRniSnul

mdgomareobasTan xelmZRvanelobam

dakavSirebiT gamosca

osmaleTis romelSic

brZanebuleba,

naTqvami iyo: ,,aSkaraa, rom rogori Sedegidac unda dasruldes 222

es omi, samSvidobo molaparakebebze isev wamoiWreba somxuri sakiTxi, romelic, ukve naxevari saukunea, saerTaSoriso

sakiTxad iqca da TurqeTis guls laxvariviT esoba" [136]. amitom ,,axalgazrda Turqebis" mTavrobam gadawyvita, somxuri sakiTxis xelaxali aRmoceneba Tavidan aecilebina. somxuri sakiTxis arideba ki mxolod erT rames niSnavda ­ TurqeTSi somxebi aRar unda darCeniliyvnen. brZanebis Tanaxmad,

osmaleTis teritoriaze mcxovrebi somexTa masobrivi xocvaJletisa da deportaciebis axalma talRam 1915 wels ifeTqa da periodulad grZeldeboda 1922 wlamde. dReisaTvis Turqi istorikosebi da maTi evropeli

kolegebis nawili, maT Soris aRiarebuli mecnierebi norman sTouni, bernar liusi, Jil vainStaini uaryofen somexTa

ganadgurebis mizanmimarTul xasiaTs, rac genocidis aRiarebis aucilebeli pirobaa. isini TavianT azrs amtkiceben imiT, rom am Sinaarsis dokumentebi dRes faqtobrivad ar arsebobs,

magram 1978 wlidan germaniaSi devnilis statusiT mcxovrebi Turqi istorikosi Taner aqCami, romelic am sakiTxSi orhan famuqisa da ramdenime wlis win mokluli somexi Jurnalistis, grant dinkis Tanamoazrea, wers, rom msgavsi dokumentebis Zieba erTi SecdomiTaa ar gamowveuli: icnoben somexi da dasavleli tradiciul mimarT. es

istorikosebi damokidebulebas

osmalebis dokumentebis

werilobiTi

tradicia mniSvnelovani saxelmwifo brZanebulebebis sityvier xasiaTs gulisxmobs [48-231]. Tavis gaxmaurebul wignSi

,,Turquli erovnuli cnobiereba da somxuri sakiTxi" aqCami saintereso da Rrma analizs gvTavazobs, Tu ratom adevs tabu somxur sakiTxs dRevandel TurqeTSi. es mizezebia: istoriuli cnobierebis da mexsierebis arqona; erovnul cnobierebaSi 223

momxdari Taobebis istoriis

wyveta, mier

risi

mizezic

respublikuri zizRSi, gadasmaSi, 600

periodis wliani

yovelive

osmaluris xazis

islamurobisaTvis

warsulis

daviwyebis survilSi imaleba; Turqi eri demografiuladac ,,axalgazrdaa". TurqeTis respublikuri periodi marTlac

winaaRmdegobrivia; erTi mxriv, osmaluri warsulis siZulvili ikveTeba meore mxriv osmaluri periodis danaSaulebaTa

uaryofis an daviwyebis survili [62_198]. marTalia, TurqeTis inteligenciis erTma nawilma ramdenime xnis win kampania

,,somxebo SegvindeT" wamoiwyo, magram TurqeTis mosaxleobis ZiriTadma birTvma somexTa xocva-Jletaze araferi icis, xolo rac Seexeba, qveynis xelmZRvanelobas, 2008 wels r. erdoRanma ganacxada, ,,es danaSauli Cven ar Cagvidenia da patieba

aravisTvis gvaqvs saTxovni" [136]. rogorc Semdeg 1991 zemoT wels aRvniSneT, ankaram sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis

aRiara

samive

amierkavkasiis Tumca uari Tqva

postsabWoTa saqarTvelosa erevanTan

respublikebis da

damoukidebloba, gansxvavebiT, damyarebaze. imiT, rom

azarbaijanisagan kavSiris iyo

diplomatiuri

aRniSnuli 1990 wels weria:

gadawyvetileba miRebul

motivirebuli

somxeTis

damoukideblobis

deklaraciaSi

,,somxeTi xels Seuwyobs 1915 wels osmaleTis imperiaSi da dasavleT somxeTSi, somexi xalxis genocidis saerTaSoriso aRiarebas" [164]. miuxedavd somxeTTan diplomatiur urTierTobebze uaris Tqmisa, TurqeTma ori qveynis 325-kilometriani sazRvris

gamSvebi punqtebis Caketva ar iCqara. erT-erTi gamSvebi punqti giummrisTan samxreTiT 40 mdebareobs, meore gamSvebi wlebSi punqti erevnis

kilometrSia.

