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POLI31384 Critical Security Studies Unit Guide

2011/12 Teaching Block 1, weeks 1-12 Unit Owner: Dr Columba Peoples Phone (0117) 3310763 Email [email protected] Office 3.01, 34 TPR Level: H/6 Credit points: 20 Prerequisites: None

Make sure you check your Bristol email account regularly throughout the course as important information will be communicated to you. Any emails sent to your Bristol address are assumed to have been read. If you wish for emails to be forwarded to an alternative address then please go to https://wwws.cse.bris.ac.uk/cgi-bin/redirect-mailname-external

Curriculum area: World Politics

Unit description

This unit will introduce students to the ,,critical turn in the study of global security by tracing the move away from a state-centred militaristic approach to security, in a variety of emerging schools of thought, towards a more expansive conception of security that involves issues spanning economic, social, political and environmental spheres. It is divided into two main parts. The first part, ,,Theories, will survey the newly extended and contested theoretical terrain of Critical Security Studies including ,,securitization theory, post-Marxist approaches, feminism and postcolonial approaches. The second part, ,,Emerging Practices, will then allow students to assess how useful these various theoretical approaches are in assessing a diverse range of issues in contemporary security practices, including: Technology and Warfare in the Information Age; Migration and Border Security; Human Security and Development; and Environmental Degradation and Resource Scarcity.

Teaching arrangements

One 2-hour seminar per week (Weeks 1-10) Mock exam (Week 23) Revision session (Week 24)

Requirements for credit points

Seminar attendance Seminar presentation (formative assessment) 1,500-2,000 word essay (summative assessment) 2 hour unseen exam (summative assessment)

Summative assessment

1,500-2,000 word essay - 40% 2 hour unseen exam - 60%

Core reading

The recommended core reading and textbook purchase for this unit is: 1

Columba Peoples and Nick Vaughan-Williams, Critical Security Studies: An Introduction (Oxon: Routledge 2010) [Hereafter Peoples and Vaughan-Williams, Critical Security Studies] This widely available for purchase via online sellers (such as Amazon) and copies have been ordered for Blackwells bookshop on Park Street. Other useful textbooks available in the library and which might be considered as supplementary book purchases are: Collins, Alan (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, 2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) (the first edition (2007) is also useful and also available in the library) JZ5588 CON Fierke, Karen M., Critical Approaches to International Security (Cambridge: Polity Press, 2007) JZ5588 FIE Sheehan, Michael, International Security: An Analytical Survey (London: Lynne Rienner, 2005) JZ5588 SHE Williams, Paul D. (Ed.), Security Studies: An Introduction (Oxon Routledge, 2008) JZ5588 SEC

Objectives

To introduce students to a variety of critical approaches to contemporary security To familiarise students with key ideas, concepts, and issues in critical security studies To explore the benefits and drawbacks of employing an expanded conception of security that encompasses economic, social, political and environmental spheres as well as traditional military issues To stimulate critical reflection on contemporary security practices

Learning outcomes

Upon completion of this unit students will have developed: Knowledge of key ideas, concepts and theories in critical security studies Comprehension of multiple critical frameworks for thinking about security Ability to critically analyse key contemporary issues in international security and contemporary security practices Ability to synthesize and critically evaluate concepts and theories in relation to the study of security Ability to apply concepts and theories to empirical issues Ability to critically evaluate concepts and theories in application to empirical issues

Transferable skills

Time management Critical thinking Effective oral and written skills Presentation skills Use of a variety of sources including electronic resources Ability to engage in constructive discussion in a seminar setting Ability to plan and write a well-structured essay, including proper academic referencing and bibliography

Development and feedback

The unit has two formative components: student presentations (in the course of seminars); and a mock exam (prior to the main exam period in May/June). Formative assessment is primarily intended to aid student learning and development through feedback. Although students will receive an indicative mark on their formative work, this does not count towards the final mark for the unit. Formative assessment (seminar presentation) will develop students knowledge of specific topics, as well as developing their presentation skills. Students will receive written feedback on their presentation, 2

which will include comments on development of generic skills (such as structuring an argument) that will also be relevant to the summative assessment components. Students will also have the option of receiving further oral feedback during office hours. Formative assessment (mock exam) will familiarize students with exam preparation and writing under exam conditions. Students will also receive written feedback on their essay submission, with the option of receiving further oral feedback during office hours.

Presentation Guidance

The presentation assignment for each week is listed with the details for each seminar. The aim of the formative presentation is to get students to critically assess and evaluate concepts and theories in critical security studies in application to an original contemporary issue/case study. Presentations should be no more than 10 minutes long for individual presentations, and no more than 15 minutes long for presentations with two presenters Presenters should supply a 1-page handout, to accompany the presentation, for the seminar group members. Handouts should be no longer than two sides of A4, inclusive of the presentation bibliography. Presenters should use a power-point presentation to accompany the presentation. This should be no more than a maximum of 5 slides (including the title slide). Each slide should contain no more than 5 bullet points per slide. Please feel free to use images and other audio-visual resources to enhance the presentation. Presenters should be familiar with the ,,Essential Reading for the weeks seminar and refer to these where relevant, but simply reproducing or regurgitating material from the essential reading in presentations will not be sufficient to attain credit. It is expected that all seminar members will have done the essential reading, and presentations will also need to demonstrate evidence of independent research that goes beyond the essential reading. Specifically, the presentation requires that presenter(s) critically assess a key concept ,,in relation to an original empirical case study. By ,,original here it is meant that students will be credited for finding and using a case study or empirical issue (to illustrate their analysis of the key concept) that has not been already extensively treated within the critical security studies literature. In other words, the assignment asks you to undertake independent research (beyond the existing CSS literature) to analyse a concept (that is used in the existing CSS literature) There are very useful tips and further general guidance on making presentations in the SPAIS ,,Study Guide 2011-2012, pages 11-14. All students are recommended to consult this in their presentation preparation. The Study Guide is available online here: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/spais/current/currentug/resources/

Details of the marking criteria for undergraduate presentations are available at the same link, on pages 30-31 of the SPAIS Undergraduate Handbook. These are used as the basis for the assessment of, and feedback on, the formative presentation.

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Details of coursework and deadlines

Seminar presentation (formative assessment) - in seminars, topics assigned in Week 1 1,500-2,000 word essay (summative assessment) ­ 11am, Friday January 20th 2012 (end of Week 11) 1 hour unseen mock exam (formative assessment) ­ prior to the main exam period 2 hour unseen exam (summative assessment) ­ Main exam period (May/June 2012) The seminars for this unit will consist of a combination of student presentation, discussion of the weekly readings and mini-lectures by the unit convenor within the seminars. Since the seminars will have a heavy emphasis of student discussion and participation it is imperative that all students do the weekly reading in advance of attending the seminars regardless of whether or nor they are scheduled to present that week. Copies of all the essential readings for each week are in the unit textbook and course-pack for unit. Course pack readings are designated with the symbol ,,§. Readings marked with an * are recommended as introductory readings.

