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Auckland Museum

K I W I , M OA & M O R E

Birds of New Zealand & the World

e ducation k it

Tamaki Paenga Hira

ACTIVITY SHEETS YEARS 1 TO 13

©Auckland Museum 2005

Kiwi, Moa & More

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About this Resource Booking Information Introduction SECTION 1 Teacher Background SECTION 2 Curriculum Links SECTION 3 Pre & Post-visit Learning Activities Classroom Activity Sheets Gallery Activity Sheets

1 1 2 3 21 23 24 32

INTRODUCTION TO THE RESOURC : E The educato re o rc s p in s u e rovided by Au l n W ar Memorial ck a d Museum fo u o s e i c ga l r e o o s e i cex i i i n i c s n p c fi l e i s r n p c fi h b t o s n t o e ga l r e h s l e i s.Th re a a s a l number of r s u e t atwe e re m l e o rc s h re developed fo ex i i i n t ata n l n r p s n bu whch r h b t o s h re o o ge re e t t i h ave been maintained on the web i e by popular demand. st Vi i i g e u at o gr s t n d c i n oups may b o t re u s t e fol ok o qet h lowing la e rning opportnte: uiis · S l - o d c e v s t b s d o s p o igre o rce matras. e f c n u t d i i s a e n u p rtn s u eil · G l e It a l ry nroduction with a Museum Educatr o t o r rained gie( u d approx 15 minue) u i g re o rce matras.Longe ts, s n s u eil r galry t u a d H g l g t T u a a s aval e. le o rs n i h i h s o rs re l o iabl · Hands-on activ t s s i n fo s o l gr i y e s o r ch o oups with a Museum Educat r ( o approx 45­50 mins), u i g re o rce matras. sn su eil Suet h t d n s ave the opport n t t h n l re l o rep i a i e s uiy o ade a r lc tm f om mu e m c l e t o s, r su olcin S s i n w l b t i o d t s i t e l l a d fo u o t e v s t n e s o s i l e a l re o u t h eve n c s f h i i i g gr oup. ABOUT THIS EDUCATION RESOURC : E Th s k t h s b e d s g e t m e t e n e s o a w d range i i a en eind o et h ed f ie o educat o gr f i n oups. Th kt i i tre s e i s n h e eparat s c i n a d i cl d s e e t o s n n ue: 1 T . each r B ck ound Mat r a s i abl fo al l l e a gr e i l u t e r l eves 2 C rr c l m L n s f . u i u u i k rom Pre s o l t A u t [ h s a sil - ch o o d l t e e re tl under deve o m n ] lpet 3 P and Pot Vit At i i s a d G l e At i y S e t . re s s civ t e n a l ry civ t h e s i Some educato srv c s atAu in e i e ckland Museum arep i e u d r rov d d n e a c n ra t t t e M n s ry o Educat o u d r t e L OTC p ot c o h iit f in ne h E rogr amme and Ministry s p o i gr euly a n u p rt s atfl ck owledge. d

BOOKING INFORMATION A l e u at o gr u v s t must be booke . l d c in o p i i s d Phone: 306 7040 Fa : 306 7075 x Eal s m i : [email protected] S rv c ch rge ap ly to educat o gr e ie a s p i n oups depending on the l l o srvc re u re . eve f e ie q i d Numbers a d A u t C i d rato: n dl/hl is P - ch o re s o l Y 1­6 Y 7­8 Y 9­13 13o bte : r etr 16 : 1:10 1:30

A l gr u s i cl d n A u t gr l op n uig d l oups ought to be accompanied by terta h i e cher or educatr. o A u t ch l i t ra t o i v t l t m x m ze t e va u o te d l / id ne c i n s i a o a i i h le f h m useum experience. Group leaders need to have some back ound knowledge o wh t e s u e t a expected to gr f at h t d n s re i i at n h n ro u t o ro e s c r a d t ey do need to part c p ei t ei t d c i n p c s ove n h o a iva Knowing ab u t e expectat o s o t e cl s t a e n rr l . ot h i n f h a s e ch r and the museum will make t e v s t s o t e fo eve h i i m o h r r ryone. w w w. u a cklandmuseum.com

Adult/child interaction is vital to maximize the value of the museum experience. Group leaders need to have some background knowledge of what the students are expected to cover and they do need to participate in the introduction process on arrival. Knowing about the expectations of the class teacher and the museum will make the visit smoother for everyone.

