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qimia 7

maswavleblis wigni

wignebis seria: "bunebismetyveleba 7" trimestruli swavlebisTvis. seriis nawilebi: fizika 7 (48 akad. saaTi), qimia 7 (48 akad. saaTi), bilogia 7 (48 akad. saaTi).

3

sarCevi

gamoyenebuli simboloebi da miniSnebebi ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 Sesavali ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 I. erovnuli saswavlo gegma I.1.sabunebismetyvelo ganaTlebis mniSvneloba ------------------------------------------------------------I.2.sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis swavlebis mizani da amocanebi ----------------------------------I.3.sabaziso skolis safexuris aRwera (VII- IX klasebi) ----------------------------------------------------I.4.specifikuri unar-Cvevebi------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I.5. mimarTulebebi -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I.6. sabunebismetyvelo sagnebis swavlebis organizacia safexurebis mixedviT ---------------------I.7. saswavlo gegmis struqtura --------------------------------------------------------------------------------I.8. VII klasis bunebismetyvelebis standarti (gardamavali) 2006-2012 saswavlo wlebisTvis -------II. moswavlis wignis struqtura III. saxelmZRvanelos Sesatyvisoba erovnul saswavlo gegmasTan IV. meToduri miTiTebebi IV.1. moswavleze orientirebuli, aqtiuri swavleba -------------------------------------------------------IV.2. gakveTilis struqtura ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.3. SekiTxvaTa saxeebi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.4. moswavleTa organizeba ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.5. gonebrivi ieriSi--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.6. diskusia ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.7. proeqti -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.8. siuJeturi TamaSebi ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.9. dausrulebeli ambavi -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.10. T diagrama --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.11. TamaSebi -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.12. konvertebi --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.13. vicodi, viswavle, minda vicode -------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.14. "kubi" --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------V. Sefasebis kriteriumebi V.1. saskolo Sefasebis sistemis SemuSavebisas gasaTvaliswinebeli aucilebeli midgomebi ------V.2.niSnebis weris sistema ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------V.3. Sefasebis kriteriumebi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------V.4.aqtivobis Sefasebis nimuSebi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------VI. samodelo gakveTilebi qimia-mecniereba bunebis Sesaxeb (gakv: I.1.) ------------------------------------------------------------------masis mudmivobis kanoni (gakv: II.6.) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------Semajamebeli wera III (gakv: IV.6.) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Jangbadi bunebaSi (gakv: V.2.) -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------proeqti "wyali sicocxlea" (gakv: VI.1) -----------------------------------------------------------------------wylis Sedgeniloba da Tvisebebi (gakv: VI.2.) ----------------------------------------------------------------qimiis swavlebis Semajamebeli gakveTili -------------------------------------------------------------------VII. savarjiSoebis da testebis pasuxebi I Tavi: qimia - mecniereba bunebis Sesaxeb 1.1 qimia - mecniereba bunebis Sesaxeb --------------------------------------------------------------------I.2. nivTiereba da misi Tvisebebi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------I.3. sufTa nivTiereba da narevi ---------------------------------------------------------------------------I.4. narevis komponentebad dayofa -------------------------------------------------------------------------8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 11 13 14 18 18 18 19 20 21 22 23 23 23 23 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 28 29 29 33 35 36 37 39 41 43

43 44 46 47

4

I.5. usafrTxoebis wesebi da niSnebi ------------------------------------------------------------------------I.6. kolokviumi I Tavis bolos ------------------------------------------------------------------------------savarjiSoebi I Tavis bolos - pasuxebi ---------------------------------------------------------------testi I Tavis bolos - pasuxebi ------------------------------------------------------------------------II Tavi: atomi - samyaros saSeni masala II.1. molekula da atomi -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II.2. atomis aRnagoba ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II.3.qimiuri movlenebi ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------II.4. qimiuri reaqciis niSnebi da pirobebi ------------------------------------------------------------------II.5. molekulis cvlileba -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------II.6. masis mudmivobis kanoni ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------II.7. kolokviumi II Tavis bolos -----------------------------------------------------------------------------savarjiSoebi II Tavis bolos - pasuxebi --------------------------------------------------------------testi II Tavis bolos - pasuxebi -----------------------------------------------------------------------Semajamebeli wera I --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------III Tavi: qimiis ena III.1. elementi ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------III.2. martivi nivTiereba ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------III.3. metalebi da arametalebi -----------------------------------------------------------------------------III.4. rTuli nivTiereba -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------III.5. valentoba -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------III.6. formulis Sedgena valentobiT --------------------------------------------------------------------III.7. qimiuri gantoleba ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------III.8. elementebi Cvens garSemo ----------------------------------------------------------------------------III.9. kolokviumi III Tavis bolos ---------------------------------------------------------------------------savarjiSoebi III Tavis bolos - pasuxebi ------------------------------------------------------------testi III Tavis bolos - pasuxebi --------------------------------------------------------------------Semajamebeli wera II ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV Tavi: qimiuri gamoTvlebi IV.1. fardobiTi atomuri, molekuluri masa ---------------------------------------------------------------IV.2.masuri Tanafardoba, masuri wili -----------------------------------------------------------------IV.3. nivTierebis raodenoba ------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.4. moluri masa ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------IV.5. kolokviumi IV Tavis bolos -------------------------------------------------------------------------savarjiSoebi IV Tavis bolos - pasuxebi -----------------------------------------------------------testi IV Tavis bolos - pasuxebi --------------------------------------------------------------------Semajamebeli wera III ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------V Tavi: haeri V.1. haeri - airTa narevi -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------V.2. Jangbadi bunebaSi -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------V.3. wva.Jangva. Aali ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------V.4. haeris dacva. fotosinTezi --------------------------------------------------------------------------V.5. kolokviumi V Tavis bolos -------------------------------------------------------------------------savarjiSoebi V Tavis bolos - pasuxebi -----------------------------------------------------------testi V Tavis bolos - pasuxebi --------------------------------------------------------------------VI Tavi: wyali VI.1. wyali bunebaSi. wylis gasufTaveba ----------------------------------------------------------------VI.2. wylis Sedgeniloba da Tvisebebi -------------------------------------------------------------------VI.3.wyali-gamxsneli. xsnari -------------------------------------------------------------------------------VI.4. xsnadoba -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VI.5. kolokviumi VI Tavis bolos ------___------------------------------------------------------------savarjiSoebi VI Tavis bolos - pasuxebi -----------------------------------------------------------testi VI Tavis bolos - pasuxebi --------------------------------------------------------------------Semajamebeli wera IV -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

48 49 49 50

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 57 57 57

58 59 60 61 62 63 63 64 65 65 67 67

67 68 69 70 71 71 73 73

74 74 75 76 77 77 79

79 82 82 83 84 84 85 85

5

gamoyenebuli simboloebi da aRniSvnebi

Sesavali

Tavis dasaxeleba

I.1

gakv. I-1

qveTavis nomeri

gakveTilis nomeri

Sedegi

erovnul saswavlo gegmaSi mocemuli standartiT dadgenili Sedegi, romelic gviCvenebs wlis bolos misaRwev saboloo mizans.

indikatori

Sedegis Sesabamisi indikatori, romelic dagexmarebaT gamoavlinoT, miRweulia Tu ara Sedegi

mizani

konkretuli gakveTilis specifikuri mizani

mizani

samodelo gakveTilebSi gamoyenebuli konkretuli aqtivobis mizani

mimdinareoba

samodelo gakveTilebSi gamoyenebuli konkretuli aqtivobis mimdinareoba

Sejameba

samodelo gakveTilebSi gamoyenebuli konkretuli aqtivobis Sejameba

damatebiTi informacia

ia ac nd me ko re

rekomendaciebi pedagogebisTvis zogierTi savarjiSos Sesasruleblad

1

pasuxebi martiv eqsperimentebze

saSinao davaleba

pasuxebi savarjiSoebze gakveTilis bolos

6

Sesavali

avtorebi da gamomcemloba "buneba printi" madlobas gixdiT Cveni saxelmZRvanelos arCevisTvis. moswavlis wigni Sedgenilia erovnuli saswavlo gegmis moTxovnebis Sesabamisad da mTlianad pasuxobs VII klasis bunebismetyvelebis standarts. saxelmZRvanelo iTvaliswinebs kavSirebs sagnebs Soris. gakveTilebi aqtiuri swavlebis meTodikiT aris Seqmnili, rac sagakveTilo procesSi moswavleebis monawileobas moiTxovs. Cven maqsimalurad SevecadeT, rom gakveTilebi moswavlisTvis saintereso da mravalferovani iyos, maswavleblisTvis ki informaciis gadacemis forma - martivi da moxerxebuli. saswavlo masala ZiriTad teqstTan erTad mimarTulebis mimcemi saxaliso savarjiSoebiT da samotivacio kiTxvebiT aris warmodgenili. aseTi kiTxvebi moswavles mianiSnebs, Tu raze iqneba saubari SemdgomSi da mas axali masalis ganxilvisTvis Seamzadebs. sasurvelia, winaswar gaecnoT yovel Semdgom gakveTils. zogierT SemTxvevaSi, SeiZleba mizanSewonilad miiCnioT ama Tu im savarjiSos winaswar Sesruleba. saxelmZRvanelos SemuSavebisas aseve maqsimalurad SevecadeT, gagveTvaliswinebina skolebSi arsebuli materialur-teqnikuri bazis mdgomareoba _ savarjiSoebisTvis, eqsperimentebisTvis da praqtikuli samuSaoebisTvis saWiro masalis da mowyobilobebis umravlesoba TqvenTvis da moswavleTaTvis advilad xelmisawvdomia. gamomcemloba "buneba printi" swavlebis procesSi mxardaWeras da daxmarebas gTavazobT _ skolebs, sadac Cveni saxelmZRvaneloTi moxdeba swavleba, saCuqrad gadavcemT bunebismetyvelebis sxvadasxva Temebze dabeWdil TvalsaCinoebebs (plakatebi), klasgareSe sakiTxav Tematur wignebs biblioTekebisTvis, eqsperimentebisTvis saWiro zogierT masalas da erTwlian xelmoweras sabunebismetyvelo-SemecnebiT Jurnalze. gTxovT, mogvawodoT Tqveni SeniSvnebi, komentarebi da rCevebi, rac dagvexmareba rogorc am wignis, aseve Semdegi klasebis bunebismetyvelebis saxelmZRvaneloebis xarisxis gaumjobesebaSi.

gisurvebT warmatebebs!

7

I. erovnuli saswavlo gegma

I.1 sabunebismetyvelo ganaTlebis mniSvneloba

Tanamedrove zogadsaganmanaTleblo standarti gulisxmobs moswavlis aRWurvas im codniTa da unarCvevebiT, romlebic mas saSualebas miscems, alRo auRos kacobriobis swraf progress, gamoiyenos Tanamedrove mecnierebis miRwevebi, gaxdes sazogadoebis srulfasovani wevri. codnis pasiuri mimRebidan moswavle aqtiur Semmecneblad unda Camoyalibdes, romelic SeZlebs miRebuli codnis rogorc profesiuli warmatebisaTvis, aseve sazogadoebis sasikeTod gamoyenebas. imisaTvis, rom sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis swavlebam aRniSnuli kriteriumebi daakmayofilos, saWiroa moswavles: gauCndes interesi garemomcveli samyaros kvlevis, siaxleTa aRmoCenisa da Secnobis mimarT; ganuviTardes bunebismetyvelisaTvis saWiro elementaruli kvleva-ZiebiTi da maTi sxvadasxva situaciaSi gamoyenebis unar-Cvevebi; gacnobierebuli hqondes samyaroSi mimdinare procesebis erTianoba; Camouyalibdes garemomcvel samyaroze zrunvis unar-Cvevebi; gamoumuSavdes damoukidebeli, kritikuli azrovnebis da komunikaciis unari; ganuviTardes TviTSefasebis da TviTkontrolis, sxvaTa azris dafasebis da gaziarebis unari, gansazRvros sakuTari adgili sazogadoebaSi; mieces jansaRi da usafrTxo cxovrebis wesis dauflebis SesaZlebloba; gacnobierebuli hqondes mecnierebis roli da adamianTa TanamSromlobis aucilebloba kacobriobis progresisaTvis. bunebismetyvelebis swavlebisas saWiroa yuradRebis gamaxvileba ganwyoba-damokidebulebebisa da unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebaze, kvleva-Ziebasa da codnis gamoyenebaze. es aris rogorc Tanamedrove pedagogiuri meTodikis, ise qarTuli klasikuri didaqtikis moTxovnac. iakob gogebaSvilis Tanaxmad, bunebis Seswavlisa umTavresi mizani aris "gauxsnas ymawvils TanagrZnoba bunebisa, Seayvaros misi gamoZieba da misi ganxilva" ("bunebis kari", I gamocemis winasityvaoba).

I.2

sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis swavlebis mizani da amocanebi

mizani

sabunebismetyvelo disciplinebis swavlebis mizania moswavle mecnierebis safuZvlebs aziaros da ganuviTaros kvlevis unar-Cvevebi, rac mas saSualebas miscems, Seicnos da gaiTavisos samyaro, CaerTos sazogadoebrivi saqmianobis sxvadasxva sferoSi, igrZnos pasuxismgebloba sakuTari Tavis, sazogadoebisa da garemos mimarT.

amocanebi

codna

- cocxali samyaro da sasicocxlo procesebi - samyaroSi mimdinare fizikuri da qimiuri procesebi - dedamiwa da garesamyaro - garemos mdgradi ganviTarebis principebi.

unar-Cvevebi

- dakvirveba, aRwera - aRricxva - klasifikacia - gazomva/sidideebis gamoyeneba - komunikacia - ganWvreta/hipoTezis gamoTqma - dagegmva - monacemebis interpretacia - cdis Catareba - modelis Seqmna da gamoyeneba.

damokidebuleba

- interesi sabunebismetyvelo disciplinebis mimarT - sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebis mniSvnelobis gaazreba - interesi mecnieruli kvlevisa da siaxleebis mimarT - TanamSromlobis survili - garemoze zrunva da pasuxismgebloba - usafrTxo cxovrebis wesis dacvis mniSvnelobis gaazreba.

8

I.3

sabaziso skolis safexuris aRwera (VII- IX klasebi)

swavlebis am safexurze moswavle iRrmavebs SemecnebisaTvis saWiro unar-Cvevebs. moswavle movlenebis garegnuli aRweridan movlenaTa Aarsis wvdomaze gadadis, ZiriTadi fizikuri da qimiuri kanonebis SecnobiT. moswavle iwyebs empiriuli gziT samyaros aRqmas, SemoqmedebiTad azrovnebas, cdilobs samyaroSi adamianis adgilisa da mniSvnelobis gansazRvras. sabazo safexurze moswavle iviTarebs specifikur unar-Cvevebs, romelTagan prioritetulia: _ kvlevis zogierTi Tanamedrove meTodis gamoyeneba; _ samecniero literaturis moZieba da gamoyeneba; _ eqsperimentis dagegmva da warmarTva, monacemTa Segroveba-damuSaveba; _ kritikuli analizi, daskvnebis gamotana; _ prezentacia (grafikebis, diagramebis, modelis Seqmna).

I.4

specifikuri unar-Cvevebi

nebismieri sagnis aTviseba gacilebiT ufro efeqturad xdeba im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac moswavle aqtiurad aris Cabmuli Sesaswavli sakiTxis kvleva-ZiebaSi da cnobismoyvareobas aramxolod mza masalis aTvisebiT, aramed informaciis moZiebis, TvalsaCinoebebze muSaobis da interaqtiuli swavlebis procesSi Cabmis gziT ikmayofilebs. amitom sabunebismetyvelo sagnebis swavlebisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba eqceva specifikuri unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebas. sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebebi ar aris mxolod aRwerilobiTi xasiaTis, isini aucileblad gulisxmoben sasicocxlo procesebis, fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis kvlevis gziT Seswavlas. bunebismetyvelebis dauflebisaTvis aucilebelia im specifikuri unar-Cvevebis gamomuSaveba, romlebic garemos kvlevas ukavSirdeba. am unar-Cvevebis CamonaTvali da ganmarteba mocemulia cxrilSi: kvlevis unar-Cvevebi dakvirveba, aRwera aRricxva klasifikacia gazomva/sidideebis gamoyeneba ganmarteba SegrZnebis organoebis da martivi xelsawyoebis saSualebiT obieqtebis da movlenebis maxasiaTeblebis gansazRvra dakvirvebis Sedegis Cawera, Caxatva, sxv. obieqtebis da movlenebis dajgufeba maTi maxasiaTeblebis mixedviT - raodenobrivi aRwera Sesabamisi sazomi erTeulebis gamoyenebiT - sivrciTi da droiTi urTierTobebis gansazRvra - cvladi maxasiaTeblebis gamovlena weriTi da zepiri metyvelebis, grafikebis, cxrilebis, diagramebis da prezentaciis sxva saSualebaTa (maT Soris teqnologiaze damyarebuli) gamoyeneba

komunikacia

ganWvreta/hipoTezis gamoTqma mosalodneli Sedegebis Taobaze varaudis gamoTqma dagegmva cdis Catareba qmedebebis Tanmimdevrobis gansazRvra meTodikis SerCeva da eqsperimentuli monacemebis Segroveba

monacemebis interpretacia sakuTari an sxvis mier miRebuli monacemebis analizi, ganzogadeba modelis Seqmna/gamoyeneba movlenis modelireba

zemoaRniSnuli unar-Cvevebi etapobrivad viTardeba swavlebis samive safexurze, moswavlis gonebrivi da fizikuri SesaZleblobebis gaTvaliswinebiT. sabazo skolis safexurze moswavle: svams SekiTxvebs obieqtebis da movlenebis Sesaxeb maTi gamokvlevis mizniT; agrovebs monacemebs uSualo dakvirvebiT, cdebis saSualebiT da/an sxvadasxva informaciuli wyaroebidan; iyenebs xelsawyoebs monacemebis mosapoveblad da/an dakvirvebis procesis gasaumjobeseblad; warmoadgens monacemebs prezentaciis mravalgvari saSualebebiT (cxrilebi, grafikebi, maTematikuri da fizikuri modelebi).

9

I.5

mimarTulebebi

bunebismetyvelebis saskolo kursis Sinaarsi dayofilia mimarTulebebad. TiToeuli maTgani warmoaCens, Tu raze unda gamaxvildes yuradReba swavlebis ama Tu im safexurze. mimarTulebebi erTmaneTTan mWidro kavSirSia da samyaros erTianobis Secnobas emsaxureba. sabazo skolaSi sagani "bunebismetyveleba'' dayofilia sam mimarTulebad: 1. cocxali samyaro (biologiis safuZvlebi) 2. fizikuri movlenebi (fizikis safuZvlebi) 3. qimiuri movlenebi (qimiis safuZvlebi)

qimiuri movlenebis mimarTulebis (sabazo skola) swavlebis ZiriTadi mizania:

moswavleebi Caswvdnen qimiis ZiriTadi kanonebis arss, gaerkvnen atomur-molekulur moZRvrebaSi, SeZlon qimiur reaqciaTa Tvisebrivi da raodenobrivi daxasiaTeba, gaecnon qimiur elementTa periodul sistemas, misi Seqmnis istorias, warmodgena hqondeT qimiur bmebze, araorganul da organul naerTebsa da maT praqtikul gamoyenebaze. am safexurze moswavleebi kvlevisa da komunikaciis aucilebel unar-Cvevebs unda daeuflon. maT unda SeZlon Seswavlili Teoriuli sakiTxebis praqtikuli gamoyeneba: eqsperimentis damoukideblad Catareba, monacemebis Segroveba, analizi da saTanado daskvnebis gamotana. maT aseve unda SeZlon sakuTari monacemebisa da daskvnebis sazogadoebisTvis wardgena prezentaciis sxvadasxva saSualebis gamoyenebiT. moswavleebs TandaTan unda gamoumuSavdeT kritikuli azrovnebis unari.

I.6

sabunebismetyvelo sagnebis swavlebis organizacia safexurebis mixedviT

- iswavleba integrirebuli sagani ,,bunebismetyveleba", romelic aerTianebs codnas geografiis, astronomiis, biologiis, fizikis, qimiis da samoqalaqo aRzrdis sferoebidan.

dawyebiT skolaSi

sabazo skolaSi

- sagani "bunebismetyveleba" ori alternatiuli sqemiT iswavleba: a. - fizikis, qimiis, biologiis safuZvlebis integrirebuli kursi; b. - trimestruli kursi: TiTo trimestrSi - TiTo disciplina : fizika, qimia, biologia. - iswavleba sagnebi: "fizika", "qimia", "biologia". meaTe klasSi es sagnebi iswavleba trimestruli principiT (TiTo trimestrSi - TiTo disciplina).

saSualo skolaSi

XI da XII klasebSi "fizika", "qimia", "biologia" arCeviTi sagnebis jgufSi Sedis da erTwliani intensiuri kursis saxiT iswavleba.

I.7

saswavlo gegmis struqtura

bunebismetyvelebis sagnobriv programaSi aRwerilia is savaldebulo moTxovnebi, romlebsac unda akmayofilebdes yoveli moswavle TiToeuli klasis dasrulebis Semdeg. es moTxovnebi, TiToeuli mimarTulebisaTvis Sedegebisa da indikatorebis saxiTaa Camoyalibebuli.

Sedegi

gviCvenebs, Tu ra unda SeeZlos moswavles swavlis mocemuli etapis (klasis) dasrulebis Semdeg.

indikatori aris debuleba im codnisa da unar-Cvevebis demonstrirebis Sesaxeb, romlebic Camoyalibebulia Sesabamis SedegSi. indikatoris ZiriTadi daniSnulebaa gamoavlinos, miRweulia Tu ara Sedegi. indikatoindikatori ri orientirebulia unar-Cvevebze da aqtivobis enazea Camoyalibebuli. SedegTan dakavSirebuli indikatorebis erToblioba faravs Sedegs da, amave dros, TiToeuli maTgani Sedegs romelime kuTxiT warmoaCens.

10

I.8

VII klasis bunebismetyvelebis standarti (gardamavali) 2006-2012 saswavlo wlebisTvis

VII klasis bunebismetyvelebis standarti (gardamavali) gaTvaliswinebulia im moswavleTaTvis, vinc dawyebiT safexurze 1997 wlis programis moTxovnebis mixedviT swavlobda. 1997 wlis programiT III_V klasebSi iswavleba sagani "buneba", xolo VI klasSi sabunebismetyvelo disciplinebi SemoTavazebulia rogorc integrirebul sagnad, ise calke disciplinebad: "botanika" da "geografia". saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros informatikis mTavari centris gamokvlevebma gamoavlina, rom me-6 klasebSi ZiriTadad "botanika" da"geografia" iswavleba es realoba, saganmanaTleblo procesis uwyvetobis SenarCunebis mizniT, gaTvaliswinebulia warmodgenil standartSi. tandartSi mocemuli yvela Sedegi miRwevadia TiToeuli moswavlisaTvis. sxva saqmea, rom yvela moswavle, sakuTari SesaZlelobidan gamomdinare, sxvadasxva xarisxiT miaRwevs am Sedegs.

wlis bolos misaRwevi Sedegebi da maTi indikatorebi

mimarTuleba: qimiuri movlenebi (qimia), VII klasi

Sedegi 1: moswavle aRwers nivTierebaTa Tvisebebs da msjelobs maTi cvlilebebis Sesaxeb

indikatori: Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle: - asaxelebs yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi gamoyenebul nivTierebebs da msjelobs maTi Tvisebebis Sesaxeb; - akvirdeba da adarebs nivTierebebs Tvisebebis mixedviT (mag. suni, bzinvareba, wva, agregatuli mdgomareoba). Sedegebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT, aanalizebs da gamoyofs Tvisebebs, romlebic am nivTierebebis gamoyenebas ganapirobebs; - agrovebs informacias organizmebisTvis mniSvnelovani nivTierebebis (mag. Jangbadi, wyali, naxSirorJangi) Sesaxeb da msjelobs maT daniSnulebaze; - atarebs cdebs nivTierebebis fizikuri da qimiuri cvlilebebis (mag.: agregatuli mdgomareobis Secvla, nivTierebis gaxsna, airis gamoyofa, formis Secvla) gamosakvlevad da msjelobs am cvlilebebis gamomwvev mizezebze (mag.: gacxeleba, Sereva, dawva, meqanikuri zemoqmedeba); - icavs qimiur nivTierebebis ganTavsebis, maTTan muSaobis usafrTxoebis wesebs, cnobs gamafrTxilebel niSnebs (mag. advilaalebadi, feTqebadi) qimiuri reaqtivis WurWlis etiketze.

Sedegi 2: moswavle ganasxvavebs nivTierebas da narevs, flobs narevis komponentebad

dayofis meTodebs

indikatori: Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle: - cdebis safuZvelze adarebs nivTierebisa da narevis Tvisebebs., aanalizebs monacemebs da Sedegebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT, mohyavs bunebrivi narevebis magaliTebi; - amzadebs erTgvarovan da araerTgvarovan narevebs (mag., sufris marilis wyalxsnari, carcis fxvnilisa da wylis narevi), adarebs maT da msjelobs maT Soris gansxvavebaze; - irCevs da iyenebs Sesabamis meTodebs (mag. amoSroba, gacra, gamoxda, gafiltvra, dawdoma) sxvadasxva narevis komponentebad dasayofad; - CamoTvlis yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi narevebis gamoyenebis magaliTebs.

11

Sedegi 3: moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs

indikatori: Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle: - cdis procesSi akvirdeba fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis garegnul niSnebs, monacemebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT da msjelobs maT Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb; - qmnis nivTierebis umciresi nawilakebis /molekula, atomi/ modelebs da iyenebs maT martivi da rTuli nivTierebebis modelebis konstruirebisTvis; - CamoTvlis fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis magaliTebs, maTi aRwerisas iyenebs Sesabamis terminologias, qimiur movlenebs gamosaxavs sqematurad (mag. naxSirbadi + Jangbadi = naxSirorJangi); - adeqvaturad iyenebs qimiuri elementebis simboloebs, atomTa valentobas misTvis cnobili martivi da rTuli nivTierebebis formulebis Casawerad, awarmoebs Sesabamis gamoTvlebs; - adarebs qimiur elementsa da martiv nivTierebas da msjelobs maT Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb; - iyenebs nivTierebaTa qimiur formulebs, nivTierebis masis mudmivobis kanons da qimiuri gantolebiT gamosaxavs bunebaSi mimdinare qimiur movlenebs (mag. ozonis daSla, rkinis daJangva).

Sedegi 4: moswavle axasiaTebs haers

indikatori: Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle: - asaxelebs da Sesabamisi formulebiT gamosaxavs haeris komponentebs, msjelobs organizmebisaTvis haeris zogierTi komponentis (Jangbadi, naxSirorJangi, azoti) mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb; - iyenebs Sesabamis meTods da adgens haerSi Jangbadis moculobiT wils; - CamoTvlis wvisa da Jangvis magaliTebs yoveldRiuri cxovrebidan da msjelobs maT xelSemwyob faqtorebze; - agrovebs informacias haeris dabinZurebis mizezebisa da maTi Tavidan acilebis saSualebebis Sesaxeb, akeTebs prezentacias.

Sedegi 5: moswavle aRwers wylis Tvisebebs, msjelobs xsnarebis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb

indikatori: Sedegi TvalsaCinoa, Tu moswavle: - atarebs cdebs wylis fizikuri da qimiuri Tvisebebis gamosakvlevad, monacemebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT; - agrovebs wylis nimuSebs, iyenebs Sesabamis meTodebs am nimuSebis gasawmendad; - qmnis wyalsawmend sadgurebSi sasmeli wylis gasufTavebis sqemas; - CamoTvlis wylis bunebrivi gafiltvris magaliTebs; - agrovebs informacias bunebrivi wylis dabinZurebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb, gamoTqvams varauds wylis dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis saSualebebze; - CamoTvlis xsnarebis magaliTebs da msjelobs maTi mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb bunebasa da adamianis cxovrebaSi; - gegmavs da atarebs cdas da adgens nivTierebaTa xsnadobaze moqmed faqtorebs (mag. temperatura, gamxsnelisa da gaxsnili nivTierebis raoba da masa, nawilakTa zoma, moreva). Sedegebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT.

12

II. moswavlis wignis struqtura da misi Semadgeneli nawilebi

sarCevi

wignis dasawyisSi mocemulia Tavebis sarCevi. TiToeul Tavs misTvis damaxasiaTebeli feri aqvs, amitom saWiro Tavis feris mixedviT migneba daxurul wignSic advilia. yoveli Tavis dasawyisSi ki mocemulia masSi Semavali gakveTilebisa da sakiTxebis sarCevi. saxelmZRvaneloSi ZiriTadi Temebi Tavebad aris warmodgenili. yoveli Tavi iwyeba romauli nomriT da saTauriT Tematur fotosTan erTad. Zalian mokledaa aRwerili, Tu raze iqneba saubari am TavSi. Sesabamisi Tavis dasaxeleba aseve wignis yovel luw gverdze gverdis nomerTan erTad aris mocemuli. kent gverdebze _ mxolod gverdis nomeria miTiTebuli. Tavi xSirad maprovocirebeli SekiTxviT iwyeba, rac gansakuTrebul interess aRZravs da klass axali sakiTxis ganxilvisTvis Seamzadebs. yovel Tavs sakuTari saidentifikacio feri aqvs, rac moswavles ama Tu im Tavis swrafad moZebnas gauadvilebs. TiToeuli Tavi ramdenime gakveTilisgan Sedgeba. gakveTilSi Semavali sakiTxebi erTmaneTisgan gamoyofili da dasaTaurebulia. yoveli gakveTilis dasawyisSi, zeda marcxena kuTxeSi Sesabamisi Tavis da gakveTilis nomeri da saTauria mocemuli.

Tavi

gakveTili

axali termini axali termini teqstSi muqi SriftiTaa gamoyofili. praqtikuli eqsperimenti praqtikuli samuSao teqstidan mwvane feris CarCoTia gamoyofili. mwvane fonze mocemulia martivi eqsperimentebi, mimarTulebis mimcemi kiTxvebi, SefasebiTi da raodenobrivi amocanebi. bevri maTgani moswavlis mier sakuTari mosazrebis dafiqsirebas emsaxureba, sxvebi - hipoTezis Camoyalibebis an msjelobis unaris ganviTarebas. aseTive unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebas emsaxureba savarjiSoebSi da kolokviumSi mocemuli zogierTi davalebac. gakveTilis Semajamebeli ZiriTadi informacia mocemulia gakveTilis bolos, vardisfer fonze. yoveli gakveTilis bolos mocemulia savarjiSoebi, romlebic SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT rogorc gakveTilis msvlelobisas, aseve saSinao davalebad. damatebiTi saintereso faqtebi da Tematuri masala ZiriTadi teqstidan gamoyofilia.

reziume

savarjiSo

"iciT Tu ara, rom . . . "

ilustraciebi yovel axal gakveTilSi gamoyenebuli ilustraciebis (fotoebi, naxatebi, grafikebi, cxrilebi) danomrva 1-dan iwyeba. ilustraciis Sesabamisi Teoriuli masala teqstSi advilad iZebneba - masSi Sesabamisi nomeri muqi SriftiT aris gamoyofili. mag.: nax. 3. biografia cisfer fonze mocemulia im cnobili mecnierebis mokle biografiebi, romlebmac gansakuTrebuli wvlili Seitanes mecnierebis ama Tu im dargis ganviTarebaSi. yoveli Tavis bolos, kolokviumSi (Tavis Semajamebeli gakveTili) warmodgenilia savarjiSoebis da testebis krebuli, rac sakuTari Sexedulebisamebr, klasis an calkeuli moswavleebis SesaZleblobebis gaTvaliswinebiT SegiZliaT SearCioT rogorc Semajamebeli werisTvis, aseve Sesabamisi gakveTilis mimdinareobis procesisTvis. yoveli Tavis Semdeg moswavle TviTSemowmebis mizniT avsebs tests. moswavlis saxelmZRvaneloSi calke mocemulia gamoyenebuli simboloebisa da miniSnebebis ganmarteba. mag., jgufuri savarjiSos simbolo, praqtikuli savarjiSos miniSneba. sasurvelia, moswavleebi am simboloebs pirvelive gakveTilebidan gaecnon. wignis bolos mocemulia gamoyenebuli terminebis da cnebebis ganmartebaTa anbanuri saZiebeli.

kolokviumi

testi gamoyenebuli simboloebi

terminebi

13

III. saxelmZRvanelos Sesatyvisoba saswavlo gegmasTan

cxrilSi saswavlo programaa mocemuli. saxelmZRvanelo 44 akademiur saaTs moicavs. garda warmodgenili 44 akademiuri saaTisa, Tqvens gankargulebaSia sarezervo dro - 4 akad. saaTi (standartis mixedviT, bunebismetyvelebis sagans sul 48 akademiuri saaTi eTmoba). muqi feris ujra gviCvenebs, romeli gakveTili standartis romel Sedegs Seesabameba. mag., gakveTili - "I.2. atomis aRnagoba" Seesabameba standartis me-3 Sedegs: moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. wlis bolos misaRwevi Sedegebi

1. moswavle aRwers nivTierebaTa Tvisebebs da msjelobs maTi cvlilebebis Sesaxeb

2. moswavle ganasxvavebs nivTierebas da narevs, flobs narevis komponentebad dayofis meTodebs

4. moswavle axasiaTebs haers

saswavlo dro (akad. saaTi)

gakveTili / sakiTxi

Tavi I. qimia - mecniereba bunebis Sesaxeb

I.1. qimia - mecniereba bunebis Sesaxeb

qimia - bunebismetyvelebis nawili ras Seiswavlis qimia qimia - uZvelesi mecniereba

6

1

I.2. nivTiereba da misi Tvisebebi

nivTiereba da fizikuri sxeuli nivTierebis Tvisebebi

8 10 12

1

I.3. sufTa nivTiereba da narevi

sufTa nivTiereba narevi

1

I.4. narevis komponentebad dayofa

araerTgvarovani narevis komponentebad dayofa erTgvarovani narevis komponentebad dayofa

2

I.5. usafrTxoebis wesebi da niSnebi

gamafrTxilebeli niSnebi nivTierebis ganTavsebis wesebi laboratoriaSi muSaobis wesebi

16

1

I.6. kolokviumi

savarjiSoebi I Tavis bolos testi

18 24 26 28 30 32 34 36

1

Tavi II. atomi - samyaros saSeni masala

II.1. molekula da atomi

samyaro - molekula - atomi molekulas modeliT gamosaxaven

1 1 1

II.2. atomis aRnagoba

CavxedoT atoms gulSi

II.3. qimiuri movlenebi

movlena - cvlileba qimiuri cvlileba - qimiuri reaqcia

II.4. qimiuri reaqciis niSnebi da pirobebi

reaqciis mimdinareobis niSnebi da pirobebi

1 1 1 1 1

II.5. molekulis cvlileba

molekulis cvlileba qimiuri reaqciis dros

II.6. masis mudmivobis kanoni

masis mudmivoba qimiuri reaqciebis dros

II.7. kolokviumi

savarjiSoebi II Tavis bolos testi

II. 8. Semajamebeli wera I

14

5. moswavle aRwers wylis Tvisebebs, msjelobs xsnarebis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb

gverdi moswavlis wignSi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs

wlis bolos misaRwevi Sedegebi

1. moswavle aRwers nivTierebaTa Tvisebebs da msjelobs maTi cvlilebebis Sesaxeb

2. moswavle ganasxvavebs nivTierebas da narevs, flobs narevis komponentebad dayofis meTodebs