Seminar schedule

Week 1 Introduction: What is `Security'? What is `Critical'? Week 2 Critical Theory and Security Week 3 Securitization Theory Week 4 Feminist Approaches to Security Week 5 Post-structuralist Approaches Week 6 Postcolonial Approaches Week 7 Technology and Warfare in the Information Age Week 8 Migration and Border Security Week 9 Human Security and Development Week 10 Environmental Degradation and Resource Scarcity Week 23 Mock Exam Week 24 Revision Seminar

Week 1 Introduction: What is `Security'? What is `Critical'? Seminar Questions: What does the concept of ,,security refer to? Why should we study security? How should we study security? What do we mean by ,,critical approaches to security? Learning Outcomes: o Understanding of the unit structure, teaching methods and required work o Introduction to critical debates over the definition of security, and the field of critical security studies Essential Reading: *Peoples and Vaughan-Williams, Critical Security Studies, ,,Introduction: mapping critical security studies, and travelling without maps § Arnold Wolfers, ,, "National Security" as an ambiguous symbol, Political Science Quarterly, 67:4 (1952) pp.481-502 § Keith Krause and Michael C. Williams, ,,From Strategy to Security: Foundations of Critical Security Studies in Keith Krause and Michael C. Williams (eds.) Critical Security Studies: Concepts and Cases 4

(London: UCL Press, 1997) Supplementary Reading: David Baldwin, ,,Security Studies and the End of the Cold War, World Politics, 48:1 (1995) pp.117-41 ejournals David Baldwin, ,,The Concept of Security, Review of International Studies, 23:1 (1997) pp.5-26 e-journals Barry Buzan, People States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era, 2nd edition (London: Lynne Rienner, 1991) JX3096 BUZ Chapter 3, ,,National Security: Threats and Vulnerabilities Alan Collins, ,,Introduction: What is Security Studies? in Alan Collins (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, 1st/2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007/2009) JZ5588 CON Alan Collins (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, 2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) JZ5588 CON Chapters 2 and 3 (,,Realism and ,,Liberalism) C.A.S.E. Collective, ,,Critical Approaches to Security in Europe: A Networked Manifesto, Security Dialogue, 37: 4 (2006) pp.443-487 e-journals Simon Dalby, ,,Contesting an Essential Concept: Reading the Dilemmas in Contemporary Security Discourse in Keith Krause and Michael C. Williams (eds.) Critical Security Studies: Concepts and Cases (London: UCL Press, 1997) U21.2 CRI James Der Derian, ,,The Value of Security: Hobbes, Marx, Neitzsche, and Baudrillard, in Ronnie D. Lipschutz (ed.) On Security (New York: Columbia University Press 1995) D860 ON Karen Fierke, Critical Approaches to International Security (London: Polity Press, 2007), Introduction and Chapter 1 JZ5588 FIE Patrick M. Morgan, ,,Security in International Politics: Traditional Approaches in Alan Collins (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, 1st/2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007/2009) JZ5588 CON David Mutimer, ,,Critical Security Studies: A Schismatic History in Alan Collins (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, 1st/2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007/2009) JZ5588 CON Michael Sheehan, ,,The Broader Agenda in International Security: An Analytical Survey (London: Lynne Rienner, 2005) JZ5588 SHE Steve Smith, ,,The Increasing Insecurity of Security Studies: Conceptualizing Security in the Last Twenty Years, in Stuart Croft and Terry Terriff (eds.) Critical Reflections on Security and Change (London: Frank Cass, 2000) J. Ann Tickner, ,,Re-Visioning Security in Ken Booth and Steve Smith (eds.) International Relations Theory Today (London: Polity Press, 1996) Rens Van Munster, ,,Security on a Shoestring: A Hitchhikers Guide to Critical Schools of Security in Europe, Cooperation and Conflict, 42:2 (2007) pp.235­243 Steven Walt, ,,The Renaissance of Security Studies, International Studies Quarterly, 35:2 (1991) pp.211239 e-journals *Paul Williams, ,,Security Studies: An Introduction in Paul Williams (ed.) Security Studies: An Introduction (London: Routledge, 2008) JZ5588 SEC

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Part I: Critical Theories of Security This section of the unit provides students with a comprehensive survey of the ,,critical turn in security studies. Week 2 Critical Theory and Security Seminar Questions: What are the implications of linking ,,security with ,,emancipation? How and why have the so-called ,,Welsh School of Critical Security Studies sought to utilize ,,Critical Theory in thinking about security? ,,The problem with emancipation is not that it is idealistic, it is that is dangerous. Discuss. What are the strengths and limitations of the ,,Welsh School approach to security? Learning Outcomes: o Detailed understanding of the ,,Welsh School approach to the study of security o Ability to engage critically with debates over the relationship between security and ,,emancipation in the context of contemporary issues Presentation Assignment: Critically assess the concept of ,,emancipation (as employed by the ,,Welsh School of critical security studies) in relation to an original empirical case study Essential Reading *Peoples and Vaughan-Williams, Critical Security Studies, Chapter 1, ,,Critical Theory and Security § Ken Booth, ,,Security, emancipation, community and ,,Deepening, broadening, reconstructing in Theory of World Security (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007) § Richard Wyn Jones, ,,Theory: Reconceptualizing Security and ,,Epilogue in Security, Strategy and Critical Theory (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1999) Supplementary Reading Hayward Alker, ,,Emancipation in the Critical Security Studies Project in Ken Booth (ed.) Critical Security Studies and World Politics (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2005) JZ5588 CRI Aradau, Claudia ,,Security and the democratic scene: desecuritization and emancipation, Journal of International Relations and Development, 7 (2004) pp. 388-413 e-journals *Pinar Bilgin, ,,Critical Theory in Paul Williams (ed.) Security Studies: An Introduction (London: Routledge, 2008) JZ5588 SEC Pinar Bilgin, ,,Individual and Societal dimensions of security, International Studies Review, 5:2 (2003) pp.203-222 e-journals Ken Booth, ,,Security and Emancipation, Review of International Studies, 17:4 (1991) pp.313-326 Ken Booth, Theory of World Security (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007) JZ5588 BOO Ken Booth (ed.) Critical Security Studies and World Politics (London: Lynne Rienner, 2005) JZ5588 CRI Ken Booth, ,,Security and Self: Reflections of a Fallen Realist in Keith Krause and Michael C. Williams (eds.) Critical Security Studies: Concepts and Cases (London: UCL Press, 1997) U21.2 CRI

