Read Don't Let Them Cheat text version

Hey, That's Cheating.... or Dealing with Student Cheating and Plagiarism at Baker College

Effective Teaching and Learning Department

© 2005 Baker College

CONTACT INFORMATION

Effective Teaching and Learning Department Alison Rhoads Sheri Beattie Training Coordinator Director Effective Teaching and Learning Effective Teaching and Learning Baker College Baker College 1050 West Bristol Rd. 1050 West Bristol Rd. Flint, MI 48507 Flint, MI 48507 Phone: (810) 766-4294 Phone: (810) 766-4305 Fax: (810) 766-4279 Fax: (810) 766-4279 [email protected] [email protected] Contact for training in the following areas: · Blackboard · PowerPoint for Instructors · Teaching Methods See the Effective Teaching and Learning Web site for more information: https://www.baker.edu/departments/etl/trainingresources.cfm CIS Computer Trainers Debra Miller Angela Staten Technology Support & Training Analyst Technology Support & Training Analyst Baker College Baker College 1050 West Bristol Rd. 1050 West Bristol Rd. Flint, MI 48507 Flint, MI 48507 Phone: (810) 766-4068 Phone: (810) 766-4308 Fax: (810) 766-4279 Fax: (810) 766-4279 [email protected] [email protected] Contact for training in the following areas: · AS400/Carina · WebCal · Websites · Microsoft Office Suite - Access - Excel - Outlook - PowerPoint (for staff) - Publisher - Word See the Computer Training Web site for more information: https://www.baker.edu/departments/training/main.cfm

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Table of Contents

Plagiarism Today ............................................................................................................ 5 Defining Plagiarism for Students.................................................................................... 5 Preventing Plagiarism ..................................................................................................... 7 Before Giving an Assignment..................................................................................... 8 During the Assignment ............................................................................................. 10 After the Assignment ................................................................................................ 12 Cheating in Other Ways................................................................................................ 13 Tests .......................................................................................................................... 13 Other Assignments.................................................................................................... 14 The Baker College Academic Honor Code Explained ................................................. 15 Appendix A: Baker College Academic Honor Code.................................................... 17 Works Cited .................................................................................................................. 19

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This one-hour module deals with the growing problem of student cheating and plagiarism and offers concrete suggestions and tips to help instructors deal with it in the classroom. Participants will become familiar with the Baker College Honor Code Policy and identify ways that it could be implemented in their classes. Instructional Design issues covered include designing course activities that discourage plagiarism, designing test questions and assignments that make plagiarism more difficult, and methods for explaining plagiarism and its consequences to a class.

Course Outcomes:

· · · · · · Identify the three main types of plagiarism Discuss methods for preventing student plagiarism Identify examples of plagiarism in student work Create assignments that discourage plagiarism Explain the contents and intent behind Baker College's Honor Code Articulate the consequences for committing plagiarism

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Plagiarism Today

The current plagiarism epidemic has a combination of causes. The proliferation of the Internet and the existence of websites where you can purchase a research paper for "review" is only one cause. Other causes of this current problem are confusion on the part of the student about the true definition of plagiarism and apathy on the part of instructors to reinforce the penalties. Dealing with these issues one at a time will help us as instructors combat plagiarism in our classes. We have sophisticated methods (like using websites such as Turnitin.com) that can help us detect plagiarism after it has already happened, but we also have some methods for preventing plagiarism before it gets to that point. Plagiarism isn't new. "Students have always been able to buy or borrow a paper...the widespread, free-for-the-asking opportunities and the in-your-face attitudes of Internet cheat sites are new." (Renard, 2000, p. 38). Renard is correct. What's new is the easy availability of papers for sale and the ability of students to cut and paste entire paragraphs or phrases into a document on a word processor. Students also seem more willing now to purchase a paper or to hire someone to write the paper for them. Our goal is to develop and implement a comprehensive process followed by all instructors at Baker College. Plagiarism is never acceptable and enforcing this policy in all classes will help our students in the long-term because they will know what the policy is and that it is enforced in every class. We also hope to provide faculty with the tools they need to prevent, identify, and take appropriate action when necessary.

