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Veneto - 167

Veneto

Introduction

Veneto or Venetia (Vèneto), is one of the 20 regions of Italy. Its population is about 4.8 million, and its capital is Venice. Once the cradle of the renowned Venetian Republic, then a land of mass emigration, Veneto is today among the wealthiest and most industrialized regions of Italy. It is also the most visited region of Italy, with about 60 million tourists every year (2007). Besides Italian, most Venetian people speak Venetian.

Geography

Veneto is the eighth largest region in Italy, with a total area of 18,364 km2. It is rough a polygonal of around 210 km in length (from the Austrian border to the mouth of the Po) and a breadth of around 195 km (from the Eastern shore of Lake Garda to the mouth of the river Tagliamento. Veneto is one of the most varied regions of Italy in its morphology, roughly divisible into four areas: the northern Alpine zone, the hill zone, the lower plain and the coastal territory. 29% of its surface is mountainous (the Carnic Alps, eastern Dolomites and Venetian Prealps), whilst 57% is covered by a vast plain reaching unto the sea, broken only by the hill regions of Colli Berici, Colli Euganei, Colli Asolani and Montello, which constitute the remaining 14% of the territory. Several of the most important rivers in Italy cross through the region (the Po, Adige, Brenta, Bacchiglione, Livenza, Piave, and Tagliamento), and it possesses the eastern shore of the largest lake in the country (Lake Garda). The Adriatic Sea bathes over 200km of its coastline, of which 100km are beaches.

Population

The region has about 4.8 million inhabitants, ra ning Veneto as the fifth most populated region in Italy. Veneto has one of the highest population densities amongst the Italian regions (265 inhabitants per km2 in 2008). This is particularly true in the provinces of Padua, Venice and Treviso, where the inhabitants per km2 are above 300. Belluno is the less densely populated province, with 57 inhabitants per km2. Like the other regions of Northern Italy and Central Italy, The Tetrarchs were the four co-rulers who though with a certain time lag, Veneto has been experiencing governed the Roman Empire as long as a phase of very slow population growth caused by the Diocletian's reform lasted. Here they are dramatic fall in fertility. The overall population has so far been portrayed embracing, in a posture of increasing - though only slightly - due to the net immigration harmony, in a porphyry sculpture dating started at the end of the 1960s, after more than 20 years of from the 4th century, produced in Asia Minor, located today on a corner of St massive exodus from the poorer areas of the region. Mark's Basilica in Venice. Nearly 3 Millions of Venetians were forced to leave their

168 ­ Veneto country between 1861 and 1961 to escape poverty. Many emigrated to South America, especially Brazil, after World War II they moved to other European countries. Due to the impressive economic growth of the last two decades, Veneto has turned into a land of immigration and has been attracting more and more immigrants since the 1990s. In 2008 the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 403,985 foreign-born immigrants live in Veneto, equal to 8.3 % of the total regional population.

Administrative Divisions

Veneto is divided into seven provinces : Belluno, Padua, Rovigo, Treviso, Venezia, Verona, Vicenza

Economy

Traditionally Veneto had been a poor agricoltural region as well as a land of mass emigration. Since the 1970s Veneto has seen an impressive development, thanks to the so called Veneto development model - characterised by a wide export-oriented entrepreneurship in traditional sectors and a strong social cohesion - making it actually the third richest region in terms of total GDP (139 billion) after Lombardy and Lazio Geography and historical events have determined the present social and economic structure of the region, centred on a broad belt running east to west. The plain and the Alpine foothills are the most developed areas in contrast to the Po delta to the south and - to a lesser extent - to the mountains. Industrial development is mainly concentrated in this central belt, with the exception of the manufacturing of spectacles in the valleys around Belluno. The Alps and the province of Rovigo, more than other areas, show a trend of both declining and ageing population. The region's agriculture is among the most productive in the country. However, it is still characterised by an intensive use of labour, due to the specialisation in market gardening, fruitgrowing and vine-growing throughout the plain and the foothills. In the south and in the extreme east of the region, grain crops are more common and land holdings are larger than in the rest of the region. The cattle stock, although declining, still represented 15% of the national stock in. Industrial development is a fairly recent phenomenon. This sector burst in the post-war period with the creation of small and medium-sized firms that now form the region's industrial base.