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Ken Booth and Peter Vale, ,,Critical Security Studies and Regional Insecurity: The Case of Southern Africa in Keith Krause and Michael C. Williams (eds.) Critical Security Studies: Concepts and Cases (London: UCL Press, 1997) U21.2 CRI Robert Cox, ,,Social Forces, States and World Orders: Beyond International Relations Theory, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 10:2 (1981) pp.126-155 e-journals *Karin Fierke, ,,Emancipation in Critical Approaches to International Security (London: Polity Press, 2007) JZ5588 FIE Rita Floyd, ,,Towards a consequentialist evaluation of security: Bringing together the Copenhagen and the Welsh schools of security studies, Review of International Studies 33 (2007) pp.327-350 e-journals Eric Herring, ,,Historical Materialism in Alan Collins (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, 2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007/2009) JZ5588 CON Keith Krause, ,,Critical Theory and Security Studies: The Research Programme of "Critical Security Studies", Cooperation and Conflict, 33:3 (1998) pp.298-333 e-journals Bill McSweeney, Security, Identity and Interests (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999) JZ1251 MAC *David Mutimer, ,,Critical Security Studies: A Schismatic History in Alan Collins (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, 1st/2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007/2009) JZ5588 CON Mark Neocleous, ,,The supreme concept of bourgeois society, Critique of Security (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2008) JZ5588 NEO Mark Neufeld, ,,Pitfalls of Emancipation and Discourse of Security, International Relations, 18:1 (2004) pp.109-23 e-journals Martin Shaw, ,,There is No Such Thing as Society: Beyond Individualism and Statism in International Security, Review of International Studies, 19 (1993) pp.159-175 e-journals *Michael Sheehan, ,,Critical Security in International Security: An Analytical Survey (London: Lynne Rienner, 2005) JZ5588 SHE Richard Wyn Jones, Security, Strategy and Critical Theory (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1999) JZ5595 WYN Richard Wyn Jones, Critical Theory and World Politics (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2001) JZ1305 CRI Richard Wyn Jones, ,,On Emancipation: Necessity, Capacity and Concrete Utopias in Ken Booth (ed.) Critical Security Studies and World Politics (London: Lynne Rienner, 2005) JZ5588 CRI Week 3 Securitization Theory Seminar Questions: What is meant by ,,securitization/desecuritization? What assumptions underpin Securitization Theory? Does the analysis of securitization necessarily entail an ethical dimension? Should Securitization Theory be categorized as a ,,critical approach to the study of security? Learning Outcomes: o Detailed understanding of securitization theory o Ability to engage critically with debates over securitization and desecuritization in the context of contemporary issues 7

Presentation Assignment: Critically assess the concept of ,,desecuritization (as employed within securitization theory) in relation to an original empirical case study Essential Reading *Peoples and Vaughan-Williams, Critical Security Studies, Chapter 5, ,,Securitization Theory § Ole Wæver ,,Securitization and Desecuritization, in Ronnie D. Lipschutz (ed.) On Security (New York: Columbia University Press 1995) § Lene Hansen, ,,The Little Mermaids Silent Security Dilemma and the Absence of Gender in the Copenhagen School, Millennium, 29 (2000) pp.285-306 Supplementary Reading Claudia Aradau, ,,Security and the democratic scene: desecuritization and emancipation, Journal of International Relations and Development, 7 (2004) pp.388-413 e-journals Thierry Balzacq, ,,The Three Faces of Securitization: Political Agency, Audience and Context, European Journal of International Relations, 11 (2005) pp.171-201 e-journals Barry Buzan and Ole Wæver, ,,Slippery? Contradictory? Sociologically Untenable? The Copenhagen School Replies, Review of International Studies, 23 (1997) pp.241-250 e-journals *Buzan, Barry, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde, ,,Security Analysis: Conceptual Apparatus in Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde, Security: A New Framework for Analysis (London: Lynne Rienner, 1998) JZ5588 BUZ Barry Buzan and Ole Wæver, Regions and Powers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003) JZ5588 BUZ Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde, Security: A New Framework for Analysis (London: Lynne Rienner, 1998) U21.2 BUZ *Ralf Emmers, ,,Securitization in Alan Collins (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, 1st/2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007/2009) JZ5588 CON Johann Eriksson, ,,Observers or Advocates? On the Political Role of Security Analysts, Cooperation and Conflict, 34 (1999) pp.311-330 e-journals Rita Floyd, ,,Towards a consequentialist evaluation of security: Bringing together the Copenhagen and the Welsh schools of security studies, Review of International Studies 33 (2007) pp.327-350 e-journals Kyle Grayson, ,,Securitization and the Boomerang Debate: A Rejoinder to Liotta and Smith-Windsor, Security Dialogue, 34 (2003) pp.337-343 e-journals Jef Huysmans, ,,Migrants as a Security Problem: Dangers of "Securitizing" Societal Issues, in Robert Miles and Dietrich Thranhardt (eds.) Migration and European Integration: The Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion (London: Pinter 1995) JV7590 MIG Matt McDonald, ,,Constructivism in Paul Williams (ed.) Security Studies: An Introduction (London: Routledge, 2008) JZ5588 SEC *Matt McDonald, ,,Securitization and the Construction of Security, European Journal of International Relations, 14 (2008) pp.563-587 e-journals 8

Bill McSweeney, ,,Identity and Security: Buzan and the Copenhagen School, Review of International Studies, 22 (1996) pp.81-94 e-journals Megan Mackenzie, ,,Securitization and Desecuritization: Female Soldiers and the Reconstruction of Women in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone, Security Studies, 18:2 (2009) pp.241-261 e-journals Paul Roe, ,,Securitization and Minority Rights: Conditions of Desecuritization, Security Dialogue, 35 (2004) pp.279-294 e-journals Mark Salter, ,,Securitization and Desecuritization: A dramaturgical analysis of the Canadian Air Transport Authority, Journal of International Relations and Development, 11 (2008) pp.321-349 e-journals *Michael Sheehan, ,,Societal Security in International Security: An Analytical Survey (London: Lynne Rienner, 2005) JZ5588 SHE Holger Stritzel, ,,Towards a Theory of Securitization: Copenhagen and Beyond, European Journal of International Relations, 13 (2007) pp.357-383 e-journals Rita Taureck, ,,Securitization theory and securitization studies, Journal of International Relations and Development, 9 (2006) pp.53-61 e-journals Ole Wæver, Barry Buzan, Morton Kelstrup and Pierre Lemaitre, Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe (London: Pinter, 1993) UA646 IDE Michael C. Williams, ,,Words, Images, Enemies: Securitization and International Politics;, International Studies Quarterly, 47 (2003) pp.511-31 e-journals

Week 4 Feminist Approaches to Security Seminar Questions: What does adopting a feminist lens analysis add to the study of security? In what ways is the theory and practice of security gendered? Is ,,the distinction between combatant and civilian which founds and governs the laws of war...an effect of a particular historically rooted formations of sex and sex differences (Kinsella 2005: 271)? What might a feminist theory of security look like? Learning Outcomes: o Detailed understanding of multiple feminist approaches to the study of security o Ability to engage critically with debates on gender, patriarchy and security in the context of contemporary issues Presentation Assignment: Critically assess the concept of ,,patriarchy (as employed in feminist approaches to security) in relation to an original empirical case study Essential Reading *Peoples and Vaughan-Williams, Critical Security Studies, Chapter 2, ,,Feminist and gender approaches to security § J. Ann Tickner, ,,Gendered Dimensions of War, Peace, and Security in Gendering World Politics (New York: Columbia University Press, 2001) § Laura J. Shepherd (2007) ,,"Victims, Perpetrators and Actors" Revisited: Exploring the Potential for a Feminist Reconceptualisation of (International) Security and (Gender) Violence, British Journal of Politics 9