1992-93

somxeTisaTvis 224

yvelaze saSineli zamTris dros, swored am gamSvebi punqtidan Sedioda arsebobda qveyanaSi iranTan xorbali. im droisaTvis xidi, jer kidev ar

damakavSirebeli

aRmosavleTiT

sazRvari Caketili iyo, xolo somxeT-azerbaijanis sazRvris mTel perimetrze sisxlismRvreli omi boboqrobda. im wlebSi samoqalaqo saqarTveloc kavSirisaTvis. TurqeTma somxeTTan sazRvris Caketva 1993 wels omsa ar da iyo afxazeTis saimedo konfliqtSi gare CarTuli

fanjara

samyarosTan

gadawyvita, roca somxurma Zalebma mTianiYyarabaRis mosazRvre qelbajaris religiuri, raioni daikaves. da gaiTvaliswina strategiuli ra enobrivi, interesebi

eTnikuri

azerbaijanTan, TurqeTma daiwyo somxeTis blokada, romelic ukve 16 welia grZeldeba. 1998 wlis aprilSi SeerTebuli Statebis Carevis Sedegad somxeTma da TurqeTma xeli moaweres uwyebaTaSoris

dokuments, romlis Tanaxmadac, TurqeTma somxeTis sahaero blokada Sewyvita. zustad 14 weliwadSi 2009 wlis 22 aprils or qveyanas Soris xeli moewera ,,sagzao rukas", romlis

sajaro dokumentSic weria mxolod is, rom ,,somxeTma da TurqeTma ormxrivi Sveicariis SuamavlobiT, intensiurad imuSaves da am

urTierTobebis

normalizaciisTvis da xels

urTierTobebis CarCoebSi

keTilmezoblur es

urTierTpativiscemis Seuwyobs mSvidobis,

gadayvanisTvis.

usafrTxoebisa da stabilurobis damyarebas mTel regionSi... am konteqstSi mxareebis mier gansazRvrulia ,,sagzao ruka". ukve SeTanxmebuli sakiTxebi uzrunvelyofs ormxrivi

procesis gagrZelebis perspeqtivas" [139].

225

aRniSnuli

dokumentis

Sesaxeb

somxeTSi

23

aprils

Seityves, zustad meore dRes, 24 aprils, mTeli sasomxeTi da msoflioSi mcxovrebi somxebi, 1915-18 wlebSi osmaleTSi

ganviTarebuli tragikuli movlenebis Sedegad daRupuli 1,5 milioni somexis xsovnis dRes aRniSnaven. mravali wlis ganmavlobaSi amerikis prezidentebi yovel 24 aprils sityviT mimarTaven TavianTi qveynis somxur lobs da me-20 saukunis dasawyisSi moxdar tragedias usamZimreben, ra drosac yovelTvis iyenebdnen frazas ,,masobrivi xocvaJleta" [16-371]. dReisaTvis amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis saxelmwifo

mdivani, hilari klintoni uSualod aris Careuli TurqeTsa da somxeTs Soris uTanxmoebis mogvarebis sakiTxSi. SeerTebuli Statebis azriT, aRniSnuli qveynebis daaxloeba xels

Seuwyobs kavkasiaSi mSvidobis damyarebas, axali derefnebis gaxsnas dasavleTSi navTobisa da gazis eqsportirebisaTvis, SezRudavs ruseTis batonobas somxeTSi da aRmofxvris

vaSingtonsa da ankaras Soris erT-erTi kamaTis sababs. unda aRiniSnos, rom am Serigebas dasavlelebisagan

gansxvavebiT rusi eqspertebi da politikosebi sxva mxridan xedaven da ganixilaven. swored amitom kremlic dadebiTad aris ganwyobili istoriuli mtrebis Serigebisadmi da

cdilobs, TviTonac aqtiurad CaerTos am proeqtSi, rom Semdeg Tavis sasargeblod gamoiyenos igi. sabolood ZalisxmeviT universitetSi gaformebuli aSS-s saxelmwifo 10 mdivnis daxmarebiTa da

2009

wlis

oqtombers, Soris,

saRamos, wlis

ciurixis aprilSi gaformda

TurqeT-somxeTs xelSekrulebis

amave

safuZvelze,

protokolebi, romlebic miznad isaxavs or qveyanas Soris 226

diplomatiuri normalizacias. mxareebma TurqeTis

urTierTobisa

da

sazRvris

gaxsnis

xeli

moaweres

protokolebs: ormxrivi

,,somxeTisa

da

respublikebs Sesaxeb"

Soris da

urTierTobebis da TurqeTis

ganviTarebis

,,somxeTisa

respublikebs Soris diplomatiuri urTierTobebis aRdgenis Sesaxeb". dokumentebs xeli moaweres qveynebis sagareo saqmeTa ministrebma ahmeT davudoRlum da eduard nalbandianma. isini SeTanxmdnen, rom protokolebis ZalaSi Sesvlidan or TveSi qveynebs Soris arsebul sazRvars gaxsnian. miuxedavad protokolebis gaformebisa, mTavari jer win aris, radgan aRniSnuli xelSekrulebebis ratificireba

parlamentebma unda moaxdinon, sadac TavisTavad wamoiWreba urTierTobebSi arsebuli problemebi: somxeTis genocidis

sakiTxi da somxeTsa da azerbaijans Soris mTiani yarabaRis gamo gadauWreli konfliqti. TurqeTis premier-ministris

erT-erTi gancxadebiT, misi mTavroba SeTanxmebas gzas miscems, Tu somxeTi azerbaijanis teritoriidan Tavisi jaris nawils mainc gaiyvans [126]. Turqul-somxur urTierTobebSi progresi mxareebs