Veneto - 169 With infrastructure evenly distributed throughout the territory and a good road network, it has been possible to avoid industry over-concentration. As to manufacturing, different areas, mainly along the Verona-Vic enzaPadua-Treviso axis, tend to specialise in different products: food products, wood and furniture, leather and footwear, textiles and clothing, gold jewellery. This partition of the territory into industrial districts, typical of Veneto, has led to the establishment of a strongly exportMap showing the empire of Venice at his height, in the XV-XVI centuries. oriented system of industries. The industries of power, chemicals and metals processing are more important in the eastern central belt, especially around Porto Marghera, where various branches of companies from outside the region are located. Anyway, in recent years, some chemical local units had to stop their production in order to be restructured or were dismissed because of their dangerousness in a densely populated area. During the last 20 years, a large number of Venetian industries dislocated their plants (expecially the most dangerous and polluting productions) in Eastern Europe, especially Romania. The Romanian city of Timioara is also called "The Newest Venetian Province". Hotel and catering trade play an important role in the services sector. One-fifth of Italy's foreign tourism is recorded in Veneto, which is the first region in Italy in terms of tourist presence and the second after Emilia Romagna in terms of hotel industry structures. The business volume of tourism in Veneto is extimated in 12 billion Euros.

Figures

Provinces Capital Area · Total Population · Total · Density GDP ( 2006 ) · Total · Per capita Belluno, Padua, Rovigo, Treviso, Venezia, Verona, Vicenza Venice 18,391 km² ( 8th, 6,0% ) 4,869,694 ( 5th ) 265 / km² $139 billion $28.543

Stage 21, Chioggia ­ Venezia

Venetian Lagoon The Venetian Lagoon is the enclosed bay of the Adriatic Sea in which the city of Venice is situated. Its name in the Venetian language, Laguna Veneta-- cognate of Latin lacus, "lake"-- has provided the international name for an enclosed, shallow embayment of saltwater, a lagoon. The Venetian Lagoon stretches from the Sile in the north to the Brenta in the south, with a surface area of around 550 km². It is around 8% land, including Venice itself and many smaller islands. About 11% is permanently covered by open water, or canal as the network of dredged channels are called, while around 80% consists of mud flats, tidal shallows and salt marshes. The lagoon is the largest wetland in the Mediterranean Basin.

170 ­ Veneto It is connected to the Adriatic Sea by three inlets: Lido, Malamocco and Chioggia inlets. Sited at the end of a largely enclosed sea, the lagoon is subject to high variations in water level, the most extreme being the spring tides known as the acqua alta (Italian for "high waters"), which regularly flood much of Venice. The Lagoon of Venice is the most important survivor of a system of estuarine lagoons that in Roman times extended from Ravenna north to Trieste. In the sixth century, the Lagoon gave security to Romanised people fleeing invaders (mostly the Huns). Later, it provided the naturally protected conditions for the growth of the Venetian Republic and its maritime empire. It still provides a base for a seaport, the Venetian Arsenal and for fishing, as well as a limited amount of hunting and the newer industry of fish farming. The Lagoon was formed about six to seven thousand years ago, when the marine transgression following the Ice Age flooded the upper Adriatic coastal plain. River sediments compensated for the sinking coastal plain, and coastwise drift from the mouth of the Po tended to close tidal inlets. The present aspect of the Lagoon is due to human intervention. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, Venetian hydraulic projects to prevent the lagoon from turning into a marsh reversed the natural evolution of the Lagoon. Pumping of aquifers since the nineteenth century has increased subsidence. Originally many of the Lagoon's islands were marshy, but a gradual programme of drainage rendered them habitable. Many of the smaller islands are entirely artificial, while some areas around the seaport of the Mestre are also reclaimed islands. The remaining islands are essentially dunes, including those of the coastal strip (Lido, Pellestrina and Treporti). Pellestrina Pellestrina is an island forming a barrier between the southern Venetian Lagoon and the Adriatic Sea, lying south west of the Lido. The island is 11 kilometres long and has since the eighteenth century been bounded to its seaward side by large embankments. There are four main villages: San Pietro in Volta, Porto Secco, San Antonio and Pellestrina, known for their colourfully-painted houses. The main industries of the island are market gardening, fishing, tourism and lace making. Like Chioggia but unlike Torcello, the local lace is made with a needle. Attractions on the island included the Lido of Ca' Roman, known for its pine trees and birdlife. Lido di Venezia Venice's Lido is an 18 km long sandbar, home to about 20,000 residents, greatly augmented by the (mainly Italian) tourists who move in every summer. The Venice film festival takes place at the Lido every September. The island is home to three settlements. The Lido itself, in the north, is home to the Film Festival, the Grand Hotel des Bains, the Venice Casino and the Grand Hotel Excelsior. Malamocco, in the centre, is the

Lido vaporetto terminal, seen from the Lagoon.