and International Relations, 9(2) 239-256 Supplementary Reading Miranda Alison, ,,Women as Agents of Political Violence: Gendering Security, Security Dialogue, 35:4 (2004) pp.447-463 e-journals *Eric M. Blanchard, ,,Gender, International Relations and the Development of Feminist Security Theory, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 28:4 (2003) pp.1289-1312 e-journals Carol Cohn, ,,Sex and Death in the Rational World of Defence Intellectuals, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 12:4 (1987) pp.687-718 e-journals Carol Cohn, ,,Missions, Men and Maculinities, International Feminist Journal of Politics, 3 (1999) pp.460475 e-journals Cynthia Enloe, Manoeuvres: The International Politics of Militarising Women's Lives (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000) U21.75 ENL Cynthia Enloe, Bananas, Beaches, and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000) HQ1236 ENL Karen Fierke, ,,Identity in Critical Approaches to International Security (London: Polity Press, 2007) JZ5588 FIE Brandon Hamber et al, ,,Discourses in Transition: Re-Imagining Womens Security, International Relations, 28 (2006) 487-502 Lene Hansen, ,,Gender, Nation, Rape: Bosnia and the Construction of Security, International Feminist Journal of Politics, 3:1 (2001) pp.55-75 e-journals Lene Hansen, ,,The Little Mermaids Silent Security Dilemma and the Absence of Gender in the Copenhagen School, Millennium, 29 (2000) pp.285-306 e-journals Gunhild Hoogensen and Svein Vigeland Rottem, ,,Gender, Identity and the Subject of Security, Security Dialogue, 35:2 (2004) pp.155-171 e-journals *Caroline Kennedy-Pipe, ,,Gender in Alan Collins (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, 2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) JZ5588 CON Helen M. Kinsella, ,,Securing the civilian: sex and gender in the laws of war in Michael Barnett and Raymond Duvall (eds.) Power in Global Governance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005) Christina Masters, ,,Femina Sacra: The War on/of Terror, Women, and the Feminine, Security Dialogue, 40:1 (2009) pp.29-49 Veronique Pin-Fat and Maria Stern (2005) ,,The Scripting of Private Jessica Lynch: Biopolitics, Gender, and the ,,Feminization of the US Military, Alternatives: Global, Local, Political 30 (2005) pp.25-53. Laura Shepherd, ,,Loud Voices behind the Wall: Gendered Violence and the Violent Reproduction of the International Millennium: Journal of International Studies 34:2 (2006) pp.377-401 V. Spike Peterson, ,,Security and Sovereign States: What is at Stake in Taking Feminsim Seriously? in V. Spike Peterson (ed.) Gendered States: Feminist (Re)Visions of International Relations Theory (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1992) Jill Steans, Gender and International Relations: An Introduction (London: Polity Press, 1998) JX1391 STE 10

Michael Sheehan, ,,Gender and Security in International Security: An Analytical Survey (London: Lynne Rienner, 2005) JZ5588 SHE Christine Sylvester, Feminist International Relations: An Unfinished Journey (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002) especially chapter 10 JZ1253.2 SYL Christine Sylvester, Feminist Theory and International Relations in a Postmodern Era (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994) especially chapter 5 HQ1236 SYL J. Ann Tickner, Gender in International Relations: Feminist Perspectives on Achieving Global Security (New York: Columbia University Press, 1992) JX1391 TIC J. Ann Tickner, ,,Re-Visioning Security in Ken Booth and Steve Smith (eds.) International Relations Theory Today (London: Polity Press, 1996) JX1395 INT J. Ann Tickner, ,,Feminist Perspectives on 9/11, International Studies Perspectives, 3:4 (2002) pp.333-350 e-journals *J. Ann Tickner, ,,Feminist Responses to International Security Studies, Peace Review, 16:1 (2004) pp.43-48 e-journals *Sandra Whitworth, ,,Feminist Perspectives in Paul Williams (ed.) Security Studies: An Introduction (London: Routledge, 2008) JZ5588 SEC Sandra Whitworth, Men, Militarism and UN Peacekeeping: A Gendered Analysis (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2004) JZ6374 WHI Iris Marion Young, ,,The Logic of Masculinist Protection: Reflections on the Current Security State, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 29:1 (2003) pp.1-25 Week 5 Poststructuralist Approaches Seminar Questions: What are the key theoretical underpinnings of post-structuralism? What different aspects of the study of security are opened up by a post-structuralist perspective? How significant is the (re)production of identity in global security relations? Is identity necessarily dependent upon threat? Learning Outcomes: o Detailed understanding of multiple poststructuralist approaches to the study of security o Ability to engage critically with debates over threat construction and identity in the context of contemporary issues Presentation Assignment: Critically assess the concept of ,,discourse (as employed in poststructuralist approached to security) in relation to an original empirical case study Essential Reading *Peoples and Vaughan-Williams, Critical Security Studies, Chapter 4, ,,Poststructuralism and international political sociology § David Campbell, ,,On Dangers and Their Interpretation and ,,Writing Security in Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1998) § Luiza Bialasiewicz, David Campbell, Stuart Elden, Stephen Graham, Alex Jeffrey and Alison Williams, 11

,,Performing Security: The imaginative geographies of current US strategy, Political Geography, 26:4 (2007) pp.405-422 Supplementary Reading Agamben, Giorgio (2005) State of Exception (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press) JF256 AGA Dider Bigo, ,,International Political Sociology, in Paul Williams (ed.) Security Studies: An Introduction (London and New York: Routledge, 2008) JZ5588 SEC Anthony Burke, ,,Aporias of Security, Alternatives, 27:1 (2002) pp.1-27 e-journals David Campbell, Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992) E744 CAM David Campbell and Michael Dillion, The Political Subject of Violence (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993) Limited Preview available via Googlebooks Michael Dillon, The Politics of Security: Towards a Political Philosophy of Continental Thought (London: Routledge, 1996) JX1952 DIL Karen Fierke, ,,The Production of Danger in Critical Approaches to International Security (London: Polity Press, 2007) JZ5588 FIE Lene Hansen, Security as Practice: A Discourse Analysis of the Bosnian War (Abingdon: Routledge, 2006) JZ1253.5 HAN pp.1-3; pp.7-9; pp.33-41; pp.47-51 Bradley Klein, Strategic Studies and World Order (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994) Limited Preview available via Googlebooks Michael J. Shapiro, Violent Cartographies: Mapping Cultures of War (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997) CB481 SHA chapters 2, 3 and 4 **Michael Sheehan, ,,Postmodernism and Security in International Security: An Analytical Survey (London: Lynne Rienner, 2005) JZ5588 SHE R.B.J. Walker, ,,The Subject of Security in Keith Krause and Michael C. Williams (eds.) Critical Security Studies: Concepts and Cases (London: UCL Press, 1997) U21.2 CRI R.B.J. Walker, Inside/outside: International Relations as Political Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993) JX1395 WAL Jutta Weldes, ,,Constructing National Interests, European Journal of International Relations, 2:3 (1996) pp.275-318 e-journals Jutta Weldes et al, ,,Introduction: Constructing Insecurity in Jutta Weldes, Mark Laffey, Hugh Gusterson & Raymond Duvall (eds.) Cultures of Insecurity (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999) JZ1251 CUL Week 6 Postcolonial Approaches Seminar Questions: How does security look today from ,,Third World perspectives? ,,Interpreted as the right of every ethnic group to self-determination, emancipation can turn out to be a recipe for grave disorder and anarchy (Ayoob, 1997: 127). Why might a Third World perspective lead to a critique of ,,emancipation as the basis of security studies? 12

What does the ,,postcolonial moment tell us about the study of security? Is security studies/critical security studies Eurocentric/Western-centric in its assumptions and outlook? If so, what are the implications of this?