4. moswavle axasiaTebs haers

saswavlo dro (akad. saaTi)

gakveTili / sakiTxi

III.1. qimiuri elementi

ra aris qimiuri elementi qimiuri elementis simbolo qimiuri formula qimiuri formulis wakiTxvis wesi

42

1

III. 2. martivi nivTiereba

martivi nivTiereba martivi nivTiereba da elementi

46 48

1

III. 3. metalebi da arametalebi

Tavi III. q i m i i s e n a

metalebi arametalebi

1

III. 4. rTuli nivTiereba

rTuli nivTiereba - naerTi naerTi da narevi Sedgenilobis mudmivobis kanoni

50

1

III. 5. valentoba

valentoba struqturuli formula

52 54 56 58 60

1

III. 6. formulis Sedgena valentobiT

qimiuri formulis Sedgena valentobis mixedviT valentobis gamoTvla qimiuri formulis mixedviT

1

III. 7. qimiuri gantoleba

jansaRi cxovrebis wesi

reaqciis gamosaxva qimiuri formulebiT

1 1

III. 8. elementebi Cvens garSemo III. 9. kolokviumi

savarjiSoebi III Tavis bolos imegobre qimiasTan testi

1 1

III. 10. Semajamebeli wera II

Tavi IV. qimiuri gamoTvlebi

IV. 1. fardobiTi atomuri da molekuluri masa

atomis da molekulis masa fardobiTi atomuri masa fardobiTi molekuluri masa

68

1

IV. 2. masuri Tanafardoba da masuri wili

qimiuri formula _ masuri Tanafardoba qimiuri formula _ masuri wili

70 72 74 76

1

IV. 3. nivTierebis raodenoba

nivTierebis raodenoba - moli ras gviCvenebs koeficienti

1 1 1 1

IV. 4. moluri masa

moluri masa

IV. 5. kolokviumi

savarjiSoebi IV Tavis bolos testi

IV. 6. Semajamebeli wera III

5. moswavle aRwers wylis Tvisebebs, msjelobs xsnarebis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb

gverdi moswavlis wignSi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs

15

wlis bolos misaRwevi Sedegebi

1. moswavle aRwers nivTierebaTa Tvisebebs da msjelobs maTi cvlilebebis Sesaxeb

2. moswavle ganasxvavebs nivTierebas da narevs, flobs narevis komponentebad dayofis meTodebs

4. moswavle axasiaTebs haers

saswavlo dro (akad. saaTi)

gakveTili / sakiTxi

V. 1. haeri - airTa narevi

haeri - airTa narevi

82

1

V. 2. Jangbadi bunebaSi

Tavi V. haeri

Jangbadi ozoni ozonis Sre

84

1

V. 3. wva. Jangva. ali

wva da Jangva ali

86

2

V. 4. haeris dacva. fotosinTezi

haeris dabinZureba fotosinTezi

90

1

V. 5. kolokviumi

savarjiSoebi V Tavis bolos testi

92

1

VI. 1. wyali bunebaSi. wylis gasufTaveba

wylis gamoyeneba wylis gasufTaveba

99

1

VI. 2. wylis Sedgeniloba da Tvisebebi

Tavi VI. wyali

wylis Sedgeniloba wylis fizikuri Tvisebebi wylis qimiuri Tvisebebi

102

1

VI. 3. wyali - gamxsneli. xsnari.

xsnari erTgvarovani da araerTgvarovani xsnarebi gaxsnili nivTierebis masuri wili

104

1

VI. 4. xsnadiba

xsnadoba

106

1

VI. 5. kolokviumi

savarjiSoebi VI Tavis bolos testi terminTa ganmartebiTi leqsikoni

108

1

VI. 6. Semajamebeli wera IV sul saaTebis raodenoba

1 44

16

5. moswavle aRwers wylis Tvisebebs, msjelobs xsnarebis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb

gverdi moswavlis wignSi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs

saxelmZRvaneloSi:

aqcenti kvleviTi xasiaTis samuSaoebze keTdeba: dakvirveba, aRwera, aRricxva, klasifikacia, gazomva, komunikacia, ganWvreta, dagegmva, monacemebis interpretacia, hipoTezis gamoTqma, eqsperimentis Catareba, modelis Seqmna da kvlevis Sedegebis prezentacia; gaTvaliswinebulia moswavlis fsiqologiur - asakobrivi Taviseburebebi; warmodgenili masala advilad aRqmadi, saxalisoa da aRZravs interess; saswavlo masala logikurad ebmeba wina wlebSi skolaSi miRebul codnas da am etapze moswavle movlenebis garegnuli aRweridan maTi arsis wvdomaze gadadis; gaTvaliswinebulia saganTa Soris kavSirebi. saswavlo masala isea SerCeuli, rom moswavlem miiRos praqtikuli moRvaweobisTvis aucilebeli codna, aReZras interesi "aRmoCenis" mimarT, Seafasos bunebismetyvelebis mimarTulebebis mniSvneloba da Camouyalibdes maTi erTiani xedva; gamoyenebulia yofiTi sasaubro ena, moswavleebisTvis cnobadi ilustraciebi, daculia standartuli Tanafardobebi: ilustracias da teqsts Soris, axal da ganvlil masalas Soris, ucxo terminebis raodenoba, Sriftis zoma da sxva; saswavlo masala warmodgenilia mimarTulebis mimcem savarjiSoebTan da kiTxvebTan erTad. sxvadasxva tipis savarjiSoebi moswavles uRrmavebs analizis unars, exmareba faqtebis SedarebaSi, problemis gadaWris gzis ZiebaSi da saTanado daskvnis gakeTebaSi; gamoyenebulia rogorc adgilobrivi meToduri da pedagogiuri gamocdilebebi da midgomebi, aseve mowinave da msoflioSi aprobirebuli, swavlebis warmatebuli Tanamedrove teqnikebi.

saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli martivi eqsperimentebis da savarjiSoebis mizania: dakvirvebis, aRweris, aRricxvis, klasifikaciis, gazomvis, komunikaciis, ganWvretis, dagegmvis, monacemebis interpretaciis, hipoTezis gamoTqmis, modelis Seqmnis da kvlevis Sedegebis prezentaciis unar-Cvevebis ganviTareba. am unar - Cevevebis ganviTareba SesaZlebelia rogorc adgilobrivi meToduri da pedagogiuri gamocdilebebiT, ase mowinave da msoflioSi aprobirebuli warmatebuli Tanamedrove midgomebis gamoyenebiT.

"saxelmZRvaneloebiT sargeblobisas maswavleblebs unda axsovdeT, rom saxelmZRvanelo aris erT-erTi saSualeba da ara erTaderTi, romelic emsaxureba erovnuli saswavlo gegmis sagnobriv programebSi mocemuli Sedegebis miRwevas. maswavlebeli argebs saxelmZRvanelos moswavleebis saWiroebebs da ara piriqiT, rodesac cdilobs moergos saxelmZRvanelos. maswavlebels SeuZlia ar gamoiyenos romelime teqsti an aqtivoba, Secvalos drois xangrZlivoba romelic romelime konkretul Temas eTmoba, daumatos sakuTari aqtivobebi da sxva" (erovnuli saswavlo gegma).

Semdeg TavSi, "meToduri miTiTebebi", warmogidgenT zogierT meTods romlebic, sakuTari Sexedulebisamebr da Tqveni moswavleebis SesaZleblobebidan gamomdinare, SegiZliaT SearCioT da miusadagoT rogorc mTlianad gakveTils, ise gakveTilSi Semaval romelime konkretul eqsperiments an savarjiSos. mogvianebiT ki, "samodelo gakveTilebSi" (gv. 29-41) ixilavT, Tu rogor SeiZleba am meTodebis praqtikulad gamoyeneba gakveTilis msvlelobis dros.

17

IV. meToduri miTiTebebi

"miaCvieT bavSvi, iyos yuradRebiani bunebrivi movlenebis mimarT. dausviT kiTxvebi da mieciT saSualeba, Tavad gasces maT pasuxi. saSualeba mieciT, gaigos ara imitom, rom Tqven uTxariT, aramed imitom, rom Tavad gamoikvlia".

Jan Jak ruso

IV-1

moswavleze orientirebuli aqtiuri swavleba

axali erovnuli saswavlo gegmis mixedviT amieridan swavlebis Tanamedrove, aqtiuri meTodebi saqarTvelos yvela skolaSi inergeba. es meTodika moswavlezea orientirebuli: moswavle ar aris mxolod msmeneli, is gakveTilis msvlelobis aqtiuri monawilea. misTvis bunebismetyveleba ar unda iyos abstraqtuli mecniereba, romelic mxolod saxelmoxveWil mkvlevarTa moRvaweobis sferoa. moswavle naTlad unda xedavdes sakuTari kvlevebisa da eqsperimentebis realur daniSnulebas. unda gauCndes garemos kvlevis da Seswavlis survili, gauCndes jansaRi ambicia, rom mas kacobriobis progresSi sakuTari wvlilis Setana SeuZlia. swavlebis procesSi moswavle mkvlevaris mdgomareobaSi unda CavayenoT. aqtiuri swavlebis meTodebi eTanxmeba mosazrebas: movismine davinaxe cda Cavatare _ _ _ damaviwyda damamaxsovrda gaverkvie

saswavlo procesSi, garda codnisa, moswavle im unar-Cvevebs unda daeuflos, romlis saSualebiTac is codnas warmatebiT gamoiyenebs. warmateba ki stimuls miscems, gaagrZelos saqmianoba, kidev ufro gaiRrmavos codna da daxvewos unar-Cvevebi. sabolood es yvelaferi mas pirovnebad Camoayalibebs da sazogadoebaSi mis adgils gansazRvravs. aqtiuri swavlebis Tanamedrove meTodebi swored am miznis miRwevas uzrunvelyofs. aqtiuri swavlebis meqanizmebi: 1. gakveTilis forma: 2. moswavleTa organizeba: 3. moswavleebTan muSaobis meTodebi: konferencia, TamaSi, seminari, leqcia, dialogi da sxva. individualuri, wyvilebi, jgufuri. verbaluri, kvleviTi xasiaTis, weriTi aqtivobebi.

aqtiuri swavlebis mokle istoriuli eqskursi:

moswavleze orientirebuli, interaqtiuli swavlebis meTodi "aqtiuri swavlebis" meTodikis saxeliTaa cnobili, dReisaTvis mravali mowinave qveyana saswavlo procesSi swored am meTodikiT xelmZRvanelobs. meTodikas TiTqmis saukunovani istoria aqvs. msgavsi pedagogiuri moZraobebi dasabams XX saukunis dasawyisidan iRebs. Tanamedrove "aqtiuri swavlebis" meTodebs mravali pedagogiuri moazrovnis naSromi, saskolo reformebi da erovnuli Tu saerTaSoriso moZraobebis praqtikuli RonisZiebebi udevs safuZvlad. XX saukunis dasawyisSi "aqtiuri swavlebis" meTodi daupirispirda tradiciul pedagogikas (pedagogika "bavSvis gaZRolas" niSnavs), romelic codnis mxolod sityvierad gadacemeze iyo orientirebuli. amave periodSi mravali pedagogiuri mimarTuleba Camoyalibda, romlebic Tanamedrove "aqtiuri meTodikis" istoriul safuZvels warmoadgens: "muSa skola", "aqtiuri bavSvi", "interesTa centri", "saqmianiobis pedagogika" da sxva. moswavleze orientirebuli swavlebis ideebis ganviTareba saerTaSoriso organizaciebis da fondebis saSualebiT sxvadasxva qveynebSi etapobrivad viTardeboda. gTavazobT aqtiuri swavlebis zogierT meTodur miTiTebas.

IV- 2

gakveTilis struqtura

pedagogi yoveli gakveTilisTvis winaswar unda moemzados: - gansazRvros gakveTilis mizani; - miznis Sesabamisad SearCios gakveTilis forma; - dagegmos aqtivobebi; - gansazRvros am aqtivobebis Sesasruleblad saWiro dro; - gansazRvros da moiZios saWiro resursebi; - SearCios moswavleTa organizebis mosaxerxebel formebi; - SearCios Sefasebis kriteriumebi.

18

aseve mniSvnelovania, winaswar daigegmos gakveTilis Sinaarsobrivi struqturac. rogorc wesi, aqtiuri swavlebis meTodis Sesabamisad, gakveTili sami fazisgan Sedgeba: I faza - motivireba

I faza: sasurvelia, pedagogma gakveTili samotivacio kiTxvebiT daiwyos. moswavles interesi gauRviZos warsadgeni Temis mimarT, misi yuradRebis koncentracia moaxdinos da is konkretuli obieqtis Tu movlenisken mimarTos. sayofacxovrebo magaliTebze dayrdnobiT es procesi gacilebiT efeqturi iqneba. motivaciisTvis SesaZloa, gamoyenebul iqnas raime istoriuli faqti, zRapari, moTxroba, filmi, TvalsaCinoeba (plakati an ilustrirebuli wigni).

II faza - Temis damuSaveba II faza: gulisxmobs informaciis miwodebasa da mis siRrmiseul analizs. Temis damuSavebis procesSi pedagogi iyenebs gakveTilis winaswar arCeul formas (konferencia, TamaSi, diskusia, leqcia da sxva). resursis saxiT iyenebs moswavlis saxelmZRvanelos da winaswar momzadebul TvalsaCinoebas Tu damatebiT informacias da masalas. III faza - Sejameba, gaazreba III faza: gakveTilis bolos damuSavebuli Temis Sejameba xdeba. es procesi kiTxva-pasuxis formiT mimdinareobs. xdeba SexedulebaTa urTierTgacvla, mosazrebebis gamoTqma da argumentireba, gakveTilis procesSi Catarebuli aqtivobebis Sedegebis Sejameba da saerTo azris gamotana.

IV- 3

SekiTxvaTa saxeebi

Temis damuSaveba da analizi gonebriv aqtiurobas moiTxovs. am aqtiurobis maprovocirebelia martivi SekiTxvebi. imis mixedviT, Tu saiT gvinda moswavlis gonebrivi aqtivobis mimarTva, gamoiyeneba sxvadasxva tipis SekiTxvebi. SekiTxvaze pasuxis gacema zogjer martivi eqsperimentis Catarebas, monacemebis aRricxvas, Sedegebis analizs da ganzogadebas moiTxovs. es yvelaferi moswavles dakvirvebis, aRweris, monacemTa interpretaciis unar-Cvevebs uviTarebs. kiTxvebi SeiZleba iyos Ria an daxuruli. daxuruli SekiTxva moiTxovs mokle, konkretul pasuxs: diax, ara, ar vici. aseT SemTxvevaSi Tavad SekiTxva unda moicavdes saazrovno elementebs. daxuruli SekiTxvebi xSirad codnis Sesamowmeblad gamoiyeneba.

Ria SekiTxva moiTxovs vrcel, argumentirebul pasuxs. pasuxis procesSi, sasurvelia pedagogma e. w. Semxvedri kiTxvebiT mimarTuleba misces moswavlis msjelobas da is logikur pasuxamde miiyvanos. es moswavles waaxalisebs da Tavdajerebulobas Sematebs. Ria SekiTxvebi SeiZleba iyos: 1. hipoTezuri: 2. gansjiTi: 3. kvleviTi: ^4. Semajamebeli: da sxva. Ria SekiTxvebi Seni azriT, ra Secdomaa daSvebuli? rogor gadavWraT problema ? rogor ganviTardeba movlenebi, Tu.... ? ratom eTanxmebi/ar eTanxmebi mosazrebas, rom...? ra aklia amocanis pirobas imisTvis, rom amovxsnaT? ivaraude, ra moxdeba, Tu... daxuruli SekiTxvebi daSvebulia Secdoma?. SesaZlebelia problemis gadaWra? movlenebi sworad viTardeba? eTanxmebi mosazrebas? amocanis piroba srulyofilia? gulisxmobs varaudis gamoTqmas; gulisxmobs movlenis Tu obieqtis Sefasebas; gulisxmobs movlenis wvdomis survilis provocirebas; gulisxmobs DAdaskvnebis gamotanas da bavSvis codnis Sefasebas

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IV- 4

moswavleTa organizeba

individualuri davalebis Sesrulebisas moswavles yuradRebis koncentraciis, codnis mobilizebis, damoukideblad muSaobis unar-Cvevebi uviTardeba. saklaso muSaobis procesSi individualuri davaleba ZiriTadad codnis Sesafaseblad gamoiyeneba. aseT dros moswavles saSualeba ar aqvs, sxvas daakisros davalebis Sesrulebaze pasuxismgebloba da cdilobs, maqsimalurad gamoiyenos Tavisi SesaZleblobebi. davalebis arasworad Sesrulebis SemTxvevaSi, maswavlebelma moswavle mainc unda Seaqos, Tundac mcdelobisTvis da mas swori pasuxis moZebnaSi damatebiTi kiTxvebiT daexmaros. saSinao davalebebis umetesoba individualur muSaobas moiTxovs.

individualuri:

wyvilebi:

wyvilebSi muSaoba moswavlisTvis mosaxerxebelia. am dros realizebulia misi miswrafeba erToblivi Ziebisken - saSualeba aqvs, imoqmedos ara mTeli klasis winaSe, da ara damoukideblad, anu marto, aramed gauziaros sakuTari mosazreba mewyviles da miiRos misgan mxardaWera da sakuTari qmedebis Sefaseba, gainawilos pasuxismgebloba. wyvilebSi muSaoba mniSvnelovania iseTi moswavleebisTvis, romelTac ar gaaCniaT mkveTrad gamoxatuli lideris Tvisebebi. isini wyvilebSi muSaobisas Tavs Tanabar pirobebSi da Tanabar sawyisebze momuSave partniorebad grZnoben da ara gamokveTil liders daqvemdebarebul pasiur Semsruleblebad. wyvilebis organizeba SesaZlebelia maswavleblis miTiTebiT moxdes: gogo-biWi; Zlieri da susti moswavle; ori Zlieri moswavle; ori susti moswavle. pedagogis mier SerCeul wyvilebSi gamoricxuli ar aris konfliqturi situacia, amitom zogjer mizanSewonilia wyvilebi Seiqmnas gaTvlis wesiT, saskolo JurnalSi rigiTobis an merxebis ganlagebis mixedviT. wyvilebSi muSaobis etapebi: 1. dayaviT klasi wyvilebad; 2. klass mieciT saerTo davaleba an wyvilebs sxvadasxva eqsperimenti SeurCieT; 3. moswavleebi muSaoben wyvilebSi; 4. muSaobis dro gansazRvreT davalebis sirTulis mixedviT; 5. prezentacia. wyvilebs sTxoveT namuSevrebi erTmaneTs Seadaron. SegiZliaT SeafasoT yvela wyvilis namuSevari an SerCeviT sTxovoT, warmoadginon Sedegebi. sasurvelia, SearCioT gansxvavebuli Sedegebis mqone namuSevrebi da TiToeuls sakuTari mosazrebis dasabuTeba sTxovoT.

jgufebi:

jgufebSi iseTi davaleba sruldeba, romelic samuSaos ganawilebas moiTxovs. jgufSi muSaoba xels uwyobs sakuTari adgilis da funqciis gansazRvris unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebas. mcire jgufebSi (3-4) TiToeuli moswavle aqtiurad muSaobs, gansxvavebiT Cveulebrivi saklaso muSaobisgan, roca is SesaZloa, mxolod msmenelis rolSi aRmoCndes. moswavleebi cdiloben, imuSaon SeTanxmebulad, urTierTTanamSromlobis principiT, rac muSaobis procesSi konsensusis miRwevis unaris gamomuSavebaSi exmarebaT. davaleba, romelic jgufebis Seqmnas da lideris arCevas gulisxmobs, saxaliso da sainteresoa. maswavlebelma SesaZloa, jgufs Tavad miuTiTos liderze. Tumca, am dros SeiZleba konfliqti warmoiqmnas jgufi ar eTanxmdebodes mas. amitom sasurvelia, lideris arCeva Tavad moswavleebs miandoT. arCeva SesaZlebelia ganxorcieldes kenWisyriT an gaTvlis wesiT, raTa maT obieqturobis gancda hqondeT. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu lideri samuSaos Tavs ver gaarTmevs, jgufis wevrebs pasuxismgeblobis sakuTar Tavze aReba mouwevT da SemdegSi am process ufro meti yuradRebiT moekidebian. maswavleblis mier lideris SerCevis SemTxvevaSi yuradReba unda miaqcioT, rom liderma ar daCagros jgufis SedarebiT pasiuri wevrebi da TiToeul maTganTan partnioruli urTierToba SeZlos. pasiuri moswavlis mxardasaWerad zogjer sasurvelia, maswavlebelma swored mas miandos lideris funqcia. es xels Seuwyobs aseTi moswavlis TviTSefasebis amaRlebas da stimuls miscems, sxva drosac sakuTari Tavi ufro Tamamad warmoaCinos. zogjer mizanSewonilia jgufSi SedarebiT pasiuri moswavleebis gaerTianeba. isini muSaobisas uneburad iZulebulni iqnebian, meti aqtivoba gamoiCinon da ar SeeSindebaT, rom aqtiuri moswavlis mxridan

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daiCagrebian. semestris ganmavlobaSi sasurvelia, jgufebi sxvadasxva aqtivobis dros sxvadasxva moswavleebisgan dakompleqtdes, radgan mudmivad erT jgufSi muSaobisas moswavle erT pozicias irCevs da yovelTvis am rols TamaSobs. sxva jgufSi moxvedrisas ki mas meti SesaZlebloba aqvs, sakuTari Tavi sxva ampluaSic gamoscados da mravalmxrivi gamocdileba SeiZinos. jgufebSi muSaobis etapebi: 1. klasi iyofa jgufebAad; 2. maswavlebeli jgufebs muSaobis instruqcias acnobs: jgufebi sxdebian erTmaneTisgan moSorebiT, erTi jgufis wevrebi sxdebian erT magidasTan (SesaZloa magidebis Setyupeba). jgufebi muSaobis dros erTmaneTs xels ar uSlian da ar xmauroben. maswavleblis daxmarebis saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, xels iweven; 3. jgufebs eZlevaT erTi da igive an sxvadasxva, analogiuri tipis davaleba. 4. maswavlebeli gansazRvravs davalebis Sesasruleblad da prezentaciisTvis saWiro dros; 5. mimdiNnareobs jgufSi funqciebis gadanawileba. SesTavazeT, jgufebs davalebis Sesrulebisas gainawilon funqciebi Sesasrulebeli davalebis mixedviT. mag., zogma eqsperimenti Caataros, zogma gaakeTos Canawerebi da a.S. funqciebi ise unda gadanawildes, rom davalebis SesrulebaSi jgufis yvela wevri monawileobdes. SesTavazeT, saboloo Sedegebi prezentaciisTvis erT furcelze daweron; 5. prezentacia: yvela jgufi sakuTar namuSevars TanmimdevrobiT warmoadgens. prezentacias akeTebs jgufis mier arCeuli spikeri. dafaze gaikvreba Sesabamisi jgufis mier momzadebuli namuSevrebi. maswavlebeli da danarCeni jgufebi ar erevian prezentaciis procesSi. yvela jgufis davalebis wardgenis Semdeg xdeba azrTa gaziareba da Sefaseba.

IV- 5

gonebrivi ieriSi

"gonebrivi ieriSi" gulisxmobs mxolod erT Ria SekiTxvas da ideebis maqsimums reglamentirebul droSi. "gonebrivi ieriSi" xels uwyobs SemoqmedebiTi aqtiurobis stimulacias. Cveulebriv pirobebSi axali, novatoruli ideis dabadebas da gaxmovanebas xels uSlis gonebis makontrolebeli meqanizmi da SiSi, rom idea SesaZloa, araswori iyos da dacinvis sagani Ggaxdes. am faqtorebis mosaxsnelad "gonebrivi ieriSis" procesSi monawileebi spontanurad asaxeleben ideebs da ar fiqroben ramdenad ucnauri, ganuxorcielebadi an mcdaria es idea. am meTods aqtiurad iyenebdnen 50ian wlebSi, ZiriTadad teqnologiuri amocanebis gadasaWrelad. sTxoveT moswavleebs, araordinalurad miudgnen sakiTxs. mouxseniT daZabuloba - gamoiyeneT metaforebi, eZebeT analogiebi sagnebTan da situaciebTan mimarTebaSi. CaTvaleT, rom gaqvT jadosnuri joxi, yvela finansuri da adamianuri resursi ideis gansaxorcieleblad. ideebi unda mogawodon spontanurad da daufiqreblad. am dros moswavle ideis mokled da sxartad Camoyalibebas eCveva. ganumarteT klass, rom nebismieri idea Rirebulia, Tundac yvelaze absurdulic ki. mag., saTavgadasavlo Janris cnobil mwerals, Jiul vernis misi erT-erTi personaJisTvis, kapitan nemosTvis wyalqveSa TavSesafris gamogoneba dasWirda. amiT mweralma wyalqveSa navis Seqmna aTwleulebiT adre iwinaswarmetyvela. im epoqaSi wyalqveSa navis Seqmnis idea fantastikis sferos ganekuTvneboda. "gonebrivi ieriSis" procesSi bavSvebma SesaZloa, ucnauri da saxaliso ideebic mogawodon. TiToeuli maTgani unda SevaqoT da maT ideebs momavalSi ganxorcieleba vuwinaswarmetyveloT. maswavlebels saSualeba eZleva, susti moswavle mis ideaze yuradRebis SeCerebis saSualebiT waaxalisos. "gonebrivi ieriSi" SeiZleba Catardes rogorc mTel klasTan, ise jgufebSi. am SemTxvevaSi TiToeuli jgufi damoukideblad gadis mis yvela etaps. davalebis Sesrulebis xangrZlivobas maswavlebeli gansazRvravs. jgufebi Sedegebs dafaze saTiTaod weren. SegiZliaT airCioT Jiuri, romelSic Tavad moswavleebi, sxva sagnis maswavleblebi an sxva klasis moswavleebi Sevlen. "gonebrivi ieriSis" etapebi: 1. aarCieT moswavle, romelic ideebs dafaze Camowers. es funqcia SeiZleba maswavlebelma Seasrulos; 2. dasviT mxolod erTi Ria SekiTxva; 3. ideaTa bankis Seqmna: moswavleTa mier mowodebuli ideebi iwereba dafaze. mTavari ideaTa raodenobaa da ara maTi xarisxi. araviTari kritika procesis mimdinareobisas, kritikuli mosazrebebi mxolod davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg gamoiTqmeba; 4. analizi - moswavleebi kritikulad afaseben uklebliv yvela ideas, TiToeul maTganSi racionalur marcvals eZeben, cdiloben mis daxvewas;

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5. Sejameba. xdeba 3-5 saukeTeso ideis SerCeva da maT irgvliv msjeloba. SesaZloa, gamoyoT yvelaze ucnauri an saxaliso idea, an SemoiRoT sxva nominaciebic.

IV- 6

diskusia

diskusia aris ideebis Sejaxeba, mosazrebebis, msjelobaTa mizanmimarTuli gacvla-gamocvla saerTo azris SemuSavebis mizniT. arsebobs diskusiis ramdenime forma: 1. mrgvali magida - saubari, romelSic Tanabar sawyisebze monawileobs moswavleTa mcire jgufi da xdeba azrTa gaziareba rogorc jgufs wevrebs Soris, aseve klasTan. 2. eqspertTa sxdoma (paneluri diskusia) - monawileobs 4-6 kaciani jgufi, romelsac lideri winaswar hyavs arCeuli. sakiTxis ganxilvaSi monawileobs jgufis yvela wevri. ganxilvis Semdeg TiToeuli maTgani sakuTar azrs klasis winaSe gamoTqvams. misi gamosvla ar unda iyos Zalze vrceli. 3. forumi - hgavs eqspertTa sxdomas, oRond ganxilvaSi jgufTan erTad klasic monawileobs . 4. simpoziumi - ganxilva, romlis drosac monawileebi klasis winaSe gamoTqvamen sakuTar mosazrebas da Semdeg klasidan wamosul SekiTxvebs pasuxoben . 5. debatebi - inteleqtualuri TamaSi, romlis mimdinareobisas ori gundi oratoruli ostatobis gamoyenebiT amtkicebs sakuTar mosazrebas mkacrad reglamentirebul pirobebSi. debatebSi ori gansxvavebuli mosazrebis mqone jgufi monawileobs. TiToeuli jgufis mosazrebas warmoadgens erT-erTi winaswar arCeuli wevri. mosazrebis wardgenis Semdeg erTi mxare cdilobs, sakuTari kontrargumentebis saSualebiT mowinaaRmdege mxaris mosazreba gaaqarwylos. 6. sasamarTlo sxdoma - hgavs sasamarTlo procesze saqmis ganxilvas. irCeva mosamarTle, dazaralebuli, eWvmitanili. mosamarTle orive mxarisTvis pretenziebisa da argumentebis warmodgenis Tanabar pirobebs uzrunvelyofs. procesis mosmenis Semdeg winaswar arCeuli "nafici msajulebi" iReben gadawyvetilebas, romelsac mosamarTle axmovanebs. SesaZlebelia, ar iqnas gamoyenebuli "nafic msajulTa" instituti da gadawyvetileba Tavad mosamarTlem miiRos. 7. "akvariumi" - diskusiis erT-erTi forma, romelic gamoirCeva zemoCamoTvlilTagan. is ZiriTadad iseTi sakiTxis ganxilvisas gamoiyeneba, romelic Tavidanve azrTa sxvadasxvaobas, konfliqts, uTanxmoebas gulisxmobs. "akvariumis" mimdinareobis etapebi: 1. problemis wardgena xdeba maswavleblis mier; 2. maswavlebeli klass yofs jgufebad; 3. jgufebs eZlevaT dro sakiTxis ganxilvisTvis da saerTo azris CamoyalibebisTvis; 4. jgufebi ganlagdebian wriulad; 5. jgufi irCevs warmomadgenels, romelic klasis winaSe jgufis saxeliT wardgeba; 6. ganxilvaSi monawileoben mxolod warmomadgenlebi. mosazrebis wardgenisas SekiTxvebis dasma SeuZliaT mxolod danarCeni jgufebis mier arCeul warmomadgenlebs (ara wevrebs). saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi erTi jgufis wevrebs SeuZliaT miTiTebebi Tavis warmomadgenlebs mxolod werilobiTi saxiT miawodon; 7. dasmul SekiTxvaze pasuxis gasacemad warmomadgenels SeuZlia taim-auti aiRos, moeTaTbiros jgufs da pasuxi Semdeg gasces; 8. ganxilva maswavleblis mier gansazRvrul droSi mimdinareobs; 9. ganxilvis dasrulebis Semdeg mimdinareobs kritikuli mosazrebebis gamoTqma, masSi mTeli klasi monawileobs. "akvariumis" upiratesoba imaSi mdgomareobs, rom aqcenti mosazrebis argumentaciaze keTdeba. jgufis yvela wevri dainteresebulia misi warmomadgenlis warmatebaSi. 8. "kuTxeebi" - diskusiis erT-erTi forma. Temis ganxilva jgufebSi mimdinareobs. TiToeuli jgufisTvis SearCieT Sesabamisi kuTxe. gansaxilvelad erTi da igive Tema mieciT. sasurvelia, Tema ramdenime gansxvavebuli poziciis arsebobis saSualebas iZleodes. gansazRvreT muSaobis dro. TiToeuli jgufi warmoadgens sakuTar pozicias. Tu danarCeni jgufis romelime wevri Tvlis, rom eTanxmeba sxva jgufis mosazrebas, SeuZlia axal jgufSi gadavides. yvelaze argumentirebulad da sworad im jgufis pozicia miiCneva, romelSic TamaSis bolos yvelaze meti wevri aRmoCndeba.

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IV- 7

proeqti

proeqti swavlebis iseTi meTodia, romlis drosac moswavle codnas proeqtis dagegmvisa da ganxorcielebis procesSi iZens. proeqtze muSaobis procesSi moswavles uyalibdeba garemomcvel samyaroze zrunvis, kritikuli azrovnebis unar-Cvevebi; acnobierebs adamianTa TanamSromlobis aucileblobas, erTveba sazogadoebriv saqmianobaSi; swavlobs, rogor moipovos, daamuSaos da gamoiyenos informacia. am dros xdeba: - Sida resursebis mobilizacia (problemis gadaWraSi erTvebian pedagogebi, moswavleebi); - gare resursebis moZieba (TviTmmarTvelobis organoebi, arasamTavrobo organizaciebi, warmoebadawesebulebebis warmomadgenlebi, eqspertebi); - samoqmedo programis SemuSaveba konkretuli amocanis gadasaWrelad. proeqtisTvis Temas maswavlebeli arCevs da moswavleebs informaciis mogrovebaSi exmareba: miuTiTebs informaciis wyaroebze an Tavad aris informaciis wyaro. uzrunvelyofs prezentaciis organizebas: moiZiebs saWiro resursebs da Sesabamisad amzadebs saklaso oTaxs.

IV- 8

siuJeturi TamaSebi

siuJeturi TamaSi aris moswavleTa mier gaTamaSebuli saTavgadasavlo ambavi realuri cxovrebidan an fantastikis sferodan, bavSvebisTvis kargad nacnobi zRaprebi, animaciuri filmebi Tu sareklamo rgolebi. aseTi TamaSebis dros moswavleebi Tavad inawileben rolebs an maswavlebeli maT winaswar aZlevT davalebas. aseTi davalebis Sesrulebisas ar unda SevzRudoT moswavleebis SemoqmedebiToba, SesTavazeT moamzadon dekoraciebi, daxaton siuJeturi plakatebi. SesaZloa, warmoadginon Teatralizebuli varianti. SerCeuli siuJeti Tematurad unda Seesabamebodes mimTamaSi dinare gakveTils. aqtivobis dasrulebis Semdeg imarTeba ganxilva. yvela gamoTqvams sakuTar azrs rogorc calkeuli personaJebis, ise zogadad warmodgenili siuJetis mimarT. ganxilvis procesis TviTmizani saerTo poziciaze SeTanxmeba ar aris. mTavari Tavad ganxilvis procesia.

siuJeturi

IV- 9

dausrulebeli ambavi

dausrulebeli ambavi aris aqtivoba, romlis drosac moswavle cdilobs, logikurad gaagrZelos maswavleblis mier SeTavazebuli siuJeti. SeiZleba iyos rogorc jgufuri/wyvilebSi, ise individualuri muSaobis forma. SesaZlebelia, TiToeul moswavles an jgufs daevaloT erTi saerTo ambis gagrZeleba. an erT jgufs SesTavazoT, rom ambavi gaagrZelos erTi abzaciT, xolo meore abzaci - meore jgufma SeTxzas da a.S.. aseTi tipis davaleba moswavleebs fantazias, saganTa da movlenaTa Soris urTierTkavSiris Ziebis da siuJetis logikuri jaWvis agebis unar-Cvevebs uviTarebs.