Defining Plagiarism for Students

Do students know what plagiarism is? Are we doing our jobs as instructors in defining, repeatedly, what constitutes plagiarism? "Do not assume that students know what plagiarism is, even if they nod their heads when you ask them. Provide an explicit definition for them." (Harris, http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm). Baker students were recently asked to define plagiarism in an online word processing class. Some of their definitions include: · · "I think plagiarism is when you copy some one else's work with out their permission." "I think plagiarism is taking credit for something you didn't write. Like on a paper if you copy it word for word and you take credit for it then you have

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plagiarized someone else's work so basically you have stolen their work that they worked hard on." "I think plagiarism is copying someone's work word for word and not giving them credit for it." "There is only one definition to plagiarism, and that is taking another persons work word-for-word and putting it in a document that you are writing and expecting to get credit for the work." "Plagiarism is passing someone else's ideas or works off as your own." "I think that plagiarism is the use of anyone else's written thoughts or ideas as your own without giving proper credit. I also think that using someone else's spoken thoughts without citing would also be plagiarism." "To me plagiarism is coping word for work what is being wrote and not putting the information in quotes and / or giving credit to the author or who/where you got the information from." "I think plagiarism is using exact quotes from a book or another paper without giving credit to those authors."

When asked what they do to prevent plagiarism, these same students said: · · · · "I prevent my self from plagiarizing by making sure that I reword all sentences that come from a source and I make sure that if I am saying something directly the way I saw it then I name the source or I quote." "I prevent myself from plagiarizing by not doing it. I tell myself I wouldn't like it if someone stole my work. Besides I want the credit for the work I do. I work very hard on all my papers." "I prevent myself from plagiarizing by summarizing what I'm reading instead of copying it word for word." "The best way to prevent plagiarism is to come up with my own ideas FIRST when writing a report. Then, after I am done coming up with my own theories I can search the internet for anything that supports my idea ­ like a study, etc..." "Obviously, if you do your own research and put your own effort into an assignment then you really cannot plagiarize." "You paraphrase what your sources words." "When I am writing a paper, I try to write without referencing my sources until I am finished writing. I choose what quotes I will use before I write and fill in the citation after the paper is written. I mark the ends of quotes with ( ) at the end so I do not miss them. After I am done I read over the paper and cite references for areas that seem to be paraphrased." "How I prevent my self from plagiarizing is reading all the information and then writing it how I remember it." "I prevent myself from plagiarizing by coming up with my own way of saying something. If it is critical I will research it a little bit to ensure that it is not."

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As you can see there is a wide range of student attitudes about plagiarism and how they can prevent it. In reviewing some of the definitions listed above, many students are unclear as to what exactly constitutes plagiarism and are even less sure how they can prevent themselves from plagiarizing or are unsure why their instructor has discussed plagiarism with them in reference to one of their assignments. Many students don't plagiarize on purpose; they are simply unaware that they need to cite all of their sources when doing assignments and papers. Many students do commit plagiarism on purpose because they think they will not get caught. Regardless of the reason, students do plagiarize materials and our goal is to prevent this. There are different types of plagiarism as defined by Jeffrey Klausman. He identifies three main types of plagiarism as: · Direct plagiarism ­ the kind most often identified by the students above, "taking the exact words from a source and presenting them as one's own." (Klausman, p. 209). Forty percent of students admitted to this type of plagiarism in the last year. (Edmundson, 2003). Paraphrase plagiarism ­ "occurs when a writer takes the ideas of another writer in nearly the exact words as the original." (Klausman, p, 209). This may be the most common type of unintentional plagiarism as students have been taught that if they change the words around or paraphrase the original author, it is correct. Students do not understand that proper paraphrasing is using all of your own words and phrases to convey the author's general idea, and still giving credit to the author for the original idea. Patchwork plagiarism ­ is another often and unintentional form of plagiarism. Klausman defines this as "when a writer takes the ideas of another and "patches them together" as his or her own. This type of plagiarism often includes both paraphrase and direct plagiarism (p. 210).

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Plagiarism exists in many different forms and under different names. It doesn't really matter if you explain to the student that he or she committed patchwork plagiarism versus direct plagiarism, the point is still the same, that the student took the work of someone else, in whatever form, and attempted to pass it off as original. We need to make our students aware that this isn't only academically unacceptable, but unethical and very easily remedied.