Learning Outcomes: o Detailed understanding of multiple postcolonial approaches to the study of security o Ability to engage critically with the implications of postcolonial studies and ,,Third World security perspectives in the context of contemporary issues Presentation Assignment: Critically assess the concept of ,,orientalism (as employed in postcolonial studies/approaches to security) in relation to an original empirical case study Essential Reading *Peoples and Vaughan-Williams, Critical Security Studies, Chapter 3, ,,Postcolonial perspectives § Mohammed Ayoob, ,,Defining Security: A Subaltern Realist Perspective in in Keith Krause and Michael C. Williams (eds.) Critical Security Studies: Concepts and Cases (London: UCL Press, 1997) § Tarak Barkawi and Mark Laffey, ,,The postcolonial moment in security studies, Review of International Studies, 32 (2006) pp.239-352 Supplementary Reading Rita Abrahamsen, ,,Blairs Africa: The Politics of Securitization and Fear, Alternatives, 30 (2005) pp. 50-80 e-journals *Amitav Acharya, ,,The Periphery as the Core: The Third World and Security Studies in Keith Krause and Michael C. Williams (eds.) Critical Security Studies: Concepts and Cases (London: UCL Press, 1997) U21.2 CRI Mohammed Ayoob, ,,Security in the Third World: The Worm About to Turn?, International Affairs, 60:1 (1983/84) pp.41-51 e-journals Mohammed Ayoob, The Third World Security Predicament (London: Lynne Rienner, 1995) JX1979 AYO Pinar Bilgin, ,,Thinking past "Western" IR?, Third World Quarterly, 29:1 (2008) pp.5-23 e-journals Roxanne Lynn Doty, Imperial Encounters (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1996) JZ1251 DOT Frantz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (London: Penguin, 2001) JC491 FAN Keith Krause, ,,Theorizing Security, State Formation and the "Third World" in the Post-Cold War World, Review of International Studies, 24:1 (1998) pp.125-136 e-journals Sankaran Kishna, ,,The Importance of Being Ironic: A Post Colonial View on Critical International Relations Theory, Alternatives, 18 (1993) pp.385-417 Mustapha Kemal Pasha, ,,Security as Hegemony, Alternatives, 21 (1996) pp.283-302 *Llyod Pettiford and Melissa Curley, Changing Security Agendas and the Third World (London: Continuum, 1999) JZ5588 PET Himadeep Muppidi, ,,Colonial and Postcolonial global governance in Michael Barnett and Raymond Duvall (eds.) Power in Global Governance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005) JC330 POW 13

*Himadeep Muppidi, ,,Postcoloniality and the Production of International Insecurity in Jutta Weldes, Mark Laffey, Hugh Gusterson & Raymond Duvall (eds.) Cultures of Insecurity (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1999) JZ1251 CUL Edward Said, Orientalism (London: Penguin, 1995) DS32.8 SAI Stephen Slemon, ,,Post-colonial Critical Theories in Gregory Castle (ed.) Post-colonial Discourses: An Anthology (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001) PR9080 POS Caroline Thomas, ,,Where is the Third World Now?, Review of International Studies, 25:5 (1999) pp.225241 e-journals Caroline Thomas, In Search of Security: The Third World in International Relations (Brighton: Wheatsheaf, 1987) D887 THO Caroline Thomas and Peter Wilkin, Globalization, Human Security and the African Experience (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1999) HC800 GLO Peter Wilkin, ,,Global Poverty and Orthodox Security, Third World Quarterly, 23:4 (2002) pp.633-645 ejournals

Part II: Emerging Practices This section of the unit gives students the chance to analyse and assess substantive emerging security practices, deploying the theories covered in Part 1 of the unit. Week 7 Technology and Warfare in the Information Age Seminar Questions: What does it mean to say that war is becoming increasingly ,,virtual? Are post-structuralist scholars right to focus upon the role of simulation in contemporary conflict? What would a Feminist reading of the Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) look like? Should critical scholars be more concerned with the innovation or the diffusion of military technology? Learning Outcomes: o Awareness of multiple ways in which technological developments may affect contemporary security practices o Ability to evaluate critical frameworks for thinking about security in relation to technology and warfare Presentation Assignment: Critically assess the concept of ,,virtual war in relation to an original empirical case study Essential Reading *Peoples and Vaughan-Williams, Critical Security Studies, Chapter 10, ,,Technology and warfare in the information age § Der Derian, James (2003) ,,War as Game, Brown Journal of World Affairs, 10 (1): 37-48 § Cohn, Carol (1987a) ,,Sex and Death in the Rational World of Defense Intellectuals, Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 12 (4): 687-718 Supplementary Reading 14

Jean Baudrillard, The Gulf War Did Not Take Place, translated by Paul Patton (Sydney: Power Publications, 1995) B2430.B29 Carol Cohn, ,,Slick ,,Ems, Glick ,,Ems, Christmas Trees, and Cookie Cutters: Nuclear Language and How We Learned to Pat the Bomb, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 43 (1987) pp.17-24 e-journals Carol Cohn, Felicity Hill and Sara Ruddick, The Relevance of Gender for Eliminating Weapons of Mass Destruction, (2005) paper commissioned for the Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission available from http://www.wmdcommission.org/files/No38.pdf [accessed 29/05/09] Christopher Coker, Waging War without Warriors? The Changing Culture of Military Conflict (Boulder CO: Lynne Reinner, 2002) U21.2 COK James Der Derian, ,,The (S)pace of International Relations: Simulation, Surveillance and Speed, International Studies Quarterly, 34 (1990) pp. 295-310 e-journals James Der Derian, ,,The Art of War and the Construction of Peace: Toward a virtual theory of international relations, in Morton Kelstrup and Michael C. Williams (eds.) International Relations Theory and the Politics of European Integration (London: Routledge, 2000) JZ1570 INT Chris Hables Gray, Postmodern War: The New Politics of Conflict (London: Routledge, 1997) U21.5 GRA Paul Q. Hirst, ,,Another Century of Conlfict? War and the International System in the 21st Century, International Relations, 16:3 (2002) pp.327-342 e-journals Michael Ignatieff, Virtual War: Kosovo and Beyond (London: Chatto & Windus, 2000) DR2087 IGN Robert Mandel, Security, Strategy and the Quest for Bloodless War (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2004) U163 MAN Colin McInnes, ,,Spectator Sport Warfare in Stuart Croft and Terry Terriff (eds.) Critical Reflections on Security and Change (London: Frank Cass, 2000) JZ5588 CRI Columba Peoples, ,,Decoding ballistic missile defense: semitoics and the power of the image in American Ballistic Missile Defense, Social Semiotics, 18:1 (2008) pp.17-32 e-journals Columba Peoples, Justifying Ballistic Missile Defence: Technology, Security and Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009) UG743 PEO Michael J. Shapiro, ,,Strategic Discourse/Discursive Strategy: The Representation of "Security Policy" in the Video Age, International Studies Quarterly, 34 (1990) pp.327-340 e-journals Martin Shaw (2005) The New Western Way of War: Risk-Transfer War and its Crisis in Iraq (Cambridge: Polity, 2005) U21.2 SHA Wyn Jones, Richard (1999) Security, Strategy and Critical Theory (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner) JZ5595 WYN Chapter 5 Week 8 Migration and Border Security Seminar Questions: How, why and when is migration treated as a threat? What is it seen as threatening? Should migration be securitized? What practical and institutional security transformations are taking place in response to migration? In what ways have borders become sites of securitization? 15