IV-10

dadebiTi

T diagrama

uaryofiTi

T diagrama aris universaluri sqema urTierTsapirispiro mosazrebebis warmosaCenad. gamoiyeneba nebismieri aqtivobis Sefasebis dasaxarisxeblad. Sefasebis dros moswavle Tavis azrs gamoTqvams da warmoadgens Sesabamis argumentebs. samuSaos Sesrulebisas SesaZlebelia rogorc individualuri, ise jgufuri muSaobis meTodis gamoyeneba.

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IV-11

TamaSebi

TamaSi SemecnebiT-gasarTobi aqtivobaa, romelic xels uwyobs: 1. gansazRvrul drosa da pirobebSi optimaluri gadawyvetilebis miRebis unar-Cvevis ganviTarebas; 2. yuradRebis, maxsovrobis, metyvelebis, fantaziis, SemoqmedebiTobis gavarjiSebas; 3. damoukidebeli azrovnebis Camoyalibebas, TanamSromlobis, komunikaciis, azris gamoTqmisa da sxvisi azris gaziarebis unar-Cvevis ganviTarebas; 4. moTamaSis TviTrealizacias; 5. sazogadoebis faseulobaTa gacnobas, garemoSi adaptacias, emociebis TviTregulirebas. yvela TamaSs wesebi aqvs, wesebis dacva ki disciplinas ayalibebs. TamaSis dros moswavle marTavs da akontrolebs sakuTar qmedebas, xedavs am qmedebis Sedegs da afasebs sakuTar SesaZleblobebs. TamaSis Sedegi mTlianad ukavSirdeba axali masalis aTvisebas. saswavlo masala SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnas, rogorc resursi. swavlebis procesSi TamaSis gamoyenebisas, maswavlebeli gansazRvravs TamaSis: 1. mizans 2. wesebs, romlebic moicavs Sejibris elementebs 3. dros aqtiurad gamoiyeneba rogorc siuJeturi, aseve didaqtikuri TamaSebi (krosvordebi, loto, domino). garda gonebrivi aqtivobisa, TamaSi zogjer fizikur aqtivobasac gulisxmobs. gTavazobT ramdenime TamaSis models. TamaSi "estafeta" SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT qimiuri elementebis simboloebis Seswavlisas. mizani: axali masalis aTvisebis Sefaseba; maxsovrobis, yuradRebis, pasuxismgeblobis grZnobis ganviTareba. TamaSis piroba: dauSvebelia erTxel dasaxelebuli simbolos sxva jgufis mier ganmeoreba, aseve - saxelmZRvanelos gamoyeneba. organizeba: klasi iyofa jgufebad. jgufebi SegiZliaT rigebis mixedviT dayoT: I rigi - I jgufi, II rigi - II jgufi, III rigi - III jgufi. SesaZloa, maswavlebeli erT-erT jgufs Tavadac warmoadgendes. mimdinareoba: dafa dayaviT imden nawilad, ramdeni jguficaa. mag, 3-ad.startis micemisas TiToeuli jgufidan pirvel merxze mjdomi moswavle gamorbis dafasTan, am jgufisTvis gankuTvnil mwkrivSi wers qimiuri elementis simbolos, swrafad brundeba adgilze da carcs (estafetas) Semdeg monawiles gadascems, romelic swrafad mirbis dafasTan, wers sxva elementis simbolos da a. S. Sejameba: erTi simbolo erTi qula, yvelaze swrafi jgufi damatebiT 3 qulas miiRebs. ganmeorebuli simbolo qulad ar CaiTvleba. TamaSi ` domino~ mizani: miRebuli codnis sistemaSi moyvana, misi ramdenime aspeqtSi gaazreba, komunikaciis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba. organizeba: TamaSSi monawileobs mTeli klasi, an SesaZloa, klasi or jgufad gayoT. TiToeul jgufs gansxvavebul Temas aZlevT, aseT SemTxvevaSi moswavle or gansxvavebul Temas ixsenebs. mimdinareoba: domino igeba frazebze: "miyvars...." da "vici...." erTi moswavle dgeba da ambobs: "miyvars banaoba da vici, risgan Sedgeba wylis molekula" da dgeba dafis win. "vici, risgan Sedgeba wylis molekula da miyvars limonaTi" meore moswavle ambobs: da xels Cakidebs pirvel moswavles. mesame moswavle ambobs: "miyvars limonaTi da vici, rom is narevia" da xels Cakidebs meore moswavles. meoTxe moswavle ambobs: "miyvars banaoba da vici, rogor miiReba zRvis wylidan marili" da Cakidebs xels pirvel moswavles. mexuTe moswavle ambobs: "miyvars banaoba da vici, ratom aris saSiSi zRvis dabinZureba" da dgeba pirveli moswavlis ukan. da a. S. dominos asawyobad SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT frazebi: "momewona, rom ..." da "ar momewona, rom ... " erTi moswavle ambobs: "momewona, rom viyaviT aqtiurebi. ar momewona, rom xels miSlidnen azris gamoTqmaSi".

24

meore moswavle: mesame moswavle: meoTxe moswavle:

"ar momewona, rom xels miSlidnen azris gamoTqmaSi. momewona, rom gavige risgan Sedgeba molekula". " momewona rom gavige risgan Sedgeba molekula. ar momewona, rom ar gvaqvs reaqtivebi". "ar momewona, rom ar gvaqvs reaqtivebi. momewona, rom proeqtis gakeTebaSi monawileoba miviRe".

TamaSi "terminebis Serkineba" mizani: miRebuli codnis SezRudul droSi gamoyenebis da swrafi azrovnebis unarCvevis ganviTareba. organizeba: dayaviT klasi jgufebad. mimdinareoba: SearCieT saxelmZRvanelos bolos mocemuli 10-12 termini. dafaze imdeni sveti daxazeT, ramdeni jguficaa. klass sTxoveT, moemzados terminis ganmartebisTvis. daasaxeleT termini. romeli jgufic swrafad ganmartavs, Sesabamis svetSi dawereT "+". Sejameba: mogebulia is jgufi, romelsac yvelaze meti "+" aqvs.

IV-12

savarjiSo "konvertebi"

mizani: analizis, Sefasebis , samomavlo perspeqtivebis gansazRvris unaris ganviTareba. mimdinareoba: moamzadeT 4 konverti: momewona ar momewona davfiqrdi SemdegSi visurvebdi

1 2 3 4

TiToeul moswavles daurigeT 4 patara zomis furceli da sTxoveT, TiTo furcelze TiTo kiTxvas upasuxos. moagroveT da Sesabamisi furclebi Sesabamis konvertSi CadeT. SeajameT konvertSi dagrovili mosazrebebi. mag., 1. momewona, rom miwevda aqtiuri monawileoba gakveTilis msvlelobisas; 2. ar momewona, rom zogierT martiv SekiTxvas ver vupasuxe; 3. davfiqrdi, rogor gamekeTebina prezentaciisTvis TvalsaCinoeba; 4. visurvebdi, meti gamego im profesiebze, romelTac qimiis codna aucileblad sWirdeba.

IV-13

savarjiSo "vicodi, viswavle, minda vicode"

dafaze daxazeT cxrili. moswavleebs sTxoveT, is rveulSi vicodi viswavle minda vicode gadaitanon da Seavson. Tu gauWirdaT Sevseba, erTi magaliTi dafaze dawereT. es aqtivoba ganvlili masalis gaxsenebas da Sejamebas emsaxureba. maswavlebeli Semdegi gakveTilebis dagegmvisas iTvaliswinebs moswavleebis survils da maTTvis damatebiT masals amzadebs. davalebis Sesruleba SesaZlebelia rogorc individualurad, ise wyvilebsa da jgufebSi.

IV-14

savarjiSo "kubi"

savarjiSos Sesasruleblad saSualo zomis kubis formis yuTi gamoiyeneT. TiToeul gverds daawereT:

daukavSire

1. aRwere 4. gaaanalize 2. Seadare 5. gamoiyene 6. daasabuTe 3. daukavSire maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTavazobs Temas da sTxovs, am TemasTan dakavSirebiT yuTis Sesabamis gverdze sakuTari azri daweron. 1. aRweron sagani, movlena; 2. gaixsenon analogiuri sagani an movlena; 3. moZebnon kavSiri sxva sagnebTan da movlenebTan; 4. daweron risgan Sedgeba sagani (gaaSuqon movlena), gamosaxon misi struqtura; 5. daweron ra saxiT da ra situaciaSi SeuZliaT sagnis/movlenis gamoyeneba;. 6. daasabuTon maT mier gamoTqmuli yvela mosazreba. samuSao SesaZlebelia Sesruldes: individualurad, wyvilebSi an jgufebSi. "kubis" mizania mocemuli Temis yvela SesaZlo aspeqtSi ganxilva, SedarebiTi analizis, movlenaTa ganzogadebis, maT Soris urTierTkavSiris moZebnis unar-Cvevebis ganviTareba.

aRwere

Se ad ar e

25

V. Sefasebis kriteriumebi

V-1

saskolo Sefasebis sistemis SemuSavebisas gasaTvaliswinebeli aucilebeli midgomebi

akademiuri moswrebis Sefaseba unda iyos xSiri da mravalmxrivi. unda Sefasdes aramarto informaciis floba, aramed SeZenili unar - Cvevebi, azrovnebis demonstrirebis formebi da sxva. saswavlo procesis warmatebiT warmarTvisaTvis sakmarisi ar aris moswavle mxolod sakontroloebis da testebis Sedegebis safuZvelze Sefasdes. maswavlebeli moswavles unda afasebdes dakvirvebis Sedegad dagrovili monacemebis, namuSevrebis krebulebis, prezentaciebis, moswavlisave TviTSefasebis, jgufuri muSaobis Tu sxva tipis aqtivobebis mixedviT. maswavlebelma Sefasebisas unda gaiTvaliswinos moswavlis saganmanaTleblo procesSi CarTulobis xarisxi (saxlSi micemuli davalebis Sesrulebis xarisxi, gakveTilze aqtiuroba, SemoqmedebiToba da sxva). aucilebelia, moswavlem winaswar icodes, Tu ra kriteriumebiT fasdeba misi saswavlo aqtivoba. SesaZlebelia, maswavlebelma Sefasebis kriteriumebi moswavleebTan erTad SeimuSaos. ar unda dagvaviwydes moswavleTa SesaZleblobebis, individualurobisa da TviTmyofadobis gaTvaliswineba. Sefasebis kriteriumebi im misaRwevi Sedegebidan gamomdinareobs, rasac maswavlebeli isaxavs gakveTilis an erTi Temis Seswavlisas. dabali niSniT Sefaseba disciplinaruli sasjelis motiviT ar aris gamarTlebuli. sagnis niSani gamoxatavs moswavlis akademiur moswrebas. moswavle arasaTanado saqcielisTvis (romelic pirdapir ar aris dakavSirebuli saswavlo procesTan) sagnis niSniT ar unda daisajos. mag. Tu moswavle atyuebs maswavlebels da davalebas sxvisgan iwers, es uRirsi saqcielia, romelic pirdapir aris dakavSirebuli moswavlis akademiur moswrebasTan. am SemTxvevaSi savsebiT rekomendebulia dabali niSniT Sefaseba. magram im SemTxvevaSi, Tu, magaliTad, moswavlem gakveTilze saklaso oTaxi daanagviana, amisTvis dabali niSnis dawera gaumarTlebelia. Tu moswavle gakveTilebze arasaTanadod iqceva, es avtomaturad imoqmedebs mis akademiur moswrebaze, rac Sesabamisad niSnavs, rom moswavlis akademiuri moswreba mis SesaZleblobebTan SedarebiT dabali iqneba. .

V- 2

niSnebis weris sistema

Sefasebis sistema aTquliania. 10 saukeTeso niSania, 1 ki ­ yvelaze dabali. aTquliani sistema met saSualebas aZlevs maswavlebels, rom moswavles akademiur moswrebaSi progresi da regresi daanaxos. doneebi niSnebi susti damakmayofilebeli saSualo maRali

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

oficialuri statusi aqvs Semdeg niSnebs: 1. sagnis trimestruli niSani ­ saganSi miRebuli Sefaseba TiToeul trimestrSi; 2. sagnis wliuri niSani ­ trimestruli niSnebidan gamomdinare Sefaseba saganSi; 3. saerTo wliuri niSani ­ niSani, romelic gamoxatavs yvela sagnis Sefasebis erTobliobas; 4. saerTo safexuris niSani ­ dawyebiTi, sabazo da saSualo safexurebis saerTo Sefaseba.

sagnis wliuri niSani

moswavle TiToeuli trimestris bolos iRebs trimestrul Sefasebas. wlis bolos maswavlebeli am sami trimestruli Sefasebis safuZvelze saganSi saboloo niSans wers. ar aris aucilebeli, rom sagnis wliuri niSani trimestruli niSnebis zusti saSualo ariTmetikuli iyos. dasaSvebia minimaluri gadaxra saSualo ariTmetikulis Sedegis damrgvalebisas, moswavlis progresisa Tu regresis gaTvaliswinebiT.

trimestruli niSnis Semadgeneli komponentebis ganawileba:

moswavlis niSani unda gamomdinareobdes mis mier sagnis Seswavlis sxvadasxva komponentebisgan. am komponentebs maswavlebeli adgens da TiToeul maTgans Tavis wonas aniWebs. gTavazobT variants, rodesac maswavlebeli trimestrul niSans oTxi parametris gaTvaliswinebiT

26

wers. kerZod, sagakveTilo procesSi CarTulobis, Semajamebeli samuSaoebis, saSinao davalebis Sesrulebisa da prezentaciis mixedviT. diagramaze Cans, romeli komponentebia maswavleblisTvis ufro mniSvnelovani. SefasebisTvis SegiZliaT sxva kriteriumebic airCioT.

Semajamebeli samuSao 30 %

sagakveTilo procesSi CarTuloba 40 %

V-3

Sefasebis kriteriumebi

saSinao davaleba 15 %

prezentacia 15 %

prezentacia: fasdeba Semdegi unarebi azris Camoyalibebisa da mowodebis unari unari fasdeba Semdegi aqtivobebiT - auditoriasTan urTierToba - Sesabamisi terminebis floba da adekvaturi gamoyeneba - monacemebis sxvadasxvagvari saSualebebiT (grafiki, sqema, cxrili, diagrama, naxati, foto, CamonaTvali) warmodgena komunikaciis (monacemebis organizebisa da warmodgenis) unari - kvlevis Sedegebis prezentacia - proeqtis prezentacia SemoqmedebiTobis unari - individualuri/jgufuri namuSevrebis prezentacia - saSinao davalebis prezentacia sagakveTilo procesSi CarTuloba: fasdeba Semdegi unarebi unari fasdeba Semdegi aqtivobebiT - gansaxilvel sakiTxebze kiTxvis dasma, pasuxis gacema, dasabuTeba - Seswavlil sakiTxebze varaudis gamoTqma - dasmuli problemis gadaWris gzis SeTavazeba - eqsperimentis Catareba - usafrTxoebis wesebis dacva - jgufur muSaobaSi monawileoba - ganxiluli movlenebisa da procesebisadmi sakuTari damokidebulebis gamoxatva - saklaso diskusia - eqsperimenti - savele samuSao - modelis Seqmna - proeqti (moklevadiani da grZelvadiani)

yuradRebis mobilizebis unari problemis dasmis da misi gadaWris unari kvleviTi unar-Cvevebi TanamSromlobis unari

Semajamebeli samuSao (individualuri): fasdeba Semdegi unarebi unari fasdeba Semdegi aqtivobebiT

miRebuli codnis Sejamebis, analizis da daskvnis gamotanis unari - testuri davalebis Sesruleba miRebuli codnis konkretul - damoukidebeli weriTi davalebebis Sesruleba sakiTxTan dakavSirebis unari - Temis konceptualuri rukis Sedgena weriTi unar-Cveva drois limitis dacvis unari namuSevris organizebis unari saSinao davaleba: fasdeba Semdegi unarebi informaciis moZiebis unari dakvirvebis da aRweris unari klasifikaciis unari modelirebis unar-Cveva weriTi unar-Cveva namuSevris organizebis unari SemoqmedebiTobis unari unari fasdeba Semdegi aqtivobebiT - sxvadasxva sainformacio wyaros gamoyeneba - Sesabamisi informaciis moZieba da analizi - saSinao davalebis Sesrulebis sistematuroba - weriTi samuSao - martivi kvleva - modelis Seqmna - proeqti (moklevadiani da grZelvadiani)

27

V- 4

aqtivobis Sefasebis nimuSebi

saSinao davaleba: informaciis moZieba (aqtivoba)

1-3 qula

informaciis moZiebis wyaro iyenebs mxolod sakuTar informacias

4-5 qula

iyenebs mxolod saxelmZRvanelos informacias

6-7 qula

iyenebs mxolod ramdenime sainformacio wyaros

8-10 qula

iyenebs mravalferovan sainformacio saSualebebs

moZiebuli informaciis Sesabamisoba mopovebuli informaciis organizeba (nusxa, cxrili, diagrama da sxva) moZiebuli informaciis analizi

masala ZiriTadad masala srulad masala ar aris masala nawilobriv Seesabameba Seesabameba sakiTxis Sesabamisi Seesabameba sakiTxs sakiTxs sakiTxs. masala ar aris organizebuli masala organizemasala kargad da masala nawilobriv bulia, magram mosaxerxebladaa rTulad organizebulia organizebuli aRsaqmeli nawilobriv miznobrivad iyenebs moZiebul masalas ZiriTadad mizno- miznobrivad brivad iyenebs iyenebs moZiebul moZiebul masalas masalas

ver iyenebs moZiebul masalas miznobrivad

sagakveTilo procesSi CarTuloba: eqsperimenti (aqtivoba)

1-3 qula

kvlevis miznis gansazRvra saWiro inventaris gansazRvra kvlevis Sedegis varaudi kvlevis mimdinareobis aRwera monacemebis aRricxva arasworad ayalibebs mizans

4-5 qula

nawilobriv sworad ayalibebs mizans

6-7 qula

ayalibebs mizans (sworad gansazRvravs mudmiv da damokidebul sidideebs)

8-10 qula

srulyofilad ayalibebs mizans, gansazRvravs specifikur detalebs

arasworad CamoTvlis yvela saWiro CamoTvlis saWiro CamoTvlis ZiriTad CamoTvlis saWiro masalas da masalebs saWiro masalas masalebs aRWurvilobas ver ayalibebs varauds arasworad CamoTvlis kvlevis procesis etapebs aRricxavs araswor monacemebs ayalibebs, magram ver asabuTebs Tavis varauds CamoTvlis kvlevis procesis zogierT etaps ayalibebs da nawilobriv asabuTebs Tavis varauds ayalibebs da asabuTebs Tavis varauds

CamoTvlis kvlevis detalurad procesis ZiriTad CamoTvlis kvlevis proetapebs cesis etapebs aRricxavs monacemebs srulad da sistemurad akeTebs monacemTa analizs da warmoadgens sxvadasxva gamomsaxvelobiTi saSualebebis gamoyenebiT akeTebs srulfasovan daskvnebs

aRricxavs monace- aRricxavs monacemebs nawilobriv mebs srulad, magda usistemod ram usistemod akeTebs monacemTa akeTebs monacemTa nawilobriv analanalizs izs akeTebs nawilobriv swor daskvnebs

monacemTa analizi

ver akeTebs monacemTa analizs ver akeTebs Sesabamis daskvnebs

daskvna

akeTebs ZiriTad daskvnebs

28

VI. samodelo gakveTilebi

samodelo gakveTilebiT gTavazobT rekomendaciebs da komentarebs gakveTilebis mimdinareobis Sesaxeb. es rekomendaciebi dogma ar aris: gakveTilis msvlelobisas SegiZliaT isargebloT Cveni rCevebiT, an sakuTari gamocdilebisa da Sexedulebisamebr warmarToT saswavlo procesi. zogierT savarjiSoSi moswavles fizikis codna moeTxoveba. Tu moswavles gavlili aqvs fizikis kursi, gamoiyeneT aqtivoba, romelsac win miTiTebuli aqvs niSani: "fiz." Tu fizika jer ar aqvs Seswavlili, maSin gamoiyeneT aqtivoba niSniT - "alt", anu alternatiuli varianti. sasurvelia, winaswar dagegmoT yoveli gakveTili. gakveTilis dagegmvisas SegiZliaT daicvaT moswavlis saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemuli gakveTilis Tanmimdevroba, an Sexedulebisamebr gadaaadgiloT aqtivobebi. mag., martivi eqsperimenti (mwvane fonze) SegiZliaT misceT saSinao davalebadac, an savarjiSoSi mocemuli davaleba gamoiyenoT aramxolod saSinao davalebad, aramed gakveTilis msvlelobis drosac. samodelo gakveTilebi: I-1 da II-6 imis magaliTi, Tu kidev rogor SeiZleba warimarTos es gakveTilebi - moswavlis wignSi mocemuli gakveTilis zusti msvlelobis nacvlad SemoTaAvazebulia gakveTilis msvlelobis alternatiuli variantebi. gakveTilebs miTiTebuli aqvs Sedegi, indikatori, mizani. Sedegi da indikatori gviCvenebs, Tu standartis romel nawils Seesabameba gakveTili/aqtivoba. mizani - aRniSnavs im specifikur codnas da unarCvevebs, rac am konkretuli gakveTiliT miiRweva. gakveTilis mimdinareobis etapebi mocemulia sqematurad cxrilis saxiT, xolo cxrilis Semdgom TiToeuli etapis detaluri aRweraa. SeZlebisdagvarad, sanimuSod SeirCa sxvadasxva tipis gakveTilebi: 1. mimdinare #- I-1. qimia - mecniereba bunebis Sesaxeb 2. mimdinare - II-6. masis mudmivobis kanoni 3. Semajamebeli - IV-6. Semajamebeli wera III 4. proeqti - VI-1. wyali bunebaSi 5. mimdinare - VI-2. wylis Sedgeniloba da Tvisebebi 6. Semajamebeli- semestris Semajamebeli gakveTili

samodelo gakveTilebi

gakv. I -1 qimia - mecniereba bunebis Sesaxeb (1-li gakveTili) Sedegi

1.moswavle aRwers nivTierebaTa Tvisebebs da msjelobs maTi cvlilebebis Sesaxeb. 1. asaxelebs yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi gamoyenebul nivTierebebs da msjelobs maTi Tvisebebis Sesaxeb.

indikatori mizani

sakuTari azris gamoTqmis, argumentaciis, sxvisi azris mosmenis, garemoze zrunvis unaris gamomuSaveba. efeqturi qimiuri cdiT moswavlis provocireba - cnobismoyvareobis, interesis aRZvra qimiuri movlenebisadmi. dakvirvebis unaris gavarjiSeba. qimiis mniSvnelobis gaazreba yofacxovrebaSi. nivTierebebis fizikuri da qimiuri Tvisebebis Seswavlis mniSvnelobis gaazreba.

gakveTilis mimdinareoba:

etapi aqtivoba asociacia moswavleebis organizeba mTeli klasi

dro

saWiro resursebi feradi carci metalis nivTi, natriumi, menzura, wyali, Wiqa. feradi carci -

Sefasebis forma dakvirveba dakvirveba dakvirveba -

I. II.

10 wT 10 wT 12 wT 10 wT 3 wT

informaciis miwodeba mTeli klasi individualuri

III. eqsperimenti IV. sqemis Sedgena V.

saSinao davaleba

29

I. asociacia

mizani arsebuli codnis donis gamovlena, moswavleebis komunikaciis unaris da metyvelebis kulturis Sefaseba, Tavisufali azrovnebis unaris ganviTareba. mimdinareoba: gTavazobT asociaciuri kavSirebis meTods: dafis centrSi dawereT sityva "qimia" (sasurvelia feradi carciT). klass hkiTxeT: ra asociacias giqmniT sityva "qimia"? sad SegxvedriaT sityvas "qimia"? rogor fiqrobT, ra aris "qimia"? TiToeuli mosazreba dawereT ZiriTadi sityvis garSemo (mag: laboratoria, cda, eqsperimenti, sasmeli, sakvebi, produqtebi, alqimia, qimiuri iaraRi da a.S.). hkiTxeT: rogor viyenebT yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi qimiis codnas? gvWirdeba Tu ara am sagnis codna? Tu moswavleebs uWirT am kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema, hkiTxeT: ras ikvleven qimiur laboratoriebSi? risTvis aris saWiroa aseTi kvlevebi? rogor unda gavigoT, ramdenad usafrTxoa ama Tu im sakvebi produqtis gamoyeneba? Sejameba es aqtivoba ise unda warimarTos, rom moswavleebma gamoitanon daskvna: qimiis codnas yoveldRiurad viyenebT yofacxovrebaSi, Sesabamisad, am sagnis Seswavla Tanamedrove adamianisTvis saintereso da aucilebelia.

II. informaciis miwodeba

miawodeT moswavleebs damatebiTi Tematuri informacia. moswavlis wignSi mocemuli informaciis garda, SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT qvemoTmocemuli damatebiTi masala an sxva masala Tqveni Sexedulebisamebr.

damatebiTi informacia: qimia - uZvelesi mecniereba: X saukuneSi eqvTime mTawmindelis mier berZnulidan naTargmn ZeglSi "cxovreba wminda bagratisa"qimia xelovnebis dargad aris moxseniebuli. saocrad srulyofilia XIV saukuneSi daviT bagrationiseuli qimiis ganmarteba: "qimia aars xelovneba, romlis ZaliT vpovebT yovlisa Tvisebas yovelTa sxeulisasa... da vcnobT nivTTa maT, romelTaganac Sedgmul ars sxeuli".

iazonma argonavtebTan erTad pontos zRviT kolxeTs miaRwia da oqros sawmisi moipova. ioane antioqelis (Cv. w. aR-mde VII s) gadmocemiT, es iyo tyavze naweri wigni, romelSic qimiis saSualebiT oqros miRebis meTodi iyo aRwerili. adamiani odiTgan cdilobda iseTi nivTierebis gamogonebas, romelic rkinas oqrod aqcevda. Zveli drois qimikosebis - alqimikosebis ocnebac es iyo. nivTierebas, romelic rkinas oqrod gadaaqcevda, "filosofiur qvas" uwodebdnen. oqros xelovnurad miReba, risTvisac amaod iRvwodnen alqimikosebi, mxolod Tanamedrove birTvuli fizikis da qimiis miRwevebma gaxada SesaZlebeli. dReisTvis mTel msoflioSi qimiur laboratoriebSi yoveldRiurad 200-ze meti axali nivTiereba miiReba. qimiuri mecnierebis ganviTareba saqarTveloSi Tbilisis saxelmwifo universitetis gaxsnas da misi pirveli reqtoris, cnobili qimikosis petre meliqiSvilis moRvaweobas ukavSirdeba. man daarsa universitetSi qimiis fakulteti da 1918 wels qarTul enaze qimiaSi pirveli leqcia waikiTxa.

alt.: qimia - bunebismetyvelebis nawili: buneba erTiania. adamianis mier dagrovil codnas bunebis, misi Semadgeneli nawilebisa da bunebaSi mimdinare movlenebis Sesaxeb "bunebismetyveleba" hqvia. am farTo cnebaSi ki SedarebiT viwro mecnierebebi - fizika, qimia da biologia moiazreba. bunebis Semswavleli mecnierebebi samyaroSi mimdinare movlenebs ikvleven. fizikuri, qimiuri da biologiuri movlenebi erTmaneTisgan damoukideblad ar xdeba, isini mWidro urTierTkavSirSia. magaliTad, fizikis mier aRmoCenili moZraobis kanonebiT gadaadgildebian umciresi nawilakebi, romelsac qimia Seiswavlis. aseve gadaadgildeba nebismieri cocxali organizmi, romelsac biologia Seiswavlis.

bunebaSi momxdari movlenebidan yvelaze martivsa da ZiriTads fizikur movlenebs uwodeben. fizika ikvlevs sagnebis iseT fizikur maxasiaTeblebs, rogoricaa simkvrive, masa, forma, feri. swavlobs Zalas da mis moqmedebas sagnebsa da movlenebze. biologia ikvlevs bunebis cocxal organizmebs da yvela cocxali organizmis Semadgenel umcires nawilebs - ujredebs, romlebSic uwyvetad mimdinareobs qimiuri da fizikuri procesebi. qimia ki nivTierebas da mis Semadgenel nawilakebs ikvlevs. "qimikosebma namdvilad ician, rogoraa mowyobili samyaro"- laines polingi. onkanSi momdinare Awyali, funTuSa, gemrieli saWmeli, tansacmeli, fexsacmeli, saRebavi, qaRaldi, romelzec es wignia dabeWdili da sxva uamravi, uaRresad saWiro sagani swored qimiis monapovaria. qimikosTa daZabuli Sromis gareSe ar gveqneboda teqnikis saocrebani - TviTmfrinavebi da raketebi, kino, televizia, radio, kompiuterebi, mobiluri telefonebi da uamravi ram. Cvens yovel amosunTqvas, azrovnebas, xalisianad yofnas Tu ugunebobas Cvens organizmSi mimdinare rTuli qimiuri procesebi ganapirobebs. rogori

30

haeriT visunTqoT? rodis ra wamali miviRoT? riT vikveboT? ra CavicvaT? rogor davisvenoT? da a.S. - am kiTxvebze pasuxis gacemas qimiis codna sWirdeba. uZveles droSi bunebis yvela mkvlevars filosofosi erqva, rac berZnulad "sibrZnis moyvaruls" niSnavs. dResdReisobiT bunebismetyvelebis da kerZod, qimiis safuZvlebis garkveva TiToeulisTvis iseve aucilebelia, rogorc wera - kiTxvis codna.

III. eqsperimenti

davainteresoT moswavle, Tu ratom unda gamoikvlios - risgan Sedgeba sxeuli, etapobrivad mizani gavacnoT laboratoriul inventars da nivTierebasTan muSaobis usafrTxoebis wesebs. mivaCvioT varaudis gamoTqmas da dasabuTebas. movamzadoT imisTvis, rom yvela gakveTili mxolod maTi monawileobiT warimarTeba da is pasiuri msmeneli ki ara, mkvlevari iqneba. mimarTeT klass: eqsperimenti laTinuri sityvaa da qarTulad cdas, raimes ganxorcielebis mcdelobas niSnavs. eqsperimentis dros mkvlevari xelovnurad qmnis pirobebs, raTa misTvis saintereso movlenas daakvirdes. mimdinareoba

fiz.: eqsperimentis dawyebamde moswavleebs sTxoveT, gaixsenon fizikis kursidan arawesieri formis sxeulis moculobis gazomvis wesi: menzuraSi asxamen wyals da iniSnaven Cvenebas. Semdeg masSi sxeuls aTavseben da kvlav iniSnaven Cvenebas. menzuris am or Cvenebas Soris sxvaoba gvaZlevs sxeulis moculobas. Tu sxeuli menzuraSi ar eteva, maSin wyliT savse menzuras ufro ganier WurWelSi dgamen. sxeuls wyalSi aTavseben da menzuridan ganier WurWelSi gadmoRvrili wylis moculobas sxva menzuriT zomaven (fizika, gakv. I-4). alt.: gaacaniT moculobis gazomvis zemoTaRniSnuli wesi.

mimarTeT klass: gavzomoT sxvadasxva nivTierebisgan damzadebuli sxeulis moculoba. aiReT raime metalis sxeuli (samkauli, kovzi da sxva) da moculobis gazomvis zemoTaRniSnuli wesiT daadgineT misi moculoba. cdis Semdeg kidev erTxel hkiTxeT klass: SesaZlebelia Tu ara arawesieri sxeulis moculobis gansazRvra? (SesaZlebelia). Seicvala Tu ara Tavad sxeuli? (ara). fiz.: rogor movlenasTan gvaqvs saqme? (fizikurTan). gaagrZeleT eqsperimenti: axla moswavleebs aCveneT natriumis naWeri, romelic pincetiT giWiravT. hkiTxeT: ratom miWiravs es sxeuli pincetiT? moswavlem SesaZloa gipasuxoT, rom es sxeuli Zalian mcire zomisaa da misi xeliT aReba mouxerxebelia. aseT SemTxvevaSi hkiTxeT: ratom xmaroben zogjer diasaxlisebi WurWlis recxvisas rezinis xelTaTmans? moswavlem unda ivaraudos, rom SesaZloa, es sxeuli Sexebisas kans azianebdes. daeTanxmeT da dasZineT, rom qimikosi kvlevebs yovelTvis didi sifrTxiliT atarebs da safrTxis Tavidan asacileblad Sesabamis laboratoriuli inventars iyenebs. mimarTeT klass: sxeuli, romelic Cvens winaSea, aris rbili movercxlisfro-TeTri metali, natriumi. is daniT advilad iWreba, is Sedis sufris marilis SedgenilobaSi. davadginoT am sxeulis moculoba. CauSviT natriumi wyalSi. qimiuri reaqciis dasrulebis Semdeg klass hkiTxeT: rogor fiqrobT, sad gaqra nivTiereba natriumi? moswavleebma SesaZloa gipasuxon, rom is wyalSi gaixsna. daeTanxmeT da hkiTxeT: rogor fiqrobT, rogor unda davadginoT WiqaSi arsebuli nivTierebis Tvisebebi da Sedgeniloba? (savaraudod, gipasuxeben, rom saWiroa am nivTierebis gamokvleva). gaamaxvileT yuradReba imaze, rom nivTierebis gamokvleva aramc da aramc ar gulisxmobs ucnobi nivTierebis gemos gasinjvas, an xeliT Sexebas: WiqaSi miRebuli nivTierebis kanze moxvedra damwvrobas iwvevs. Tu risgan Sedgeba es nivTiereba, momdevno gakveTilebze Tavad gamoikvleven. hkiTxeT: am meTodiT yvela sxeulis moculobis dadgenas SesaZlebeli? (ara). masasadame, nebismieri nivTierebisgan damzadebuli sxeulis moculobas am wesiT ver davadgenT. yvela nivTiereba janmrTelobisTvis usafrTxo ar aris. maSasadame, saWiroa sxeulis Semadgeneli nivTierebis Tvisebebis codna.

ia ac nd me ko re

Sejameba

Tu nivTiereba natriumi ar gaqvT, maSin nax. 2-is mixedviT etapobrivad axseniT reaqciis mimdinareoba. SesaZlebelia sxva efeqturi cdis Catarebac. mag: xelovnuri vulkani. hkiTxeT: ra aris vulkani? (konusuri mTa, romlis krateridan amoifrqveva gavarvarebuli mdnari masa - lava). (NH4)2Cr2O7 - amoniumis (narinjisferi) biqromati patara muyaoze an ficarze dayareT. mieciT konusis forma. aanTeT asanTiT.

31

IV. sqema: "ras Seiswavlis qimia"

mizani am gakveTilze miRebuli informaciis analizi da ganzogadeba. daxazeT dafaze ujrebi:

qimia Seiswavlis

mimdinareoba

kiTxva: riT gansxvavdeba erTmaneTisgan ori sxeuli, romlTa moculobis gazomvac vcadeT? (savaraudoa, rom gipasuxeben: formiT, zomiT, feriT, wyalSi gaxsnis unariT) daeTanxmeT da uTxariT, rom es nivTierebis Tvisebebia. CawereT pirvel ujraSi "nivTierebis Tvisebebs". auxseniT: qimia swavlobs imasac, Tu risgan Sedgeba natriumis wyalSi gaxsnis Sedegad miRebuli nivTiereba - e. i. nivTierebis Sedgenilobas. me-2 ujraSi CawereT "nivTierebis Sedgenilobas". kiTxva: ra SeniSneT natriumis wyalSi gaxsnisas? (gamoiyo sinaTle, siTbo, airi). daeTanxmeT da uTxariT, rom qimia nivTierebis qimiur gardaqmnas da gardaqmnis Tanmxleb movlenebs swavlobs. Sejameba qimia sabunebismetyvelo mecnierebaa, romelic swavlobs nivTierebis Sedgenilobas, mis Tvisebebs, gardaqmnebs da gardaqmnebis Tanmxleb movlenebs.