Veneto - 171 first and for a long time the only settlement. It was at one time home to the Doge of Venice. Alberoni at the southern end is home to the golf course. At least half the Adriatic side of the island is constituted by a sandy beach, much of which belongs to the various hotels that house the summer tourists. These include the renowned Excelsior and the Des Bains, setting for Thomas Mann's classic novel Death in Venice. These beaches are private, though towards the northern and southern ends of the island there are two enormous public beaches. The Adriatic Sea is fairly clean and warm, ideal for children, with only the occasional jellyfish to disturb swimming. The heart of the island is the Gran Viale Santa Maria Elisabetta, a wide street approximately 700 metres long that leads from the lagoon on one side to the sea on the other. It houses hotels, shops, and tourist-centric restaurants.. Mose Project The MOSE Project (acronym for Modulo Sperimentale Elettromeccanico -- in English, Experimental Electromechanical Module) is a project intended to protect the city of Venice, Italy. Is an integrated defence system consisting of rows of mobile gates able to isolate the Venetian Lagoon from the Adriatic Sea when the tide reaches above an established level (110 cm) and up to a maximum of 3 metres. Together with other complementary measures such as coastal reinforcement, the raising of quaysides and paving and improvement of the lagoon environment, these barriers will protect the city of Venice from extreme events such as the floods and from morphological degradation. Work on the project has been underway since 2003 at the three lagoon inlets of Lido, Malamocco and Chioggia, the gaps connecting the lagoon with the sea and through which the tide ebbs and flows. The name MOSE is also a play on the Italian name for Moses, Mosè. The project is being executed by engineers at FIAT. In 2006, the incoming government of Romano Prodi announced that the project was "under review" for budgetary reasons. However, the project was reinstated the following year. Aim The aim of the MOSE project is to solve the problem of high waters which has afflicted Venice and other towns and villages in the lagoon since ancient times in autumn, winter and spring. Although the tide in the lagoon basin is lower than in other areas of the world where it may reach as high as 20 metres, the phenomenon may become significant if associated The Venetian Lagoon with atmospheric and meteorological factors such as pressure and the action of the bora (a north-easterly wind coming from Trieste) or Sirocco (a hot south-easterly wind) which push the waves into the gulf of Venice. The phenomenon is also worsened by rain and freshwater flowing into the lagoon from the drainage basin at 36 inflow points represented by small rivers and canals. The increase in the frequency and intensity of high waters is also associated with other natural and artificial causes which have altered the hydraulic and morphological structure of the lagoon, such as subsidence and eustatism (during the 20th century land in the lagoon dropped by 23 cm with respect to mean sea level); the greater erosive action of the sea as a result of some of the measures taken by man to facilitate port activities (jetties, artificial canals) and establishment of the industrial area of Porto Marghera and the increase in wash caused by motor vessels which helps erode morphological structures and the foundations of quaysides and buildings. As well as tackling these contingent problems, the MOSE Project (and the other defence measures) has also been designed to take into account the expected rise in sea level as a result of global warming. The mobile barriers can protect the lagoon effectively even if the most pessimistic hypotheses come true, such as a rise in sea level of up to 60 cm.

172 ­ Veneto Exceptional high waters have struck the city during the 20th century: the flood of November 1966 (194 cm), 1979 (166 cm), 1986 (158 cm), 1951 (151 cm), 1936 and 2002 (147 cm), 1960 (145 cm), 1968 and 2000 (144 cm), 1992 (142 cm), 1979 (140 cm). All values were recorded at the Punta della Salute (Venice) station and refer to the 1897 tidal datum point. Usage The project consists of a system of 79 mobile barriers designed to protect the three entrances to the Venetian Lagoon. The barriers will stay on the seabed until high tides and storms are forecast. They will then be inflated, blocking the sea from the lagoon and effectively reducing high water levels. Projections The MOSE project has a budget of 3 billion and it is planned to be completed by 2011. As of January 2008, The project is reported as 37% complete and projected to open on schedule in 2012.