1

Contents

introduction

Th Au e ckland Museum Natra u l H s o G l e i s o e a wo d r u i t ry a l r e ff r nefl opport n t t s u brd u i y o t dy i s.Th fis e rt galry r g n a s s u e t b ck le ,O i i s,tke t d n s a i t m t d s ove t e h s o o n i e o i c r h i t ry f New Zealand's wllfe and why we idi h ave s ch u i u b rd u n q e i s.Th galry e le s owc s s d s l h a e i p ay some of te h a c e t g a t t at ue t l h re n i n i n s h sd o ive e -- g a t m a H a t e e ad i n o , a s 's agl n g a t p n u n Th fol i n e g i . e lowing galrle i Land and Oceans, tke t e e s, a h v s t r o a t p ap i a j u ey iio n o ogr h c l o rn o New Z a a d from the mountains f eln t t e s a Brd a d s l d i o h e . i s re i p aye n t e r n u l h iat S u e t c n h i atra abt . t d n s a l s e t t e r c l s a d v ew b rd u itn o hi al n i i s p cl s t o s rve adap atos. oe o be t in Th fi a galry Human Impacts, e n l le , l o s at te e e t h m n h ok h ff c s u a s ave h d o t e l n a d i s n ive a n h a d n t at i h i a t S a i g t i galry i n ab t n s. h r n h s le s Mat apuna -- the Natra H s o u l i t ry Re o rc C n re.H re s u e t c n su e et e tdns a a c s i fo c e s n rmat o o b rd at a in n i s d ep r l l e e eve . n rTh s k t i d s g e t g i i s e i n d o ive a ove vew o b rd a d g i n i s n ive b ck ound a gr ifo n rmat o o t e d s l s at i n n h i p ay Au ckland Museum.

Kiwi, Moa & More

Introduction

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Kiwi, Moa & More

pre & post-visit learning activities

LEVEL 5 & 6 Students borrow the school video recorder to film and write a documentary about birds or a species of bird. Students draw and label a poster showing the internal organs and external structures of a bird and explain their functions. Students research and write a project on behavioural adaptations of one native New Zealand bird. Students write and illustrate a poster that could be used by DOC, to inform the public about one of the native bird recovery programmes. Students research and write about animal management of a bird that is farmed in New Zealand (such as ostrich or chicken). Students illustrate a poster showing New Zealand native birds in their native habitat (including species that are also present such as trees and invertebrates). They label which are producers, consumers and decomposers. At the bottom of the poster, students write down the effect of disturbing the ecosystem, for example: introducing mammalian predators, removing all the decomposers. LEVEL 7 & 8 Students research and write a project explaining the effect on New Zealand birds as a result of New Zealand's early isolation, lack of predators, rising sea levels twenty five million years ago and the ice age. Students borrow the school video recorder to film and write a documentary about birds or a species of bird. Students describe how they would go about setting up an island sanctuary for native New Zealand birds. Students select a native bird and design a display for a Museum. Text must be limited in quantity with simple language and must include vital information about names, habitat, special characteristics, niche etc. The display could include a range of AV presentations.