V. saSinao davaleba

1) sav. 1.warmoadginos Tavisufali Tema: "rogor warmovidgine qimia" (Tundac erTi abzaci). 2) saSinao rveulSi gadaitanon da Seavson mesame eqsperimentSi mocemuli cxrili (gv. 6). davalebis warmodgenisas saSualeba mieciT, SeZlebisdagvarad Seafason mecnierul - teqnikuri progresis dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebi. savarjiSos Sefasebis nimuSi: 1-3 qula masala ar aris informaciis sakiTxis Sesabamisoba Sesabamisi masala ar aris informaciis organizebuli organizeba cxrilis saxiT 4-5 qula warmoadgens mxolod 2 magaliTs 6-7 qula warmoadgens 5 magaliTs 8-10 qula warmoadgens 10 magaliTs

cxrili Sevsebulia Sevsebulia cxrilis srulad, magram mxolod I da II sveti rTulad aRsaqmelia warmodgenil masalas masalas ver wariyenebs TvalsaCimoadgens zepiri noebad, uWirs samecformiT, mTlianad niero-teqnikuri proCanawerebs eyrdnoba gresis Sefaseba

masala kargad da mosaxerxeblad aris organizebuli

uWirs warmodprezentacigenili masalis is unari mowodeba

warmodgenil masalas iyenebs TvalsaCinoebad da sworad afasebs samecniero -teqnikuri progresis Sedegebs

3) sav. 2: klasi winaswar dayaviT 3 jgufad: fizikosebi, qimikosebi, biologebi. sTxoveT, SearCion Sesabamisi profesiebi da moamzadon prezentacia. urCieT, rom muSaoba gauadvildebaT, Tu erTi jgufis wevrebi gainawileben profesiebs, moamzadeben Sesabamis informacias da gaacnoben jgufis sxva wevrebs. mag., Tu fizikosebis jgufSi 5 wevria, ori wevri amzadebs informacias astronomis, ori - mSeneblebis saqmianobis Sesaxeb. erTi aerTianebs am informacias da prezentaciis saxes aZlevs. davalebas warmoadgens TiToeuli jgufis erTi wevri. davalebis Sesasruleblad mieciT dro. mag., prezentacia warmoadginon momdevno kviris pirvel gakveTilze. 4) sav. 3. mTlianad mivandoT bavSvis azrovnebas.

32

gakv. II - 6 masis mudmivobis kanoni (me-13 gakveTili) Sedegi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. cdis procesSi akvirdeba fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis garegnul niSnebs, monacemebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT da msjelobs maT Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb. movlenebis aRwerisas iyenebs Sesabamis terminologias, qimiur movlenebs sqematurad gamosaxavs.

indikatori mizani

dakvirvebis, aRweris, Sedarebis, komunikaciis, hipoTezis gamoTqmis da Semowmebis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba. masis mudmivobis kanonis dadgena. am kanonis praqtikuli mniSvnelobis gaazreba.

gakveTilis mimdinareoba:

etapi aqtivoba saSinao davalebis wardgena axal cnebamde etapobrivi misvla eqsperimenti moswavleebis organizeba wyvilebi, mTeli klasi (diskusiaze) mTeli klasi jgufebSi individualuri individualuri

dro

saWiro resursebi warmodgenili cxrili carci asanTi, saswori, qila samuSao rveuli/furceli -

Sefasebis forma cxrilis Semowmeba dakvirveba dakvirveba Canaweris Semowmeba -

I. II III.

15 wT 8 wT 10-15wT 5-10 wT 2 wT

IV. amocana V.

saSinao davaleba

I. saSinao davalebis wardgena

dakvirvebis, aRricxvis, aRweris, hipoTezis gamoTqmis, monacemTa interpretaciis unar-Cvevis mizani ganviT^areba. mimdinareoba wina gakveTilze moswavles daevala II-6 gakveTilis (gv. 34) praqtikuli samuSaos saxlSi Sesruleba. gverdigverd msxdom moswavleebs sTxoveT, erTmaneTs namuSevrebi gaucvalon da sakuTari monacemebi megobris monacemebs Seadaron. gaarCion sadao sakiTxebi. warmodgenili davaleba SegiZliaT SeafasoT: 1-3 qula kvlevis mimdinareobis aRwera monacemebis aRricxva 4-5 qula 6-7 qula CamoTvlis kvlevis procesis ZiriTad etapebs 8-10 qula detalurad CamoTvlis kvlevis procesis etapebs

arasworad CamoTvlis kvlevis CamoTvlis kvleprocesis zogierT vis procesis etaps etapebs aRricxavs araswor monacemebs monacemebs nawilobriv da usistemod aRricxavs masala nawilobriv organizebulia cxrilis saxiT

adgens sawyisi da saboloo monacemebs srulad, monacemebis cxrils da Semomagram usistemod aqvs pirobiTi aRniSvnebi. mag. aRricxavs mrZis, M mlim, mfilt, m naleqi masala aris orgamasala srulyofilad da nizebuli cxrilis mosaxerxeblad aris orgasaxiT, magram nizebuli cxrilis saxiT rTulad aRsaqmelia akeTebs monacemTa analizs mxolod zepiri formiT da ar iyenebs sailustracio Canawerebs akeTebs monacemTa analizs, warmoadgens sqematur Canawers (mag., rZe + lim. wveni = siTxe + naleqi) da maTematikur gamosaxulebas: mrZis + M mlim = mfilt + mnaleqi.

mopovebuli informaciis organizeba

masala ar aris organizebuli cxrilis saxiT

monacemTa analizi

analizi ver akeTebs Semoifargleba monacemTa analmxolod monacemTa izs aRweriT

33

dasviT kiTxvebi da klasis mier mowodebuli pasuxi dafaze kiTxvis gaswvriv dawereT: 1. ra raodenobis reagentebi aiReT? 2. rogori narevi miiReT? 3. ra movlenasTan gvaqvs saqme? 4. ra niSniT mimdinareobs es movlena? Sejameba dawereT dafaze: > < = " miRebuli nivTierebebis masa" " miRebuli nivTierebebis masa" " miRebuli nivTierebebis masa" (1) (2) (3) 100 g, 5 g araerTgvarovani qimiurTan naleqi gamoiyofa

"sawyisi nivTierebebis masa" "sawyisi nivTierebebis masa" "sawyisi nivTierebebis masa"

CaatareT kenWisyra. kiTxva: vinc fiqrobs, rom (1) toloba Tqveni cdis Sedegebs sworad asaxavs, aswieT xeli. daiTvaleT xmebis raodenoba da miuwereT gverdze. da ase Semdegi ori kiTxvisTvisac. SemoxazeT is pasuxi, romelic yvelaze met xmas moagrovebs.

III. axal cnebamde etapobrivi misvla

movlenis modelirebis da Sedegebis ganzogadebis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba, wina gakveTilis mizani masalis aTvisebis Semowmeba. mimdinareoba mimarTeT klass: modiT, SevamowmoT kenWisyris Sedegebi. erT-erT moswavles sTxoveT, dafaze wylis molekulis daSlis procesi grafikulad gamosaxos:

+

+

hkiTxeT: iSleba Tu ara qimiuri reaqciis dros molekula? (diax). atomi? (ara). rogor fiqrob, Jangbadis atomis da wyalbadis atomebis masaTa jami toli iqneba Tu ara wylis molekulis masis? (diax). ratom? (radgan atomebi ar qrebian, aramed sxva atomebTan erTad warmoqmnian axal molekulas an damoukideblad arsebobas agrZeleben). vinc swor pasuxs ver mogawvdiT, sTxoveT, kargad gaecnos wina gakveTils. nebismieri reaqciis produqtebis masa reagentebis saerTo masis tolia. axla Tavad SeafaseT, romeli gamosaxulebaa swori (3). ganumarteT, rom maT daadgines bunebis erT-erTi ZiriTadi kanoni, romelsac masis mudmivobis kanons uwodeben.

IV. eqsperimenti

mizani axali masalis ganmtkiceba, jgufuri muSaobis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba. mimdinareoba klasi 3-4 wevrian jgufebad dayaviT. sTxoveT, Caataron eqsp. 2. jgufis wevrebi inawileben funqciebs. erTi moswavle atarebs eqsperiments, meore - akeTebs Canawers, danarCeni ori ki ganxilvaSi monawileobs. sTxoveT, gaaanalizon da gamoTqvan varaudi: ratom ar aris aRebuli asanTis masa miRebuli naxSiris masis toli? ewinaaRmdegeba Tu ara es faqti masis mudmivobis kanons? Tu maTi varaudi mcdaria, Tavad CaatareT eqsperimenti 3 da sTxoveT, am eqsperimentis Sedegebi eqsperimenti 2-is Sedegebs Seadaron. Sejameba SeuZlebelia nivTiereba arafrisgan warmoiqmnas, an arafrad iqces. Tu gveCveneba, rom movlenebis dros nivTiereba arafrisgan miiReba an ukvalod qreba, es niSnavs, rom procesSi monawile da miRebuli yvela nivTiereba ar gaviTvaliswineT.

V. individualuri amocana

mizani damoukidebeli azrovnebis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba. klass daavaleT, Seasrulon sav. 1. mimdinareoba

Sejameba masis mudmivobis kanonis gamoyenebiT SeiZleba erT-erTi reagentis an erT-erTi produqtis masis dadgena, Tu cnobilia danarCeni nivTierebebis masebi. SeafaseT moswavleebis namuSevari. amocana ar aris rTuli, amitom mniSvnelovania, moswavle davalebis sworad organizebas mivaCvioT:

34

1-3 qula

4-5 qula

6-7 qula

8-10 qula

Canaweri warmoadgens Canaweri warmxolod maTematikur Sesabamis moadgens mxolod gamoTvlebs gamosaxulebas, ar aris saboloo Sedegs miTiTebuli ganzomileba ver atarebs (4 g) (36-32 = 4)

Canaweri warmoadgens wylis daSlis sqemas Sesabamisi raodenobrivi aRniSvnebiT: wyali = wyalbadi + Jangbadi

36 g = 32 g + X = 36 g - 32 g = 4 g Xg

VI. saSinao davaleba

daavaleT, Seasrulon gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebi (2), (3) da eqsperimenti 4. survilis SemTxvevaSi gaimeoron pirveli da meore eqsperimenti, an moifiqron msgavsi eqsperimentebi.

gakv. IV - 6 Semajamebeli wera III (32-e gakveTili) mizani

miRebuli codnis Sejameba - gaanalizeba. misi sistemaSi moyvana, drois zusti ganawileba, damoukideblad muSaobis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba.

gakveTilis mimdinareoba:

etapi aqtivoba mimoxilva codnis Semowmeba saSinao davaleba moswavleebis organizeba mTeli klasi individualuri

dro

Sefasebis forma dakvirveba Canawerebis Semowmeba

I. II III.

10 wT 30 wT 5 wT

I. mimoxilva - ganvlili masalis mokle mimoxilva

dafaze dawereT: "atomuri da molekuluri masa", "masuri Tanafardoba da masuri wili", "nivTierebis moluri masa". mokled mimoixileT aRniSnuli Temebi.

II. codnis Semowmeba

IV Tavis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebi gaanawileT variantebis mixedviT: sakiTxi 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Sefaseba: I varianti savarjiSo 1, (g) savarjiSo 6, savarjiSo 7, savarjiSo 10 savarjiSo 19, savarjiSo 20, savarjiSo 22 (a) (a) (a) (a) II varianti savarjiSo 1, (d) savarjiSo 6, savarjiSo 7, savarjiSo 11 savarjiSo 19, savarjiSo 20, savarjiSDo 23 (b) (b) (g) (g)

sakiTxi

0. 5 qula

arasworad atarebs gamoTvlebs

1, 2, 3, 5, 6

sav.

4, 7

0. 5 qula adgens reaqciis sworad atarebs gamoTvlebs, magram gantolebas da ver masala ar aris organizebuli atarebs gamoTvlebs

0.8 qula 1 qula atarebs mxolod maTematikur gamoT- etapobrivad atarebs vlebs da ar miuTiTebs Sesabamis for- gamoTvlebs, miuTiTebs Sesabamis mulebs, ar aCvenebs amoxsnis etapebs formulebs 2 qula 2.5 qula

sworad atarebs gamoTvlebs, masala kargad aris organizebuli

III. saSinao davaleba

1) moswavle gaecnos axali Tavis (haeri) pirvel gverdze (gv. 81) mocemul informacias. 2) haerSi Jangbadis moculobiTi wilis dasadgenad praqtikuli samuSaos (gv. 82 - dan) Sesruleba SegiZliaT saSinao davalebad misceT.

35

gakv. V-2 Sedegi

JaAngbadi bunebaSi (34-e gakveTili)

4. moswavle axasiaTebs haers. 4. msjelobs organizmisTvis haeris zogierTi komponentis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb. agrovebs informacias haeris dabinZurebis mizezebisa da maTi Tavidan acilebis saSualebebis Sesaxeb, akeTebs prezentacias.

indikatori mizani

informaciis Sefasebis, damuSavebis da daxarisxebis, analizis, sinTezis, komunikaciis, individualuri da jgufuri muSaobis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba.

gakveTilis mimdinareoba:

etapi aqtivoba saDSinao davalebis wardgena "mozaika" prezentacia moswavleebis organizeba individualuri jgufuri individualuri individualuri

dro resursebi

Sefasebis forma dakvirveba Canawerebis Semowmeba -

I. II III.

7 wT 30 wT 8 wT -

furclebi, pasta -

IV. saSinao davaleba

I. saSinao davalebis wardgena

SesaZlebelia, SeamowmoT yvela moswavlis Canaweri, an sxvadasxva savarjiSos warmosadgenad SearCioT sxvadasxva moswavle da klasTan erTad SeafasoT maTi namuSevrebi.

II. mozaika

mizani gakveTilis calkeuli sakiTxebis erT Temad Sekvra ("mozaika"). individualuri da jgufuri muSaobis wesebis SemuSaveba. urTierTswavlebis, TanamSromlobis, monacemebis interpretaciis, informaciis klasifikaciis, garemoze zrunvis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba. urTierTobis procesSi "piradi sivrcis" mniSvnelobis gacnobiereba. mimdinareoba a) klasis jgufebad dayofa. (dro 10 wT). klasi gaiTvlis "erTi, "ori", "sami" da sxdebian samkacian jgufebad. jgufis TiToeul wevrs gasacnobad gakveTilis erTi sakiTxi eZleva: jgufis 1-el wevrs: Jangbadi, me- 2 wevrs: ozoni, me-3 wevrs: ozonis Sre. moswavleebi teqstze damoukideblad muSaoben. isini furclebze yuradRebiT iniSnaven: ra aris ucnobi, nacnobi, gaurkveveli. davalebis Sesrulebisas pedagogi naklebad ereva moswavleebis muSaobaSi. b) eqspertTa jgufebis Seqmna. (dro 10 wT). iqmneba axali jgufebi: yvela jgufis 1-li nomrebi sxdebian erT jgufad, me-2 nomrebi qmnian meore jgufs, me-3 nomrebi - mesame jgufs. axal jgufebs eZlevaT axali davaleba: saerTo sakiTxis damuSaveba: azusteben sadao sakiTxebs, mimdinareobs urTierTswavleba, analizi da daskvnebis gamotana. Seajereben erTmaneTis codnas da furcelze akeTeben sakiTxis Sesabamis gegmas, sqemas, CaAnaxats. yuradRebas aqceven axal terminebs da sakiTxs srulyofil saxes aZleven. g) sakiTxebis erT Temad gaerTianeba. (dro 10 wT). eqspertebi brundebian Zvel jgufebSi. TiToeuli eqsperti Tavis namuSevars jgufis danarCen or wevrs acnobs. jgufebSi xdeba sami Temis gaerTianeba da prezentaciisTvis momzadeba. d) prezentacia. dro 10 wT. SesaZlebelia prezentaciis ramdenime formiT Catareba: a) erTi jgufi waradgens mTlian Temas. danarCeni ori - amatebs gamorCenil informacias. b) erTi jgufi waradgens Temis romelime erT nawils. meore - meore nawils, mesame - mesame nawils. saukeTeso prezentaciaSi monawile moswavleebi Sesabamis Sefasebas miiReben. Sejameba urTierTTanamSromlobis, sxvisi azris mosmenisa da gaziarebis Sedegad SesaZlebelia swori da srulyofili daskvnebis gakeTeba. swored amitom aris aucilebeli iswavloT sxvisi azris mosmena, sakuTari azris gamoTqma da swori daskvnebis gamotana.

IV. saSinao davaleba

gakveTilis dasrulebisas daavaleT mTeli gakveTilis sistemaSi moyvana da gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebis Sesruleba.

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gakv. VI - I Sedegi

wyali bunebaSi / proeqti (sarezervo saaTi)

5. moswavle axasiaTebs wylis Tvisebebs. msjelobs xsnarebis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb. 5. moswavle agrovebs informacias bunebrivi wylis dabinZurebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb, gamoTqvams varauds wylis dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis saSualebebze.

indikatori mizani

informaciis Segrovebis, damuSavebis da daxarisxebis, analizis, komunikaciis, individualuri da jgufuri muSaobis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba. Camouyalibdes garemomcvel samyaroze zrunvis unar-Cvevebi, gamoumuSavdes kritikuli azrovnebisa unari, gaacnobieros adamianTa TanamSromlobis aucilebloba, CaerTos sazogadoebriv saqmianobaSi. ganuviTardes sxvaTa azris dafasebis da gaziarebis unari, gansazRvros sakuTari adgili sazogadoebaSi. es proeqti ar aris Setanili Cvens mier warmodgenil saaTobriv badeSi, amitom misi etapebis gacnobisa da Semdgom prezentaciisTvis sasurvelia sarezervo saaTebis gamoiyeneba. dagegmeT isini gakv. VI-1-is Semdeg uaxloes periodSi, an SesaZlebelia TAavi: "wyali"-s axsna daiwyoT am prezentaciiT.

proeqti "wyali sicocxlea"

masala: fotoaparati, qaRaldi, webo, flomasterebi, saRebavi, video-kamera da sxva masala saWiroebis mixedviT. mimarTeT klass: dReisTvis dedamiwaze sufTa wylis problema arsebobs da amitom udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba wylis damcavi RonisZiebebis gatarebas. am procesSi Tqvenc aucileblad unda CaerToT. saxelmwifosa da saerTaSoriso organizaciebTan erTad saWiroa, rom TiToeulma CvenTaganma am problemis mogvarebis saqmeSi mciredi wvlilis Setana mainc scados .

I. gonebrivi ieriSi

gamoiyeneT gonebrivi ieriSis meTodi (ix. gv. 20). kiTxva: rogor davicvaT wyali dabinZurebisgan? yvela pasuxi CamowereT dafaze (gameorebis SemTxvevaSic ki). bolos gaaanalizeT isini da SemoxazeT gansxvavebuli ideebi. Sejameba: problemis mosagvareblad mxolod erTi RonisZiebis gatareba ar iqneba efeqturi. saWiroa yvelam vizrunoT da problemis mosagvareblad yvela SesaZlo saSualeba gamoviyenoT.

II. diskusia

gamoiyeneT diskusiis xerxi "mikrofoni", romlis drosac Tqvens mier dasmul SekiTxvaze pasuxis gacema mxolod im moswavles SeuZlia, romelsac "mikrofons" gadascemT. "mikrofonis" naclad SegiZliaT vizualurad msgavsi nebismieri sagani gamoiyenoT. kiTxva: romel wyals iyenebT sasmelad? aris Tu ara janmrTelobisTvis saSiSi gausufTavebeli wylis daleva? ratom? rogor SegiZliaT daadginoT misi sisufTave? ra meTods mimarTavT mRvrie wylis gasasufTaveblad? ras unda Seicavdes sasmeli wyali aucileblad? ratom aris aucilebeli wylis gasufTaveba, vidre is momxmarebels miewodeba? saWiroa Tu ara mdinareSi Camdinare wylis damuSaveba? rogor fiqrobT, sadamde SeiZleba am problemam migviyvanos? Sejameba: wylis sisufTaveze zrunva aucilebelia. Cveni qmedebebi konkretuli, saqmiani da mizanmimarTuli rom iyos, erT-erTi efeqturi saSualeba proeqtebis SemuSaveba da ganxorcielebaa. rogor vimuSaoT proeqtze?

III. jgufis Sedgena

proeqtis dawyebis win mxedvelobaSi unda miviRoT jgufebis sidide (patara - 3- 5 moswavle, didi - 6-8 moswavle). sasurvelia, moswavleebma TviTon Camoayalibon jgufebi, radgan am SemTxvevaSi konfliqtebis naklebi SesaZleblobaa.

IV. proeqtis gegmis Sedgena

gegma unda moicavdes punqtebs: problemis gansazRvra, problemis gadaWris gza, upiratesoba.

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1) problemis gansazRvra: - problemis zogadi mimoxilva; - arsebuli mdgomareobis Sefaseba (moswavlem an jgufma unda aRweros wylis dabinZurebis konkretuli SemTxveva da Semdgom daasabuTos arsebul mdgomareobaSi cvlilebebis Setanis aucilebloba. mag., romelime sawarmo mdinares abinZurebs. mosaxleoba mdinaris wyals miwis nakveTebis mosarwyavad iyenebs, ramac SeiZleba mosavlianobis Semcireba an moyvanili produqtis xarisxis gauareseba gamoiwvios); - problemis mizezi - ram gamoiwvia problema (mag., sawarmo ar icavs usafrTxoebis normebs, ar aqvs safiltri danadgarebi an aqvs Zalzed moZvelebuli); - ratom ver gadaiWra problema dRemde (amJamad arsebuli politika ver Wris problemas an saerTod ar arsebobs saTanado politika. vis miuZRvis brali am problemis warmoqmnaSi); - problemis mougvareblobis SemTxvevaSi mosalodneli uaryofiTi Sedegebis ganxilva. 2) problemis gadaWris gza: dacviTi RonisZiebebis gegmis (samoqmedo gegmis) SemuSaveba da ganxorcieleba. unda ganisazRvros: vin aris CarTuli TiToeuli etapis ganxorcielebaSi da ra resursebi sWirdeba mas. samoqmedo gegma: etapi I. dabinZurebis wyaros dasadgenad saWiro informaciis moTxovnisTvis Sesabamisi adresatebis gansazRvra. gasvliTi RonisZiebebis dagegmva da fotomasalis mogroveba. jgufma, rogorc Ziebis mTavari nawili, SeiZleba intervius forma gamoiyenos. moswavles unda avuxsnaT, rom saWiroa man winaswar Seagrovos informacia dasasmel kiTxvebze da savaraudo pasuxebze. unda vurCioT, rom gamoxaton respodentTa pativiscema im SemTxvevaSic ki, roca maTi pozicia erTmaneTisgan gansxvavdeba . jgufma proeqtze muSaobisas sazogadoebasTan kavSirebi unda gamonaxos. partniorebi SeiZleba iyvnen mSoblebi, saskolo Stati, saxelmwifo mosamsaxureni, organizaciebi, romelTac Sexeba aqvT im sakiTxebTan, rac moswavles awuxebs: masalebis an wyaroebis miwodeba. etapi II. miRebuli informaciis analizi da Sesabamisi organizaciebis informireba mxardaWeris moTxovniT. etapi III. TiToeuli etapis ganxorcielebaze pasuxismgebeli piris arCeva da Sesabamisi drois gansazRvra. etapi IV. biujetis dagegmva: xarjebi, romlebic gegmis ganxorcielebasTan aris dakavSirebuli. unda aRiniSnos, ra Tanxazea saubari da risTvis aris saWiro. kargi iqneba imis aRniSvnac, Tu ra gziT iqneba es Tanxebi moZiebuli. 3) upiratesobebi: - argumentebi, romelic asabuTebs, rom mis mier warmodgenili proeqti arsebul mdgomareobas gaaumjobesebs. ra dadebiT Sedegebs moitans proeqtis ganxorcieleba, rogor Secvlis is arsebul "status-kvos"; - SesaZlo efeqtisa da riskfaqtorebis Sedareba. ramdenad aRemateba mosalodneli efeqti SesaZlo zians.

V. dro

proeqtze muSaobisas drois zustad gansazRvra Znelia, miT umetes, roca klasi did proeqtze muSaobs. sasurvelia, proeqtze momuSave klasi ise davainteresoT, rom maT pedagogTan TanamSromlobis survili gauCndeT. es SeiZleba daaxloebiT 1 kviris ganmavlobaSi gagrZeldes.

VI. daskvna, Sefaseba

prezentacia saSualebas gvaZlevs, TiToeuli jgufis codna SevafasoT. saWiroa SeafasoT: rogor imuSava jgufma? ramdenad SeZles realurad dasaxuli miznis miRweva? ra iyo gansazRvruli am proeqtSi? TiToeulma jgufma kedelze sakuTari namuSevari (plakati) unda gaakras. proeqtis wardgena moxdeba rigrigobiT, TiToeul proeqts jgufidan arCeuli erTi moswavle warmoadgens. yovelma jgufma unda Seafasos warmodgenili proeqti, gamoTqvas azri proeqtis dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxaris Sesaxeb da argumentirebulad dausvas ,,+" an ,,-". maswavlebeli akeTebs Sefasebis martiv cxrils:

I jgufi II jgufi III jgufi "+" "-"

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gakv. VI - 2 wylis Sedgeniloba da Tvisebebi (me-40 gakveTili) Sedegi

5. moswavle axasiaTebs wylis Tvisebebs. msjelobs xsnarebis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb. 5. atarebs cdebs wylis fizikuri da qimiuri Tvisebebis gamosakvlevad. monacemebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT.

indikatori mizani

eqsperimentis Sedegebis analizis, movlenebs Soris mizezSedegobrivi kavSiris damyarebis, movle nis modelirebis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba. wylis fizikuri da qimiuri Tvisebebis Seswavla.

gakveTilis mimdinareoba:

etapi aqtivoba moswavleebis organizeba

dro resursebi

Sefasebis forma dakvirveba dakvirveba

I. II II III.

sainao davalebis wardgena individualuri 5 wT eqsperimenti praqtikuli samuSao 2 praqtikuli samuSao 3 eqsperimenti mTeli klasi mTeli klasi mTeli klasi wyvilebi 5 wT

carci

kolba minis miliani sacobiT, wylis 10 wT abazana, yinuli, marili, lursmani, dakvirveba cecxlgamZle WurWeli, spirtqura 10 wT natriumi, wyliani Wiqa, asanTi 15 wT modelebi dakvirveba modelebis Sefaseba -

IV.

saSinao davaleba

individualuri -

I. saSinao davalebis wardgena

sxvadasxva savarjiSos warmosadgenad SearCieT sxvadasxva moswavle da klasTan erTad SeafaseT misi namuSevari.

II. eqsperimenti

mizani ganvlili masalis aTvisebis Semowmeba. klasTan erTad SeasruleT pirveli eqsperimenti: sTxoveT, gikarnaxon wylis formula. dafaze dawereT: H2O. gaixsenon wylis daSlis reaqcia da gikarnaxon romeli airebi gamoiyofa am dros. maTi pasuxebi dawereT wylis formulis gaswvriv erT xazze. sTxoveT, gikarnaxon koeficientebi da sad romeli maTematikuri moqmedebis niSani unda daiweros. Sejameba ganumarteT, rom nivTierebis Sesaswavlad analizis meTods iyeneben. analizi daSlis reaqciaa. sapirispiro reaqcias SeerTebis reaqcias anu sinTezs uwodeben. mimdinareoba

II. praqtikuli samuSao # 2

mizani laboratoriuli inventaris gacnoba, dakvirvebis, aRweris, monacemTa interpretaciis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba. mimdinareoba dafaze daxazeT cxrili. SearCieT ori moswavle da maTi daxmarebiT CaatareT praqtikuli samuSao. klasis aqtiuri monawileobiT SeavseT cxrilis I da II sveti: I. ra Cavatare II. ra SevniSne III. daskvna wyali gaTbobisas farTovdeba a) wyliani kolba movaTavseT cxeli wylis wylis donem milSi aiwia abazanaSi wyliani kolba movaTavseT yinulis abazanaSi

wylis donem milSi daiwia wyali gaciebisas ikumSeba marilis wyalSi gaxsna fizikuri movlenaa wyali nela civdeba, nela Tbeba

b) wylian WiqaSi CavyareT marili da movurieT marili wyalSi gaixsna g) wylian WurWelSi movaTavseT lursmani da lursmani wyalze gavacxeleT. lursmani amoviReT da davakvir- swrafad gacivda diT wylis da lursmnis temperaturas

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Sejameba praqtikuli samuSaos dasrulebis Semdeg dausviT kiTxvebi da Sesabamisi pasuxebi SeitaneT cxrilis III svetSi: ra mouvida wyals gaTbobisas? (gafarTovda). gaciebisas? (SeikumSa). ra miiReba marilis wyalSi gaxsniT? (marilxsnari). marilxsnari axali nivTierebaa? (ara. is narevia). romeli ufro gvian gacivda, wyali Tu lursmani? (wyali). icvleboda Tu ara eqsperimentis ganmavlobaSi nivTiereba? (ara). e. i. rogor movlenebs vakvirdebodiT? (fizikurs).

III. praqtikuli samuSao # 3

dakvirvebis, aRweris, SedarebiTi analizisa da monacemTa interpretaciis unar-Cvevis mizani ganviTareba. mimdinareoba klass hkiTxeT: ra SemTxvevaSi warmoiqmneba axali nivTiereba? (Tu mimdinareobs qimiuri reaqcia). HmimarTeT klass: modiT, gamovikvlioT, rogori movlenaa natriumis wyalSi gaxsna, miiReba Tu ara am dros axali nivTiereba. Tavad CaatareT praqtikuli samuSao # 3. klass hkiTxeT: ra SeamCnieT? (airs cecxli moekida). romeli airi gamoiyo? (wyalbadi). Tu sworad ver upasuxes, gaaxseneT wylis analizi: ra SeamCnies, roca anTebuli kvari Jangbadis areSi Seitanes? (kvari aalda). wyalbadis areSi Seitanes? (airs cecxli moekida). raze migvaniSnebs airis gamoyofa? (qimiuri reaqciis mimdinareobaze). Sejameba mimarTeT klass: ivaraudeT, ra nivTiereba SeiZleba iyos WiqaSi (WiqaSi arsebuli nivTiereba unda Seicavdes natriums, Jangbads da wyalbads. SesaZloa, ivaraudon, rom vinaidan wyalbadi airis saxiT gamoiyo, WiqaSi darCenili nivTiereba mxolod natriumisa da Jangbadis atomebs Seicavs). mimarTeT klass: modiT, gamovikvlioT axali nivTierebis Sedgeniloba.

V. muSaoba wyvilebSi

mizani movlenisa da obieqtis modelireba, modelirebis praqtikuli daniSnulebis Sefaseba. mimdinareoba moswavleebs wina gakveTilze micemuli aqvT davaleba, daamzadon natriumis, wyalbadis, Jangbadis, kalciumis, gogirdis, naxSirbadis modelebi. sxvadasxva qimiuri elementis forma, zoma da raodenoba winaswar ganusazRvreT. SeuZliaT gamoiyenon plastilini, Tixa, mZivebi da sxva. mosaxerxebeli iqneba plastilinis gamoyeneba. mag., qim. elementi H O Na Ca S C atomis raodenoba 10 10 2 1 1 1 feri lurji wiTeli TeTri mwvane yviTeli Savi burTulis diametri, sm 0.7 2 3 5 4 1.5

mosaxerxebeli iqneba, Tu burTulebs feradi flomasteriT an saRebaviT daaweren Sesabamisi elementis simbolos, an naWdevs gaakeTeben. wyvilebs mieciT davaleba, modelis konstruirebiT gamoikvlion nivTiereba, romelic WiqaSi miiReba. dawereT dafaze: 2Na + 2H2O = 2 ..... + H2 sTxoveT, daamzadon natriumis da wylis or-ori molekula. daakvirdnen dafaze daweril gantolebas, daSalon reagentebis modelebi da miRebuli produqtis modelebi aawyon. wertilebis nacvlad Caweron Sesabamisi formula. maswavlebels SeuZlia moswavles formulis sworad daweraSi miexmaros (sworad gansazRvron formulaSi qimiuri elementis Tanmimdevroba). axali terminebis ganmartebebi mieciT kvlevis procesSi. kvlevis dasrulebis Semdeg dafaze dawereT klasis mier mowodebuli daskvna: metali + wyali = metalis hidroqsidi + wyalbadi igive meordeba Semdeg etapze (dasWirdebaT kalciumis 1 atomi, Jangbadis 2 atomi, wyalbadis 2 atomi) CaO + H2O = ...... metalis oqsidi + wyali = metalis hidroqsidi

40

SO3 + H2O = ...... arametalis oqsidi + wyali = mJava

CO2 + H2O = ......

dasWirdebaT: gogirdis 1 atomi, Jangbadis 4 atomi, wyalbadis 2 atomi. naxSirbadis 1 atomi, Jangbadis 3 atomi, wyalbadis 1 atomi. SearCieT hidroqsidis da mJavas saukeTeso modelebi da klasSi TvalsaCiono adgilas gamofineT. maT gamoyenebas momdevno klasSi Sesabamisi naerTebis Seswavlisas SeZlebT. Sejameba hkiTxeT: riT gansxvavdeba marilis wyalSi gaxsna natriumis wyalSi gaxsnisgan? (marilis wyalSi gaxsnisas axali nivTiereba ar warmoiqmneba - es fizikuri movlenaa. natriumis wyalSi gaxsnisas miiReba axali nivTiereba - e. i. es qimiuri movlenaa).

VII. saSinao davaleba

1) daavaleT gakveTilis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebis amoxsna. 2) SesTavazeT, moamzadon miRebuli codnis Sesamowmebeli testi Tavisi mewyvilesTvis: wylis Sedgeniloba, wylis fizikuri Tvisebebi. wylis qimiuri Tvisebebi.

qimiis swavlebis Semajamebeli gakveTili (sarezervo saaTi)

mizani

SeZenili codnis sistemaSi moyvana: ra iyo misTvis saintereso, moulodneli, ra unar-Cvevebi gamoimuSava sagnis Seswavlisas, sad da rogor SeZlebs miRebuli codnis gamoyenebas realur cxovrebaSi. jgufis muSaobaSi sakuTari wvlilisa da rolis gacnobiereba. masala: furclebi, flomasteri an feradi fanqrebi, 4 feris koWis Zafi, skotCi. moswavleTa raodenobis gaTvaliswinebiT mocemuli aqtivobebi SegiZliaT SerCeviT gamoiyenoT. mag., erT gakveTilze SeasruloT I da III, an II da III, an I da II aqtivoba.