Learning Outcomes: o Understanding of debates on migration as a security issue o Ability to evaluate critical frameworks for thinking about security in relation to migration and security Presentation Assignment: Critically assess the concept of ,,societal security in relation to an original empirical case study Essential Reading *Peoples and Vaughan-Williams, Critical Security Studies, Chapter 9, ,,Migration and Border Security § Jef Huysmans, ,,The EU and the Securitization of Migration, Journal of Common Market Studies, 38:5 (2000) pp.751-777 § Peter Andreas, ,,Redrawing the Line: Borders and Security in the Twenty-First Century, International Security, 28:2 (2003) pp.78-111 Supplementary Reading Louise Amoore, ,,Biometric Borders: Governing Mobilities in the War on Terror, Political Geography, 25:3 (2006) pp.336-351 Claudia Aradau, Rethinking trafficking in Women: Politics out of Security (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2008) HQ281 ARA Peter Andreas, Border Games: Policing the US-Mexico Divide (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2000) HJ6690 AND Claudia Aradau, ,,The Perverse Politics of four-letter words: Risk and pity in the securitization of human trafficking, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 33:2 (2004) pp.251-277 e-journals Sita Bali, ,,Population Movements in Paul Williams (ed.) Security Studies: An Introduction (London: Routledge, 2008) JZ5588 SEC Jamie Behar, ,,Facing the True Fortress Europe: Immigrants and Politics in the EC, in Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol 29 (5), 1991, pp. 457-80 e-journals Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde, Security: A New Framework for Analysis (London: Lynne Rienner, 1998) U21.2 BUZ chapter 6 Chris Browning and Pertti Joenniemi (2008) ,,Geostrategies of the European Neighbourhood Policy, European Journal of International Relations 14(3): 519-52 Roxanne Lynn Doty, ,,States of Exception on the Mexico-US Border: Security, "Decision", and Civilian Border Patrols, International Political Sociology, 1:1 (2007) pp.113-137 e-journals Roxanne Lynn Doty, ,,Immigration and Politics of Security, Security Studies, 8:2/3 (1998/99) pp.71-93 ejournals Liz Fekete, ,,The deportation machine: Europe, asylum and human rights, Race & Class, 47:1 (2005) pp.6491 e-journals Andrew Geddes, The Politics of Migration and Immigration in Europe (London: Sage, 2003) JV7590 GED 16

Andrew Geddes, Immigration and European Integration: Towards Fortress Europe? (Manchester: Manchester UP, 2000) JV7590 GED Elspeth Guild, Security and Migration in the 21st Century (London: Polity, 2009) JV6271 GUI Elspeth Guild and Joanne van Selm, International Migration and Security: Opportunities and Challenges (London: Routledge, 2005) KC199 INT Jef Huysmans, The Politics of Insecurity: Fear, Migration and Asylum in the EU (London: Routledge, 2006) JX1542 HUY Chapters 4,5, 7 and 8 *Paul Roe, ,,Societal Security in Alan Collins (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, 1st/2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007/2009) JZ5588 CON Paul Roe, ,,Securitization and Minority Rights: Conditions of Desecuritization, Security Dialogue, 35 (2004) pp.279-294 e-journals *Michael Sheehan, ,,Societal Security in International Security: An Analytical Survey (London: Lynne Rienner, 2005) JZ5588 SHE Sarah Spencer (ed.) ,,The Politics of Migration: Managing Opportunity, Conflict and Change, special issue of The Political Quarterly, 2003 Limited preview available via Googlebooks Nick Vaughan-Williams, ,,The Shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes: New Border Politics?, Alternatives, 32:2 (2007) pp.177-195 e-journals Nick Vaughan-Williams, ,,The Generalised Biopolitical Border? Reconceptualising the Limits of Sovereign Power, Review of International Studies, 35 (2009) 729-749 Nick Vaughan-Williams, Border Politics: The Limits of Sovereign Power (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2009) JC323 VAU William Walters, ,,Mapping Schengenland: Denaturalizing the Border, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 20 (2002) pp.561-80 F. Webber & Liz Fekete, ,,From Refugee to Terrorist, in Race and Class, Vol 38 (2), 1996, pp. 77-81 ejournals Ole Wæver, Barry Buzan, Morton Kelstrup and Pierre Lemaitre, Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe (London: Pinter, 1993) UA646 IDE Week 9 Human Security and Development What does human security mean in theory and practice? Does the human security literature reproduce the assumptions of traditional security studies? What is at stake in claiming that poverty is a security issue? What is assumed in the idea of a ,,development-security nexus? Does it simply perpetuate Western intervention in the developing world?

Learning Outcomes: o Understanding of debates on the concept of human security, and development as a security issue o Ability to evaluate critical frameworks for thinking about security in application to human security and development issues

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Presentation Assignment: Critically assess the concept of a ,,development-security nexus in relation to an original empirical case study Essential Reading *Peoples and Vaughan-Williams, Critical Security Studies, Chapter 8, ,,Human Security and Development § Nicholas Thomas and William T. Tow, ,,The Utility of Human Security: Sovereignty and Humanitarian Intervention, Security Dialogue, 33:2 (2002) pp.177-192, + Alex J. Bellamy and Matt McDonald, ,,The Utility of Human Security: Which Humans? What Security? A Reply to Thomas and Tow, Security Dialogue, 33:2 (2002) pp.373-377 § Mark Duffield, ,,The Liberal Way of Development and the Development-Security Impasse: Exploring the Global Life-Chance Divide, Security Dialogue, 4:1 (2010) pp.53-76 Supplementary Reading Sabina Alkire, ,,A Conceptual Framework for Human Security (2005) http://www.crise.ox.ac.uk/pubs/workingpaper2.pdf *J. Busumtwi-Sam, ,,Development and Human Security: Whose Security, and from What?, International Journal, 57:2 (2002) pp.253-272 e-journals Yeun Foong Chong, ,,Human Security: A Shotgun Approach to Alleviating Human Misery?, Global Governance, 7:3 (2001) pp.231-236 e-journals Mark Duffield, Global Governance and the New Wars (London: Zed, 2000) JZ1318 DUF esp. ,,Introduction and ,,Chapter 1 Mark Duffield, ,,Getting savages to fight barbarians: Development, security and the Colonial Present, Conflict, Security and Development, 5:2 (2005) pp.141-159 e-journals Mark Duffield, ,,Global Civil War: The non-insured, International Containment and Post-Interventionary Society, Journal of Refugee Studies, 21:2 (2008) pp.145-165 e-journals Mark Duffield, Development, Security and Unending War: Governing the World of Peoples (London: Polity, 2007) HC60 DUF Mark Duffield and Nicholas Waddell, ,,Securing Humans in a Dangerous World, International Politics, 43:1 (2006) e-journals Human Security Centre (2005) Human Security Report 2005, www.humansecurityreport.info *Pauline Kerr, ,,Human Security in Alan Collins (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, 1st/2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007/2009) JZ5588 CON Gary King and Christopher J. L. Murray, ,,Rethinking Human Security, Political Science Quarterly, 116:4 (2001-02) pp.585-610 e-journals P.H. Liotta, ,,Boomerang Effect: The convergence of National and Human Security, Security Dialogue, 33:4 (December 2002) e-journals Matt McDonald, ,,Human Security and the Construction of Security, Global Society, 16:3 (2002) pp.277295 e-journals Mark Neufeld, ,,Pitfalls of Emancipation and Discourse of Security, International Relations, 18:1 (2004) 18