sxvadasxvagvarad esmiT. Tu somxeTisaTvis progresi niSnavs sazRvris gaxsnas, TurqeTisaTvis igi SeiZleba iyos

oficialuri da araoficialuri sajaro Sexvedrebi somxur mxaresTan. akritikeben, konkretuli isini, vinc prezident rom anu, sarqisianis politikas

amboben, vadebi,

aucilebelia, daketa

ganisazRvros TurqeTma da

sazRvari

Sesabamisad, manve unda gaxsnas igi konkretul vadebSi. TurqeT-somxeTs Soris ,,yinulis dnobis" process

frTxilad akvirdeba da Zalian Relavs TurqeTis ,,umcrosi 227

Zma" da strategiuli partniori azerbaijani. mas yovelTvis hqonda imedi, rom ankaris mxardaWeriT: somxeTis blokadiTa da zewolis sxva meTodebiT, erevnis mxridan mTiani yarabaRis sakiTxSi daTmobebs miaRwevda. baqoSi dRes ukve ismis

radikaluri gancxadebebi, rom TurqeTi Tavis ,,umcros Zmas" azerbaijans Ralatobs. sainteresoa saqarTvelos faqtoric. moklevadian perspeqtivaSi, TurqeT-somxeTis sazRvris gaxsnis Sedegad izaralebs mxolod saqarTvelo [122], radgan

tranzituli tvirTebis didi nawili ukve somxeTze gaivlis, xolo erevans, romelic mxolod saqarTvelos satransporto magistralebze iyo damokidebuli da sakmaod did Tanxas

ixdida saqarTvelos biujetSi, axla sxva marSutic eqneba. miuxedavad yvelafrisa, TurqeTsa da somxeTs Soris Tu moxerxda sabolood aRdgena, da srulyofilad diplomatiuri es rigiTi

urTierTobebis

mosalodnelia,

rom

regionaluri movlena gadaizardos globalur geopolitikur procesebSi [115]. qarTveli eqsperti kavkasiis sakiTxevbSi, m. areSiZe

aRniSnavs, rom Turqul-somxuri Serigeba amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis proeqtia da igi prezident obamas administraciis axali xedvaa kavkasiis mTavari sakiTxebSi; orientirebis ,,amerikam gakeTebas Tavi daaneba rigi

saqarTveloze

mTeli

movlenebis gamo da cdilobs, globaluri politikuri TamaSis wevrad mTliani regioni gamoiyvanos" [114]. obamas

administracia ruseTTan Ria dapirispirebaze uars acxadebs, magram miuxedavad amisa, is mainc gaagrZelebs geopolitikur TamaSs da Seecdeba gavlenis sferoebi waarTvas mas [139]. Tu somxeTi prorusulidan prodasavlurad gadaiqceva, es iqneba

228

rimlandis kidev erTi gamarjveba hartlandze da ruseTis federacia mTlianad dakargavs gavlenas samxreT kavkasiaSi. jerjerobiT raime gamokveTil suraTze sabolood

saubari naadrevia, magram naTlad Cans, rom or qveyanas Soris diplomatiuri gamocda elis. urTierTobebis TurqeTis ratificirebas mejlisSi seriozuli rom

acxadeben,

ratificirebas im SemTxvevaSi moaxdenen, Tu masSi yarabaRTan dakavSirebiT gaTvaliswinebuli, kategoriuli azerbaijanis somxeTis interesebi sazogadoeba daaxloebisa, da iqneba diasporac mTavar

winaaRmdegia

maTTvis

problemad isev da isev genocidis araRiarebis sakiTxi rCeba. rac Seexeba saerTaSoriso viTarebas am sakiTxis irgvliv amas lobirebs amerika-evropac da ruseTis federaciac,

swored aq ikvreba Zalian saintereso kvanZi: vin ufro Zlieri aRmoCndeba? vin ufro warmatebuli iqneba am ,,WidaobaSi";

ruseTi SeZlebs da gadaiyvans TurqeTs, Tu dasavleTi SeZlebs da somxeTs sabolood gamoglijavs ruseTs klanWebidan? [114]. realurad amis pasuxs mxolod dro gvaCvenebs, xolo ramdenad Seexeba TurqeTis es procesi saqarTvelosa esec da mis urTierTobas momavalSi

respublikasTan,

mxolod

ganviTarebul movlenebzea damokidebuli. rac Seexeba azerbaijans, igi ankaris eTnikurad Zalian axlo, idealuri ekonomikuri da samxedro mokavSirea, magram bolo xans maTi strategiuli partnioroba uprecendentod dazaralda, rasac SeiZleba Sors mimavali Sedegebi moyhves. im momentidan, mmarTvelma ganacxada, rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, da rodesac TurqeTis partiam" somxeTTan

,,samarTlianobisa rom azerbaijanis

ganviTarebis mterTan

mosisxle

229

urTierTobis normalizebas gegmavs, ankarasa da baqos Soris urTierToba sagrZnoblad gacivda. baqo gansakuTrebiT aRaSfoTa TurqeT_somxeTis aRdgenaze sazogadoebam mier

diplomatiuri xelismoweram.