I. muSaoba wyvilebSi

dafaze daxazeT cxrili:

sami ram, ramac dagainteresa ori ram, razec ginda, meti gaigo erTi ram, rasac gaakritikebdi

wyvilebs daavaleT patara zomis furcelze wiTeli feris flomasteriT daweron cxrilis pirveli svetis Sesabamisi teqsti; meore furcelze lurji flomasteriT cxrilis meore svetis Sesabamisi teqsti, mesame furcelze ki mwvane flomasteriT mesame svetis Sesabamisi teqsti daweron. moagroveT furclebi da teqstis ferebis mixedviT miakariT dafaze cxrilis Sesabamis svetSi. SeajameT monacemebi.

II. muSaoba individualurad

moswavleebma naswavli Temebidan maTi azriT yvelaze saintereso da mniSvnelovani sakiTxi furcelze daweron. davaleba: a) moemzadon am sakiTxebis aqtualobis dasasabuTeblad, b) rogor gaacnoben am sakiTxs maT, visac am sakiTxSi naklebi codna aqvs (mag., im profesiis warmomadgenlebs, visac TavianT profesiul saqmianobaSi qimiis Rrma codna ar moeTxovebaT - humanitaruli sagnis maswavlebels, mZRols, tele-radio wamyvans, bankis operators da a. S.). davalebis dasrulebis Semdeg mimdinareobs namuSevrebis wardgena da mcire diskusia: sakiTxis

41

gaSuqeba, gaanalizeba, daxarisxeba upiratesobis mixedviT, saerTo azris Seqmna - yvela naswavli sakiTxi Rirebulia da aucilebeli.

III. muSaoba jgufebSi

jgufebis Seqmna: moswavleebs daurigeT 30 sm sigrZis sxvadasxva feris Zafebi. erTi feris Zafis mflobelebi daajgufeT: iqmneba 4 jgufi. jgufis erT-erTi monawile ambobs, ra unar-Cveva gamoimuSava man sagnis Seswavlisas, akeTebs kvanZs Tavis Zafze da Semdeg monawiles gadascems, romelic Tavis Zafs abams wina monawilis mier mowodebul Zafze da kvanZis Sekvrisas imaves aRniSnavs. igives imeoreben jgufis sxva wevrebic. kvanZis gakeTeba jgufis TiToeul wevrs mouwevs. davalebis Sesrulebis Semdeg TiToeuli jgufi Seqmnis grZel Zafs, ris Semdegac iwyeba meore etapi. jgufebis gaerTianeba: jgufebi Zafebs aerTianeben da kraven wres erTi grZeli Wreli Zafisgan. jgufebi erTiandebian am Zafis irgvliv - qmnian wres. TiTo jgufi irCevs erT warmomadgenels, romelic jgufis saxeliT waradgens ra mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitana jgufma savarjiSos SesrulebaSi. mimarTeT moswavleebs: es wre Tqvens mier SeZenili codnaa. wris gareT kidev bevri ram aris ucnobi. rac farToa codnis wre, miT meti kiTxvebi uCndeba adamians. movemzadoT axali codnis - informaciis misaRebad.

IV. daskvniTi nawili

Zafi ise gadaWeriT, rom kvanZi TiToeul moswavles Sexvdes. amrigad, TiToeuli moswavle iRebs sxvisi Zafis nawils, rac simbolurad niSnavs, rom maT erTmaneTSi codna-informacia gacvales. maswavlebeli yuradRebas amaxvilebs imaze, rom erTmaneTis yuradRebiT mosmena, informaciis gacvla da muSaobis procesSi aqtiuri monawileoba warmatebis sawindaria.

42

VII. savarjiSoebis da testebis pasuxebi

gTavazobT pasuxebs moswavlis saxelmZRvaneloSi moyvanil eqsperimentebsa da savarjiSobze, testebsa da kolokviumis kiTxvarze. TiToeuli gakveTili Sedgeba punqtebisgan: gakveTilis dasaxeleba, Sedegi, indikatori, mizani, pasuxebi eqsperimentebze, pasuxebi savarjiSoebze. samodelo gakveTilebisTvis (gv. 29) gTavazobT mxolod gakveTilis dasaxelebas, pasuxebs eqsperimentebze da savarjiSoebze. pasuxebi eqsperimentebze - danomrilia moswavlis saxelmZRvanelos Sesabamisad. pasuxebi savarjiSoebze - mocemulia boloSi. amasTanave, gTavazobT rekomendaciebs da Tematur damatebiT masalas (muqi feris fonzea mocemuli) zogierTi eqsperimentis Tu savarjiSosTvis. zogierTi savarjiSos Sesrulebisas moswavles fizikis codna moeTxoveba. Tu moswavles gavlili aqvs fizikis kursi, savaraudo pasuxi moicavs "fiz." simboloTi aRniSnul informacias. Tu fizika jer ar aqvs Seswavlili, maSin "alt", anu alternatiul variants.

I Tavi: qimia- mecniereba bunebis Sesaxeb

gakv. I - 1

qimia - mecniereba bunebis Sesaxeb (1-li gakveTili, ix. samodelo gakv.(gv.

29)

1 ). a) advilad muSavdeba Sromis iaraRebiT, xelmisawvdomia, aqvs dabali Tbogamtaroba (cudad atarebs siTbos), bunebrivi masalaa. b) kargad iwvis da gamoyofs didi raodenobiT siTbos. 2) benzini gamoiyeneba sawvavad, gamxsnelad.

1

ia ac d en om k re

sasurvelia, moswavleebs saSualeba mivceT, imsjelon, ra ziani moaqvs ama Tu im nivTierebis didi raodenobiT gamoyenebas. mag., marTalia, benzini kargi sawvavia, magram benzinze momuSave avtotransportis raodenobis zrda haeris dabinZurebas iwvevs; xis masala xelmisawvdomia, magram tyis ukontrolo Wra ekologiur problemebs qmnis (mewyersaSiSroeba, cxovelebis sabinadro garemos darRveva da a. S.).

2 fiz.: menzuraSi asxamen wyals da iniSnaven Cvenebas. Semdeg masSi sxeuls aTavseben da kvlav iniSnaven Cvenebas. menzuris am or Cvenebas Soris sxvaoba gvaZlevs sxeulis moculobas (fizikis nawili: I-4). fizikuri movlenebis dros nivTiereba ar icvleba. 3

I WurWlis sarecxi siTxe TviTmfrinavi televizori rezinis saburavi rveuli flomasteri kalkulatori radio gazqura el. naTura II WurWlis gasarecxad gadasaadgileblad sainformacio saSualeba avtotransportis aucilebeli komponenti informaciis Sesanaxad saxatavad an sawerad gamoTvlebis Casatareblad sainformacio saSualeba sakvebis mosamzadeblad sinaTlis wyaro III qviSa, marili cxeni, viri, aqlemi ar hqondaT xis an qvis borbali etrati, qvis fila naxSiri, metalis wkiri ar hqondaT ar hqondaT koconi lampa, navTqura, koconi

saSinao davaleba

1) qimikatebi germanuli sityvaa (chemi-kalien) da niSnavs qimiur produqtebs, preparatebs; qimiuri fanqari, qimiuri saRebavi, qimiuri warmoeba, sayofacxovrebo qimia, Sxamqimikatebi. @2) fizika ­ astronomi, durgali, mSenebeli; qimia ­ metalurgi, eqimi, farmacevti, mebaRe; biologia eqimi, farmacevti, mebaRe. 3) weris dros vsargeblobT sawerkalmiT, fanqriT, flomasteriT, carciT. - raimes mosarevad gamoiyeneba rogorc xis, ise metalis an plastmasis kovzi; - wylis Casasxmelad gamoiyeneba rogorc minis, ise plastmasis, metalis, zogjer qaRaldis konteineri; -SesaRebad gamoiyeneba rogorc xelovnuri, ise bunebrivi saRebavi (Warxlis wveni, endro, xna, basma, xaxvis furclis, kaklis gareTa rbilobis, mocvis da sxva mcenareebis naxarSi);

43

gakv. I - 2 I-2. nivTiereba da misi Tvisebebi (me-2 gakveTili ) Sedegi

1. moswavle aRwers nivTierebaTa Tvisebebs da msjelobs maTi cvlilebebis Sesaxeb. 1. asaxelebs yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi gamoyenebul nivTierebebs da msjelobs maTi Tvisebebis Sesaxeb; akvirdeba da adarebs nivTierebebs Tvisebebis mixedviT (mag. suni, bzinvareba, wva, agregatuli mdgomareoba); Sedegebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT, aanalizebs da gamoyofs Tvisebebs, romlebic am nivTierebebis gamoyenebas ganapirobebs; agrovebs informacias organizmebisTvis mniSvnelovani nivTierebebis (mag. Jangbadi, wyali, naxSirorJangi) Sesaxeb da msjelobs maT daniSnulebaze.

indikatori

mizani

nivTierebaTa Tvisebebis Seswavlis aucileblobis gaazreba, Tvisebebidan gamomdinare misi praqtikaSi gamoyenebis SesaZleblobis Sefasebis, dakvirvebis, aRweris, analizis, sakuTari azris Camoyalibebisa da sxvisi azris gaTvaliswinebis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba.

1 moswavleebi erTi da igive nivTierebas sxvadasxva sxeuliT gamosaxaven da erTmaneTis naxatebs adareben. Sedarebis safuZvelze arkveven, rom maTi naxatebi gansxvavebuli Sinaarsisaa. eqsperimentis Sedegad unda gamoitanon daskvna: ramdenic unda ecadon nivTierebis daxatva, mainc sxeuli gamouvaT.

ia ac d en om k re

SesaZloa, SesTavazoT TamaSi: moagroveT maTi namuSevrebi, erT-erTma moswavlem romelime naxati SearCios da kiTxvebis saSualebiT miaxvedros klasi, ra sxeulia naxatze gamosaxuli da risgan SeiZleba iyos is damzadebuli; an SesaZloa, Tavad daaxasiaToT raime nivTiereba da moswavleebma gamoicnon, ra nivTierebazea saubari. mag., vercxlisferia, ar aqvs suni, Txevadia, momwamlavia, iyeneben sazom xelsawyoebSi (vercxliswyali).

mag., yvavilis qoTani SesaZloa Tixisgan an plastmasisgan damzaddes. plastmasis qoTani msubuqia, 2 magram ar atarebs wyalsa da haers. Wiqa SesaZloa damzaddes metalisgan, plastmasisgan, minisgan an qaRaldisgan. qaRaldisa da plastmasis Wiqa msubuqia, magram advilad fuWdeba. aseT Wiqas cxeli sasmelis Casasxmelad ver gamoviyenebT. mina da metali mdgradobiT gamoirCeva, Tumca zogierTi mina advilmsxvrevadia. xis Rero (SesaZloa gamoiyenoT asanTi, mcire zomis xis toti) advilad tydeba, metalis Rero (lursmani, mavTulis naWeri) - Znelad. xis Rero advilad iwvis, metalis - ar iwvis. gaamaxvileT yuradReba, rom metali marTalia, ar iwvis, magram advilad xurdeba da amitom sifrTxilea saWiro, raTa xeli ar daewvaT.

3

4 5 6

Zmari wyalSi kargad ixsneba, carci - cudad. yvelaze adre galRveba yinuli, Semdeg cvili, mavTuli mxolod gacxeldeba. nivTiereba sufris marili wyali Jangbadi spilenZi agregatuli mdgomareoba myari Txevadi airadi myari suni usuno usuno usuno feri TeTri ufero ufero wyalSi xsnadoba kargad ixsneba gamxsnelia mcired ixsneba praqtikulad uxsnadia

usuno mowiTalo-yviTeli

marili wyalSi kargad ixsneba, ar aqvs suni, mlaSea, gamoiyeneba zogierTi kerZis momzadebisas. wyali Txevadi, ufero da usunoa. masSi kargad ixsneba sxvadasxva nivTiereba. mag., akvarelis saRebavi, Saqari, sarecxi fxvnili. swored amitom wyals uamravi daniSnulebiT viyenebT: gasarecxad, dasabanad, sasmelad, sakvebis mosamzadeblad da a. S. Jangbadi ufero, usuno airia. is mcire raodenobiT, magram mainc ixsneba wyalSi. wyalSi gaxsnili Jangbadi wylis binadarTa sunTqviT procesSi monawileobs. Jangbadis baliSebs medicinaSi iyeneben. spilenZi myari, usuno, praqtikulad wyalSi uxsnadia. ferisa da plastikurobis gamo misgan amzadeben samkaulebs, dekoratiul nivTebs, WurWels. spilenZi kargad atarebs dens, amitom misgan sadenebs amzadeben.

am eqsperimentebis mizania, moswavlem sxvadasxva nivTierebis Tvisebebi erTmaneTs Seadaros da gamoitanos daskvna: nivTierebis Tvisebebis codna saSualebas gvaZlevs ganvsazRvroT, ra daniSnulebis sxeuli SeiZleba misgan damzaddes an piriqiT, nivTiereba daniSnulebis mixedviT SevarCioT. mag., WurWeli SesaZloa iyos minis, metalis, plastmasis; cxeli kerZis mosamzadebeli WurWeli (mag., tafa, qvabi) unda

44

iyos cecxlgamZle, amitom aseT WurWels ZiriTadad metalisgan amzadeben. samuSAao iaraRebi mtkice masalisgan mzaddeba. mag., CaquCi ver iqneba plastmasis an minis. es masala advilad msxvrevadia.

a ci da n me ko re

nivTierebis Tvisebebis Seswavlisas yuradREeba unda gavamaxviloT, ra pirobebSi amJRavnebs es nivTiereba mocemul Tvisebas. pirobebis SecvliT SesaZloa procesebis marTva sasurveli mimarTulebiT. mag., Cveulebriv pirobebSi cvili myaria, sakmarisia SevcvaloT pirobebi - gavzardoT temperatura, rom is darbildeba da SEesaZlebeli gaxdeba, mas sasurveli forma mivceT.

agregatuli mdgomareoba mniSvneloba organizmisTvis ra iciT am nivTierebis Sesaxeb

7

nivTiereba

Jangbadi

airadi

Jangbadis gareSe adamiani ver sunTqavs adamiani uwylod mxolod 8 dRes Zlebs sunTqvisas warmoqmnili naxSirorJangis nawili amonasunTq airebTan erTad gamoiyofa, nawili ki nivTierebaTa cvlaSi monawileobs

Jangbadi Sedis haeris SedgenilobaSi. is sunTqvisTvis aucilebeli nivTierebaa. xels uwyobs wvas. Jangbadis balonebs medicinaSi iyeneben. adamianis organizmi daaxloebiT 65 % wyals Seicavs. Sedis gamonabolqvi airebis SedgenilobaSi. didi raodenobiT misi CasunTqva mavnea adaminis janmrTelobisTvis

wyali

Txevadi

naxSirorJangi airadi

iodi

myari

iodis nakleboba endokriiodis spirtxsnari antiseptikia. nologiur daavadebas - Ciyvs gamoiyeneba Wrilobebis dasamuSaveblad. iwvevs

adamianis organizmisTvis yvela es nivTiereba aucilebelia.

damatebiTi informacia: Jangbadis ukmarisoba gulsisxlZarRvTa daavadebebs iwvevs. adamianis organizmidan 15 % wylis dakargvis SemTxvevaSi mis sicocxles safrTxe emuqreba. organizmi wylis naklebobas wyurvilis saxiT gvatyobinebs.

organizmSi arsebuli naxSororJangi aqtiurad monawileobs nivTierebaTa cvlaSi, amitom misi balansis darRveva sxvadasxva daavadebis mizezi xdeba. Cveni organizmi 7 % -mde naxSirorJangs Seicavs, am maCveneblis 6 %-ze qvemoT daweva sxvadasxva daavadebas iwvevs (mag., bronqebis daavadebebs). Tu organizmSi naxSirorJangis raodenoba 7 %-ze maRalia, organizmis JangbadiT momarageba ferxdeba. etiketze aRniSvna E290 niSnavs, rom produqti naxSirorJangs Seicavs. is miekuTvneba konservantebs, romelic produqts lpobisgan icavs.

saSinao davaleba

1) merxis dasamzadeblad SerCeuli nivTiereba unda iyos: myari, mtkice, msubuqi, advilad muSavdebodes Sromis iaraRebiT, ar unda iyos zedmetad plastikuri (ar unda idrikebodes mcire Zalis zemoqmedebiT), ar unda sveldebodes, advilad unda iwmindebodes, oTaxis temperaturaze deformacias ar unda ganicdides. 2) nivTiereba mina bamba rkina plastmasi Tixa rezini neiloni oqro alumini ras amzadeben am nivTierebisgan ? Wiqa, boTli dolbandi, qsovili lursmani WurWeli qoTani, aguri saSleli, saburavi windebi, qsovili samkaulebi TviTmf. korpusi, WurWeli bunebrivia Tu xelovnuri es nivTiereba? xelovnuri bunebrivi bunebrivi xelovnuri bunebrivi xelovnuri xelovnuri bunebrivi bunebrivi

3) wyali gamoiyeneba: sasmelad, dasabanad, gasarecxad, sakvebis dasamzadeblad da a. S. zeTi - sakvebis dasamzadeblad, sapox saSualebad. benzini sawvavic aris da kargi gamxsnelic. aspirini samkurnalo saSualebaa. polieTileni SesafuT masalad gamoiyeneba. 4) 1. Saqari; 2. marili; 3. alumini; 4. rkina; 5. wyali.

45

gakv. I - 3 Sedegi

sufTa nivTiereba ( me-3 gakveTili)

1. moswavle ganasxvavebs nivTierebas da narevs, flobs narevis komponentebad dayofis meTodebs. 1. cdebis safuZvelze adarebs nivTierebisa da narevis Tvisebebs, aanalizebs monacemebs da Sedegebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT, mohyavs bunebrivi narevebis magaliTebi; amzadebs erTgvarovan da araerTgvarovan narevebs (mag., sufris marilis wyalxsnari, carcis fxvnilisa da wylis narevi), adarebs maT da msjelobs maT Soris gansxvavebaze; CamoTvlis yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi narevebis gamoyenebis magaliTebs.

indikatori

mizani

moswavles gauCndes samyaros kvlevis survili, Camouyalibdes obieqtisa da movlenebis aRweris da am aRweris mixedviT maTi klasifikaciis unar-Cveva. SeZlos sufTa nivTierebis da narevis erTmaneTisgan garCeva, raodenobrivi Sedgenilobis mixedviT narevis daxasiaTeba.

daqucmacebuli WarxliT wyals ar atkboben, radgan is wyals arasakmarisad atkbobs, ucvlis fers da sitkbos garda sxva gemosac aZlevs. zRvis wyali sufris marilis garda sxva nivTierebebsac Seicavs, romelic SesaZloa mavne iyos adamianis janmrTelobisTvis.

a ci da en om ek r

1

SesTavazeT, moifiqron da CamoTvalon nivTierebebi, romelsac isini yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi xvdebian. am CamonaTvalSi moxvdeba iodi, rkina, marili, zeTi, Zmari. hkiTxeT: saidan Rebuloben Zmars, zeTs, marils, rkinas. gaugiaT Tu ara sityva "madani".

damatebiTi informacia: madans uwodeben bunebriv sabados, romelic sxvadasxva nivTierebis narevia da saidanac SesaZlebelia calkeuli nivTierebebis Tavisufali saxiT gamoyofa. mag., saqarTveloSi manganumis madnis sabado WiaTuraSia. spilenZis, tyviis, TuTiis, gogirdis Semcveli madneuli aRmoCenilia bolnisis raionSi (http://www.madneuli.ge).

iodi bunebaSi Zalze mcire raodenobiTaa. is dedamiwis qerqis 0, 0000 4% Seadgens (masuri). yvelaze didi raodenobiT iods zRvis produqtebi Seicavs, saidanac xdeba Tavisufali iodis gamoyofa. pirvelad iodi frangma mecnierma kurtuam 1811 wels miiRo. ,,iodi" berZnulad iisfers niSnavs.

2 CaidanSi wylis xangrZlivi duRilis Sedegad Cndeba minaduRi, rac imaze miuTiTebs, rom onkanis wyali minarevebs Seicavs.

a) wyali metad damlaSdeba; b) wyals motkbo-momlaSo gemo eqneba; g) marilwyali ufro gvian aduRdeba, vidre Cveulebrivi wyali. aqve SegiZliaT ganumartoT, rom marilwyali ufro dabal temperaturaze iyineba, vidre Cveulebrivi wyali. swored amitom zamTarSi gzebis moyinvis Tavidan asacileblad Tovls marils ayrian. SesTavazeT, moifiqron magaliTebi, roca komponentebis raodenobis SecvliT sasurvel Sedegs iReben. mag., saRebaviT xatvisas saRebavSi Sereuli wylis raodenobis gazrdiT feri muqidan Ria tonisken icvleba. zogjer sasurveli feri sxvadasxva feris saRebavis SereviT miiRweva. mag., yviTeli da wiTeli saRebavis SereviT narinjisferi miiReba, wiTeli da lurji saRebavis SereviT ki - iisferi; sxvadasxva simagris comis mosazelad saWiroebisamebr cvlian komponentebis raodenobas. qviSa da cementi wylis gareSe saSen masalad ar gamodgeba (Tavad cementic sxvadasxva nivTierebis narevs warmoadgens. samSeneblo cementis ZiriTadi Semadgeneli komponentebia Ca2SiO4, Ca3SiO5, Ca3Al2O6). mSeneblobaSi gamoyenebul wyals ar moeTxoveba iseTive sisufTave, rogorc sasmel wyals.

3

a ci da en om k re

4

onkanis da Saqriani wylis garegnuli niSniT erTmaneTisgan gansxvaveba ver xerxdeba. Saqari wyals nel - nela ereva. fiz.: difuzia.

5 qviSiani da Saqriani wylis garegnuli niSniT erTmaneTisgan gansxvaveba advilia. qviSa wyalSi ar ixsneba.

saSinao davaleba

1) a) mSDrali miwa; metalTa Senadnobi (brinjao - spilenZi da kala; foladi - rkina da naxSirbadi); carcis da qviSis narevi; rkinis naqlibisa da xis naxerxis narevi; b) haeri; wyalbadis da Jangbadis narevi (feTqebadsaSiSia); g) spirtis, Zmris, zEeTis, navTis wyalxsnarebi.

46

2) nayini mag., rZis, karaqis, kvercxis, xilis sirofis vanilis da kakaos narevs warmoadgens. aspirini acetilsalicilis mJavaa. SuSxuna aspirinis misaRebad mas limonmJavas da saWmel sodas umateben. nayinisa da aspirinis Semcveloba maT etiketebzea mocemulia. 3) sajavSne minisa da akvariumebis dasamzadeblad minas mdgradobis mosamateblad sxvadasxva nivTierebebs umateben (alumini, manganumi zrdis minis meqanikur simtkices, aluminis oqsidi _ Termul da qimiur mdgradobas). 4) daxurul oTaxSi amonasunTqi haeri grovdeba: Jangbadis Semcveloba iklebs, naxSirorJangis ki imatebs. amas emateba adamianis janmrTelobisTvis mavne nivTierebebi, romlebic gamoiyofa avejis, saojaxo teqnikis, tansacmlis, fexsacmlis, kosmetikuri saSualebebis da sxva saojaxo nivTebis moxmarebis Sedegad. oTaxis ganiaveba xels uwyobs haeris "gajansaRebas" . 5) a) erTgvarovans; b) araerTgvarovans; g) araerTgvarovans.

gakv. I - 4 Sedegi

narevis komponentebad dayofa (me-4 da me-5 gakveTili)

2. moswavle ganasxvavebs nivTierebas da narevs, flobs narevis komponentebad dayofis meTodebs. 2. irCevs da iyenebs Sesabamis meTodebs (mag. amoSroba, gacra, gamoxda, gafiltvra, dawdoma) sxvadasxva narevis komponentebad dasayofad.

indikatori mizani

Tavad Seafasos problema, moZebnos da dagegmos problemis gadaWris efeqturi gza. Seafasos gadawyvetilebis efeqturoba, ganuviTardes TviTSefasebisa da TviTkontrolis unari. gaecnos narevis komponentebad dayofis meTodebs.

zRvis wyali mlaSea. amis garda, is narevia, romelic zogjer SesaZloa, adamianis janmrTelobisTvis mavne nivTierebebs Seicavdes. daleqili simindis fqvilis Tavze araerTgvarovani narevi mogrovdeba, romelic wylisa da masSi motivtive fqvilis nawilakebisgan Sedgeba.

1

2 3

miiReba araerTgvarovani narevi. Tu am narevs davayovnebT, fqvilis didi nawili daileqeba.

4 zeTiani wylis dawdomis Sedegad zeTi wylis Tavze mogrovdeba. narevis komponentebad dasayofad zeTi frTxilad unda gadavasxaT sxva WurWelSi. 5 nax. 6-is mixedviT araerTgvarovani narevidan oqros gamosayofad sacers iyeneben. sacers iyeneben fqvilis, samSeneblo qviSis gasacreladac. gacris Sedegad xdeba didi zomis nawilakebis gamocalkeveba.

1) marilxsnari erTgvarovani narevia. dawdomis da gafiltvris meTodiT am narevidan marilis gamoyofa SeuZlebelia. 2) narevis gacxelebisas wyali aorTqldeba da jamSi marili darCeba. 3) miRebuli marilis raodenoba toli iqneba aRebuli marilis raodenobisa. samuSaos Sedegebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT: ra Cavatare - wylian WiqaSi Cavyare marili da movurie - narevi gavfiltre - narevi davayovne - narevi movaTavse jamSi da cecxlze Semovdgi ra SevniSne - marili gaixsna daskvna - miviRe erTgvarovani narevi

6 7

rkinis naqlibi magnitis mier miizideba, gogirdi - ara.

- narevi mTlianad dagrovda mimRebSi - erTgvarovani narevis dayofa gafiltvriT SeuZlebelia - marili ar daileqa - wyali aorTqlda da jamSi marili darCa - erTgvarovani narevis dayofa dawdomiT SeuZlebelia - marilis wyalxsnaridan marilis gamoyofa SesaZlebelia wylis aorTqlebiT

spirtis wyalxsnaris gamoxdisas mimRebSi dagrovdeba spirti, radgan is wyalze swrafad aorTqldeba (t = 78oC , t = 100oC ).

sp wy

8

saSinao davaleba

1) rkinis naqlibis, naxerxis da wylis narevis dayovnebiT rkina daileqeba, naxerxi wylis zedapirze mogrovdeba. imave narevis gafiltvrisas gamoiyofa myari komponentebi: filtris qaRaldze darCeba rkinis naqlibi da naxerxi, mimRebSi wyali dagrovdeba. Tu naleqs gavaSrobT, rkinis gamoyofa magnitis

47

gamoyenebiT aris SesaZlebeli. 2) Tu onkanis wyali qviSiania, wyliani Wiqa unda davayovnoT: qviSa daileqeba. an wyali gavfiltroT. filtris qaRaldis nacvlad SegiZliaT dolbandi, bamba an sufTa qsovili gamoiyenoT. 3) xelis dabana SesaZlebelia zRvis an gubis wyliT. unda SeecadoT, wyali Zalian ar aamRvrioT. marilis miReba zRvis wylis amoSrobiT aris SesaZlebeli. zRvis wyali sasmelad ar gamodgeba. dagubebuli wyalic SesaZloa, sasmelad ar vargodes. umjobesia mimarToT wylis gamoxdis meTods. gamoxdili wyali "ugemuria", magram usafrTxo. damatebiTi informacia: didi raodenobiT zERvis wylis daleva ar SeiZleba. Cveni organizmi 1 % -mde marilebs Seicavs, zRvis wyali ki - 4 %-s. zedmeti marilebis gamosadevnad Tirkmeli iZulebuli xdeba, organizmSi arsebuli wyali moixmaros, rac organizmis wylis maragis gadaxarjvas - gauwyloebas iwvevs. yvelaze mZimed gauwyloebaze tvinis ujredebi reagirebs - iwyeba fsiqiuri aSliloba, halucinaciebi, bodva, ramac sabolood SesaZloa, adamianis sikvdili gamoiwvios. swored amitom sazRvao wesdeba kategoriulad krZalavs zRvis wylis sasmelad gamoyenebas. 4) narevis masa misi Semadgeneli komponentebis masaTa jamis tolia: 3 g +5g +100g = 108 g. narevis srulad dayofis Sedegad miiRebuli komponentebis masa maTi sawyisi masis tolia. 5) Cais paketSi qaRaldi filtris rols asrulebs: atarebs wyals da ar atarebs Cais foTlebs. 6) bulionidan cximis gamosayofad: a) bulions daayovneben da zedapirze mogrovebul cxims kovziT acileben; b) bulionis gaciebisas cximi myar mdgomareobaSi gadadis da misi mocileba ioldeba. laboratoriaSi msgavsi narevis dasayofaDd gamyof Zabrs iyeneben. 7) a) nivTierebis gasufTaveba niSnavs, mas minarevebi movaciloT; b) narevidan sufTa nivTierebis miReba gulisxmobs, SevarCioT narevidan misi gamoyofis meTodi. SesaZloa, narevi calkeul komponentebad ar davyoT (gamovyoT mxolod saWiro komponenti); g) narevis komponentebad dayofa niSnavs, narevidan calcalke gamovyoT mis SemadgenlobaSi arsebuli yvela komponenti. 8) avdarSi qaris moqmedebiT wylis didi nakadis - talRebis intensiuri gadaadgileba fskerze wylis xaxunis gaZlierebas iwvevs, ris gamoc wyali imRvreva - masSi fskeris naleqi (qviSa, kenWebi, wyalmcenareebis nawilebi) ereva. garda amisa, wyals ereva qaris mier xmeleYTidan atacebuli mtvris nawilakebi. qaris CadgomasTan erTad garkveuli drois Semdeg talRebis intensivoba mcirdeba, mRvrie wyali dawdeba da wyali gamWvirvale xdeba.

*SeniSvna: moswavlis saxelmZRvaneloSi gv.12-ze nax.3 unda ikiTxebodes: "yveli naleqia, romelic filtrze rCeba.

gakv. I - 5 Sedegi

usafrTxoebis wesebi da niSnebi (me-6 gakveTili)

1. moswavle aRwers nivTierebaTa Tvisebebs da msjelobs maTi cvlilebebis Sesaxeb. 1. icavs qimiuri nivTierebebis ganTavsebis, maTTan muSaobis usafrTxoebis wesebs, cnobs gamafrTxilebel niSnebs (mag. advilaalebadi, feTqebadi) qimiuri reaqtivis WurWlis etiketze.

indikatori mizani

gaecnon laboratoriul inventars, reaqtivebis Senaxvis wess, CamouyalibdeT laboratoriaSi muSaobis unar-Cvevebi.

ia ac d en om k re

ganumarteT, rom usafrTxoebis wesebis dacva yvelgan saWiroa: saxlSi, quCaSi, sawarmoo dawesebulebebSi. gaacaniT laboratoriaSi muSaobis usafrTxoebis wesebi da saSualeba mieciT imsjelon, ra Sedegebi SeiZleba mohyves TiToeuli maTganis ugulvebelyofas. yuradReba gaamaxvileT imaze, rom usafrTxoebis wesebis ugulvebelyofa aramarto maT sicocxles agdebs safrTxeSi, aramed safrTxes uqmnis mTlianad garemos.

saSinao davaleba

1) "uCinari": Jangbadi, naxSirorJangi; "boroti" - naxSirorJANangi, acetoni, Zmari (mZafri sunis gamo); "keTili" - soda, marili, iodi, spirti, briliantis mwvane ("zelionka"). "boroti" da "keTili" nivTierebebis gamijvna mxolod konkretuli garemoebis mixedviT aris SesaZlebeli. mag., acetoni mZafri sunis gamo SesaZloa, "borot" nivTierebebs mivakuTvnoT, misi didi raodenobiT CasunTqva janmrTelobisTvis sazianoa. Tumca, is keTil saqmesac emsaxureba: is kargi gamxsnelia. acetoniT laq-saRebavebi advilad Sordeba

48

zedapirs. 2) acetons, rom ar aorTqldes, Tavdaxurul WurWelSi inaxaven. 3) saojaxo teqnikisa da avejis SesafuT yuTebze Wiqis msgavsi gamosaxuleba niSnavs, rom SigTavsi msxvrevadia. qolga da wvima _ datenianeba SigTavss azianebs. sagzao niSnebi mTel rig gamafrTxilebel informacias gadmogvcemen. 4) oTaxSi bunebrivi airis sunis SegrZnebisas oTaxi dauyovnebliv unda ganiavdes da onkanis muSaobis gamarTuloba Semowmdes. 5) sigaretisa da anTebuli asanTis gamosaxulebaze gadasmuli xazi niSnavs, rom maTi gamoyeneba benzingasamarTi sadguris midamoebSi akrZalulia. iqmneba xanZarsaSiSroeba.

gakv. I - 6

kolokviumi (me-7 gakveTili)

mizani

ganvlili masalis Sejameba, dauflebuli codnisa da unar-Cvevebis Sefaseba kolokviumi laTinurad gasaubrebas niSnavs. aseTi tipis gakveTilze xdeba ganvlili masalis Sejameba, moswavleebTan gasaubreba maTi codnis gamosarkvevad. kolokviumis dros mTavaria, gavarkvioT, Tu ra unar-Cvevebs daeuflnen moswavleebi da ramdenad aiTvises am TaviT gaTvaliswinebuli saswavlo programa. mocemuli savarjiSoebi da testebi SegiZliaT gamoiyenoT rogorc kolokviumis dros, aseve sakontrolo werisas, aseve Sesabamisi gakveTilis msvlelobisas an damatebiT savarjiSod.

savarjiSoebi I Tavis bolos - pasuxebi

1)

r k i s u n n a b o s p n a r g a c g Z a s o d

n i v T i e r e b a

a T l r v a m r i i t i i o i

1. risgan amzadeben lursmans? 2. Zmris damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba 3. sawvavi 4. siTxis Casasxmeli WurWQeli 5. gamoiyeneba Wrilobis dasamuSaveblad 6. ra miiReba ramdenime nivTierebis SereviT 7. komponentebad dayofis erT-erTi meTodi 8. marils mlaSe ... aqvs 9. gasafiltri xelsawyo 10. nivTiereba, romelsac mzareulebi zogjer comis asafueblad iyeneben

2) iodi, spirti, marili, Saqari, Zmari, zeTi, rkina, mina, faifuri, alumini, Tixa, plastmasi, bamba, rezini. 3) a) fizikuri; b) fizikuri; g) qimiuri; e) fizikuri; v) qimiuri; z) qimiuri; T) qimiuri; i) fizikuri; k) biologiuri, fizikuri, qimiuri. 4) a) betoni, keramika, liToni; b) plastmasi, liToni; g) plastmasi, mina, xe. 5)

sxeuli Wiqa magida qsovili larnaki qoTani kari

masala faifuri xe bamba mina Tixa rkina

xisgan SeiZleba damzaddes magida, karada, skami, Taro da a.S. minisgan - boTli, larnaki, safanjre mina, Wiqa da a. S. 6) bunebrivi ­ azoti, wyali, Jangbadi, rkina, oqro, bamba. xelovnuri ­ saponi, polieTileni, betoni, metalokeramika, faifuri, aspirini, neiloni.