Stage 22, Venezia ­ Tramonti di Sotto

Jesolo Jesolo is a town and comune in the province of Venice. Jesolo gives its name to a lagoon (22 km²) on the Adriatic Sea, between the rivers Sile and Piave. In Roman times the lagoon extended over the area now occupied by the town. There were several islands in the lagoon, the biggest of which was known as Equilium, the place of horses. The city's economy is mostly based on tourism, because of its 15 km-long beach (Lido di Jesolo). Tramonti di Sotto Tramonti di Sotto is a comune in the Province of Pordenone in the Italian region FriuliVenezia Giulia, located about 35 km northeast of Pordenone. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 444 and an area of 84.6 km². Pitina Pitina is an Italian cold cut (salume) with origin in the mountain valleys of Tramonti di Sopra and River Cellina of the province of Pordenone in northeastern Italy. It is not a true sausage but instead it is a meatball made of smoked meats. The recipe was probably based on the impromptu need to preserve game. The preparation method did not require specialized equipment making it available to all homes, even the most isolated mountain huts. Today the tradition is still alive and pitina is being produced commercially by several families in the province of Pordenone.

Stage 23, Tramonti di Sotto ­ Cortina d'Ampezzo

Dolomiti The Dolomites are a section of the Alps. They are located for the most part in the province of Belluno, the rest in the provinces of Bolzano-Bozen and Trento. Conventionally they extend from the Adige river in the west to the Piav e valley (Pieve di Cadore) in the east. The northern and southern borders are defined by the Puster Valley (Val Pusteria) and the Sugana Valley (Val

Veneto - 173 Sugana). But the Dolomites spread also over the Piave river (Dolomiti d'Oltrepiave) to the east; and far away over the Adige river to the west is the Brenta Group (Western Dolomites); there is also another smaller group called Piccole Dolomiti (Small Dolomites) located between the Provinces of Trento and Vicenza. The region is commonly divided into the Western (Dolomiti di Brenta) and Eastern Dolomites, separated by a line following the Valle dell'Adige. The range includes more than forty glaciers. One national park and many other regional parks are located in the Dolomites. A tourist mecca, the Dolomites are famous for skiing in the winter months and mountain climbing, daily excursions, climbing and Base Jumping, as well as paragliding and hang gliding in summer and late spring/early autumn. Free climbing has been a tradition in the Dolomites since 1887, when 17-year-old Georg Winkler soloed the first ascent of the pinnacle Die Vajolettürme. Origin of the name The name "Dolomites" is derived from the famous French mineralogist Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu who was the first to describe the rock, dolomite, a type of carbonate rock which is responsible for the characteristic shapes and colour of these mountains. History In 1914 the Dolomites were part of the AustroHungarian Empire. Austria was part of the Central Powers during the First World War. In 1915, Italy joined the alliance of Britain, France and Russia and declared war on the Central Empires. Austria's troops were heavily committed in Russia and it immediately withdrew to a defensive line which ran through the Dolomites. Until the end of 1917 the Austrians and the Italians fought a ferocious war in the mountains of the Dolomites; not only against each other but also against the hostile conditions. In the particularly cold winter of 1916 thousands of Dolomites troops died of cold, falls or avalanches. Both sides tried to gain control of the peaks to site observation posts and field guns. To help troops to move about at high altitude in very difficult conditions permanent lines were fixed to rock faces and ladders were installed so that troops could ascend steep faces. These were the first via ferrata. Trenches, dugouts and other relics of the First World War can be found alongside many via ferrata. There is an extensive open air museum on 5 Torri, and around Lagazuoi, where very heavy fighting took place. This wartime network of via ferrata has been restored, with many new routes added. Steel cables have replaced ropes. Iron ladders and metal rungs (stemples) anchored into the rock have taken the place of the flimsy wooden structures used by the troops. These aids are now maintained by the Club Alpino Italiano (CAI) or Italian Alpine Club. An extensive network of mountain refugios exists in the Dolomites, many of which provide accommodation. By using ordinary hiking paths and via ferrata coupled with overnight stays in the refugios, large sections of the Dolomites can be traversed at high altitudes. There are also many hotels in the valleys supporting winter and summer tourism. The larger ski lifts are open during summer to provide fast access to these high level routes.