pp.109-23 e-journals Roland Paris, ,,Human Security: Paradigm Shift or Hot Air? International Security, 26:2 (2001) pp.87-102 Georg Sorenson, ,,Individual Security and National Security: The State Remains the Principal Problem, Security Dialogue, 27:4 (1996) pp.371-386 e-journals Frances Stewart, ,,Development and Security, Conflict, Security and Development, 4:3 (2004) pp.261-288 e-journals Astri Suhrke, ,,Human Security and the Interests of States, Security Dialogue, 29:3 (1998) pp.218-292 ejournals Caroline Thomas, Global Governance, Development and Human Security (London: Pluto Press, 2000) HC79.P6 THO Paul D. Williams, ,,Thinking about security in Africa, International Affairs, 83:6 (2007) pp.1021-1038 ejournals Special Issue of Security Dialogue (2004) 35/3 e-journals Week 10 Environmental Degradation and Resource Scarcity Seminar Questions: Does environmental degradation constitute a (perhaps the?) major security threat today? Is it possible to move from an ,,anthropocentric to an ,,ecocentric understanding of security? Does the environment-conflict thesis hold? Are ,,resource wars the conflicts of the future? Learning Outcomes: o Understanding of debates on the concept of environmental security o Ability to evaluate critical frameworks for thinking about security in application to environmental issues and resource scarcity Presentation Assignment: Critically assess the concept of ,,resource wars in relation to an original empirical case study Essential Reading *Peoples and Vaughan-Williams, Critical Security Studies, Chapter 6, ,,Environmental security § Jon Barnett, ,,Destabilising the Environment-Conflict Thesis, Review of International Studies, 26:2 (2000) pp.271-288 § Simon Dalby, ,,Ecology, Security and Change in the Anthropocene, Brown Journal of World Affairs, 13 (2007) 155-164 Supplementary Reading *Jon Barnett, ,,Environmental Security in Alan Collins (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, 1st/2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007/2009) JZ5588 CON Jon Barnett, The Meaning of Environmental Security: Ecological Politics and Policy in the New Security Era (London: Zed, 2001) Limited preview available via Googlebooks *Simon Dalby, ,,Environmental Change in Paul Williams (ed.) Security Studies: An Introduction (London and New York: Routledge, 2008) JZ5588 SEC 19

Simon Dalby, Environmental Security (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2002) GE170 DAL Simon Dalby, ,,What happens if we dont think in human terms?, in Jenny Edkins and Maja Zehfuss (eds.) Global Politics: A New Introduction (Oxon: Routledge, 2009) JC319 GLO Simon Dalby, Security and Environmental Change (London: Polity Press, 2010) Limited preview available via Googlebooks Daniel Deudney, ,,The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990) pp.461-473 e-journals Daniel Deudney and Richard A. Matthew (eds.) Contested Grounds: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics (Albany, NY: SUNY Press 1999) Limited preview available via Googlebooks Daniel Deudney, ,,Environmental Security: A Critique in Daniel Deudney and Richard A. Matthew (eds.) Contested Grounds: Security and Conflict in the New Environmental Politics (Albany, NY: SUNY Press 1999) Limited preview available via Googlebooks Andrew Dobson, ,,Do we need (to protect) nature? in Jef Huysmans, Andrew Dobson and Raia Prokhovnik (eds.) The Politics of Protection: Sites of Insecurity and Political Agency (London: Routledge, 2006) Limited preview available via Googlebooks *Hugh Dyer, ,,Environmental Security and International Relations: The Case for Enclosure, Review of International Studies, 27:3 (2001) pp.441-450 e-journals Thomas Homer-Dixon, ,,On the Threshold: Environmental Changes as Causes of Acute Conflict, International Security, 16:2 (1991) pp.76-116 e-journals Thomas Homer-Dixon, ,,Environmental Scarcities and Violent Conflict: Evidence from Cases, International Security, 19:1 (1994) pp.5-40 e-journals Thomas Homer-Dixon, Environment, Scarcity and Violence (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999) HN981.V5 HOM Michael Klare, Resource Wars (New York: Henry Holt, 2001) UA23 KLA esp. ,,Introduction and Chapter 6, ,,Water Conflict in the Nile Basin Marc A. Levy, ,,Is the Environment a National Security Issue?, International Security, 20:2 (1995) pp.35-62 e-journals Philippe Le Billon, The Geopolitics of Resource Wars: Resource Dependence, Governance and Violence (London: Frank Cass, 2005) HC103.7 GEO Karen Litfin, ,,Constructing Environmental Security and Ecological Interdependence, Global Governance 5 (1999) 359-377 Matt McDonald, ,,Making Waves? The Environment and Security as a Contracting Discourse, International Journal of Human Rights, 5:3 (2001) pp.111-126 e-journals Michael Renner, ,,Environmental security: the policy agenda, Conflict, Security and Development, 4:3 (2004) pp.313-334 e-journals Jan Selby, ,,The Geopolitics of Water in the Middle East: fantasies and realties, Third World Quarterly, 26:2 (2005) pp.329-349 e-journals

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*Michael Sheehan, ,,Environmental Security in International Security: An Analytical Survey (London: Lynne Rienner, 2005) JZ5588 SHE Doug Stokes, ,,Blood for Oil? Global capital, counter-insurgency and the dual logic of American energy security, Review of International Studies, 33 (2007) pp.245-264 e-journals Doug Stokes and Sam Raphael, ,,Energy Security in Alan Collins (Ed.), Contemporary Security Studies, 2nd edition (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009) JZ5588 CON Week 23 Mock Exam The unit will include a 1-hour mock exam session in Week 23. Further details of this will be circulated to student in due course.. Week 24 Revision Seminar This seminar provides an opportunity to review and discuss the key themes and issues covered in the unit, and a chance to go over specific topics again prior to the unit exam. There is no set reading for this week.