49

7) Cai: Saqris, wylisa da Cais nayenis narevi. gemos ganapirobebs Saqari, Cais nayeni; fers - Cais nayeni; temperaturas - wyali. kakao: rZis, kakaosa da Saqris narevi. gemos da fers ganapirobebs - kakao, Saqari, rZe; fers - kakao, rZe. limonaTi: wylis, xilis sirofisa da airis narevi. fers da gemos ganapirobebs xilis sirofi, SuSxuna Tvisebas - airi (naxSirorJangi). 8) rkinis, carcisa da marilis narevidan rkinis gamoyofa SesaZlebelia magnitiT. carcisa da marilis gansacalkeveblad narevi wyalSi unda gavxsnaT da gavfiltroT: mariliani wyali gadava mimRebSi, filtris qaRaldze darCeba carci. mariliani wylidan marilis gamoyofa amoSrobis meTodiT aris SesaZlebeli. 9) spirtis, wylisa da zeTis narevidan zeTis gamoyofa SesaZlebelia dawdomiT an gamyofi Zabris gamoyenebiT, xolo darCenili spirtis wyalxsnaris dayofa komponentebad SesaZlebelia gamoxdis meTodiT. (SesaZlebelia narevis dayofa mxolod gamoxdis meTodiT: mzesumziris zeTis duRilis temperatura daaxloebiT 120-130 oC -ia, wylis ­ 100 oC, spirtis-78 oC). 10) saxlis pirobebSi qviSiani wylis gasafiltrad saWiroa: mimRebi WurWeli, Zabri, filtris qaRaldi (bamba, dolbandis ramdenime fena, qsovili). 11) Caidnis yelidan gamosul orTqls dauxvedreT civi WurWeli (sasurvelia metalis TefSi an jami) da kondensirebuli wylis mosagroveblad mis qveS ganieri jami moaTavseT. 12) adviladaalebadi toqsikuri (Sxami) mwvave (mJava, tute) mJangavi feTqebadsaSiSia Mradiaciuli saSiSAroeba iwvevs daavadebebs sicocxlisTvis saSiSia xels uwyobs wvasa da Jangvas advilad ekideba cecxli advilad feTqdeba azianebs kansa da Tvalebs

praqtikuli samuSao: 1. marilis, qviSisa da wylis narevis gafiltvrisas filtris qaRaldze qviSa darCeba, WiqaSi marilsxnari Caedineba. filtris qaRaldis nacvlad SesaZloa bambis, qsovilis, dolbandis gamoyeneba. qviSis gamoyofa dawdomiTac SeiZleba. gafiltvris upiratesoba ki imaSi mdgomareobs, rom igi SedarebiT swrafi meTodia da qviSis gamocalkevebis xarisxic ufro maRalia. 2. marilwylis aorTqlebis Semdeg jamSi 2-3 kovzi marili darCeba. daskvna: narevis komponentebad dayofis Sedegad miiReba igive raodenobis komponentebi, ra raodenobiTac isini erTmaneTs narevis mosamzadeblad SevurieT.

testi I Tavis bolos - pasuxebi: 1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. a; 5. a; 6. g; 7. g; 8. b; 9. b; 10. b; 11. g; 12. b; 13. g; 14. b; 15. b; 16. a) a, b, g. b) a. g) a, d; 17. b.

50

II Tavi: atomi - samyaros saSeni masala

gakv. II - 1 Sedegi

molekula da atomi (me-8 gakveTili)

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. qmnis nivTierebis umciresi nawilakebis (molekula, atomi) modelebs da iyenebs maT martivi da rTuli nivTierebebis modelebis konstruirebisTvis.

indikatori mizani

dainteresdes, rasTan aris dakavSirebuli samyaros mravalferovneba. gauCndes survili, eZebos da axsnas am mravalferovnebis mizezi, interesi aReZras mecnieruli kvlevisa da siaxleebis mimarT, SeZlos obieqtis modeliT gamosaxva.

1 marili mlaSea, radgan misi Semadgeneli nawilakebi mlaSea. nebismieri nivTierebis Tvisebebi misi Semadgeneli umciresi nawilakebis Tvisebebzea damokidebuli.

a ci da n me ko re

Tu ver upasuxes, hkiTxeT: razea damokidebuli narevis Tvisebebi? (narevis Tvisebebi misi Semadgeneli komponentebis Tvisebebzea damokidebuli). raze iqneba damokidebuli komponentis Tvisebebi? (fiz:. misi Semadgeneli molekulis Tvisebebze. alt.: misi Semadgeneli nawilakebis Tvisebebze).

2

Tu davuSvebT, rom sami sxvadasxva saxis TiTo atomi gvaqvs, maSin 7 molekulis "Seqmnaa" SesaZlebeli:

Tu davuSvebT, rom sami sxvadasxva saxis atomebis raodenoba SezRuduli ar aris da molekulaSi Semavali atomebis dasaSvebi maqsimaluri raodenoba 3-is tolia, maSin SesaZlebelia 19 molekulis "Seqmna":

ia ac d en om k re

eqsperimentis Sesrulebisas moswavleebs molekulebis sxvadasxva feris an zomis burTulebiT gamosaxva SesTavazeT, raTa swori pasuxis moZebna gauadvildeT. gaamaxvileT yuradReba, Tu ramdenad gaaiolebs amocanis amoxsnas obieqtis grafikuli gamosaxulebis gamoyeneba. modelis gamoyeneba swavlebis procesSi gansakuTrebiT efeqturia, radgan TvaliT uxilav nawilakebze (molekula, atomi) uSualo dakvirveba an cdis Catareba SeuZlebelia.

gaaxseneT, ra aris narevi. hkiTxeT, razea damokidebuli narevis Tvisebebi. molekulaSi atomebis raodenobis cvlileba, iseve rogorc narevSi komponentis raodenobrivi cvlileba, molekulis Tvisebebis cvlilebas iwvevs. saSualeba mieciT, Tavad gamoitanon daskvna: raodenobriv cvlilebas Tan axlavs Tvisebrivi cvlilebebic. narevis grafikulad gamosaxvisas (daxatvisas) moswavleebi Tavad qmnian erTgvar modelebs. savaraudoa, rom savadasxva nivTierebas isini sxvadasxva feris, zomis da formis sxeulebiT gamosaxaven.

3

a ci da en om k re

namuSevrebis wardgenisas SegiZliaT sxvadasxva narevis nimuSi SearCioT. gaakraT dafaze da naxatze gamosaxuli narevis Semadgeneli komponentebis gamoyenebiT Tavad daxatoT axali narevi. saSualeba mieciT, gamoicnon, ra komponentebs Seicavs Tqvens mier daxatuli narevi. mag., SegiZliaT daxatoT qviSis, zeTis da wylis narevi, an zeTis da qviSis narevi.

4

moswavleebs gamouvaT oratomiani molekula: Jangbadi.

51

saSinao davaleba

1) specifikuri suni migvaniSnebs haerSi romelime nivTierebis molekulebis arsebobaze. "ver vxedav" ar niSnavs, rom "ar arsebobs". 2) naxatze gamosaxulia 7 - atomiani molekula. is sami sxvadasxva saxis atomisgan Sedgeba (H2SO4). 3) modeli fizikaSi molekulebis ganlagebis mixedviT sxvadasxva agregatuli mdgomareobis dasaxasiaTeblad, brounis moZraobis Aasaxsnelad, Zalis moqmedebis mimarTulebis gansasazRvrad, grafikebis asagebad dasWirdaT. inJinrebi qmnian avtomanqanebis, Senobebis, safexburTo moednebis modelebs. modeliorebi tanisamoss manekenebs - modelebs argeben. modelebs iyeneben sportuli gundebi, roca matCis dasrulebis Semdeg daSvebul Secdomebze msjeloben an momavali TamaSis strategias gegmaven. 4) cocxali organizmebis sunTqva Jangbadis gareSe SeuZlebelia. mcenareebi sakveb nivTierebebs niadagidan wyalTan erTad iReben. zogierTi cxoveli mxolod wyalSi cocxlobs. Tu adamianis organizmi wylis 9-12 % dakargavs, mis janmrTelobas safrTxe daemuqreba. orive nivTiereba - Jangbadi da wyali Jangbadis atoms Seicavs. 5) molekula SeiZleba sxvadasxva saxis da raodenobis atomebisgan Sedgebodes, amitom nivTierebis raodenoba atomebis raodenobas aRemateba.

gakv. I I - 2 Sedegi

atomis aRnagoba (me-9 gakveTili)

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. qmnis nivTierebis umciresi nawilakebis (molekula, atomi) modelebs da iyenebs maT martivi da rTuli nivTierebebis modelebis konstruirebisTvis.

indikatori mizani

gauCndes survili, eZebos da axsnas movlenis mizezi, aReZras interesi mecnieruli kvlevis mimarT, SeZlos modelis gamoyenebiT atomis aRnagobis daxasiaTeba.

1 2

a) qaRaldis nakuwebi kalams miekroba; b) Tma savarcxels miekroba. a) 6 eleqtroni; b) 10 eleqtroni. es atomebi gansxvavebuli raodenobis nawilakebisgan Sedgeba.

damatebiTi informacia: uZveles droSi adamianebma SeamCnies, rom Salis naWerze gaxaxunebis Semdeg qarva mcire zomis nawilakebs - mtvers, Zafisa da qaRaldis nakuwebs izidavda. msgavsad, Tu savarcxels Tmaze CamovisvamT da Semdeg qaRaldis nakuwebs mivuaxlovebT, qaRaldi savarcxels miekroba. am movlenas daeleqtroebas uwodeben. qaRaldis nakuwebisa da savarcxlis urTierTmizidva eleqtruli Zalebis Sedegia. sityva ,,eleqtroni" berZnulad ,,qarvas" niSnavs. eleqtruli muxti aramarto myari sxeulis xaxunis Sedegad, aramed siTxeebis da airebis xaxunis Sedegadac warmoiqmneba.

sxeulis daeleqtroebis dros axali nivTierebis warmoqmna ar xdeba, e. i. daeleqtroeba fizikuri movlenaa. erTnairi muxtis mqone sxeulebi erTmaneTs miizidaven, gansxvavebuli muxtis mqone sxeulebi ki urTierTganizidebian. uaryofiTad damuxtul nawilaks mxolod me-19 saukunis bolos ewoda eleqtroni. manamde mecnierebi mxolod varaudobdnen, rom arsebobda raRac eleqtruli nawilaki, romelic eleqtruli denis warmoqmnaSi monawileobda. eleqtruli deni damuxtuli nawilakebis nakadia. eleqtronis Tvisebebi 1897 wels ingliselma mecnierma jozef tomsonma Seiswavla da aRwera. Tumca, am faqts win uZRoda sxva mecnierebis kvlevebi da eqsperimentebi. protonis Tvisebebi ki mogvianebiT, 1919-1920 wlebSi rezerfordis mier iqna aRmoCenili da aRwerili.

saSinao davaleba

1) atomi protonebis, neitronebisa da eleqtronebisgan Sedgeba. molekula ­ atomebisgan. molekula SeiZleba erTi an ramdenime atomisgan Sedgebodes. 2) eleqtrons atomSi eleqtruli Zala akavebs: eleqtroni uaryofiTad aris damuxtuli, xolo atombirTvi - dadebiTad, sawinaaRMDEGOmdego muxtebis mqone nawilakebi ki urTierTmiizidebian. AN 3) radgan atombirTvSi sami protonia, mis garSemo sami eleqtroni imoZravebs.

52

4) dReisTvis cnobili yvela atomi Sedgeba birTvisa da mis garSemo moZravi eleqtronebisgan. 5) planetebi mzis irgvliv moZraoben, eleqtronebi - birTvis irgvliv.

damatebiTi informacia: atomis pirveli planeturi modelis avtori ernest rezerfordia. man atomi mzis sistemas Seadara. es Sedareba TvalsaCino ki iyo, magram zusti ar aRmoCnda: dedamiwis moZraobas mzis irgvliv msoflio mizidulobis Zala ganapirobebs, xolo atombirTvis garSemo eleqtronis moZraobas eleqtruli Zalebi marTaven.

6) Jangbadis atombirTvSi 8 neitroni da 8 protonia. birTvis garSemo 8 eleqtroni moZraobs. Jangbadis molekula ki Jangbadis ori atomisgan Sedgeba, amitom eleqtronebis raodenoba Jangbadis molekulaSi tolia 2 X 8=16, protonebis - 16, neitronebis - 16.

gakv. II - 3 qimiuri movlenebi (me-10 gakveTili) Sedegi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. cdis procesSi akvirdeba fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis garegnul niSnebs, monacemebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT da msjelobs maT Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb. CamoTvlis fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis magaliTebs, maTi aRwerisas iyenebs Sesabamis terminologias, qimiur movlenebs gamosaxavs sqematurad (mag. naxSirbadi + Jangbadi = naxSirorJangi).

indikatori

mizani

gaacnobieros samyaroSi mimdinare procesebis erTianoba, ganuviTardes movlenaze dakvirvebis, aRweris da klasifikaciis unar-Cveva.

Saqris daqucmacebisas icvleba forma da zoma. gaxurebisas Saqari jer lRveba, Semdeg nel-nela icvlis fers da sabolood Savi feris masad iqceva. formisa da zomis cvlileba fizikur cvlilebebs miekuTvneba. Saqari wyalSi ixsneba, miRebuli nivTiereba (naxSiri) ki - ara. Saqars tkbili gemo aqvs, miRebul nivTierebas - ara. Saqari gaxurebiT lRveba, naxSiri ara. Saqari TeTri ferisaa, naxSiri - Savi. es cvlilebebi axali nivTierebis warmoqmnaze miuTiTebs.

1 2

yvela SemTxvevaSi Seicvala forma da zoma.

a ci da n me ko re

ganumarteT, rom fizikuri gardaqmnebis Sedegad Saqari SEesaZloa, molekulebadac davSaloT - gavxsnaT wyalSi (Tu fizikis kursi gavlili aqvT, gaaxseneT difuzia), magram am dros misi molekula ar icvleba. Sesabamisad, ar Seicvleba Saqris Tvisebebic. qimiuri gardaqmna ki molekulis cvlilebas gulisxmobs.

SesTavazeT, gamoTqvan varaudi: rkina da Jangi erTi da igive nivTierebaa Tu ara. sakuTari varaudis Sesafaseblad maT SeuZliaT martivi eqsperimenti dagegmon: Seamowmon magnitis moqmedeba orive nivTierebaze.

saSinao davaleba

1) ra fizikuri cvlileba moxda icvleba: SeSis wva forma, zoma, feri xilis damwifeba forma, zoma, feri agregat. mdgomareoba wylis duRili puris daWra forma, zoma kvercxis Sewva forma, agregat . mdgom. spirtis aorTqleba agregat. mdgomareoba liTonis Wedva forma, zoma rZis amJaveba agregat. mdgomareoba mavTulis moRunva forma furclis daqucmaceba forma, zoma rkinis daJangva forma, zoma, feri murabis CaSaqvra agregat. mdgomareoba movlena ra qimiuri cvlileba moxda miiReba axali nivT. miiReba axali nivT. fizikuria Tu qimiuri movlena qimiuri qimiuri fizikuri fizikuri qimiuri fizikuri fizikuri qimiuri fizikuri fizikuri qimiuri fizikuri

miiReba axali nivT.

miiReba axali nivT.

miiReba axali nivT.

53

2) waSlisas saSlelsa da daxatul konturs Soris xaxunis Zala warmoiqmneba. konturi nivTiereba grafitia. am Zalis moqmedebiT saSleli qucmacdeba (mcirdeba zoma), xolo grafiti furcels Sordeba, warmoiqmneba saSlelis nawilakebisa da grafitis narevi, romelic furcelze namcecebis saxiT efineba. es fizikuri cvlilebebia - axali nivTiereba ar warmoiqmneba. maSasadame, fanqriT Sesrulebuli naxatis saSleliT waSla fizikuri movlenaa.

gakv. II - 4 qimiuri reaqciis niSnebi da pirobebi (me - 11 gakveTili) Sedegi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. cdis procesSi akvirdeba fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis garegnul niSnebs, monacemebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT da msjelobs maT Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb; CamoTvlis fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis magaliTebs, maTi aRwerisas iyenebs Sesabamis terminologias, qimiur movlenebs gamosaxavs sqematurad (mag. naxSirbadi + Jangbadi = naxSirorJangi).

indikatori

mizani

movlenaze dakvirvebis da aRweris, cdis Sedegebis analizis da ganzogadebis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba.

1

qimiuri reaqcia

reaqciis niSnebi (suni, sinaTle, airi, naleqi, siTbo, feri)

rZeSi limonis wvenis CawveTeba sodaze Zmris dasxma kvercxis Sewva asanTis dawva

naleqi warmoiqmneba soda "aSiSindeba" - gamoiyofa airi suni siTbo da sinaTle

daWrili kartofili ufro male ixarSeba, radgan siTbo da wyali mcire zomis naWerSi ufro advilad aRwevs.

2 3 4

cxobis procesi Sewydeba da puri "Cacomdeba".

wvis SesaCereblad iyeneben wyals, xanZarsawinaaRmdego qafebs, mZime qsovils. ganumarteT, rom qimiuri reaqciis mimdinareobis pirobebis codna saSualebas miscems, marTos zogierTi qimiuri procesi da winaswar gansazRvros, usafrTxoebis romeli wesi unda daicvas. mag., SearCios sxvadasxva kulinariuli nawarmis damzadebis saukeTeso pirobebi, cecxlisgan moSorebiT Seinaxos advilaalebadi nivTierebebi. daavaleT aRweron, ra cvlilebebi axlavs wyalSi saRebavis gaxsnas, acetonis daRvras. yuradReba imaze gaamaxvileT, rom feris da sunis cvlileba yovelTvis qimiuri movlenis niSani ar aris.

ia ac d en om k re

saSinao davaleba

1) vaSli haerze fers icvlis, rac qimiuri reaqciis niSania. am cvlilebis Tavidan asacileblad gaWrili vaSlis haerTan Sexeba unda SevzRudoT. mag., mWidroDd SemovaxvioT polieTilenis parki, movaTavsoT wylian jamSi. 2) wylis dasxmisas haeris Jangbadis miwodeba wvis areSi izRudeba. SeSa sveldeba. SeSis wva rom gagrZeldes, jer wyali unda aorTqldes, risTvisac meti dro da temperaturaa saWiro. navTze wylis dasxmisas wyali navTis fenis qveS moeqceva da navTis wva gagrZeldeba. almodebuli navTis Caqroba Zalze rTulia. cecxlmodebuli navTis Casaqrobad wyalsac iyeneben: cdiloben, xanZris areSi wyali Zlieri nakadiT ki ar miawodon, aramed wveTebis saxiT asxureben. xanZris Casaqrobad gamoiyeneba cecxlsaqrobi qafebi, mZime qsovili, qviSa, mSrali yinuli - myari naxSirorJangi. almodebuli benzinis Caqroba SesaZlebelia, Tu alSi ramdenime natex mSral yinuls CavagdebT. naxSirorJangi wvas xels uSlis. amis garda, am airSi Senaxuli produqti ar obdeba da ar lpeba. mecnierebi dResac muSaoben iseTi meTodebisa da nivTierebebis miRebaze, romelic xanZris swrafad Caqrobas uzrunvelyofs.

54

3)

movlena ra fizikuri cvlileba moxda ra qimiuri cvlileba moxda fizikuria Tu qimiuri movlena

icvleba:

rZis amJaveba sodaze Zmris dasxma kvercxis Sewva asanTis dawva puris gamocxoba kartofilis daWra kartofilis moxarSva

agregat. mdgomareoba agregat. mdgomareoba forma, agregat. mdgom. forma, zoma forma, zoma forma, zoma forma, zoma

miiReba ax. nivT. miiReba ax. nivT. miiReba ax. nivT. miiReba ax. nivT. miiReba ax. nivT. miiReba ax. nivT.

qimiuri qimiuri qimiuri qimiuri qimiuri fizikuri qimiuri

4) boTlidan airis amofrqveva fizikuri movlenaa. Tavsaxuris moxsnisas airis wneva mcirdeba, is swrafad farTovdeba da boTlidan amoityorcneba. am dros axali nivTiereba ar warmoiqmneba. 5) 1) xanZars uyuradRebod datovebuli cecxlis kera (CarTuli gazqura, koconi, eleqtroxelsawyoebi) iwvevs. haeris maRali temperaturis gamo cecxli ekideba torfian Waobebs, radgan iq wvadi airi - meTani gamoiyofa. 2) xanZarTAn axlos tyeebis, balaxovani safaris, advilad wvadi obieqtebis arseboba xels uwyobs cecxlis gavrcelebas. cecxlis gadatanas xels uwyobs aseve qari, haeris Zalian dabali tenianoba. 3) uyuradRebod ar unda davtovoT cecxlis kera, davicvaT usafrTxoebis wesebi, droulad movimaragoT cecxlsaqrobi saSualebebi, gavmarToT saxanZro samsaxuris muSaoba. 4) xanZars Tan siTbos, sinaTlis, kvamlis gamoyofa axlavs. 5) xanZris Sedegad nadgurdeba tyeebi da balaxovani safari, Sesabamisad, cxovelebsa da frinvelebs safrTxe emuqrebaT. xanZris Casaqrobad iyeneben wyals, qviSas, saqrob qafebs. zogjer xanZris maxloblad xelovnurad gamowveuli afeTqeba xels uwyobs xanZris Caqrobas - Jangbadis raodenoba haerSi swrafad mcirdeba, rac wvis process anelebs.

damatebiTi informacia: erTxel indoeTSi cecxlma sruliad gaanadgura da udabnod aqcia tyis uzarmazari koromi. xangrZlivi Ziebis Sedegadg gairkva, rom xanZari tyis yvavilma gamoiwvia, romelic advilaqrolad eTerovan zeTebs gamoyofs. mzis sxivebis zemoqmedebiT es nivTierebebi aalda, rasac xanZari mohyva.

xanZris mizezi SesaZloa mtredis budec gaxdes. rogorc cnobilia, mtredi sisufTaviT ar gamoirCeva. maTi budobis adgilas bevri eqskrementi (fekaluri masa) grovdeba. rodesac bude mzis sxivebis moqmedebiT cxeldeba, es masa xurdeba da advilad aldeba, ramac SesaZloa, xanZari gamoiwvios.

gakv. II - 5 molekulis cvlileba (me-12 gakveTili) Sedegi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. qmnis nivTierebis umciresi nawilakebis (molekula, atomi) modelebs da iyenebs maT martivi da rTuli nivTierebebis modelebis konstruirebisTvis. CamoTvlis fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis magaliTebs, maTi aRwerisas iyenebs Sesabamis terminologias, qimiur movlenebs gamosaxavs sqematurad (mag. naxSirbadi + Jangbadi = naxSirorJangi).

indikatori

mizani

modelis gamoyenebiT obieqtisa da movlenis daxasiaTebis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba. qimiuri reaqciis Sedegad miRebuli produqtebis gamokvleva.

1 (1) milidan gamoyofil airs cecxli moekideba. (2) milTan mitanisas mbJutavi kvari abrialdeba, rac niSnavs, rom milebSi sxvadasxva nivTierebebi dagrovda. wyali daiSala.

a ci da n me ko re

ganumarteT, rom wylis TiToeuli molekula iSleba wyalbadis or da Jangbadis erT atomad. amitom (1) milSi airis meti moculoba gamoiyofa, vidre (2) milSi. TvalsaCnoebisTvis (1) milSi buStukebis raodenoba metia.

axali molekula samatomiania da ori atomi Jangbadisa da erTi atomi naxSirbadisgan Sedgeba. e. i. 2 axali nivTierebebi imave atomebisgan warmoiqmneba, romlebisganac sawyisi nivTierebebi Sedgeboda.

55

saSinao davaleba

1) wylis daSLlis aucilebeli pirobaa maRali temperatura (2500 - 3000oC). reaqciis aucilebeli niSania airis gamoyofa. wylis daSlis produqtia ­ wyalbadi da Jangbadi, reagenti ­ wyali. 2) qimiuri reaqciis dros molekula icvleba ­ iSleba atomebad an ierTebs sxva atomebs. atomi ar icvleba ­ ganagrZobs damoukidebel arsebobas an sxva atomebTan axal molekulas warmoqmnis, atombirTvi ar icvleba. 3) qimiuri reaqciis dros molekula atomebad iSleba, xolo atomi ar icvleba. amrigad, atomi nivTierebis qimiurad ganuyofeli nawilakia. aqedan warmodgeba sityva "atomi", rac ZvelberZnulad "ganuyofels" niSnavs. birTvi ar icvleba (Tumca birTvis Secvla SesaZlebelia. aseT procesebs birTvuli fizika da qimia swavlobs). 4) rkinis sulfidi = rkina + gogirdi = +

gakv. II - 6 masis mudmivobis kanoni (me-13 gakveTili, ix. samodelo gakveTili gv. 32)

1 miiReba araerTgvarovani narevi. gamoiyo naleqi, rac qimiuri reaqciis mimdinareobis niSania. filtratisa da naleqis masaTa jami 105 g -is toli unda iyos. daskvna: qimiuri reaqciis Sedegad miRebuli produqtebis masaTa jami reagentebis masaTa jamis tolia.

asanTisa da asanTis dawvis Sedegad miRebuli naxSiris masebi gansxvavebulia: asanTis masa miRebuli naxSiris masaze metia. qilis masa ar Secvlila. daskvna: qimiuri reaqciis Sedegad nivTierebebi ar qrebian, isini gardaiqm3 nebian sxva nivTierebebad.

2

4 masis mudmivobidan gamomdinare, rkinis masis mateba niSnavs, rom rkina romeliRac nivTierebas (Jangbads) SeuerTda. am "mizezis" masis dasadgenad rkinis sruli daJangvis SEedegad miRebuli nivTierebis masas unda gamovakloT rkinis masa daJangvamde.

saSinao davaleba

1) masis mudmivobis kanonidan gamomdinare, wyalbadis masa iqneba: 36 g ­ 32 g = 4 g 2) sawonis masaa: 232 g ­ 168 g = 64 g. sawonis masa gviCvenebs, ra masis nivTiereba (Jangbadi) SeuerTda rkinas daJangvisas. 3) boili cdas TavRia WirWelSi atarebda, ris gamoc WurWlis masas daemata WurWelSi garedan SeRweuli haeris masa. metalebi haerze gavarvarebisas myife xenjad gardaiqmneba, romlis masa yovelTvis metia cdamde aRebuli metalis masaze. lomonosovi cdas Tavdaxurul WurWelSi - retortaSi atarebda. metali xenjad gardaiqmneboda, maSasadame, mosalodneli iyo masis mateba. magram WurWlis masa ar Secvlila - WurWelSi arsebuli haeris masa zustad imdeniT Semcirda, ramdeniTac gaizarda masSi gavarvarebuli metalis masa. boili cdas TavRia WurWelSi atarebda. amitom reaqciis bolos im Jangbadis adgili, romelic vercxliswyals SeuerTda, garedan SeRweulma haeris nakadma daikava - WurWlis masa gaizarda imdeniT, ramdeni Jangbadic SeuerTda vercxliswyals.

56

gakv. II - 7 kolokviumi (me -14 gakveTili) mizani

ganvlili masalis Sejameba, SeZenili codnisa da unar-Cvevebis Sefaseba.

savarjiSoebi II Tavis bolos - pasuxebi

1) wylis molekula samatomiania, Jangbadis - ori. wylis molekula Seicavs ori sxvadasxva saxis sam atoms, Jangbadis molekulaSi ki erTi saxis atomebia. 2) TvaliT uxilavi nawilakebis SegrZneba SesaZlebelia suniT, gemoTi. 3) Saqris wyalSi gaxsnisas xdeba difuzia. difuzia fizikuri movlenaa. 4) glukoza + Jangbadi = wyali + naxSirorJangi + energia reagentebi: glukoza, Jangbadi; produqtebi: wyali, naxSirorJangi. masis mudmivobis kanonis Tanaxmad , glukozasa da Jangbadis masaTa jami miRebuli wylis da gamoyofili airis masaTa jamis toli iqneba. 5) damokidebulia moswavlis fantaziaze. 6) kurkovan xils, saqanelas, fanqars, moedans. 7) bali da atami: kurka - birTvi, rbilobi - sivrce, sadac eleqtronebi moZraoben. kivi: Savi feris guli - birTvi, rbilobSi gafantuli wipwebi - eleqtronebi. 8) erTnairi muxtis matarebeli nawilakebi urTierTganizidebian. 9) protoni da eleqtroni sapirispiro muxtis matarebeli nawilakebia. erTmaneTs mxolod sapirispiro muxtis matarebeli nawilakebi izidaven. 10) 3. 11) 5. 12) atomi eleqtronebis da protonebis erTnair raodenobas Seicavs, ris gamoc protonebisa da eleqtronebis muxtebis jami nulis tolia da atomi eleqtroneitraluria. 13) naxSirbadis da Jangbadis atomi protonebis da eleqtronebis gansxvavebul raodenobas Seicavs. fanqris guli ruxi feris, myari nivTierebaa, qaRaldze gasmisas is ifxvneba da kvals tovebs. fanqriT Sesrulebuli naxatis wasla advilia. Jangbadi ufero, usuni airia, mas ver vxedavT. is sunTqvisTvis aucilebeli nivTierebaa. 14) haerSi arsebuli Jangbadis didi nawili afeTqebas moxmardeba da WaburRilis maxloblad haerSi Jangbadis raodenoba swrafad Semcirdeba. 15) gaTlili kartofili ar gaSavdeba, Tu mas wyalSi Cadeb, an mWidrod SefuTav. 16) naxSirbadi + Jangbadi = naxSirorJangi 12 g + 32 g = 44 g 17) eqsperimentis Catarebisas mecnierebi ar iTvaliswinebdnen airadi nivTierebebis masas. 18) 201g +16 g = 217 g. 19) axali molekulis warmoqmna qimiur reaqciaze migvaniSnebs. 20) 500 sm3 praqtikuli samuSao: a) SaqarTan anTebuli asanTis miaxloebisas is lRobas daiwyebs. b) Tambaqos ferflSi amovlebul Saqars cisferi ali moekideba. Saqris lRoba fizikuri movlenaa, Tu Saqris gaxurebas gavagrZelebT, qimiuri reaqcia daiwyeba da naxSirs miviRebT. "vulkanis" gacocxleba qimiuri reaqciis Sedegia. sodisa da Zmris urTierTqmedebis Sedegad gamoiyofa airi, romelic narevis "buybuys" iwvevs da krateridan "lava" gadmoedineba. WurWlis sarecxi siTxe airis zemoqmedebiT qafdeba da mduRare lavis efeqti iqmneba. testi II Tavis bolos - pasuxebi 1. g; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b; 5. g; 6. a; 7. a; 8. g; 9. a; 10. a; 11. b; 12. a; 13. b; 14. b; 15. a; 16. a; 17. a; 18. g.

gakv. II - 8 Semajamebeli wera I (me-15 gakveTili)

sakontrolo werisTvis variantebi SegiZliaT Tavis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebidan SearCioT.

57

III Tavi: qimiis ena

gakv. III - 1 elementi (me - 16 gakveTili) Sedegi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. adekvaturad iyenebs qimiuri elementebis simboloebs; iyenebs nivTierebaTa qimiur formulebs.

indikatori mizani

ganuviTardes sakuTari azris Camoyalibebisa da dasabutebis unar-Cveva, sxvisi mosazrebis analizis unari. iswavlos qimiuri simboloebis gamoyeneba.

wyali elementi ar aris, radgan is sxva nivTierebebad iSleba. wyali nivTierebaa, romlis molekula sxvadasxva qimiuri elementis atomebisgan Sedgeba. rkinis lursmani SeiZleba uwvriles namcecebad davanawevroT. misi molekulebamde dayofac rom SevZloT (rkinis molekula erTatomiania), TiToeul molekulas rkinis Tvisebebi eqneba. Tu atomSi protonebis raodenoba Seicvleba, sxva qimiuri elementis atoms miviRebT, romelsac misTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebi eqneba.

1

2

3 4

H 2O

nivTierebis dasaxeleba

wyali

neoni naxSiri wyalbadi Jangbadi

molekulis modeli

molekulis Semadgeneli qimiuri elementis simbolo da am elementis atomTa raodenoba

H O Ne C H O 2 1 1 1 2 2

formula

H 2O

Ne

C

H2 O2

a ci da n me ko re

qimiuri elementis aristoteleseuli ganmartebis Semdeg moswavleebs erT-erTi mecnieris msjeloba gaacaniT: me vici uamravi reaqcia rkinis monawileobiT, roca misi masa izrdeba da arcerTi, roca misi masa mcirdeba. maSasadame, rkina elementia. imsjelon, marTebulia Tu ara es gamonaTqvami. erT-erTi ganmartebiT elementi aris is, risi masac qimiuri reaqciebis dros arasodes klebulobs.

simboloebis Seswavlis win moswavleebs hkiTxeT: ra saWiroa saxelwodeba? raSi exmarebaT megobris saxelis codna? ratom arqmeven saxelebs movlenebs da obieqtebs? risTvis aris saWiro elementebisTvis saxelebis darqmeva? risTvis Seiqmna damwerloba? zogierTi elementis aRmoCenis TariRi aRmoCenis elementi mecnieri weli wyalbadi Jangbadi fosfori naxSirbadi, spilenZi, rkina, gogirdi azoti alumini qlori bori iodi kalciumi natriumi 1766 1772 1669 kavendiSi Seele brandti

damatebiTi informacia: elementi - "ellementus" laTinuri sityvaa da raimes Semadgenel nawils niSnavs. zogjer "elementi" gamoiyeneba raime martivTan mimarTebaSi. Zvelad mecnierebi ambobdnen, rom iseve rogorc sityva Sedgeba asoebisgan, sxeuli elementebisgan Sedgeba. SesaZloa, sityva "elementi" anbanis ramdenime asos Tanmimdevruli Tanwyobaa: L, M, N, T.

skandiumis saxelwodeba misi aRmoCenis adgils - skandinaviis naxevarkunZuls ukavSirdeba. qimiuri elementi iterbiumi SvedeTis sofel iterbSi mitovebul karierSi SvedeTis armiis leitenantis mier napovni mineralis SedgenilobaSi iqna aRmoCenili.

cnobilia Cv. w. aR. - mde 1772 1825 1774 1808 1811 1808 1807 rezerfordi erstedi Seele gei - lusaki kurtua devi devi

58

saintereso informacia qimiur elementebze SegiZliaT moiZioT saitze: http://www.n-t.org/ri/ps/. naxSirbadi dedamiwaze imaze met naerTs warmoqmnis, vidre yvela danarCeni elementi erTad aRebuli. airad wyalbads yvelaze dabali simkvrive aqvs, xolo Txevad wyalbads yvelaze maRali.

elementi liTiumi fosfori argoni galiumi seleni

saxelwodebis warmomavloba "liTos" berZnulad qvas niSnavs "fos feros" berZnulad Suqis matarebels niSnavs "argos" berZnulad usaqmurs niSnavs "galia" safrangeTis laTinuri saxelia "selena" berZnulad mTvares niSnavs

saSinao davaleba

1) 6 elementi. 2) C12H22O11; NaCl. 3) a) ara; b) ara; g) ki; d) ara. 4) ar aris cnobili molekulaSi gogirdisa da rkinis atomTa raodenoba. 5) liTiumi. 6) g) Ag. 7) Seicvleba. 8) mecnierma miiRo erTi da igive nivTiereba. miRebuli nivTiereba Sedgeba erTi qimiuri elementis atomebisgan. 9) kirqva (CaCO3) sami qimiuri elementis - kalciumis, naxSirbadis da Jangbadis atomisgan Sedgeba, kirqvis molekula xuTatomiania. 10) ftori, natriumi, fosfori, rkina, gogirdi, naxSirbadi, wyalbadi, kalciumi. am elementebis Semcveli naerTebi kariesis mimarT kbilis emalis mdgradobas zrdian.

damatebiTi informacia: aRmoCnda, rom kariesi organizmSi ftoris naklebobis Sedegia. ftoriT mdidari produqtebia - axali xaxvi, lobio, zRvis Tevzi. ftori kbilis zedapirze Zneladxsnad ftorapatitebs warmoqmnis, romelic mavne baqteriebis fermentebis moqmedebas anelebs.