urTierTobebis azerbaijanis

SeTanxmebis da qveynis

politikurma xelmZRvanelobam TurqeTis calmxrivi politika dagmes. bevr saerTaSoriso eqsperts miaCnia, rom ankaram kidev erTi megobrulad ganwyobili mezoblis SeZenis mcdelobisas, aSkarad gadaaWarba da azerbaijanTan strategiuli

urTierTobebi dangrevis piras miiyvana [115]. cxadia, bolodroindelma daaxloebam Seuyena. es samxreT kavkasiaSi aseve ganviTarebulma Turqul-somxurma partniorobas wyali

movlenebma,

ankara-baqos partnioroba

strategiul momavali

aRmosavlur-dasavluri

energetikuri derefnis fundamenti, regionSi usafrTxoebis, politikuri da geostrategiuli balansis safuZveli, aseve demokratiuli TurqeTisa da masTan erTad mTeli dasavleTis kaspiis regionSi Sesvlis SesaZlebloba aris. am usafrTxoebis strategiuli amerikis partniorobis Statebis gareSe RerZis TurqeT-evrokavSiriarseboba da misi

SeerTebuli

gagrZeleba Sua aziis regionSi saWoWmano gaxdeba. Turqulsomxuri urTierTobebis da normalizaciis oficialuri momxre ankaris, mier

briuselisa

vaSingtonis

pirebis

daSvebul am geopolitikur Secdomas azerbaijanis interesebis gaTvaliswinebisa da yarabaRis sakiTxis gadawyvetis

uperspeqtivo, bumerangis efeqti moyhveba [126]. miuxedavad gansazRvreba yovelivesa, mieces jerjerobiT, da dRemde samxreT zusti kavkasiis 230

rom

TurqeTisa

qveynebis TanamSromlobis dinamikas aRsaniSnavia, rom awyobs Tu ar awyobs, zogierTi saxelmwifos geopolitikur gegmebs, realurad dResdReobiT Tu momavalSi rame ar Seicvala,

TurqeTi, saqarTvelo da azerbaijani ukve dakavSirebulebi arian erTmaneTTan gazisa da navTobis milsadenebiT da

erTobliobaSi qmnian umniSvnelovanes energokoridors kaspiis zRvidan evropamde. am nawils sam qveyanas Soris TanamSromlobis romelic gavliT, mniSvnelovan SigniT yarsTan

warmoadgens da

rkinigza,

regionis baqos

Tbilisisa

axalqalaqis

daakavSirebs. am proeqtis idea TurqeTis respublikas 1993 wlidan hqonda. Tumca realobaSi misi ganxorcieleba mxolod bolo ramdenime welia daiwyo. proeqtis oficialuri gaxsna 2007 wlis noemberSi Sedga, xolo rkinigzis amuSaveba 2010-11 wlebisaTvis igegmeba. am proeqts garda regionaluri Sida datvirTvisa, ufro maStaburi igegmeba mniSvnelobac bosforis aqvs. erTi mxriv, 2012 wlisaTvis xazis

srutis

gavliT

rkinigzis

mSenebloba, rac niSnavs, rom baqo-Tbilisi-yarsis rkinigzis xazi evropasac daukavSirdeba, xolo meores mxriv am proeqtSi CarTvis survili, azerbaijanuli wyaroebis gancxadebiT,

CineTma da yazaxeTma gamoTqva. miiCneva, rom msgavsi maStabis ganxorcielebis SemTxvevaSi proeqti konkurencias gauwevs

ruseTze gamaval transcimbirul magistrals, rac TavisTavad, kremlis dRevandel geopolitikasTan pirdapir

winaaRmdegobaSi modis. evropisa da CineTis mzardi interesebis fonze zogadad centraluri aziisa da kavkasiis regionebis da konkretulad am regionebSi arsebuli energo resursebis mimarT, aRniSnuli 231

proeqtis mniSvneloba imatebs. swored amitom, baqo-Tbilisiyarsis rkinigzis proeqti ukve moixsenieba, rogorc abreSumis gzis aRdgenis mcdeloba. amrigad, mTeli sabolood ara marto regionisaTvis, aramed

msofliosaTvis pasiansSi

iqneba

mniSvnelovani respublikis

dRevandel saboloo

geopolitikur

TurqeTis

roli. im SemTxvevaSi, rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, Tu TurqeTis respublikam ar moaxdina seriozuli geopolitikuri Zvra

,,hartlandis" anu evraziulobis sasargeblod, rac damRupveli iqneba, rogorc amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis demokratiuli politikisa da RirebulebebisaTvis, ise TviTon samxreT

kavkasiis regionis qveynebis damoukideblobisaTvis. xolo Tu movlenebi ase ar ganviTarda da ankaram Tavisi geopolitikuri kursi da Zveli mokavSireebi SeinarCuna, maSin es gaxlavT ukve absoliturad axali SesaZleblobebisa da

perspeqtiuli iniciativebis periodi, rogorc saerTaSoriso TanamegobrobisaTvis, ise regionis iseTi patara qveyni,,saTvis, rogoric saqarTveloa.