LEVEL 1& 2 G ather and cut out a range of animals from magazines, including birds and other winged animals such as bats and pterosaurs. With the class, decide which are birds and which are not. Discuss what makes birds unique from other animals. Set up a feeding station for birds in your playground. Ask children to determine criteria eg: safe from cats, quiet place. Discuss what would be the best food to attract different birds. With the bird life cycle (egg-chick-adult-egg), make a hand game like paper-scissor-rock. D raw a variety of bird footprints. Display as a mystery game "Who Passed Here?" with pictures of the birds to match the footprints. Students make an imaginary bird out of cardboard or papier-mâché and decorate it with feathers cut out of coloured paper. They invent a name for their bird and write a label for it. Students explain how it uses its beak and feet, and how it escapes from predators and attracts a mate. Read a bird legend to the class. Students draw pictures to illustrate the story. LEVEL 3 & 4 E ch student researches the adaptations and a lifestyle of a native New Zealand bird. They write the text for a television documentary about their bird. Students read the text to the class, accompanied by pictures illustrating the main scenes to be filmed. Students make a food chain mobile, eg: lettuce leaf -- slug -- blackbird. Discuss what might happen if humans interfere, for example, the slug is poisoned. Students research the series of events that have affected New Zealand birds over time, including separating from Gondwana, death of the dinosaurs, arrival of Maori, arrival of Europeans and recent conservation efforts to help our birds. Students make a diorama for each of these major events and write a label explaining their consequences. Students write and illustrate a poster showing adaptations of different birds beaks, feet, and wings.

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Curriculum Links

classroom activity sheet

Kiwi, Moa & More

Y1-4

FOODCHAINS Instructions Use these three pictures to create a short food chain. Cut out each one with a hole in the center into which its food will fit. Attach the food with string so it will twirl. Colour in the back. Be aware that the plant is missing from this foodchain.

Once you have completed this mobile/foodchain use the children's knowledge to create further short food chains using both native and introduced species. For example: dog, kiwi, grubs... or cat, white-eye, berries... or pig, kauri snail, worms... or human, snapper, catseye, kelp.

Activity Sheet

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Page one Kiwi, Moa & More Y1-4

classroom activity sheet

1 2

BIRD BOARD! Students can design their own board game about New Zealand birds. Firstly discuss with the class what problems New Zealand birds face and what can be done to help them. From this the students can fill in their own squares on the board game. Some examples for miss-a-go or move back spaces could include: -Rat eats eggs -Forest chopped down -Possum eats bird's food Some examples for have a second turn or move forward could include: -Plant more trees -Remove possums from forest Once the students have written in the squares, they can decorate their own board game.

Start

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21 34 35

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Go Back 2 Spaces

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Miss a Turn

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Activity Sheet

Page two

classroom activity sheet

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Miss a Turn

Kiwi, Moa & More

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Return To Start

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Roll Again

Finish

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10 30 29 11

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Move Forward 1 Space

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Activity Sheet

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Kiwi, Moa & More

Y1-4

classroom activity sheet

MATCH FORM TO FUNCTION WHICH IS MY BEAK? I am a meat eater

I sieve food out of the water

I eat seed

WHICH ARE MY FEET? I am a swimmer

I catch prey with my claws

I have long toes to walk on the mud

WHICH ARE MY WINGS? I have pointed wings to fly fast I have long wings to glide through the air I have short rounded wings for fast short bursts of flight

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Activity Sheet

classroom activity sheet

The world 85 million years ago:

Kiwi, Moa & More

Y5-8

Moa and kiwi are related to the ostrich, emu, cassowary, rhea and elephant bird. None of these birds fly, yet they live in the countries separated by vast oceans. How is this possible? ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________

New Zealand separated from Gondwana before snakes evolved and before mammals established here. Explain why New Zealand has so many flightless birds. _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________

Without land mammals, our birds filled the role that mammals fill in other countries. Think of a bird (around now or extinct) that takes the place of the following mammals: a) giraffe (eats leaves high in the trees) _____________________________________________ b) hedgehog (nocturnal, digs worms and insect out of the ground) _____________________________________________ What happened when humans introduced predators such as cats, stoats and rats to New Zealand? _______________________________________________________________________________

Activity Sheet

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Kiwi, Moa & More

Y5-8

classroom activity sheet

INTRODUCED SPECIES Introduced species to New Zealand cause many problems for our native birds. Match the animal with the correct statement.