11) N2, CaO, H2SO4, Fe2O3, P2O5, O3,Cl2, Fe, Au, I2, CaSO4.

gakv. III - 2 martivi nivTiereba (me- 17 gakveTili) Sedegi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. adekvaturad iyenebs qimiuri elementebis simboloebs; adarebs qimiur elementsa da martiv nivTierebas da msjelobs maT Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb; iyenebs nivTierebaTa qimiur formulebs.

indikatori mizani

Camouyalibdes SedarebiTi analizis unari, zepiri metyvelebis kultura. SeZlos martivi nivTierebis qimiuri elementisgan gansxvaveba.

1

C, N2, O3. samive nivTiereba mxolod erTi qimiuri elementis atomebisgan Sedgeba. maTi molekulebi gansxvavebuli raodenobis atomebisgan Sedgeba. nivTierebis nivTierebis dasaxeleba formula O2 Fe Al C H 2O Jangbadi rkina alumini naxSiri wyali simboloebis qarTuli dasaxeleba Jangbadi rkina alumini naxSirbadii wyalbadi da Jangbadi martivi nivTierebaa? diax diax diax diax ara

2

59

martivi nivTierebis dasaxeleba daemTxva Sesabamisi qimiuri elementis dasaxelebas.

3

a) martivi nivTiereba; b) qimiuri elementi.

saSinao davaleba

1) a) qimiur elements Jangbads da qimiur elements wyalbads; b) martivi nivTiereba; g) qimiur elements; d) martivi nivTiereba; e) qimiur elements. 2) en - ori, ferumi, qlor - ori, haS qlori, natrium ori ce o sami, iod ori, pe ori o xuTi, kalcium es o oTxi. martivi nivTierebebia: N N2, Fe, Cl2, I2 3) 7 sxvadasxva saxis atomi 7 elementia. maT, sul mcire, 7 martivi nivTierebis warmoqmna SeuZliaT. 4) mcdaria (b) gamonaTqvami. 5) martivi nivTierebis molekula SeiZleba rogorc erTi, ise erTze meti atomisgan Sedgebodes, amitom martivi nivTierebis raodenoba qimiuri elementebis raodenobas aRemateba. 6) martivia nivTiereba, Tu misi molekula 3 erTnairi atomisgan Sedgeba (Gg) . 7) nivTiereba "azotis" molekula qimiuri elementis - azotis ori atomisgan Sedgeba, amitom am nivTierebas "azoti" ewoda.

gakv. III - 3 metalebi da arametalebi (me- 18 gakveTili) Sedegi

1. moswavle aRwers nivTierebaTa Tvisebebs da msjelobs maTi cvlilebebis Sesaxeb. 3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 1. akvirdeba da adarebs nivTierebebs Tvisebebis mixedviT (mag. suni, bzinvareba, wva, agregatuli mdgomareoba. Sedegebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT, aanalizebs da gamoyofs Tvisebebs, romlebic am nivTierebebis gamoyenebas ganapirobebs. 3. adekvaturad iyenebs qimiuri elementebis simboloebs.

indikatori

mizani

aRwerisa da dakvirvebis Sedegebis Caweris, monacemTa interpretaciisa da misi ganzogadebis unaris ganviTareba. SeZlos metalis arametalisgan gansxvaveba, qimiuri elementis Tvisebebidan gamomdinare gansazRvros praqtikaSi misi gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba. spilenZis mavTuli gabrtyeldeba, naxSiri daifSvneba. sxeulis Tvisebebi misi Semadgeneli nivTierebis Tvisebebzea damokidebuli, nivTierebis Tvisebebi ki - misi Semadgeneli molekulis Tvisebebze.

1

2

plastikuroba martivi formu- agregatuli bzinvareba (mtkicea Tu myife) nivTiereba la mdgomareoba

spilenZi alumini naxSiri rkina Jangbadi Cu Al C Fe O2

gamWvirvaloba ara ara ara ara ki

ramdenatomiania misi molekula 1 1 1 1 2

myari myari myari myari airadi

aqvs aqvs ar aqvs aqvs ar aqvs

plastikuri plastikuri myife plastikuri

---

spilenZi, alumini, rkina spilenZi, oqro, vercxli. es metalebi kargad atareben dens, axasiatebT plastikuroba - maTgan gamtari mavTulebis damzadeba SedarebiT iolia. naxSiri myaria, Jangbadi - airadi. naxSiri myifea da gaumWvirvale, Jangbadi gamWvirvale airia. 4 naxSiris molekula erTatomiania, Jangbadis - 2.

3

ia ac d en om k re

meore eqsperimentSi mocemuli davalebis Sesrulebisas moswavleebi amoweren spilenZs, aluminsa da rkinas. hkiTxeT, aqvT Tu ara maT gansxvavebuli Tvisebebi? mag., alumini rkinasTan SedarebiT rbilia da Sromis iaRarebiT advilad muSavdeba. mniSvnelovania, moswavlem SeZlos monacemebis klasificireba da ganzogadeba.

moswavlem dakvirvebis Sedegad Tavad unda gansazRvros, rom garda msgavsebisa, arsebobs ganmasxvavebeli niSnebi. yvela metali erTatomiania, axasiaTebs metaluri Tvisebebi, magram es Tvisebebi sxvadasxva metalSi sxvadasxvagvari siZlieriT vlindeba. mag., spilenZic da aluminic plastikuria, magram alumini spile-

60

nZTan SedarebiT meti plastikurobiT xasiaTdeba. natriumi da tyvia metalia, magram natriumi tyviisgan gansxvavebiT, Cveulebriv pirobebSi wyalTan aqtiurad urTierTqmedebs.

damatebiTi informacia: gansxvavebuli Tvisebebis gamo nivTierebebi sxvadasxva daniSnulebiT gamoiyeneba. mag., daJangvisgan rkinis dasacavad, mas TuTiis Txeli feniT faraven. magniumi iwvis kaSkaSa aliT. am Tvisebis gamo mas samaSvelo fanrebisa da SuSxunebis dasamzadeblad iyeneben. bromis naerTebi xeebis Sesawamlad gamoiyeneba. ftoris naxSirbadTan naerTs tafis fskeris dasafarad iyeneben, rac mas kerZis miwvisgan icavs. amave naerTiT amuSaveben Txilamurebis Zirebsac.

uZveles droSi, roca fanqari jer kidev ar arsebobda, xatvisTvis naxSirs iyenebdnen. pirveli fanqari XV saukuneSi Seqmnes. fanqris guli Tixis, grafitis, webos da cximis erTgvarovani masaa.

saSinao davaleba

1) metalebisgan mzaddeba: sadenebi, samSeneblo karkasebi, samzareulo inventari, samuSao iaraRebi, manqana - danadgarebi, transportis korpusi. zogierTi arametali antiseptikia (iodi), airebs iyeneben naTurebis Sesavsebad (inertuli airebi), qvanaxSirs saTbobad, qlors dezinfeqciisTvis iyeneben. 2) (a) CamonaTvalSi yvela arametalia garda Na- sa, (b) CamonaTvalSi yvela metalia garda H2 -sa. 3) nivTierebebia: kalciumi, naxSiri, iodi, rkina, wyalbadi, alumini, qlori, Jangbadi. qimiuri elementebia: Ca, C, I, Fe, H, Al, Cl, O. maTgan Ca, Fe, Al metalebs miekuTvneba. 4) zogierTi metalii gamoiyeneba avtomobilebisa da relsebis dasamzadeblad, radgan mdgradia rogorc meqanikuri, ise Termuli zemoqmedebis mimarT. gamdnari metali yalibis formas iRebs da mas gaciebisas inarCunebs. zogierTi metalisgan, plastikurobis da feris gamo samkaulebs amzadeben.

gakv. III - 4 rTuli nivTiereba (me- 19 gakveTili) Sedegi

2. moswavle ganasxvavebs nivTierebas da narevs, flobs narevis komponentebad dayofis meTodebs. 3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs 2. cdebis safuZvelze adarebs nivTierebisa da narevis Tvisebebs. aanalizebs monacemebs da Sedegebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT. 3. qmnis nivTierebis umciresi nawilakebis /molekula, atomi/ modelebs da iyenebs maT martivi da rTuli nivTierebebis modelebis konstruirebisTvis. adekvaturad iyenebs qimiuri elementebis simboloebs. iyenebs nivTierebaTa qimiur formulebs, nivTierebis masis mudmivobis kanons.

indikatori

mizani

nivTierebis Caweris, cdis Sedegebis analizis unaris ganviTareba. SeZlos narevisa da naerTis erTmaneTisgan garCeva, nivTierebis Sedgenilobis mudmivobis kanonis arsSi garkveva.

1) narevis dasayofad SesaZlebelia magnitis gamoyeneba. rkina, calke aRebuli Tu narevis SemadgenlobaSi arsebuli, magnitiT miizideba. nivTierebebi narevSi Tvisebebs inarCuneben. 2) narevi gaxurebisas gawiTldeba. gaxurebis Sewyvetis Semdeg reaqcia mainc grZeldeba da sabolood ruxi feris masa miiReba. axali nivTiereba, romelic gogirdisa da rkinis naerTs warmoadgens, magnitiT ar miizideba. naerTSi qimiuri elementebi Tvisebebs ar inarCuneben. daskvna: narevis Tvisebebi damokidebulia misi Semadgeneli komponentebis Tvisebebze. naerTis Tvisebebi gansxvavdeba masSi Semavali qimiuri elementis Tvisebebisgan. naerTi ori an meti qimiuri elementisgan Sedgeba, narevi _ ori an meti komponentisgan. narevis dayofa fizikuri meTodebiT SesaZlebelia, naerTis ki - ara. narevi nebismieri nivTierebebis nebismieri raodenobis SereviT miiReba, naerTis warmoqmna ki qimiuri reaqciis Sedegia.

1 2

H2SO4. es nivTiereba Seicavs sami qimiuri elementis: H, S, O atoms.

saSinao davaleba

1) Saqari, marili, wyali, naxSirorJangi, soda. 2) rogori gziTac unda miviRoT naxSirorJangi, misi qimiuri formula (Sedgeniloba) erTnairi iqneba. naxSirorJangis molekula naxSirbadis erTi da Jangbadis ori atomisgan Sedgeba, sxva SemTxvevaSi is sxva nivTiereba iqneboda.

61

3) celulozasa da Saqris molekulaSi C, H, da O-s atomebis raodenoba gansxvavebulia. 4) Tvisebebi iyofa Tu ara komponentebad fizikuri xerxiT? inarCuneben Tu ara komponentebi TavianT Tvisebebs? rogori TanafardobiT gvxvdeba komponentebi? SesaZlebelia maTi qimiuri formuliT gamosaxva? risgan Sedgebian isini? narevi ki ki nebismieri ara komponentebisgan naerTi ara ara gansazRvruli ki qim. elementebisgan

gakv. III - 5 valentoba (me- 20 gakveTili) Sedegi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. cdis procesSi akvirdeba fizikuri da qimiuri movlenebis garegnul niSnebs, monacemebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT da msjelobs maT Soris gansxvavebis Sesaxeb. qmnis nivTierebis umciresi nawilakebis /molekula, atomi/ modelebs da iyenebs maT martivi da rTuli nivTierebebis modelebis konstruirebisTvis. adekvaturad iyenebs qimiuri elementebis simboloebs, atomTa valentobas misTvis cnobili martivi da rTuli nivTierebebis formulebis Casawerad, awarmoebs Sesabamis gamoTvlebs; iyenebs nivTierebaTa qimiur formulebs.

indikatori

mizani

nivTierebis Cawerisa da martivi maTematikuri gamoTvlebis Catarebis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba. valentobis cnebis Semotana.

1 naxSirJangi ufero, usuno airia. mas mxuTav airs uwodeben, Sedis avtomanqanis gamonabolqvis, sigaretis kvamlis SedgenilobaSi. sisxlSi moxvedrisas is JangbadisTvis gankuTvnil adgils ikavebs da safrTxes uqmnis adamianis sicocxles. misi molekula Sedgeba erTi atomi naxSirbadisa da erTi atomi Jangbadisgan. misi formulaa CO. naxSirorJangi ufero airia, odnav momJao suniT. misi molekula Sedgeba erTi atomi naxSirbadisa da ori atomi Jangbadisgan. misi formulaa CO2. Tu formulaSi indeqss ar mivuTiTebT, ar gvecodineba am nivTierebis molekulis raodenobrivi Sedgeniloba da Sesabamisad, ver ganvsazRvravT, ra nivTierebazea saubari da ra Tvisebebi aqvs mas. 2 3

erTdroulad SesaZlebelia, mxolod or megobars CamoarTva xeli. a) mocemul formulebSi erTi elementis valentoba udris meore elementis indeqss. b)

1 2 3 4

Cl O N C

4

Ca

O ganumarteT, rom valentobas swored atomis eleqtronuli aRnagoba gansazRvravs ,,xelis" rols atombirTvis garSemo moZravi eleqtronebi asruleben, rasac isini momdevno klasSi gaecnobian.

a ci da n me ko re

saSinao davaleba

II II I I III I IV I

1) CuO, HBr, PH3, CH4, 2) saerTo aqvT qimiuri elementi ­ wyalbadi, gansxvavebulia indeqsi. erTi elements aRniSnavs, meore nivTierebas. 3) a) 2; b) 2; g) 2; d) 1.

62

gakv. III - 6 formulis Sedgena valentobiT (21-e gakveTili) Sedegi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. adekvaturad iyenebs qimiuri elementebis simboloebs atomTa valentobas misTvis cnobili martivi da rTuli nivTierebebis formulebis Casawerad, awarmoebs Sesabamis gamoTvlebs; iyenebs nivTierebaTa qimiur formulebs.

indikatori mizani

nivTierebis Cawerisa da martivi maTematikuri gamoTvlebis Catarebis unar-Cvevis ganviTareba.

a ci da n me ko re

gaaxseneT ras uwodeben jerad ricxvs: jeradi ricxvi ewodeba mTel ricxvs, romelic mocemul sidideebze naSTis gareSe iyofa. qimiuri formulis Sedgenisas moswavleebma unda gamoiyenon maTematikaSi miRebuli codna - umciresi jeradis dadgenis wesi da martivi maTematikuri gamoTvlebiT daadginon indeqsebi, Seamowmon, sworad Seadgines TUu ara formula.

saSinao davaleba

1) CaO, Al2O3, AlCl3

II II

I II VII II V II III I II I II II

2) BaO, Na2O, Mn2O7, P2O5, NH3, CaCl2, CaO 3) naxSirorJangSi (CO2) naxSirbadis valentoba oTxis tolia. mis struqturul formulas aseTi saxe eqneba: O = C = O

gakv. III - 7 qimiuri gantoleba (22-e gakveTili) Sedegi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. qimiur movlenebs gamosaxavs sqematurad (mag. naxSirbadi + Jangbadi = naxSirorJangi). iyenebs nivTierebaTa qimiur formulebs, nivTierebis masis mudmivobis kanons da qimiuri gantolebiT gamosaxavs bunebaSi mimdinare qimiur movlenebs (mag. ozonis daSla, rkinis daJangva).

indikatori mizani

codnis sistemaSi moyvana. qimiuri reaqciis Caweris unar-Cvevis ganviTareba.

reagentebSi magniumis erTi da Jangbadis ori atomia, produqtSi ki - magniumis erTi da Jangbadis erTi atomi. gamodis, rom qimiuri reaqciis Sedegad Jangbadis erTi atomi "gaqra", radgan viciT, rom atomebi ar "qrebian", e. i. masis mudmivobis kanoni darRveulia.

1 2

magniumi + Jangbadi = magniumis oqsidi

saSinao davaleba

1) 2H2O = 2H2+O2 2) 2Ca + O2 = 2 CaO 4Na + O2 = 2Na2O, S + O2 = SO2 3) 4Fe + 3O2=2Fe2O3, 4) 2Cu + O2=2CuO 2Fe + 3Cl2 = 2 FeCl3 2Na + Cl2 = 2NaCl 4Al + 3O2 = 2Al2O3 C + O2 = CO2 2Pb + O2 = 2PbO

5) koeficienti gamosaxavs molekulis raodenobas, indeqsi ­ atomis. koeficienti ekuTvnis molekulas, indeqsi atoms. 6) O, 2O, O2, 2O2.

63

gakv. III - 8 elementebi Cvens garSemo (23-e gakveTili) Sedegi

1. moswavle aRwers nivTierebaTa Tvisebebs da msjelobs maTi cvlilebebis Sesaxeb. 1. asaxelebs yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi gamoyenebul nivTierebebs da msjelobs maTi Tvisebebis Sesaxeb. agrovebs informacias organizmebisTvis mniSvnelovani nivTierebebis (mag. Jangbadi, wyali, naxSirorJangi) Sesaxeb da msjelobs maT daniSnulebaze.

indikatori mizani

gauCndes interesi garemomcveli samyaros kvlevis mimarT, gaecnos qimiuri elementebis mniSvnelobas adamianis organizmisTvis, gaakeTos miRebuli informaciis analizi.

a) rkinis an mtkice Senadnobisgan; b) qvanaxSirs; g) xisgan da gogirdis an fosforisgan; d) elementis korpusi metalisgan mzaddeba. elementis SigTavss warmoadgens specialur nivTierebaSi e. w. - eleqtrolitSi moTavsebuli metalis ori firfita; e) samzareulo WurWels amzadeben aluminisgan, spilenZisgan, vercxlisgan, sxvadasxva Senadnobisgan da a. S.

1

2

CuSO4 + Mg = MgSO4 + Cu sinjaraSi daileqeba spilenZi

damatebiTi informacia: xorceulsa da rZis produqtebze uaris Tqma mozardi organizmisTvis sazianoa. es produqtebi Seicavs gulis, tvinis, Zvlovanis zrdisa da swori funqcionirebisTvis aucilebel nivTierebebs. organizmSi misi deficiti iwvevs mcenareuli da cxoveluri cilebi erTmaneTis- elementi gan Zireulad gansxvavdeba. xorceuli cilebi kunTovani spazmebi, kenWovani daavadeiseT aminomJavebs Seicavs, romlebsac uaRresi Mg bebi, ariTmia saWiroebis miuxedavad, Cveni organizmi ver gamoimuSavebs. bostneulSi es mJavebi Zalian cotaa an anemia, imunuri sistemis dasusteba Fe saerTod ar aris. kanis daavadebebi, zrdis Seneleba, mxeZn dvelobis daqveiTeba CuSO4-is 25 % xsnari koniuqtivis samkurnalo Tvalis wveTebia. arteriebis sisuste, RviZlis funqciis Cu darRveva, Zvlis paTologiuri zrda cnobili mecnierebi - maikl faradei, isaak niuuSviloba, ConCxis zrdis SeCereba toni da mixel lomonosovi sicocxlis bolo aTwMn leulSi erTnair simptomebs uCiodnen: uZiloba, ujredis zrdis Seneleba Mo depresia, azris akviateba, Sromisunarianobis da depresiAa, dermatiti Ni mexsierebis daqveiTeba. maTi biografiebis Seswadiabeturi simptomebi Cr vlis Sedegad aRmoCnda, rom mecnierebs janmrTeloba mas Semdeg SeeryaT, rac vercxliswyalTan endokrinologiuri darRvevebi I intensiuri muSaoba daiwyes. maSin es nivTiereba kunTebis sisuste Se jer kidev ar iyo kargad Seswavlili. dReisTvis ki kariesi F misi Tvisebebi ukve cnobilia.

saSinao davaleba

1) am davalebis SesrulebaSi amave gakveTilSi mocemuli ilustraciebi daexmarebaT. 2) saWiro informaciis miReba Sesabamisi produqciis etiketidanaa SesaZlebeli.

64

gakv. III - 9 kolokviumi ( 24-e gakveTili) mizani

ganvlili masalisa Sejameba, SeZenili codnisa da unar-Cvevebis Sefaseba.

savarjiSoebi III Tavis bolos - pasuxebi

1) alumini, hidrargirumi, kaliumi, kalciumi, azoti, naxSirbadi, Jangbadi, gogirdi, heliumi, wyalbadi, TuTia, rkina, liTiumi, qlori, iodi, natriumi, bromi, magniumi. 2) martivi: Zn, Fe, H2, Al, I2, Ag. rTuli: CH4, CuSO3, CaCO4, MnS, AlCl3, V2O5.

II II I II IV II I II VI II VII II II II III II V II

3) Hg O, K2S, MnO2, Cu2O, SO3, Mn2O7, CuO, Fe2O3, As2O5. 4) Li2O, BaO, P2O5,K2O, PH3, Mn2O7, FeO, H2S, NO2, FeCl3, CO, N2O, CO2. 5) a) Cu2O; b) FeS; g) FeO; d) CO2; e) PH3; v) NaCl; z) NH3; T) SO2. 6) martivi nivTierebebia ­ (a) da (d) WurWelSi, naerTebi ­ (b) da (g) WurWelSi. (b) da (g) WurWelSi moTavsebuli naerTebi orelementiania. 7) 2Ca + O2 = 2CaO 2Na + Cl2 = 2 NaCl 2Cu + O2 = 2 CuO 8) 2Zn + O2 =2 ZnO 2Fe + 3Cl2 = 2FeCl3 S + O2= SO2 2Ca + O2= 2CaO 2Al + 3S = Al2S3 2 Al + 3Cl2 = 2AlCl3 4Li + O2 = 2Li2O 2Cu + O2= 2CuO 4Al + 3O2= 2Al2O3 2Pb + O2= 2PbO 2Na + Cl2= 2NaCl

9) O (II), Na (I), S(IV), O(II), S (VI), O (II) 10)

N N

O O O

Cu Cu O

Cu

O

H H S

H

Br

11) (a) 12) a) narevi (a) da (b) WurWelSia, b) (a) WurWelSi moTavsebulia martivi nivTierebebis orkomponentiani narevi, (b) WurWelSi moTavsebulia martivi da rTuli nivTierebebis samkomponentiani narevi. g) naerTi moTavsebulia (g) da (Gd) WurWlebSi. (g) WurWelSi moTavsebuli naerTi ori elementisgan Sedgeba, (d) WurWelSi moTavsebuli naerTi ki - 3 elementisgan. 13) (b) an (d). 14) qlori gamoiyeneba dezinfeqciisTvis, iodi - antiseptikia, marili sakvebis dasamzadeblad gamoiyeneba, wyali - sasmelad, gasarecxad, dasabanad, sakvebis mosamzadeblad; Cl, I, Na da Cl, H daO. 15) "fosfori": sami saukunis win hamburgelma alqimikosma gening brandtma fosfori aRmoaCina. is sxva alqimikosebis msgavsad filosofiur qvas eZebda. erT-erTi eqsperimentis Catarebisas man Tavisi Sardi moagrova da aaorTqla. miRebul naleqs nacari da qviSa Seuria da gaaxura. male WurWelSi axali nivTiereba miiRo, romelic sibneleSi anaTebda. es misTvis saocreba iyo - nivTiereba gaxurebis gareSe anaTebda. "fosfori" berZnulad manaTobels niSnavs. 1680 wels ingliselma mecnierma robert boilma fosfori damoukideblad miiRo. mas Semdeg am nivTierebis Seswavlas bevri mecnieri Seecada. 1771 wels Seelem danacrebuli Zvlisgan fosforis miReba SeZlo. mecnierebma daadgines, rom fosfori mcenaris normaluri zrda-ganviTarebisTvis aucilebeli elementia da daiwyes fosforSemcveli sasuqebis miRebaze muSaoba. arsebobs TeTri, wiTeli da Savi fosfori. TeTri fosforis molekula oTxatomiania, misi lRobis temperatura 44 gradusia. Tu TeTr fosfors uhaero sivrceSi 250 gradusze gavacxelebT, is wiTel fosforad gardaiqmneba, 500 gradusze ki iisferi xdeba. wiTeli fosfori sibneleSi ar anaTebs. adamianis organizmi daaxloebiT 1,5 kg fosfors Seicavs. is Zvlis SedgenilobaSi Sedis. kbilis emalic fosforSemcveli naerTia. fosfors aseve didi raodenobiT Seicavs kvercxis guli. gamoiyeneba asanTis

65

warmoebaSi, metalurgiaSi. "wyalbadi": 1781-82 wlebSi kavendiSma daxurul WurWelSi dawva ufero, usuno airi da aRmoaCina, rom wvis produqts wyali warmoadgens. am airs Zvelad "wvad haers" uwodebdnen. mogvianebiT ki "wyalbadi" uwodes. is yvelaze metad gavrcelebuli elementia - arsebobs dedamiwaze, varskvlavebze. mzis naxevarze meti wyalbadia. mze kosmosSi yovelwamierad udides energias asxivebs. aseTi energiis wyaro ki wyalbadis atomia. mzeze temperatura 20 milioni gradusia, wneva ki 8 miliardi atmosfero. aseT pirobebSi mimdinareobs e.w. TermobirTvuli reaqciebi, romlis dros wyalbadis atomi heliumis atomad gardaiqmneba. am dros Zalze didi raodenobiT energia gamoiyofa. SedarebisTvis, es energia daaxloebiT im energiis tolia, romelsac gamoimuSavebda 200 000 000-mde mZlavri eleqtrosadguri. adamiani Tu birTvuli reaqciebis marTvas iswavlis, 1 litri wylidan imdenive energiis miRebaa SesaZlebeli, ramdensac 300 l benzini iZleva. Tavisufali wyalbadi vulkanuri airebis SedgenilobaSi gvxvdeba. is haerze 14-jer msubuqia da 7-jer ukeTesad atarebs siTbos. haernaosnobis ganviTareba swored wyalbads ukavSirdeba. Zvelad Tvlidnen, rom mTeli samyaro wyalbadisgan Seiqmna, radgan is yvelaze patara atomia - mxolod 1 protons Seicavs. Tanamedrove mecnierebi metaluri wyalbadis miRebas cdiloben. maT miaCniaT, rom metalur wyalbads Cveulebriv pirobebSi arseboba SeuZlia da is maRali eleqtrogamtarobiT xasiaTdeba. aseTi wyalbadi siTbos da energiis mosaxerxebel wyaros warmoadgens. 16) I. romelia martivi nivTiereba da romeli elementi: O3, O, O2, I2, I, N2, P, C. II. romel teqstSia saubari martiv nivTierebaze: a) is Sedgeba erTi saxis atomebisgan da bunebaSi SeiZleba arsebobdes naerTis saxiT; b) is Sedgeba erTi saxis atomebisgan da bunebaSi SeiZleba arsebobdes narevis saxiT. III. ipove qimiuri elementi rkina: a) rkinisgan amzadeben Sromis iaraRebs; b) rkina Sedis sisxlis SedgenilobaSi; g) rkina haerze iJangeba da warmoqmnis rkinis xenjs. 17) Mg, Pb, Cl, I. 18) manganumi. manganumis madnis - piroluzitis (MnO2) msoflio maragis 10 % WiaTuris sabadoebSi iyo Tavmoyrili. wlebis ganmavlobaSi WiaTuraSi mopovebuli madani saqarTvelodan nedleulis saxiT gadioda. am nivTierebis gareSe foladis gamodnoba SeuZlebelia. 19) gamoscems musikaluri JReradobisTvis saWiro xmas.

imegobre qimiasTan (klasgareSe saxaliso eqsperimentebi)

am gakveTilze mocemuli martivi da saxaliso qimiuri cdebi da saintereso informacia qimiis Seswavlis mimarTmoswavles kidev ufro metad gaumZafrebs interess.

damatebiTi informacia: qlorofilis gamoyofa kriminalistebisTvis nacnobi reaqciaa. erT-erT sofelSi borotmoqmedma saxli gadawva. gamomZieblebma SemTxvevis adgilis daTvalierebisas saxlis maxloblad gaTelili balaxi naxes da ivaraudes, rom borotmoqmedi am adgilidan Tavis namoqmedars akvirdeboda. sagamoZiebo RonisZiebebis Catarebisas soflis eWEvmitanil mcxovrebTa tanisamosi Seamowmes. erT-erTi maTganis jinsis Sarvalze mwvane laqebi SeamCnies da eqpertizaze gaagzavnes. gaTelili balaxis qlorofili Sarvlis laqis qlorofils Seadares. Sarvlis laqaze aRmoCenili qlorofili balaxis sinjis identuri aRmoCnda. amgvarma eqsperimentma gamomZieblebi swor kvalze gaiyvana.

Zvelad bazris kontroliorebi iodiT avlendnen araJnis arakeTilsindisier gamyidvelebs, romlebic araJans gasasqeleblad fqvils umatebdnen. kontroliorebi maT nawarms iodiT amowmebdnen. SesaZloa, SesTavazoT rkinis gasaRebze an firfitaze amotvifron sakuTari inicialebi: spilenZis an rkinis gasaRebi (firfita, dana) kargad gaaprialeT. sanTeli aanTeT da gamdnari parafini metalis gaprialebul zedapirze daawveTeT. metali qveda mxridan frTxilad SeaTbeT, rom parafini Txel fenad gadaekras mTel zedapirs. daelodeT parafinis gaciebas. metalze dafenil parafinze nemsiT amoCxapneT inicialebi. amofxaWnil adgilebSi pipetiT frTxilad daawveTeT iodi. warmoiqmneba TeTri nafifqi. es nafifqi moaSoreT da kvlav daawveTeT iodi. 1 sT-is Semdeg parafini moacileT. rkina Sedis reaqciaSi iodTan da warmoqmnis rkinis iodidis TeTr nafifqs. xolo im adgilas, sadac rkina iodTan reaqciaSi Sevida, CaRrmavebebi gaCndeba.

66

testi III Tavis bolos - pasuxebi: 1. a; 2. b; 3. g; 4. a; 5. b; 6. g; 7. a; 8. d; 9. g; 10. b; 11. b; 12. a; 13. b; 14. g; 15. g; 16. a; 17. b; 18. b, g.

gakv. III - 10 Semajamebeli wera II (25-e gakveTili)

Semajamebeli werisTvis variantebi SegiZliaT Tavis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebidan SearCioT.

IV Tavi: qimiuri gamoTvlebi

gakv. IV - 1 fardobiTi atomuri da molekuluri masa (me- 17 gakveTili) Sedegi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. qmnis nivTierebis umciresi nawilakebis /molekula, atomi/ modelebs da iyenebs maT martivi da rTuli nivTierebebis modelebis konstruirebisTvis. adekvaturad iyenebs qimiuri elementebis simboloebs, awarmoebs Sesabamis gamoTvlebs.

indikatori mizani

Sesabamisi sazomi erTeulebis gamoyenebiT raodenobrivi aRweris unar-Cvevis ganviTareba.

a) m1 = 120/12 = 10 g; b) 2m1/ m1 = 2. erTi kubis masa 2-jer naklebia 2 kubis masaze. 12m1/ m =120/10 = 12, e. i. erTi kubis masa 12-jer naklebia mTliani filis masaze.

a ci da n me ko re

1 2

sufris marilis molekulis masa tolia misi Semadgeneli natriumis da qloris atomTa masebis jamsa.

SegiZliaT, saaTis ciferblatis magaliTi moiyvanoT. saaTis mixedviT drois advilad gansasazRvrad ciferblati 5 wuTian 12 nawilad aris dayofili.

Ar (Na) = 23, e. i. natriumis atomuri masa 23-jer metia 1 m.a.e-ze. msgavsad, Jangbadis atomuri masa 16jer, naxSirbadis atomuri masa 12 - jer metia m. a. e.-ze, wyalbadis atomuri masa udris 1 m.a.e. maSasadame, atomuri masa gviCvenebs ramdenjer metia qimiuri elementis atomuri masa m.a.e.-ze.

3 4 5

sasworis erT mxareze heliumia, meoreze 4 m. a. e. maSasadame, m (He)/ 1 m.a.e. = 4

Ar (Na) + Ar (Cl) = 23 + 35 = 58

damatebiTi informacia: Tavdapirvelad masis erTeulad wyalbadis atomis masa SearCies. mogvianebiT, vinaidan ucnobi qimiuri elementis atomur masas ZiriTadad misi JangbadnaerTidan adgendnen, SearCies Jangbadis atomis masis 1/16. aRmoCnda, rom qimiuri elementi Jangbadi Jangbadis ramdenime izotopis narevs warmoadgens, romelTa masa erTmaneTisgan umniSvnelod, magram mainc gansxvavdeba. es cdomileba qimikosebs problemas ar uqmnida, xolo fizikosebisTvis metad mniSvnelovani aRmoCnda. amitom maT ufro xelsayreli etalonis Zebna daiwyes da qimikosebTan SeTanxmebiT sabolood SearCies naxSirbadis atomis masis 1/12. masis atomur erTeuls zogjer masis naxSirbaderTeuls uwodeben. saSinao davaleba

1) zogadad nivTierebis molekuluri masa ase gamoiTvleba: M (A B ) = X.A (A)+ Y.A (B)

r x y r r

Mr(CO2) = Ar(C)+ 2Ar(O)=12+2.16= 44; Mr(N2O5) = 2Ar(N)+ 5Ar(O)= 2.14 + 5.16 = 108; Mr(FeS)= Ar(Fe)+ Ar(S)=56+32= 88; M (N )= 2A (N) = 2.14 = 28;

r 2 r

Mr(Al2O3)= 2Ar(Al)+ 3Ar(O)=2.27 + 3.16 = 102; Mr(Al(OH)3)= Ar(Al)+ 3Ar(O) + 3Ar(H) = 27 + 3.16 + 3.1 = 78

67

2) yvela nivTierebis atomuri masa 2-jer gaizrdeboda. 3) M (a) nivTierebisa = 2.27 + 3.16 =102

r

Ar (Al) = 27 Ar (C) = 12 Ar (H) = 1

Ar (O) = 16. es nivTiereba Al2O3-ia. Ar(H) = 1. es nivTiereba CH4 -ia. Ar (F) = 19. es nivTiereba HF-ia.