232

daskvna

Tanamedrove saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSi, romelic

myari stabilurobiT ar gamoirCeva, yoveli saxelmwifosaTvis mniSvnelovania sakuTari adgilis, rolisa da funqciis povna. sabWoTa kavSiris daSla gasuli saukunis bolos, Tanamedrove ruseTis politikosTa mier meoce niSnavda saukunis ara geopolitikur msoflio

katastrofad

Sefasebuli,

marto

politikuri rukis kardinalur Secvlas, aramed msoflios wamyvan saxelmwifoebs Soris interesTa konfliqtis axali etapis dasawyiss, rogorc globaluri aseve regionaluri

maStabiTac. geopolitikuri procesebi swored am niSniT viTardeba kavkasiisa saerTod, da mcire azia_axlo bipolaruli aRmosavleTis dapirispirebis regionSi. gaqrobam,

msoflio

romelsac sistemuri xasiaTi hqonda, xeli Seuwyo manamde ama Tu im samxedro politikur blokSi gaerTianebuli qveynebis swrafvis gaZlierebas meti damoukidebeli politikuri kursis gatarebisaken. winamdebare gamokvlevis analizis obieqtis _ TurqeTis respublikis geopolitika swored amgvari kuTxiT

eqvemdebareba Seswavlis aucileblobas. saTanado masalebisa da mravalferovani istoriul-politikuri literaturis

safuZvlianad Seswavlam SesaZlebloba mogvca warmogvedgina TurqeTis respublikis geopolitikuri warmodgenebisa da

koncefciebis analizis metnaklebad sruli saxe. meoce saukunis ociani wlebis dasawyisSi momxdar did istoriul-politikur uWiravs TurqeTis movlenaTa rigSi gamorCeuli adgili rac 233

nacionaluri

saxelmwifos

Seqmnas,

uwinaresad dakavSirebuli. nangrevebze

mustafa

qemal

aTaTurqis osmaleTis Turqulma

saxelTanaa imperiis

mravalsaukunovani axalma

aRmocenebulma

saxelmwifom

gauZlo mis winaSe wamoWril safrTxeebs, yofili imperiis sxvadasxva erebis mxridan, Tu gareSe saxelmwifoebisagan

momdinare ganadgurebis mcdelobebs da sakuTari damoukideli istoriis aTvla daiwyo. TurqeTis respublikis geopolitikis analizma

Tanamedrove etapze, anu sabWoTa kavSiris dezintegraciidan ocdameerTe saukunis pirveli aTwleulis CaTvliT gvaCvena, rom sakuTari erovnuli interesebidan gamomdinare aRniSnulma qveyanam Seqmna myari da Zlieri saxelmwifo, ganviTarebuli partiul-politikuri struqtura da, rac mTavaria, ZiriTadSi SeZlo mis qveyanaSi mcxovrebi sxva eTnikur jgufTa

warmomadgenlebis integrireba erT erad. warmodgenil gamokvlevaSi Catarebuli analizis Sedegad, rac mniSvnelovan da da Tematikis mixedviT efuZneba, mravalferovan SesaZlebelia, sakvlevi marTalia,

wyaroebsa Sejamebuli

literaturas

saxiT

CamovayaliboT konkretuli

calkeuli daskvnebi:

mimarTulebebis

mixedviT

cneba ,,geografiul-gopolitikuri" mdebareba an ,,mdgomareoba" marto qveynis Sinagan maxasiaTeblebs saerTo ar gulisxmobs da da

mWidrod

ukavSirdeba situacias,

regionalur mocemuli arsebiT

globalur

politikur imyofeba erovnuli TurqeTis

romelSic magram da igi

periodisaTvis axdens

saxelmwifo, interesebis

gavlenas

sagareo

mimarTebis

formirebaze. dResac

respublikis

geografiuli

mdebareoba

cxadia TiTqmis (1938 wels SeierTa haTais provincia) iseTive konfiguraciis momcvelia, rogoric is iyo mustafa qemal 234

aTaTurqis

mier

axali

Turquli

respublikis

daarsebis

momentSi. politikuri situacia da politikuri institutebi, maTi roli da funqciebi sxvadasxva etapze saSinao da sagareo faqtorebis eqvemdebareboda. yvelaze mniSvnelovani etapi TurqeTis geopolitikuri zegavleniT garkveul koreqtirebas

midgomebis da xedvebis pereorientaciaSi gasuli saukunis 90iani wlebidan dgeba, roca dasrulda e. w. ,,civi omi" da saerTaSoriso bipolaruli sistemis arseboba warsulis

kuTvnileba gaxda. gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoebac, rom erT-erTi

umniSvnelovanesi momenti saerTo geopolitikuri situaciis formirebisas, misi stabiluri an arastabiluri faqtoria, xasiaTis romelic

gansazRvrebisaTvis

istoriuli

Tanamedrove pirobebSi yovelTvis garkveul datvirTvas iZens, roca saqme exeba sxva erebTan da saxelmwifoebTan

urTierTobis daregulirebas. Tanamedrove religiuri TurqeTis socialur-politikuri faqtebis da