Preventing Plagiarism

There are several ways in which you can help prevent your students from committing plagiarism and there are several times throughout the quarter when education is appropriate. The next several pages are devoted to specific activities that you can do in your classroom in an effort to combat plagiarism in

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research and other written assignments. Other cheating deterrents and other ways you can encourage academic honesty in your classes are discussed later.

Before Giving an Assignment

One of the most important jobs you have as an instructor is to teach your students about plagiarism. Many instructors feel that students should know what plagiarism is by the time they get to college, but in some cases, many years have elapsed since the student was last in school and some things are easily forgotten. Some students genuinely don't know what constitutes plagiarism because it wasn't explained to them in high school. Since it's often easier to prevent plagiarism than it is to detect it, the first order of business in your class is to educate your students about what is and what is not plagiarism. Below are some ideas you can use to meet this objective: · Hold a class discussion on plagiarism, guiding the students and allowing them to arrive at their own definition of plagiarism. You need to ensure that this definition is correct, but often the discussion process, along with the class consensus will enforce this new "policy" better than you ever could. Develop a list of behaviors that students can use to determine whether or not they are plagiarizing material. This list can be created by you or by class members. Discuss each item on the list to verify that students understand that the behavior is inappropriate. Demonstrate the proper citation method for your class. Often students don't cite information because they don't know how, so a simple MLA/APA worksheet can work wonders. Discuss or even take students out to the paper mills on the Internet such as School Sucks. Show them that you are aware of these websites and that you are familiar with the type of papers these sites provide. "Have students look at a weak paper ...and analyze its failures. They will learn something about writing and also see that what's available for downloading may not impress their teacher." (Leland, (http://www.wiu.edu/users/mfbhl/wiu/plagiarism.htm). Discuss consequences with students, particularly the Baker College Academic Honesty policy included in Appendix A. Many students are not aware that there are serious (read: monetary) consequences for stealing the work of another and may be less likely to do so after hearing about the financial damage that plagiarism can cause. Define common knowledge for them and give them several examples of what is and is not common knowledge. Discuss with them the fact that an author's viewpoint or theory doesn't always constitute common knowledge. As Donald McCabe said, "There are a lot of students who are growing up with the Internet who are convinced that anything you find on

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the Internet is public knowledge and doesn't need to be cited." (Edmundson, p.1). · Discuss why citations are important in a paper. Richard Harris (2002) writes, "Many students do not seem to realize that whenever they cite a source, they are strengthening their writing. Citing a source, whether paraphrased or quoted, reveals that they have performed research work and synthesized the findings into their own argument." (http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm). Allow them a chance to pick out plagiarism in other student works. Give them a copy of an article and then 2-3 student papers that use that article as a reference. Encourage them to locate all forms of plagiarism, whether direct, paraphrase, or patchwork and identify each. Then ask them to rewrite the plagiarized areas so that they are acceptable. Discuss recent events of plagiarism in the news, emphasizing the fact that this charge will follow the plagiarist forever. Discuss the damage to their credibility in their profession and it's potential effect on their future careers. Give an assignment using a scholarly journal as reading material. This can open up new research doors to them that they may not have previously considered as well as providing students with an opportunity to see how scholars use citations in their work. Make the assignment very specific so that students will have a difficult time locating a pre-written paper, or even parts of one. Create the assignment so that it requires personal application of concepts learned. Don't give the same assignment repeatedly. This helps prevent students from recycling papers from quarter to quarter. Design the assignment to focus on personal application of a theory or set of theories to deter a canned response. Define the different types of plagiarism as well as other types of blatant cheating that may occur. The Online Writing Lab at Purdue University created this graph to help students understand where their actions might fall on the plagiarism continuum.

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© http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_plagiar.html

During the Assignment

Once you give the writing assignment, you will want to stay in close contact with the students as they are completing it. Again, there are several strategies that you can use to help you guide the students in the right direction. · Break the assignment into several smaller parts and require that students turn in each of those parts before they can move on. For instance, require a research proposal, followed by an annotated bibliography, an outline, then a rough draft, and finally the final project. This ensures that the student can produce a paper trail for their work. Become familiar with a student's writing style by assigning several smaller in-class projects, similar in vein to the larger project, so that you can begin to become comfortable with the way the student writes. You are in a much better position to judge how the final project is writing if you have seen several other works produced by the student. Use Blackboard as a resource in your class and require that students complete discussion questions that are several paragraphs in length. Again, you will become familiar with their style of writing in a nonthreatening manner while also furthering other course goals.