21

APPENDIX General School Regulations

Attendance at classes The School considers seminars to be a vital part of your learning experience. Not only do they provide you with an opportunity to explore the weekly topic in more depth, they provide contact with other students on your degree programme. It is recognised that students will occasionally miss classes due to ill health or unforeseen circumstances. In this case, you must inform your seminar tutor in advance and forward a self-certification and/or medical evidence to [email protected], so your absence can be recorded on the register. It is important that all absences are explained and recorded for progress monitoring purposes. However, even where medical evidence is provided to explain absences, you may not be considered to have completed the unit without satisfactory attendance. The following process will be followed in SPAIS for two or more missed seminars: · If you miss any two seminars, you will be contacted by the Progress Tutor. · If you miss any four seminars, you will be contacted by the Undergraduate Director. You will be asked to explain your non-attendance and you will be expected to produce evidence. If you have missed these seminars without sufficient reason, you may be required to produce supplementary written work for credit purposes. This means you may be jeopardising your progression to the next year of study if you miss seminars without good reason. · If you miss any five seminars, this will automatically be discussed at the School Progress Committee and normally a recommendation will be made to Faculty Progress to withhold credit points for the unit. Submission of coursework Please note you will be required to submit coursework electronically using Blackboard, the University of Bristols Online Learning Environment. Without an extension late work is subject to penalties. The penalty is calculated as follows: Marks will be reduced by 10 for a delay of up to 24 hours, with a further 5-mark penalty for every subsequent delay of 24 hours (or part of). If the essay remains unsubmitted one week after the deadline, a mark of zero is recorded. You will still need to complete the essay in order to gain credit points. The 24 hour period runs from the deadline for submission, and Saturday, Sunday and bank holidays are included in the calculation. Please note that if your essay is 1 minute late, it will be penalised. Computer problems are not a reason for late submission. Extensions Extensions will only be granted by the Progress Tutor and are not automatic. Requests should be made directly to Sadie Drummond at least 3 days before the deadline by completing the extension request form and submitting it to Sadies pigeon hole or posting it to her, email requests will not be accepted. However, if for some unforeseen reason you cannot submit the request 3 days in advance, please contact the Progress Tutor to discuss. Extensions will only be allowed in exceptional circumstances and they should be accompanied by supporting documentation, for example medical certificates. The self certification and medical certificate forms can be found at: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/fssl/current-students/forms/index.html. Marks/Feedback Classifactory marks (those that contribute to your final degree classification) are subject to final adjudication by the External Examiner. In addition to an overall mark, students will receive feedback on their assessed work and may contact unit tutors for further comments. 22

Presentation of written work Coursework and assessed essays must be word-processed. As a guide, use a clear, easy-to-read font such as Arial or Times New Roman, in at least 11pt. You may double ­space or single-space your essays as you prefer. Your tutor may also have a preference: if they do they will let you know. In the end, though the final choice is yours. Single-spacing will save a huge amount of paper each year. Length Each piece of coursework must conform to the length requirements (word count) listed in the unit guide. Work that does not conform to length requirements will be subject to penalties. These will be applied to over-length essays in the following way: Five marks will be deducted for every 100 words or part thereof over the word limit. Hence, an essay that is 1 word over the word limit will be penalised 5 marks. Word Count The word count includes all text, numbers, Harvard referencing in the body of the text and direct quotes but excludes, the title, candidate number, footnotes/endnotes and bibliography, tables, maps, diagrams and appendices. Appendices are only for reproducing documents, not for additional text written by you. Footnotes and endnotes should contain minimal amounts of text. This means the citation and, at most, one line of additional explanation per page only. For essays containing more than this the footnotes will be included in the word count and may mean that your work is penalised for being overlength. Referencing Where sources are used they must be cited and the referencing style employed by the School is the Harvard referencing system. Most types of essay must contain a bibliography and reference the material used. Inadequate referencing will result in marks being deducted. See the Study Skills Guide for where to get help with referencing and how bad academic practice and plagiarism is dealt with. Fails and resits If you fail an essay or exam you will normally be required to resubmit or resit. Please note that for students registering in 2011, resubmissions/resits are capped at 40. For students registered before then, resubmissions/resits are marked on a pass/fail basis and are for credit purposes only ­ the original mark will stand. Course packs Course packs are provided for all units in either paper or electronic form. Course packs are a collection of photocopies of articles or chapters of relevance to the unit which may be referred to in the unit guide as required reading for a seminar. They will be available for you to collect or download from the end of registration week. The paper copies of course packs are heavily subsidized by the School and only cost £5. Instructions on how to access electronic course packs will be explained in unit outlines where relevant. You may also access the reading by traditional means. For further information, students should consult the SPAIS UG Handbook (available on the SPAIS Undergraduate Administration site on Blackboard).

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Instructions for the Submission of Essays

The School does not accept submission of essays in paper form. All coursework and assessed essay submissions must be done electronically via Blackboard. This is for three reasons. Firstly, it enables an efficient system of receipting, so both the student and the School have a record of exactly when an essay was submitted. Secondly, it enables the School to safeguard against plagiarism. Finally, it enables the School to systematically check the length of submitted essays. All work submitted to the School is routinely checked by plagiarism detection software and is subject to standard policies regarding essay length and late submission. The header of an essay submitted to the School should contain the information below: Candidate Number e.g. 12345 - This is to ensure anonymity during the marking of your work, so your name must not appear anywhere on your essay! Unit e.g. POLI11101 Seminar Tutor e.g. Dr D. Butt Word Count .e.g. 1,958 words Please ensure that the Essay Title is on the first page and all pages are numbered. You are only allowed to submit one file to Blackboard (single file upload), so ensure that all parts of your work ­ references, bibliography etc ­ are included in one single document. Blackboard will accept a variety of file formats, but the School can only accept work submitted in .rtf (Rich Text Format) or .doc/.docx (Word Document) format. If you use another word processing package, please ensure you save in a compatible format. By submitting your essay, you are confirming that you have read the regulations on plagiarism and confirm that the submission is not plagiarised. You also confirm that the word count stated on the essay is an accurate statement of essay length.

Submission via Blackboard All submission of essays occurs through the ,,SPAIS Undergraduate Administration site and not individual units. Follow the instructions below to submit your essay: 1. Log on to Blackboard and select the ,,SPAIS Undergraduate Administration unit. 2. Click on the "Essay Submissions" option on the left hand menu. You should now see a list of the Units that you are taking. 3. Select the correct unit, and a list of the required work for the unit is displayed. 4. Select ,,view/complete for the appropriate piece of work. It is your responsibility to ensure that you have selected both the correct unit and the correct piece of work. 5. The screen will display ,,single file upload and your name. Enter the unit code as a submission title, and then select the file that you wish to upload by clicking the ,,browse button. Click on the ,,upload button at the bottom. 6. You will then be shown the essay to be submitted. Check that you have selected the correct essay and click the ,,Submit button. Warning: this step must be completed or the submission is not complete. 7. You will be informed of a successful submission. A digital receipt is displayed on screen and a copy sent to your email address for your records.

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Confirmation of successful submission

If you experience problems submitting your essay through Blackboard, please email it to the relevant Undergraduate Student Administrator before the 11am deadline. How do I know that my essay has been submitted? If you click on the assessment again (steps 1-4), then you will see the title and submission date of the essay you have submitted. If you click on submit, you will not be able to submit again. This table also displays the date of submission. If you click on the title of the essay, it will open in a new window and you can also see what time the essay was submitted.

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