viTareba

istoriuli

zegavleniTac

ganisazRvreba da warmoaCens ama Tu im konkretul Tvisebas. miuxedavad saxelmwifoa, imisa, ar rom SeiZleba, TurqeTis respublika mis saero

davakninoT

politikur

cxovrebaSi islamuri faqtoris mniSvneloba. gansakuTrebuli momenti aq is gaxlavT, rom igi ar Semoifargleba qveynis nacionaluri sazRvrebiT da mas sxva saxelmwifoebTan da xalxebTan mimarTebaSic gaaCnia mniSvneloba. istoriuli osmaleTis imperiaSi Tavmoyrili iyo mravali sxvadasxva eris da konfesiis warmomadgenlebi. miuxedavad

saxelmwifo politikis mcdelobisa moexdina maTi asimilireba, 235

procesi sabolood dasrulebulad ar SeiZleba CaiTvalos. is formulireba, rom TurqeTis yvela mcxovrebi muslimi

Turquli erovnebisaa, ver gamodgeba erovnuli konsolidaciis maCveneblad, radgan arsebobs sxva mcire erebi, romlebic

sakuTar TviTSegnebas da TviTidentifikaciisken miswrafebas inarCuneben. diasporebi TurqeTis respublikaSi mcxovrebi sxvadasxva mcxovreb romelsac politikis

Sesabamis kavSiris

saxelmwifoebSi saimedo saSualebaa, konkretuli

TanamemamuleebTan istoriulad formirebisas.

mravaljer

iyenebdnen

dRevandeli situaciidan gamomdinare SeiZleba miviCnioT, rom amJamadac asea. magaliTisaTvis Crdilokavkavsiuri

diasporac gamodgeba, romelic Tavis istoriul samSoblosTan sulier da kulturul naTesaobas gansakuTrebuli simZafriT aRiqvams. aqve xazgasmiT wina a. unda aRiniSnos wamoswia im faqtoris sagareo ankaris

mniSvneloba, saqmeTa

rac

planze

TurqeTis igi

minisrma

davuToRlum,

roca

damoukidebeli sagareo politikis aucileblobas asabuTebda. saqme exeba im istoriul faqts, rom ocze meti xalxis

istoria, romelTanac osmaleTis imperias da Semdeg TurqeTis respublikas urTierToba hqoniaT, Turquli arqivebis gareSe ar daiwereba. TviT Turqebisa da maT saxelmwifoSi mcxovrebi sxva xalxebis bedi mWidrodaa erT did gadajaWvuli mcire aziur mezobel da axlo

qveynebTan,

romlebic

aRmosavlur regions Seadgenen. am realuri viTarebidan gamomdinare Camoyalibda

Tanamedrove TurqeTis samxedro doqtrina, romlis ZiriTadi Sinaarsi gaxlavT is, rom TurqeTi Crdiloatlantikuri

aliansis wamyvani Zalaa samxreT-evropis savaraudo samxedro 236

moqmedebaTa

Teatris

samxreT-aRmosavleT

nawilSi.

am

geopolitikur sivceSi ankaras Seswevs unari winaaRmdegobis burusis roli Seusrulos ,,natos" blokis mimarT regionis saxelmwifoebis da ruseTis federaciis mxridan momdinare SesaZlo muqaras. aRsaniSnavia, rom TurqeTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi, misi sabrZolo moraluri potenciali da suliskveTeba Sida

stabilurobis mniSvnelovani garantia. SeiaraRebul Zalebs araerTxel SeusrulebiaT mniSvnelovani roli TurqeTis

respublikis meore msoflio omis Semdegdroindel politikur cxovrebaSi. amasTan erTad, rogorc sagareo safrTxeebis

Tavidan acilebis faqtori, SeiaraRebuli Zalebi TurqeTis saxelmwifos suverenitetis arsebiTi Semadgeneli elementia. naSromSi geopolitikuri mniSvnelovani koncefciebis adgili daeTmo TurqeTis meore

evoluciis

sakiTxs

msoflio omis Semdeg da es bunebrivicaa, radgan ocdameerTe saukunis dasawyisis TurqeTi mniSvnelovanwilad periodSi dgas im

Rirebulebebze,

romlebic

aRniSnul

iqmneboda.

TurqeTis respublikis samxedro-politikurma da socialurekonomikurma xedvebi, struqturebma wamyvan aiTvises rols is geopolitikuri da axlac

romlebic

asrulebdnen

asruleben msoflio politikaSi. geopolitika, warmoadgens gagebas, CvenSi SedarebiT da sagareo axali politikis mecniereba, axlebur da

saxelmwifo

romelic

uwinaresad

praqtikas

efuZneba

praqtikuli amocanebis gadaWrisaTvis aris mowodebuli. igi uciloblad interesebis, emyareba geografiuli da faqtoris, erovnuli principebis,

politikuri

ekonomikuri

237

politikuri

procesebisa

da

saerTaSoriso

krizisebis

regulirebis da gadaWris konbinirebul analizs. am principis gaTvaliswinebiT TurqeTis geopolitika