I eat the same insects and nectar that native birds eat

I eat tussock, also eaten by takahe

I eat native birds and their eggs

I eat the same flowers and fruit our native birds eat. I also eat bird chicks and destroy birds' habitat by eating huge numbers of leaves

I eat the eggs of ground nesting birds

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Activity Sheet

classroom activity sheet

Characteristics: Moa.

Kiwi, Moa & More

Y9-13

NEW ZEALAND'S UNIQUE FLORA AND FAUNA 1. Many New Zealand species exhibit characteristics which are a result of millions of years of evolution in the absence of predators. These include: gigantism, flightlessness, slow breeding and drab colouration. In the table below list the characteristics which apply to each of the pictured species

Characteristics:

Takehe.

Characteristics:

Kakapo.

Characteristics: Kiwi.

2. Over time, different birds species have made the difficult crossing from Australia to New Zealand. Sometimes the same species immigrant has flown across on different occasions. The weka (flightless) and the banded rail (flier), are descended from the same Australian ancestor. Which do you think arrived in New Zealand first? __________________ Why? __________________________________________________________________________ The takahe is descended from a swamp hen that immigrated from Australia. Name a bird that is a more recent arrival of the swamp hen. __________________ Do you think this bird will lose the ability to fly over time? _____________ Why? __________________________________________________________________________

Activity Sheet

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Kiwi, Moa & More

Y9-13

classroom activity sheet

BIRD STRIKE Activity: Imagine a scenario where your local airport: has been built near a wading bird feeding ground. (Auckland Airport is in such a place). Consider that birds are an endangered species like the black stilt. is located in an area of pristine native forest. will have a greater likelihood of bird interference in the future when a nearby area (such as the Waitakere Ranges) becomes a "mainland island". has its flight-path directly across the breeding ground of a rare migrant bird. causes any other difficulties you can think of. Prepare a debate arguing the pros and cons of methods of bird and habitat control, presenting any alternate solutions you may have to consider. Use the internet to gather information of bird strike incidence around the world and to discover any bird control measures already in use both here and abroad. Read the background notes provided here.

Background Notes: "Jet trainer damaged in crash with bird" This headline, taken from the New Zealand Herald on 19 July 2001, highlights the difficulties encountered when airports encroach on natural areas. A trainee airforce pilot was lucky to survive when a bird smashed through his canopy, extensively damaging instruments and narrowly missing his face. The pilot gained height, dumped fuel and made an emergency landing in Hamilton. An airforce spokesman assured the public that the fuel had been dumped high enough to disperse and would cause no damage on the ground. From the internet comes a report of a 737 which was badly damaged on lift-off from Christchurch airport when two small birds were sucked into its engine. Birds rely on their sense of sight and hearing to warn them of danger. The noisier the engines and the more visible the aircraft the greater the chance of avoiding it. An interesting twist is that when an aircraft is turning , birds cannot predict its flight-path and it is at this time that most bird-strikes occur. Birds are not instinctively afraid of planes and many wading birds will continue feeding even when a plane is taxiing right next to them. A sudden, unexpected noise will cause them to fly up in a panic however. The Wellington Airport Authority has requested D.O.C. to replant Matiu-Somes island to discourage its attraction to black-backed gulls. The gulls find its present vegetation, mainly pasture land, particularly appropriate for a large breeding colony. They present a huge bird strike risk to the airport. (These gulls are a flourishing species).