174 ­ Veneto Forcella di Monte Rest

Year 1987 1979 1974 1970 First cyclist Jean-Claude Bagot (FRA) Roberto Ceruti (ITA) Santiago Lazcano (SPA) Martin Van den Bossche (BEL) S S S S

Sella Ciampigotto

Piave River Piave is a river in north Italy. It begins in the Alps and flows southeast for 220 km into the Adriatic Sea near the city of Venice. In 1809 it was the scene of a battle during the Napoleonic Wars, in which Franco-Italian and Austrian fo rces clashed. In 1918, during World War I, it was the scene of Battle of the Piave River, the last major Austro-Hungarian attack on the Italian Front, which failed after costing Austria-Hungary nearly 200,000 casualties. The Battle of the Piave was the decisive battle of World War I on the Italian Front.

Piave River

Cristallo Cristallo is a mountain group in the Italian Dolomites northeast of Cortina d'Ampezzo. It is a long, indented ridge with four summits higher than 3,000 metres. The highest peaks of the Cristallo group are Monte Cristallo (3,221 m), Piz Popena (3,153 m), Cima di Mezzo (3,154 m), and Cristallino d'Ampezzo (3,008 m). Cima di Mezzo and Cristallino d'Ampezzo can be reached by via ferratas, while Monte Cristallo and Piz Popena both require climbing skills.

Veneto - 175 Passo Tre Croci

Year 2007 1985 1981 1980 1973 1971 1970 First cyclist Leonardo Piepoli (ITA) Rafael Acevedo (COL) Beat Breu (SWI) Claudio Bortolotto (ITA) José Manuel Fuente (SPA) Selvino Poloni (ITA) Michele Dancelli (ITA) W E W W W E W

Cortina d'Ampezzo Cortina d'Ampezzo is a town in the southern Dolomitic Alps. Located in the heart of the Dolomites in an alpine valley, it is a popular winter sport resort known for its ski-ranges, scenery, accommodations, shops and après-ski scene. The city center is located at an alitude of 1,224 metres, although the highest summit is that of the Tofana di Mezzo which towers at 3,244 metres. There is a significant water presence in the territory, under the form of torrents, streams and little lakes (Ghedina, Pianozes, d'Ajal...), which fill particularly during the summer snow melt season. Fauna include marmots, roe deers, chamoises and hares. History Ampezzo belonged to the Holy Roman Empire until 1420, when it was conquered by the Republic of Venice. In 1508 it was returned to Austria. In 1920, after World War I, it was given to Italy. When Italy entered the World War in 1915, most of the male inhabitants were fighting for Austria on the Russian front. By this time the town was inhabited completely by people of German origin. 669 male inhabitants, most of them under 16 or over 50, tried to fight the Italian troops. Outnumbered by the Italians, they had to retreat. In 1917 the town was freed again by the Tyrolian Standschützen. After the war the people of Ampezzo were forced to declare themselves as Italians. In the middle of the town a big monument was build to remember the Italian soldiers who fell here, but all of them came from towns far away from Ampezzo. Until 1998 it was forbidden for the people of Ampezzo to erect a monument for their soldiers, because they had been fighting for Austria. Sports Cortina d'Ampezzo was the host town of the 1956 Winter Olympics. The 1944 Winter Olympics were also scheduled to be held in Cortina, but were canceled because of World War II. The 1927 Nordic, 1941 Nordic and 1941 Alpine World Skiing Championships were held in Cortina as well, although the 1941 Nordic championships were withdrawn by the FIS in 1946. The region lost the bid for the 1988 Winter Olympics to Calgary, Canada. Cortina was the home of Olympic bobsledder Eugenio Monti, who was the first winner of the de Coubertin medal for fair play.

7th Olympic Winter Games

176 ­ Veneto Film The surroundings of Cortina have been the location for a number of movies, including mountain climbing scenes for Cliffhanger, Krull and The Pink Panther. The resort was a major location for the James Bond 007 film For Your Eyes Only, including action sequences set against a backdrop of various winter sports and one of the most famous ski chase sequences in film, where Roger Moore as Bond has to escape a crew of assassins on spikewheeled motorcycles, his route taking them all onto the bobsleigh run. Politics According to BBC News, the town voted in October 2007 to secede from the region of Veneto and join the neighboring region, Trentino-Alto Adige. Cited motivations include cultural ties with the small Ladin-speaking community in Trentino and a desire for lower taxes.

Film poster of "For your eyes only"

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