dasavluri samyaros geopolitikis Semadgeneli nawili iyo, romlis sapirispiro mxareze mis winaaRmdeg socialisturi samyaro idga sabWoTa kavSiris meTaurobiT. meore msoflio omma saTave daudo samyaros gaxleCas or sapirispiro banakad da Sesabamisad mtrul geopolitikur mowinaaRmdegeebad. aRniSnul sagareo periodSi TurqeTis respublikis politika stabilur

sferoSi

xangZliv

perspeqtivaSi

mdgomareobas inarCunebda da mimarTuli iyo mowinaaRmdege banakidan mosalodneli safrTxis gasaneitraleblad. ra Tqma unda, sakuTriv misi wili pasuxismgeblobis farglebSi. msoflio politikis cvlilebebma, pirvel rigSi blokuri sistemis moeZebna rRvevam da aiZula TurqeTi axali mimarTulebebi statikuri

sagareo

politikis

SedarebiT

mdgomareoba dinamikuri xasiaTiT Seecvala. 1952 wels TurqeTis respublika dasavleTis daxmarebis Sedegad mizanic gaxda ankaris Crdiloatlantikuri sabWoTa kavSiris es aliansis wevri, risi

winaaRmdeg dasavluri

mimarTul samyaros

placdarmad

gadaqceva

gaxldaT.

bunebrivi reaqcia iyo TurqeTis mimarT moskovis pretenziebze, romelTa Soris teritoriuli xasiaTis problemebic iyo.

marTalia, destalinizaciis Semdgom es pretenziebi moixsna, magram sabWoTa strategia TurqeTs regionSi mainc mTavar mowinaaRmdeged ganixilavda. TurqeTis respublikisaTvis meore msoflio omis Semdgom bedis qveyanam ganmsazRvreli uaryo momenti 1945-52 wlebze modis, roca

faqtobrivi

neitraliteti

da

dasavluri 238

samyaros Semadgeneli nawili gaxda. aseTad rCeboda igi ,,civi omis" eskalaciis Semdgom periodSi da arsebiTad dResac, magram miuxedavad met amisa Tanamedrove periodSi ankara rogorc aseve

praqtikulad

damoukideblobas dagegmvebsa da

amJRavnebs,

samxedro-strategiul

politikaSi,

praqtikuli gadawyvetilebebis miRebis proceSic. ssrk-s dasavlurma dezintegraciis samyarom misi Semdgom iseve rogorc mTelma

lideris

a.S.S.-s

meTaurobiT

TurqeTma meti interesi gamoamJRavna yofili postsabWouri sivrcis mimarT. aRsaniSnavia, mopovebul rom am sivrceSi myof da

damoukidebloba

saxelmwifoebs

antirusuli

ganwyoba ki gaaCndaT, magram naklebad Camoyalibebuli sagareo politikuri orientacia hqondaT. Turquli geopolitikuri xedvebis WrilSi postsabWouri sivrcis mimarT yuradReba udavoa, raSic Tundac qvecnobierad istoriuli warsulic TamaSobs rols da aseve am qveynis ruseTis saxelmwifosTan mimarTebac. dRevandeli TurqeTisaTvis mniSvnelovani geopolitikuri safrTxis Semcveli problemebia iseTi calkeuli mimarTebebi, rogoricaa xmelTaSuazRvis regioni, qurTuli problema,

ruseTi da samxreT kavkasia. ankaris xmelTaSuazRvispirul strategias upiratesad

saberZneTTan urTierToba gansazRvravs; miuxedavad imisa, rom orive qveyana dasavluri samyaros samxedro-politikuri

aliansis wevrebia, maT Soris gadaulaxavi problema arsebobs kunZuli kviprosis sakiTxis saxiT, romelzec ver moxerxda ormxrivi, misaRebi kompromisis SemuSaveba. TurqeTis respublikisaTvis aseve mniSvnelovan problemas warmoadgens qurTuli eTnosi, is SeiZleba ganxilul iqnas 239

sul

mcire

or

ganzomilebaSi. qurTebi

jer

erTi

rogorc

Sida

problema, mniSvnelovan

radgan nawils

respublikis

mosaxleobis sakuTar

warmoadgenen,

romlebic

teritoriaze cxovroben da meore, sagareo politikuri aspeqti am problemisa imaSi mdgomareobs, rom isini aseve cxovroben regionis sxva saxelmwifoebSi (irani, erayi, siria) da aseve Tavis teritoriaze. es garemoeba safrTxes uqmnis aramarto TurqeTis teritoriuli da politikuri sistemis mTlianobasa da stabilurobas, da aramed grZelvadin mezobel saxelmwifoebTan gaTvlil

dabalansebul urTierTobebsac.