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Provide a research methodology for the students, or help them refine their current methodology. Jamie McKenzie (1998) suggests that you provide students with a database type of format to help them organize their research. She gives the example below as one way you could help your students: · · · · · · · Source (Author, Title, Date, URL) Subject: Keywords: Abstract:

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Encourage your students to write down every source they come into contact with, even if they don't think they will use it in the final paper. This helps them understand not only where their direct quotes originated, but where they obtained some of their ideas as well. McKenzie also suggests that you have your students develop a colorcoded system for taking notes where different colors represent different things. For instance, "Black text signifies the ideas of others and green text signifies fresh thinking." (1998) Provide a list of acceptable sources where students can gather their research. Encouraging the use of scholarly journals will help students remember that the writing in these materials is often different than writing in popular media. Require up-to-date sources for their research, possibly even requiring that one or two are from the Internet and the rest can be books or magazines. (Harris, http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm) Require that your students show you a research log weekly and that they review a certain number of sources each week. Check some of these resources periodically to verify validity. Require a specific source or two that must be used in their assignment. "This throws a monkey wrench into simply copying old papers or encyclopedia chunks." (Collins, http://cisw.cla.umn.edu).

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Use the "one-minute paper" format so that students can bring any research problems they have to class and get a wide variety of opinions. You can even make this an anonymous assignment or a class discussion so that no one is embarrassed to say they can't find resources or are having problems. Do a "spot-check" throughout the quarter, requiring one or two students to turn in copies of everything they have on the assignment before they leave class. Require that all students bring their materials to class each week in case they are selected.

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After the Assignment

· Use detection methods and websites like Turnitin.com. If your campus does not have a subscription to this site, you can obtain a personal subscription. Use free Internet search engines to search for a few key phrases or ideas of the paper. Also perform a search on misspelled items in the paper, to see if they were obtained from another source. Check for odd word choices or phrases and complex sentence structures, particularly when these items are inconsistent with the rest of the paper. Require students to give an oral report about their paper so that you can check their understanding and verbiage. Ask questions during the report or presentation that really probe for a student's knowledge about their research and the subject. You can also encourage other members of the class to ask the questions. Assign a metalearning essay that is done in-class on the day the papers are due. Richard Harris (http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm ) suggests that you ask questions such as: o What did you learn from this paper? o What where your challenges and how did you conquer them? o How long did you research your topic? Where did you obtain your sources? o Did you have a research strategy and what was it? · · · Include a final exam essay question on their research process. Check for mixed references (APA and MLA) in the paper as this can signify that they obtained the paper from different sources. Look for a variety of tones/styles of writing in the paper. Since you will be familiar with a student's writing style by the time the final paper is turned in, you have a fairly good chance of catching text that is not "in-sync" with the rest of the paper.

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Check the references listed. This is often one of the most commonly overlooked ways to catch plagiarists. Identify if the paper is close, but not quite on the topic you or the student selected and then ask the student to identify why they chose to take the paper in that direction.

Cheating in Other Ways

Plagiarism isn't the only form of cheating available to students. Some students, if given the opportunity, will cheat on exams or even homework. Again, our goal is aimed more at prevention than detection, so using some of the strategies below can help you prevent students from other forms of cheating.

Tests

Testing is a natural part of the educational process, designed to allow instructors to check the students' mastery of course content. Testing also causes great anxiety in students and this anxiety is often what causes them to cheat. Before giving a test, ask yourself if a test is really the best way to measure a student's learning in that area. Is there a project or presentation or another type of activity that will be more effective or is a test really the best method. If your answer is a test, then following some of the guidelines below may help reduce student cheating on tests. · · Give open book or open note tests. Students will be less tempted to look at someone else's paper if their book is available. Allow students a "cheat sheet" of a specified size to use on the test. They will often not even use this sheet as they spent most of the time learning what they wrote on it. Enforce a random seating order and change it for each test. Do not announce it prior to test time. Use a variety of question types on each test. It's often easier to cheat on a multiple-choice test than it is on an essay exam. Use timed tests, even on Blackboard. Students have less time to cheat if they know they have 50 minutes to complete a 45-question test. Create new tests each quarter to reduce the likelihood that students will provide tests to others Require that students turn in the test with their answers so they can't give the test to other students.