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Activity Sheet

Page one

gallery activity sheet

NEW ZEALAND BIRDS Look for the Giant Moa. Draw the skin on the moa's leg _______________ The number of the giant moa's skull is (Tick one) 5A 5B 5C 5D Moas had no... eyes wings feathers (Tick one) Look around the back for the moa's relatives. Do you know the name of one? Where does it come from? ________________________________________

Kiwi, Moa & More

Y1-4

Find the Kiwis Circle the beak and the feet that belong to the kiwi. Did you know that the kiwi is the only bird with its nostrils near the tip of its beak? How does that help it? ________________________________ ________________________________

Look up near the ceiling Find the smallest and the biggest bird. How are they the same? _____________________________________________________________________ How are their beaks different? _____________________________________________________________________ Find a duck. Tick what special parts you used to recognise a duck. Body Feet Wings Colour Head Size

Find the Pukeko (3) close by Tick the parts of its body it is using while eating. Beak Wings Feet Tail Feathers

Activity Sheet

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Page two Kiwi, Moa & More Y1-4

gallery activity sheet

NEW ZEALAND BIRDS Find the Kakapo The Kakapo (1) is the ______________ parrot in New Zealand. It cannot ________. How could it get up on a low branch? ___________ __________________________________________. Find the Kereru I am a Kereru (wood pigeon) At the moment I am eating . . . (circle one) Draw one other thing I eat.

Go to the big forest bird display in the glass case. Look at the birds on display and match their beaks with their names. (4) Kaka (6) Kotare (kingfisher) (7) Kokako (23) Woodpigeon (kereru)

Look for the Rifleman and listen to its song on the computer. Do you think it sounds like a rifle? Yes No Find him. (12) What does he eat? __________________________ Who am I? I eat insects. I have a tail and I lay eggs but I am not a bird. ___________________________. (Did you know I share the burrow of a seabird called a Petrel?) Go to the swamp I am a bird which hunts under water. Can you find me? Draw what have I caught. Near me is a bird good at hiding. Which way does it point its head? n k m l Find the penguin Its feathers are: smooth fluffy. Its wings are like: fans paddles. Its feet are: sharp webbed.

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Activity Sheet

Page one

gallery activity sheet

Kiwi, Moa & More

4-6

NEW ZEALAND BIRDS Origins Gallery 1. New Zealand is unusual because originally it didn't have any land mammals except those that could fly here (bats). Instead of animals such as deer and giraffes, we had a big bird that ate plants. Which bird am I?____________________________ 2. Because birds have no teeth, they swallow ______________ to help grind their food. (Hint: look in the moa case). 3. Draw in where you find the nostrils on the kiwi. The kiwi is the only bird with nostrils at the very tip of its beak. Why do you think it has them there?_____________________________________ Draw in its whiskers. What do you think it uses them for? (Hint: kiwis have small eyes and can't see very well). __________________________________________________ Most birds have feathers that are designed to help them fly. What do you think the kiwi's feathers are used for? __________________________________________________ Land Gallery 4. Draw the tui's tongue. (Look at the tui in the beech tree). Why do you think tui have tongues like paintbrushes? ____________________________________ 5. Draw two different types of bird beaks and write what you think they are used for:

6. Find a bird's nest. What are some of the things it is made out of? _______________________________________________________________________________

Activity Sheet

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Page two Kiwi, Moa & More Y4-6

gallery activity sheet

NEW ZEALAND BIRDS 7. Draw two different types of bird feet and write what you think they are used for:

Oceans Gallery 1. Find a penguin. To make it easier to swim through the water, its feathers are short/long (circle correct answer). What other things help penguins swim? ___________________________________ 2. Find the wading birds by the mangrove estuary. What stops the birds from sinking into the mud? ____________________________ What helps them find food deep in the mud? __________________________ Why do you think they have such long legs? ___________________________ 3. Draw the end of the wrybill's beak (bird number 4 by the sandy beach). It is the only bird with a beak curved to one side and it is used like a spoon to scoop under stones to find food. 4. Find a seagull and its chicks. What is the difference between the adult's and the chick's feathers? _______________________________________________________________________________ Why does the chick have fluffy feathers? _______________________________________________________________________________ Why does the adult have feathers that closely hug its body? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Impacts Gallery 1. Look at the introduced animals and watch the video. Choose an introduced animal and describe its effect on native birds. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 2. What could be done to help protect our native birds? _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