perspeqtivaze

dReisaTvis Tanamedrove Turqul geopolitikas garkveul postsabWoTa sivceSi axasiaTebs ekonomikuri eqspansia, magram amasTan erTad ankaras ruseTis geopolitikuri siZlieris

gaTvaliswinebac uwevs, aRniSnuli faqtori xSir SemTxvevaSi SeiZleba faravdes kidec Sida politikis da regionis sxva axal Tu Zvel saxelmwifoebTan urTierTobebis problematikas. ruseTi da TurqeTi SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Zveli da

istoriuli geopolitikuri mowinaaRmdegeni arian, romelTa Soris konsesusi arc Tu ise iSviTad, negatiurad aisaxeboda xolme momijnave patara saxelmwifoebis bedze. Tanamedrove etapze Turqul-rusul urTierTobebs ufro metad ormxrivi sargeblianobis pragmatuli mimarTuli principebi da

urTierT

TanamSromlobisaken

tendenciebi

axasiaTebs. aseT viTarebaSi samxreT kavkasiuri mimarTuleba Turquli geopolitikisa SesaZlebelia iyos frTxili da

mozomili, ise rom ar daazianos urTierTobebi ufro did da Zlier saxelmwifosTan. yovel emTxvevaSi regionis istoriuli viTarebis gaTvaliswinebiT, aseve sakuTari qveynis 240

interesebidan gamomdinare, am sakiTxTan mimarTebaSi Turquli geopolitika kidev ufro metad moqnili strategiis

maCvenebeli unda iyos, vidre xisti da sworxazovani bunebisa.

241

danarTebi

danarTi #_1 TurqeTis respublikis qalaqebis mosaxleoba (2000 wlis aRweriT)

#

qalaqi

mosaxle oba

#

qalaqi

mosax leoba

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

stamboli ankara izmiri bursa adana gazianTefi konia antalia diarbaqiri iCeli (mersini)

8 803 468 3 203 362 2 232 265 1 194 687 1 130 710 853 513 742 690 603 190 545 983 537 842

24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

baliqesiri trapizoni manisa qiriqqale qojaeli adiamani osmanie quTahia Corumi isparTa

215 436 214 949 214 345 205 078 195 699 178 538 173 977 166 665 161 321 148 496

11 12 13 14 15 16 17

qaiseri esqiSehiri Sanliurfa malaTia samsuni erzrumi qahraman maraSi

536 392 482 793 385 588 381 081 363 180 361 235 326 198

34 35 36 37 38 39 40

haTai aidini uSaqi aqsarai afioni edirne ToqaTi

144 910 143 267 137 001 129 949 128 516 119 298 113 100

18 19

saqaria vani

303 989 284 464 275 480 266 495 251 776

41 42 43 44 45

ordu TeqirdaRi erzijani yaramani zonguldaqi

112 525 107 191 107 175 105 384 104 276

20 denizli 21 eliaziRi

22 sivasi

242

23

baTmani

246 678 98 281 88 105 84 565 83 636 79 764 78 473 78 144

46 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

qarabiuqi qasTamonu buruduri Canqiri iRdiri haqqari duzje qiriqlarel i

100 749 64 606 63 363 62 508 59 880 58 145 56 649 53 221

47 siirTi 48 qirSehiri 49 bolu 50 51 52 53 giresuni aRri yarsi rize

54 55 56 57 58 59

niRde Canaqqale amasia iozgaTi qilisi ialova

78 088 75 810 74 393 73 930 70 670 70 118 68 876 67 927 67 864 65 072

71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81

Sirnaqi biTlisi muRla barTini bilejiqi baiburTi sinofi giumuShane Tunjeli arTvini ardahani

52 743 44 923 43 845 35 992 34 105 32 285 30 502 30 270 25 041 23 157 17 274

60 bingioli 61 muSi

62 nevSehiri 63 mardini

243

danarTi #_2. TurqeTis respublikis bunebrivi simdidreebi

_ qvanaxSiri _ mura naxSiri zonguldaqi, erReli-amasras auzi afSini ­ elbistani, muRla,

Tunjbileqi, quTahia, manisa, soma, CelTeqe, konia, beifazari, sivasi _ navTobi _ qromitebi baTmani, quTahia, siirTi mersini, isqenderuni _ rkinis madani _ polimetalebi _ spilenZi _ manganumi baliqesiri, heqimhani, bala ordu, eRrigozi, fozanTi ergini, qevarshane TeqirdaRi, eRrigiozi _ vercxliswylisa da stibiumis centraluri regioni, qarabuqi _ boqsitebi _ TuTia-tyviis sabadoebi _ vercxli _ qvamarili _ tburi marilebi _ bunebrivi airi Tavri, zonguldaqi avjilari, orTaqonu, giumuShane bala olTu, qaRizmani bandirmasaTan axlos Tba Tuzis midebare teritoria da Traqia anatolia, egeosi feThie, uluqoi, feThie, marmarisi,

madani

244

danarTi #_3. TurqeTis respublikis mosaxleobis matebis dinamika 1927-2000 ww

aRweris Catarebis TariRi 28.10.1927

mosaxleoba

mosaxleobis simWidrove km2

13 648 270

18

20.10.1935

16 158 018

21

20.10.1940

17 820 950

23

21.10.1945

18 790 174

24

22.10.1950

20 947 188

27

23.10.1955

24 064 763

31

23.10.1960

27 754 820

36

24.10.1965

31 391 421

41

25.10.1970

35 605 176

46

26.10.1975

40 347 719

52

12.10.1980

44 736 957

58

20.10.1985

50 664 458

65

21.10.1990

56 473 035

73

22.10.2000

67 803 927

88

245

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