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Give essay and short answer questions on tests that require students to use their personal reflections as part of the answer. Give oral tests or require presentations instead of tests. They still test student knowledge and mastery and are almost impossible for students to cheat on them. Randomize questions on tests using technology so that students sitting next to one another have different questions on the computer. Hand out different versions of tests in paper form so that each test or answer sheet is different. Many instructors have 3-4 versions of a test that asks all the same questions, just in a different order. Don't give only Scantron tests where students can easily memorize what they see on someone else's paper. Give a test where all of the answers are A, B, etc. Don't use obvious identifiers such as "All of the above or none of the above" in your distracters. Students have been conditioned that these answers are rarely correct. Actively monitor your classroom during a test. Walk around and be a presence while students are working on the test. Ensure that "make-up" tests are different (and possibly more difficult) than the original. Give group tests where all students discuss and agree on an answer before submitting it.

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Other Assignments

Students have also been known to cheat on other class assignments, such as projects or homework. Many of the suggestions given for reducing plagiarism on research papers can be used in this area, along with the following: · Review the number of assignments in your class to ensure that the workload is appropriate. One of the most common student excuses for cheating is that they have too much work to do and not enough time to do it. Determine if you will allow student collaboration on any assignments and if so, clearly define the line between collaboration and cheating. "Be very clear about what can be collaborative and what can not be collaborative....the burden is on us to identify for the student which part of the collaborative--independent spectrum we expect for what purposes in our course." (Collins, p. 1).

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Tailor assignments to personal reflections and individual opinions rather than pure facts or theory. Discuss assignment expectations with your class when you discuss other class policies. Be explicit in both your explanation and your syllabus.

The Baker College Academic Honor Code Explained

A massive overhaul of the Baker College Academic Honor Code was undertaken in the winter of 2003 to ensure that the policies reflected the most up-to-date information and definitions. It was also designed to help Baker College faculty and administrators understand that a process is in place for instances of academic dishonesty and to give them definite steps to take with this occurs. The committee reviewed a number of Honor Codes and Policies from several institutions and arrived at the Honor Code used by Baker College today. Perhaps one of the most important features of the Honor Code is the fact that the instructor has the full discretion to determine consequences in his or her class, from failing the assignment to failing the class. An actual definition of academic honesty was put into place so that students would know exactly where the college stands on cheating in its various forms. This policy is in the student handbook and also in the college catalog. You may want to consider putting a copy on the back of your syllabus and going over it, in detail, with your class. A copy has been included in Appendix A of this document for your reference. The first part of the policy discusses student cheating in general terms. Notice that this item addresses not only blatant cheating (item 1a) but also more subtle forms of cheating such as obtaining another student's exam to use in studying (1b) to assisting or allowing someone else to cheat (1d). All of these items are fairly general in nature, particularly 1b where the use of anything not previously authorized by the instructor is prohibited. Again, clear and explicit instructions about what you consider to be authorized and unauthorized belong in your syllabus. The next portion of the policy discusses plagiarism specifically and defines what Baker College considers to be plagiarism. This is an excellent starting point for your discussions with students about what constitutes plagiarism at Baker College. Note that the Academic Honor Code contains several examples of potential violations but is in no way a complete list. Individual violations are best discussed with your dean to determine if a violation has occurred and what action you need to take.

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Part 3 of the policy discusses other forms of cheating that don't naturally fit into the other categories. One area that has become more prevalent in recent years is part 3d, where students submit visual images or other information from websites without citing it. As the University of Indiana states, "Copying visual information or graphics from a WWW site (or from a printed source) is very similar to quoting information, and the source of the visual information or graphic must be cited. These rules also apply to other uses of textual or visual information from WWW sites." (http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/wts/plagiarism.html). It's important that you have a discussion with your class about proper use of the Internet for research and how to cite that information in an assignment. Another key area of Part 3 includes 3f, misrepresenting oneself or one's circumstances to gain an unfair advantage. This item was put into place to protect instructors who feel that the student is being dishonest about circumstances that may not be directly related to an assignment, but the course in general. Also, notice again that unauthorized collaboration (part 3g) and helping someone else to cheat are also called out as violations of the Baker College Honor Code.