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Activity Sheet

Page one

gallery activity sheet

Kiwi, Moa & More

Y7-11

Origins Gallery 1. After the death of the dinosaurs, mammals took their place in the rest of the world. New Zealand didn't have mammals, what replaced the long necked dinosaurs here? ______________ Large sea reptiles also died out at the same time. What large sea bird replaced them? ____________ 2. Behind the moa case you will find a number of relatives of the moa. None of these birds fly, yet they are found on lands separated by vast oceans. Explain this. (Hint, look at the video of Gondwana splitting up) ____________________________________________________________ These birds are called Ratites. What key features do these birds have in common? ___________________________________________________ 3. What do birds swallow to help digest their food? ____________ (hint, look in the moa case) 4. Label where the nostrils are found on the kiwi. Compare the position of the nostrils to other birds. How is the kiwi different? _______________________ Why do kiwis have their nostrils here? ______________________________ Label other unique features about the kiwi and state their function.

Land and Oceans Galleries 5. Choose one bird that lives in a forest or mountain environment. Select another bird that lives in or by water. For each bird, draw it, write its name, habitat, diet and adaptations to environment and diet.

Activity Sheet

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Page two Kiwi, Moa & More Y7-11

gallery activity sheet

6. Choose a bird and write a food chain that includes this bird. (Hint, food chains always begin with a plant) _____________ is eaten by: ______________ is eaten by: _______________ Impacts Gallery 7. Look at the introduced animals and watch the video. Choose an introduced animal and describe its effect on native birds. _____________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 8. Find and list any programmes that have been set up to help our native birds. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

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Activity Sheet

Page one

gallery activity sheet

Kiwi, Moa & More

Y12-13

Origins Gallery 1. Niches After the death of the dinosaurs, mammals took their place in the rest of the world. New Zealand didn't have mammals. What took over the niche of the long necked dinosaurs here? ____________ Large sea reptiles also died out at the same time. What large sea bird replaced them? ____________ 2. Convergent Evolution Unrelated species may evolve to resemble each other if they have similar ecological roles. This is called convergent evolution. What animals, other than birds, have also developed wings? _______________________________________________________________________________ For each animal, name a bird that fills a similar ecological role and how. _______________________________________________________________________________ 3. Continental Drift Continental drift is the movement of the earth's plates. What proof is there for Continental drift? (Look behind the moa case) _________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 4. Adaptive Radiation Adaptive radiation is the diversification of an ancestor into descendants that occupy different niches. An example is the diversification of the moa. Study the different types of moa. Name three species and state what niche they occupied. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Land Gallery 5. Impact of the Ice Age on New Zealand Birds Go to the mountain section. Which two birds adapted to icy conditions in the Ice Age? _______________________________________________________________________________ 6. Interspecific Competition Interspecific competition is competition between two species. It is generally not intense because different species exploit different resources within the same habitat. Find a fantail, kaka and kiwi. All these birds live in the forest and eat insects, explain why there is little interspecific competition between them. __________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Activity Sheet

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Page two Kiwi, Moa & More Y12-13

gallery activity sheet

7. Adaptations Choose three birds, each from a different habitat. Find three adaptations for each bird and fill out the chart below:

Impacts Gallery 8. Look at the introduced animals and watch the video. Choose an introduced animal and describe its effect on native birds. _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 9. Research a recovery programme of one native bird, and write down its key elements. (note, next to the Impacts gallery is a resource centre for more information) _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

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Activity Sheet

Recorded information: (09) 306 7067 Administration: (09) 309 0443 Fax (09) 379 9956 School Bookings: (09) 306 7040 Fax (09) 306 7075 Email: [email protected] www.aucklandmuseum.com

AUCKLAND MUSEUM

The Domain Auckland Private Bag 92018 Auckland New Zealand

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