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Appendix A: Baker College Academic Honor Code

Academic honesty, integrity, and ethics are required of all members of the Baker College community. Academic integrity and acting honorably are essential parts of professionalism that continue well beyond courses at Baker College. They are the foundation for ethical behavior in the workplace. Attending Baker College is a privilege, and students are expected to conduct themselves in a manner reflecting the ideals, values and educational aims of the College. Academic integrity requires that work for which students receive credit be entirely the result of their own effort. Acting honorably in an academic setting requires more than simple honesty. Academic dishonesty takes place whenever students undermine the academic integrity of the institution or attempt to gain an unfair advantage over others. Ignorance of the College's honor code is not accepted as a valid excuse for prohibited conduct. The following lists include some examples of honor code violations, and they are not intended to be exhaustive: 1. Cheating includes: a. Using unauthorized materials, such as books, notes or crib sheets, to answer examination questions. b. Taking advantage of information considered unauthorized by one's instructor regarding examination questions. c. Copying another student's homework, written assignments, examination answers, electronic media or other data. d. Assisting or allowing someone else to cheat. 2. Plagiarism includes: a. Representing the ideas, expressions, or materials of another without due credit. b. Paraphrasing or condensing ideas from another person's work without proper citation. c. Failing to document direct quotations and paraphrases with proper citation. 3. Other forms of academic dishonesty include: a. Fraud, deception, and the alteration of grades or official records. b. Changing examination solutions after the fact, and inventing, changing or falsifying laboratory data or research. c. Purchasing and submitting written assignments, homework, or examinations. d. Reproducing or duplicating images, designs, or web pages without giving credit to the developer, artist, or designer. e. Submitting work created for another course without instructor approval. f. Misrepresenting oneself or one's circumstances to gain an unfair advantage. g. Collaborating with another person(s) without instructor approval.

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h. Selling or providing term papers, course work, or assignments to other students. There are three possible consequences for violating Baker College's Honor Code: 1. 2. 3. Failure of the assignment. Failure of the course. Dismissal from the College

In cases involving violation of the honor code, determination of the grade and the student's status in the course are left solely to the discretion of the instructor. The faculty may seek guidance from administrators. The instructor will report the incident to the College's administration to establish, investigate or determine potential patterns of dishonesty.

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Works Cited

Collins, Terry. University of Minnesota Center for Interdisciplinary Studies of Writing. 10 Oct. 2002. "Strategies for Preventing Plagiarism". < http://cisw.cla.umn.edu/plagiarism/faculty/strategies.html> Edmundson, Mark. "How Teachers can Stop Cheaters." Online. New York Times 9 Sep 2003. Ehrlich, Heyward. "Plagiarism and Anti-Plagiarism." 4 Sept 2003. < http://newark.rutgers.edu/~ehrlich/plagiarism598.html> Georgetown University. "What Is Plagiarism?" 29 Aug 2003. <http://georgetown.edu/honor/plagiarism.html> Hamlin, Lindsey S. and Ryan, William T. "Probing for Plagiarism" 11 Sept 2003 < http://www.syllabus.com/article.asp?id=7627> Harris, Robert. "Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers." 7 Mar 2002. <http://www.virtualsalt.com/antiplag.htm> Indiana University. 5 Sept 2003. http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/wts/plagiarism.html Klausman, Jeffrey. "Teaching about Plagiarism in the Age of the Internet." Teaching English at a Two-Year College 27.2 (1999) 209-212. Leland, Bruce. "Plagiarism and the Web". 5 Sept. 2003. <http://www.wiu.edu/users/mfbhl/wiu/plagiarism.htm).> Lincoln, Margaret. "Internet Plagiarism: An Agenda for Staff In-service and Student Awareness." Multimedia Schools 9.1 (2002) p. 46-50. McKenzie, Jamie. "The New Plagiarism: Seven Antidotes to Prevent Highway Robbery in an Electronic Age." From Now On 7.8 (1998). Purdue University. Online Writing Lab. 15 Aug 2003. <http://english.purdue/edu/handouts/print/research/r_plagiar.html> Renard, Lisa. "Cut and Paste 101: Plagiarism and the Net." Educational Leadership 57.4 (1999) 38-42. Standler, Ronald B. Plagiarism in Colleges in the USA. 5 Sept. 2003. http://www.rbs2.com/plag.htm

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