Mr (b) nivTierebisa = 12 + 4 = 16 Mr (g) nivTierebisa = 1 + 19 = 20 4) a) msgavseba: arcerTi ar aris WeSmariti sidide. orive fardobiTi erTeulia. masStabis 1 erTeuli, anu 1 sm = 100 km; 1 m.a.e. = 6.10-23 g. gansxvaveba: masStabi sxvadasxva SemTxvevaSi SesaZloa, gansxvavebuli iyos. m. a. e. - mudmivi sididea. b) msgavseba: WeSmariti sididis dasadgenad erTeEuli mravldeba Sesabamis ricxvze. mag., 2 sm -iani monakveTis WeSmariti sigrZe tolia 2.100 = 200 km, xolo atomis WeSmariti masa tolia m. a. e. . Ar gansxvaveba: manZilis gazomva rukaze SesaZlebelia saxazaviT, Ar mocemulia periodul sistemaSi.

gakv. IV - 2 masuri TYanafardoba da masuri wili (27-e da 28 - e gakveTili) Sedegi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. adekvaturad iyenebs qimiuri elementebis simboloebs, awarmoebs Sesabamis gamoTvlebs.

indikatori mizani

Sesabamisi sazomi erTeulebis gamoyenebiT raodenobrivi aRweris, monacemTa interpretaciis unarCvevis ganviTareba.

1

wyalSi elementebis masuri Tanafardobaa: n Ar(H) : nAr(O) = 2 : 16 anu 1: 8. ganumerteT: radgan wylis molekulaSi 2 atomi wyalbadi 1 atom Jangbads ukavSirdeba, amitom masuri Tanafardobis mixedviT 1 g wyalbadi 2-jer meti raodenobiT atoms Seicavs, vidre 8 g Jangbadi.

a ci da en om ek r

2

36 g wyalSi wyalbadis raodenobis dasadgenad vangariSobT wylis molekulur masas:

Mr (H2O) = 2Ar (H) + Ar (O) = 18 da vadgenT proporcias: 18 g wyali Seicavs 2 g wyalbads 36 g _______ X g; X = (36.2) : 18 = 4 g . naxatis mixedviT vaSlis masuri wili tolia:

3

rkinis sulfidSi elementebis masuri wili tolia:

saSinao davaleba

1. 2Ar(H) : Ar (S) = 2:32 = 1: 16 2. a) w (H) = 2Ar (H)/Mr (H2O) = 2/18 = 0, 11 anu 11% w (O) = Ar (O)/Mr (H2O) = 16/18 = 0, 89 anu 89 % an b) w (H) = 2Ar(H)/Mr (H2SO4) = 2/98 = 0, 02 anu 2 % w (S) = Ar (S)/Mr (H2SO4) = 32/98 =0, 33 anu 33 % w (O) = 4Ar (O)/Mr (H2SO4) = 64/98 =0, 65 anu 65 % an w (O) = 100 % - (w (H) + w(S)) = 100 - (2+33) = 100 - 35 = 65 % g) w (Fe) = 2Ar (Fe)/Mr (Fe2O3)= 112/160 = 0, 7 anu 70 % w (O) = 3Ar (O)/Mr (Fe2O3)= 48/160 = 0, 3 anu 30 % an d) w (H) = Ar (H)/Mr (HNO3) = 1/63 = 0, 002 anu 2 % w (N) = Ar (N)/Mr (HNO3) = 14/63 = 0, 22 anu 22 % w (O) = 3Ar (O)/Mr (HNO3) = 48/63 = 0, 76 anu 76 % an w (O) = 100 - (22+ 2) = 76 % w (O) = 100 % - w (Fe) = 100 - 70 = 30 % w (O) = 100 %- w (H) = 100 - 11 = 89 %

68

3)

naerTis formulaa: CuSO4

a ci da en om ek r

formulis dadgenisas Tu indeqsis mniSvnelobebi aramTeli ricxvebia, TiToeul maTgans vyofT maT Soris umciresze da vamrgvalebT. mag., Tu x = 0, 6 y = 1, 2 z = 19, TiToeul maTgans vyofT 0, 6-ze. miviRebT: x=1 y=2 z=3

4)

AxBy

H 2O Al2O3 HCl

Mr

w, %

A B

masuri Tanafardoba A:B

18 102 36.5

11 53 3

89 47 97

1:8 9:8 1:35.5

gakv. IV - 3 nivTierebis raodenoba (29-e gakveTili) Sedegi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. adekvaturad iyenebs qimiuri elementebis simboloebs, awarmoebs Sesabamis gamoTvlebs.

indikatori mizani

Sesabamisi sazomi erTeulebis gamoyenebiT raodenobrivi aRweris unar-Cvevis ganviTareba.

1 nivTierebis raodenobis gamosaxva SesaZlebelia gramebiT, kilogramebiT, litrebiT da a. S. zogjer calobiT. mag., 2 yuTi sufris marili, 1 boTli wyali. aseT SemTxvevaSi unda vicodeT yuTis an boTlis tevadoba.

2 mol naxSirbadSi atomTa raodenoba 2-jer metia, vidre 1 molSi, anu udris 2NA. aseTi raodenobis fexburTis burTi araTu muWSi, erTi stadionis moedanzec ar daeteva.

2 3 4

"wyvili" gulisxmobs ors, "trio" - sams.

2Na + Cl2 = 2NaCl a) 2 molekula Na da erTi molekula Cl2 : 2Na + Cl2 = 2NaCl b) 100 molekula Na da 50 molekula Cl2: 100Na + 50Cl2 = 100NaCl g) NA molekula Na da NA NA/2 molekula Cl2 : NA Na + NA/2 Cl2 = NA NaCl

ia ac nd me ko re

raodenobis dasaxasiaTeblad sxvadasxva erTeulebs iyeneben. hkiTxeT, ra sidideebiT axasiaTeben dros (wami, wuTi, saaTi, dRe - Rame, weliwadi, saukune da a. S.) , manZils (metri, kilometri), Tu fizikis kursi gavlili aqvT - wnevas (atm) , Zalas (niutoni). xSirad didi raodenobas mcire raodenobis erTobliobiT axasiaTeben. mag., 1 saaTi 60 wamia. NA raodenobis nawilaki - 1 moli.

saSinao davaleba

1) a) molekulebis raodenoba erTnairia; b) 3 mol marilSi; g) 1 mol wyalbadSi. 2) 3 moli wyali - 3H2O; 5 moli Jangbadis molekula - 5O2; 5 moli Jangbadis atomi - 5O; 2 moli qloris molekula - 2Cl2. 3) 5 moli wyalbadis molekula, 6 moli naxSirorJangi, 2 moli azotis (IV) oqsidi, 7 moli spilenZi. 4) 2H2O = 2H2 + O2 . gantolebidan Cans, rom 2 moli wylis miRebas 2 moli wyalbadi sWirdeba. 4 moli wylis misaRebad saWiro iqneba 4 moli wyalbadi; 5) 2Mg + O2 = 2MgO. 2 moli magniumis dasawvavad saWiroa 1 moli Jangbadi. 4 moli magniumis srulad dawvas ki 2 moli Jangbadi dasWirdeba. 2 moli magniumi ---------- 1 moli Jangbadi 4 moli magniumi ---------- X moli Jangbadi, X = (4.1)/2 = 2 moli 6) mets iwonis NA raodenobis sufris marilis savse qila.

69

gakv. IV - 4 moluri masa (30-e gakveTili) Sedegi

3. moswavle ganasxvavebs fizikur da qimiur movlenebs. 3. adekvaturad iyenebs qimiuri elementebis simboloebs, awarmoebs Sesabamis gamoTvlebs.

indikatori mizani

Sesabamisi sazomi erTeulebis gamoyenebiT raodenobrivi aRweris unar-Cvevis ganviTareba.

1

avwonoT marcvlebis gansazRvruli raodenoba (10, 100, 200). vTqvaT, awonili 100 marcvlis masaa 50 g. Tu 100 marcvlis masa 50 gramia,

1 000 000 marcvlis masa udris - X, saidanac X =(1 000 000.50)/100 = 500 000 g an vadgenT, ramden aseul marcvals SEeicavs 1 000 000 marcvali: 1000 000:100 =10000 da miRebul sidides vamravlebT 100 marcvlis masaze: 10000.50 = 500 000 g. B

a ci da n me ko re

SegiZliaT SeabrunoT amocana: hkiTxeT, rogor gamoiTvlis 1 marcvlis masas, Tu 1 000 000 marcvlis masa icis. amisTvis 1000 000 marcvlis masa unda gayos marcvlebis raodenobaze ­ 1000 000. SesTavazeT, CaTvalon, rom erTi marcvali 1 molia. aseT SemTxvevaSi advili gamosaTvlelia 1 moli nivTierebis masa, anu moluri masa. moluri masa, M 2 g/moli

2

nivTiereba

atomuri masa (Ar) an molekuluri masa (Mr)

H2 CO2 P FeS

2 44 31 88

44 g/moli

31 g/moli

88 g/moli

molekuluri/atomuri masis da moluri masis ricxobrivi mniSvnelobebi tolia. molur masas aqvs ganzomileba - g/moli, molekuluri/atomuri masa ki uganzomilebo sididea. 3 n = 1, Mr (H2O) = 18, M (H2O) = 18 g/moli, m (H2O) = M n = 18.1=18 g n = 1, Mr (H2SO4) = 98, M (H2SO4) = 98 g/moli, m (H2SO4) = M n = 98.1=98 g 1 moli wylis masa gansxvavdeba 1 moli gogirdmJavas masisgan.

saSinao davaleba

1) qimiuri formula n, moli M, g/moli m, g H2O 1 18 18 2CO2 2 44 88 3Fe 3 56 168 0,5NaCl 0.5 58 29 5HCl 5 36 180

moswavlis wignSi cxrili Sevsebulia SecdomiT: grafaSi"M, g/moli" nacvlad "44"-sa weria "88". moswavlem unda SeZlos am Secdomis aRmoCena. davalebis warmodgenisas daelodeT, vidre romelime moswavle ar miuTiTebs am Secdomaze. sTxoveT mas daasabuTos Tavisi mosazreba. 2) a) Mr (Fe2O3 ) = 2Ar (Fe) + 3 Ar (O) = 160 anu M(Fe2O3 )=160 g/moli

n = m/M = 40g/ 160g/moli= 0, 25 moli

an proporciiT: Tu 160 g aris 1 moli Fe2O3 masa 40 g iqneba -------- X moli Fe2O3 -is masa , maSasadame, 40 grami Fe2O3 aris 0.25 moli M b) Mr (Ca) = 40, anu M(Ca) = 40g/moli X= 40g/160g/moli = 0, 25 moli

n = m/M = 80g/ 40g/moli= 2 moli g) Mr (NaOH) = 40, anu M(NaOH) = 40g/moli M n = m/M = 8g/ 40g/moli= 0, 2 moli

an 1 moli rkinis masa 56 g-ia: 0, 2 molis masa-------- X , aqedan X = 56.0, 2 = 11, 2 g

3) a) M (Fe) = 56 g/moli, m = Mn = 56.0,2 = 11, 2 g

70

b) M (CuO) = 80 g/moli, e. i. m = Mn = 80.0, 25 = 20 g an 1 moli CuO-s masa 80 g-ia: 0, 25 molis masa-------- X , aqedan X = 80.0, 25 = 20 g 4) M (Ca)= 40 g/moli. 1 moli kalciumis masa 40 gramia, 0, 2 moli kalciumis ki - 40.0,2 = 8 g. moswavlem davaleba sworad ar Seasrula. mas 8 grami kalciumi unda aewona. 5) Fe + S = FeS. 5 moli FeS-is misaRebad saWiroa 5 moli gogirdi da 5 moli rkina. M (Fe) = 56 g/moli, e. i. 1 moli rkinis masa 56 g-ia, maSin 5 moli rkinis masa iqneba: m (Fe) = nM = 5.56 = 280 g. M (S) = 32 g/moli, e. i. 5 moli gogirdis masaa: m (S) = 5.32 = 160 g. 6) metalis gamosacnobad misi molekuluri masa unda davadginoT. radgan molekuluri masa ricxobrivad moluri masis tolia, vadgenT metalis molur masas formulis mixedviT: m = 40 g

n = 0, 4 M=m/n = 40g/0,4 moli = 40 g/moli. an proporciiT:

X = 64/0, 4 = 40 g/moli

Tu 0, 4 moli metalis masa 64 g-ia, 1 molis masa iqneba ------- X, 1 molis masa 40 g-ia, rac niSnavs, rom am metalis molekuluri masa 40-ia, es kalciumia. 7) M=m/n = 64g/2 moli = 32 g/moli. 1 moli airis masaa 32 g, rac niSnavs, rom airis molekuluri masa 32-ia. radgan es airi martivi nivTierebaa da misi molekula oratomiania, erTi atomis masa tolia 32:2=16. es airi Jangbadia. 8) n = 3 moli. davadginoT moluri masa: Mr (H2SO4) = 98, M(H2SO4) = 98 g/moli. Tu 1 molis masa 98 g-ia, 3 molis masaa m = n.M = 3.98 =294 g. reaqtivis masas unda davumatoT WurWlis masa: 294+60=354 g. maSasadame, saWiroa 354 g masis mqone sawoni. 9) qiliani reaqtivi 380 g iwonis. sufTa reaqtivis masa iqneba 380-60=320 g. Tu 2 moli 320 g iwonis, 1 molis masaa M = m/ nM= 320/2=160 g, radgan es nivTiereba oratomiania, erTi atomis masaa 160:2=80. es reaqtivi bromia.

gakv. IV - 5 kolokviumi ( 31-e gakveTili) mizani

ganvlili masalis Sejameba, SeZenili codnis da unar-Cvevebis Sefaseba.

savarjiSoebi IV Tavis bolos - pasuxebi

1) Mr(MgO) = Ar (Mg) + Ar (O) = 24+16= 40 Mr(Al2Cl3) = 2Ar (Al) + 3Ar (Cl)=2.27+3.35,5 = 132, 5 M (Cr O ) = 2A (Cr) + 3A (O)= 2.52+3.16= 152

r 2 3 r r

Mr(H3PO4) = 3Ar (H) + Ar(P) + 4Ar (O) = 98 Mr(Ca3(PO4)2)= 3Ar (Ca) + 2Ar (P) + 8Ar (O) = 310 Ar (Na) = 23 Ar (O)= 16 x = (0,74.62) : 23 = 2, y = (0.26.62) : 16 = 1 nivTierebis formulaa: Na2O 3) Ar(C) = 12 2 moli C + M (C) = 12 g/moli X moli O2 = CO2 m = M n = 2.44 = 88 g 2) NaxOy, Mr = 62

n = m/M = 24/12 = 2 moli

2/1 = X/1, X = 2 moli , Mr(CO2) = 44, M (CO2) = 44 g/moli, 4) m = 80 g, n = 2, M=m/ n = 80/2 = 40 g/moli. es metali Ca-ia.

5) m =256 g, Mr(Cu)= 64 g/mol, n = m/M = 256/64 = 4 moli. 6) 2 moli Jangbadis masaa: m = n.M = 2.32 = 64 g, 3 moli naxSirorJangis masaa: m = n.M = 3.44 = 132 g,

71

7) M (CuO) = 80 g/moli. a) n = m/M = 160/80 = 2 moli; b) n = m/M = 16/80 = 0, 2 moli; g) n = m/M = 0.8/80 = 0, 01 moli; 8) n = 2m = 24 g, M = m/n = 24 g/2moli = 12 g/moli. es nivTiereba naxSirbadia. 9) n (Fe) = m/M = 112/56 = 2 moli, e. i. 112 g rkina 2 molia,

n (Cu) = m/M = 80/64 = 1, 25 moli, e. i. 80 g spilenZi 1, 25 molia. 10) M = m/n = 11, 5/0, 5 = 23 g/moli. es metali natriumia. 11) M = m/n = 56/2 = 28g/moli. radgan es airi oratomiania, qimiuri elementis atomuri masa 28:2=14-is

tolia. es airi azotia - N2. 12) 2 moli 4 moli 1 moli 2Ag2O = 4Ag + O2 I. reaqciis mixedviT 2 moli Ag2O-is daSliT miiReba 4 moli vercxli da 1 moli Jangbadi. II. davadginoT 4 moli Ag , 1 moli O2 -is da 2 moli Ag2O -s masebi: M (Ag) = 108, M (Ag) = 108 g/moli, m = nM = 4.108=432 g

r

Mr (O2) = 32,

M (O2) = 32 g/moli,

Mr (Ag2O) = 232, M (Ag2O) = 232 g/moli, III. miRebuli sidideebi mivuweroT Sesabamis nivTierebebs: 2Ag2O = 4Ag + O2 464 g 432 g 32 g 100 g ------ 70 g wyali

m = nM = 1.32 = 32 g m = nM = 2.232 = 464 g

13) vTqvaT, moswavle iwonis m grams. 70 % niSnavs, rom 100 g - Si 70 g wyalia. vadgenT proporcias: m g ------ X g wyali, X = 70m/100=0, 7 m 14) SxOy . x. Ar(S) : y.Ar(O) = 32 : 32, SevitanoT cnobili sidideebi 32x : 16y = 32:32, saidanac x : y = 1 : 2 SesaZloa, gamoiTvalos masuri wilebi da Semdeg formuliT x da y: M (SxOy) = 32+32= 64 g/moli. w (S) = 32/64 = 0,5 w (O) = 32/64 = 0,5. .64)/32 = 1 x = (0,5 y = (0,5.64)/16 = 2 .A (H) : y.A (S) =1:16, x : 32y = 1 : 16, 15) H2S . x r x:y=2:1 r an Tu 16 g gogirds uerTdeba 1 g wyalbadi, 32 g-s SeuerTdeba 2 g. radgan Ar (S) = 32, x = 1. radgan Ar (H)= 1, y = 2. 16) FexOy Mr (FexOy) = x.Ar (Fe) + y.Ar(O) = 160, radgan viciT, rom naerTSi ori atomi rkinaa, am gamosaxulebaSi SevitanoT cnobili sidideebi: Mr (FexOy) = x.Ar (Fe) + y.Ar(O) = 2.56 + y.16 = 160, M (Fe O ) = 112 + y.16 = 160, y = (160-112)/16 = 3

r x y

maSasadame, naerTis formulaa: Fe2O3 . 17) M (NaCl) = 23 + 35, 5 = 58, 5 g/moli, 18) 1 moli kalciumi. 19) 9 : 8; 7 : 20; 3:8; 7 : 3; 1 : 35, 5 20) Mr (N2O5) = 2Ar(N) + 5Ar(O) = 28 + 80 = 108 w (N) = 2Ar(N)/ Mr (N2O5) =28/108 = 0, 26 anu 26 % Mr (CuO) = Ar(Cu) + Ar(O) = 64 + 16 = 80 w (Cu) = Ar(Cu)/ Mr (CuO) =64/80 = 0, 8 anu 80 % Mr (K2O) = 2Ar(K) + Ar(O) = 78 + 16 = 94 w (K) = 2Ar(K)/ Mr (K2O) =78/94 = 0, 83 anu 83 % Mr (HCl) = Ar(H) + Ar(Cl) = 1 + 35,5 = 36, 5 w (H) = Ar(H)/ Mr (HCl) =1/36, 5 = 0, 03 anu 3 % Mr (NaOH) = Ar(Na) + Ar(O) + Ar (H) = 23 + 16 + 1 = 40 w (H) = Ar(Na)/ Mr (NaOH) =23/40 = 0, 58 anu 58 % w(O) = Ar (O)/Mr (NaOH) = 16/40 = 0, 4 anu 40 % Mr (HNO3) = Ar(H) + Ar(N) + 3Ar (O) = 1 + 14 + 48 = 63 w (H) = Ar(H)/ Mr (HNO3) =1/63 = 0, 016 anu 1, 6 % w(N) = Ar (N)/Mr (HNO3) = 14/63 = 0, 22 anu 22 % m = M.n = 58,5 . 4 = 234 g.

w(O) = 100 % - 26 % = 74 %, w(O) = 100 % - 80 % = 20 %, w(O) = 100 % - 83 % = 17 %, w(Cl) = 100 % - 3 % = 97 %,

w(H) = 100 % - 58 % - 40 % = 2 %

w(H) = 100 % - 1, 6 % - 22 % = 76, 4 %

21) dRis ganmavlobaSi miRebuli wylis masa unda gaiyos wylis molur masaze -18 g/molze. 22) H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl. 2 moli qlorwyalbadis misaRebad saWiroa 1 moli qlori da 1 moli, anu 2 g wyalbadi.

72

m (H) = Mn = 2 g/moli . 1 moli = 2 g. 23) 2AgO = 2Ag + O2. davadginoT ramdeni molia 100 g AgO:M (AgO) = 217 g/moli, n = m/M = 100/217 = 0,46 moli reaqciis mixedviT, 2 moli AgO daSliT miiReba 2 moli Ag da 1 moli O2. 0, 46 moli AgO daSliT ki miviRebT 0, 46 mol Ag da 0, 23 mol O2. an 2 moli oqsidis masaa: m (AgO) = Mn = 217.2 = 434 g 434 g AgO daSliT miiReba 2 moli Ag 100 g AgO daSliT --------- X moli Ag, X = (100.2)/434 = 0 , 46 moli 434 g AgO daSliT miiReba 1 moli O2 100 g AgO daSliT --------- X moli O2, X = (100.1)/434 = 0 , 23 moli 24) nivTiereba molebSi nivTierebis raodenoba, n, moli 1 2 2, 5 3 4 5 nivTierebis masa, m, g 40 80 100 120 160 200

M, g/moli

Ca 2Ca 2,5Ca 3Ca 4Ca 5Ca

m, g

nivTierebis moluri masa, M, g/moli 40 40 40 40 40 40

200 160

120 80

200 160 120 80 40

1 2 3 4 5

n,moli

40

1 2 3 4 5 daskvna: nivTierebis masa pirdapirproporciulad aris damokidebuli am nivTierebis molur raodenobaze. moluri masa ki mudmivi sididea da ar aris damokidebuli nivTierebis raodenobaze.

n,moli

25) narevSi komponentebis masuri wili SeiZleba icvlebodes, naerTSi elementis masuri wili mudmivia. 26) marilmJAavaSi elementebis Tanafardobaa 1: 35, 5. rac niSnavs, rom 1 g wyalbads uerTdeba 35, 5 g qlori, maSin 8 g wyalbadi daukavSirdeba 8.35, 5=284 g qlors. e.i. reaqciis miRma darCEeba 300-284=16 g qlori. an: H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl gantolebis mixedviT 2 g wyalbadi uerTdeba 71 g qlors, 8 g ------------------------- X, X = (8.71):2 = 284 g 27) a) dro - wm, wT, sT, weli, saukune da a. S. b) manZili - mm, sm, dm, m, km; g) nivTierebis raodenoba - moli; d) atomuri masa - uganzomilebo sididea; e) molekuluri masa - uganzomilebo sididea; v) moluri masa - g/moli. testi IV Tavis bolos - pasuxebi 1. b; 2. a; 3. a; 4. b; 5. g; 6. b; 7. a; 8. g; 9. a; 10. g; 11. g; 12. b; 13. a; 14. b; 15. g; 16. a; 17. g; 18. b;

gakv. IV - 6 Semajamebeli wera III (32-e gakveTili)

sakontrolo werisTvis variantebi SegiZliaT Tavis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebidan SearCioT.

73

V Tavi: haeri

gakv. V - 1 haeri - airTa narevi (33-e gakveTili) Sedegi

4. moswavle axasiaTebs haers. 4. asaxelebs da Sesabamisi formulebiT gamosaxavs haeris komponentebs, msjelobs organizmebisTvis haeris zogierTi komponentis (Jangbadi, naxSirorJangi, azoti) mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb. iyenebs Sesabamis meTods da adgens haerSi Jangbadis moculobiT wils.

indikatori mizani

gauCndes interesi garesamyaros kvlevis mimarT. Camouyalibdes cdis Sedegebis interpretaciis unari, Sedegebis safuZvelze gamoTqvas argumentirebuli varaudi.

sanTeli Caqra, radgan haerSi arsebuli Jangbadi mTlianad daixarja. haeris moculoba Semcirda (moaklda Jangbadi). wyalma daikava daxarjuli Jangbadis moculoba, ris gamoc WurWelSi wylis done aiwia. wyalma daikava haeris 1/5 nawili, rac niSnavs, rom Jangbadi haeris moculobis daaxloebiT 1/5 -s Seadgens.

1

2

haeri Seicavs wylis orTqls. hkiTxeT moswavleebs, ras niSnavs haeris tenianoba? sad ufro teniania haeri - mTaSi Tu zRvaze? garda amisa, haeri Seicavs mtvris nawilakebs, bunebrivi movlenebis (lpobis procesi, vulkanis amofrqveva da a. S.) Sedegad gamoyofil airebs.

a ci da n me ko re

saSinao davaleba

1) sicocxlis aucilebeli pirobaa, haeris Sedgeniloba ucvleli iyos, rac dRemde aRmoCenil sxva planetebze ar aris. 2) haeri ufero, usuno erTgvarovani narevia. mis SedgenilobaSi Semavali komponentebis danaxva SeuZlebelia. swored amitom is Zvelad martivi nivTiereba egonaT. 3) naxSirorJangian qilaSi anTebuli sanTeli Caqreba, Jangbadian qilaSi - wvas energiulad gaagrZelebs. haerian qilaSi ki wvis procesi Cveulebriv gagrZeldeba - alis sikaSkaSe arc moimatebs da arc moiklebs. 4) haeri Seicavs martiv nivTierebebs: Jangbads, azots, inertul airebs da rTul nivTierebebs: wyals, naxSirorJangs. haeri narevia, amitom misi Semadgeneli airebi Tavis Tvisebebs inarCuneben. 5) neons sareklamo ganaTebis naTurebSi iyeneben, heliumiT avseben sahaero burTebs, myvinTavebis sasunTq balonebSi haerSi arsebul azots simsubuqisa da inertulobis gamo zogjer heliumiT anacvleben.

gakv. V - 2

Jangbadi bunebaSi (34-e

gakveTili, ix. samodelo gakveTili (gv 84))

1 2 3 4

wyalSi eleqtruli denis gatarebiT miiReba wyalbadi da Jangbadi: 2H2O = 2H2 + O2 wylis orTqli gacivebisas Txevaddeba. savaraudoa, rom gacivebis Sedegad haeric unda gaTxevaddes. pirvelad is nivTiereba aorTqldeba, romlis duRilis temperaturac dabalia, anu azoti. almasi, naxSiri, grafiti (gakv. III - 2).

damatebiTi informacia: haers maRali wnevis da dabali temperaturis pirobebSi aTxevadeben, Semdeg TandaTan aorTqleben. haeridan miRebuli Jangbadi Seicavs minarevebs. haeris gaTxevadeba specialur danadgarSi mimdinareobs, sadac haers jer 100-200 atm wnevaze kumSaven da Semdeg swrafad afarToeben. wnevis aseTi didi cvlilebis Sedegad temperatura mcirdeba da haeri Txevaddeba.

pirveli sawarmoo gasaTxevadebeli mowyobiloba germanelma fizikosma karl lindem 1895 wels Seqmna. mogvianebiT, 1902 wels ki Txevadi haeris komponentebad dasayofi sareqtifikacio aparati gamoigona.

saSinao davaleba

1) martivi nivTierebis raodenoba Warbobs qimiuri elementebis raodenobas, radgan zogierTi elementi bunebaSi ramdenime martivi nivTierebis saxiT arsebobs.

74

2) a) martivi nivTierebis saxiT; Bb) elementis saxiT; g) elementis saxiT. 3) a) qimiuri meTodi; b) fizikuri meTodi. 4) 2HgO = 2Hg + O2 . 2 moli HgO- s daSliT miiReba 1 moli anu 32 g O2 . 5)

qimiuri formula

Jangbadi

Mr 32

M, g/moli 32

agregatuli mdg-ba airi

feri ufero

suni usuno

wyalSi xsnadoba mcired xsnadia

mdgradoba mdgradia

O2

ozoni

O3

48

48

airi

lurji damax. suni

ukeT ixsneba

aramdgradia

6) madezinficirebeli Tvisebebi aqvs atomur Jangbads. 7) vTqvaT, saklaso oTaxis farTobia A m3. Jangbadis Semcveloba masSi iqneba: 0, 21.A, azotis - 0, 78.A, inertuli airebis - 0, 0094 .A, naxSirorJangis - 0, 0003.A.

gakv. V - 3 wva. Jangva. ali (35-e da 36-e gakveTili) Sedegi

4. moswavle axasiaTebs haers. 4. CamoTvlis wvisa da Jangvis magaliTebs yoveldRiuri cxovrebidan da msjelobs maT xelSemwyob faqtorebze.

indikatori mizani

ganuviTardes garemoze dakvirvebis da aRweris, monacemTa analizisa da movlenaTa klasifikaciis unar-Cveva. SeZlos konkretuli movlenis Seswavlisas miRebuli codnis ganzogadeba da misi praqtikaSi gamoyenebis SesaZleblobis gansazRvra. SeZlos wvis da Jangvis gansxvaveba.

1 a) bunebrivi airi siTbos da sinaTlis gamoyofiT iwvis; b) gogirdis wvisas gamoiyofa mZafri suni da kaSkaSa ali; g) fosforis wvisas gamoiyofa TeTri boli, romelic gaciebis Semdeg WurWlis kedlebs TeTri kristalebis saxiT daefineba; d) sawavavis wvas kvamlis gamoyofa axlavs; e) daJangvisas rkinis feri icvleba da rkina ixvriteba. v) vaSli haerze fers icvlis. (a) mimdinareobs siTbos da sinaTlis gamoyofiT, (b) mimdinareobs sunis gamoyofiT, (d) da (Gg) mimdinareobs kvamlis gamoyofiT, (e) da (v) axlavs feris cvlileba. saerToa is, rom yvela SemTxvevaSi erT-erTi reagenti Jangbadia. 2

reaqciis niSnebi rkinis Jangva meTanis wva gamoiyofa siTbo savaraudoa, rom Cawers "aras" diax gamoiyofa sinaTle ara diax reaqciis xangrZlivoba xangrZlivia swrafad mimdinareobs

rkinis Jangva xangrZlivi procesia, siTbos gamoyofa TandaTan xdeba, amitom Cven mas ver vgrZnobT. orive reaqcia mimdinareobs Jangbadis monawileobiT, gamoiyofa siTbo. meTanis JangbadTan urTierTqmedeba, rkinisgan gansxvavebiT, swrafad mimdinareobs da axlavs sinaTlis gamoyofa.

3

asanTs.

damatebiTi informacia: qaRaldis aalebis temperatura 200-230 OC-ia.

a ci da n me ko re

mieciT saSualeba, imsjelon, raSi exmarebaT aalebis temperaturis codna. mag., ra pirobebSi unda Seinaxon dabali aalebis temperaturis mqone nivTierebebi? (siTbos wyarosgan moSorebiT). ratom aris saSiSi aerozolebis cecxlTan axlos ganTavseba? (SesaZloa, moxdes balonis afeTqeba). rogori aalebis temperatura unda hqondes xanZarsawinaaRmdego nivTierebas? (maRali).

4 sasurvelia, sanTeli aanToT da moswavleebs alis daxatva daavaloT, an wina gakveTilze sTxovoT, es davaleba saxlSi Seasrulon. SearCieT erT-erTi namuSevari da gamoiyeneT TvalsaCinoebad. 5 a) airs cecxli moekideba; b) jamis Ziri gaimureba; g) Zabris kedlebze gaCndeba wylis wveTebi dainameba. 75

5 a) wvis erT-erTi produqti naxSirorJangia, romelic wvas xels uSlis. b) wvis Sedegad gamoyofili wylis orTqli Zabris civ kedlebze moxvedrisas kondensirdeba.

saSinao davaleba

1) daJangvisgan. yofacxovrebaSi vakvirdebiT wvis da Jangvis procesebs: bunebrivi airis wva, SeSis wva, vaSlis, manqanis, metalis saxuravis da metalis wyalgayvanilobis milebis, saiuveliro nakeTobebis Jangva. CasunTquli Jangbadi organizmSi mimdinare JangviT reaqciebs xmardeba. 2) 2Cu + O2 = 2CuO S + O2 = SO2 4) Mr (Fe2O3) = 160 Mr (Fe3O4) = 232 4Na + O2 = 2Na2O C + O2 = CO2 2Mg + O2 = 2MgO 4P + 5O2 = 2P2O5

3) C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2+ 6H2O w (O) = 3Ar(O) / Mr (Fe2O3) = 48/160 =0, 3 an 30 % w (O) = 4Ar(O) / Mr (Fe3O4) = 64/232 = 0, 28 an 28%

Jangbadis masuri wili metia Fe2O3 -Si. 5) yofacxovrebaSi sawvavad gamoiyeneba bunebrivi airi, navTi, SeSa, qvanaxSiri. wvis ZiriTadi produqtebia wyali da naxSirorJangi. 6) spilenZis samkauli Jangvisgan dasacavad damcavi feniT - laqiT an saRebaviT unda davfaroT. 7) sanTlis wva da sunTqva Jangvis reaqciebia. orive reaqciis produqts wyali da naxSirorJangi warmoadgens. sanTlis wvas Tan axlavs siTbos da sinaTlis gamoyofa. sunTqvis dros organizmSi mimdinareobs neli Jangvis procesi, rac organizmis sicocxlisunarianobas uzrunvelyofs . 8) I. davadginoT ramdeni molia 400 g MgO. Mr (MgO) = 24 + 16 = 40, M (MgO) = 40 g/ moli , m = 400 g

n = m/M = 400/40 = 10 moli;

II. davweroT qimiuri reaqciis toloba: X moli 10 moli 2Mg + O2 = 2MgO III. SevadginoT proporcia da gamovTvaloT reaqciaSi Sesuli magniumis raodenoba: X = 10, X = 10 moli 2 2 IV. gamovTvaloT 10 moli magniumis masa: m = M n = 10.24=240 g 9) I. davadginoT, ramdeni molia 24 g naxSirbadi: Ar (C) = 12, M (C) = 12 g/ moli, m = 24 g, n = m/M = 24/12 = 2 moli II. davweroT qimiuri reaqciis toloba: 2 moli X moli C + O2 = CO2 III. SevadginoT proporcia da gamovTvaloT reaqciaSi Sesuli Jangbadis raodenoba: X = 2 moli 2 = X , 1 1 IV. gamovTvaloT 2 moli Jangbadis masa: m = Mn = 32.2 = 64 g

gakv. V - 4 haeris dacva. fotosinTezi (37-e gakveTili) Sedegi

4. moswavle axasiaTebs haers. 4. CamoTvlis wvisa da Jangvis magaliTebs yoveldRiuri cxovrebidan da msjelobs maT xelSemwyob faqtorebze. agrovebs informacias haeris dabinZurebis mizezebisa da maTi Tavidan acilebis saSualebebis Sesaxeb, akeTebs prezentacias.

indikatori mizani

Camouyalibdes garemoze zrunvis unar-Cveva, gaiazros ra Sedegebi SeiZleba mohyves adamianis saqmianobas, ra mniSvneloba aqvs garemoze zrunvisTvis mecnierul-teqnikur progress. a) haeris temperaturis gazrda klimaturi pirobebis cvlilebebs gamoiwvevs, rasac mohyveba yinu1 lis dnoba da wylis donis mateba okeaneebsa da mdinareebSi; b) gamoiwvevs sxvadasxva daavadebebs. fabrika-qarxnebi mosaxleobisgan moSorebiT Sendeba, raTa ar moxdes haeris dabinZureba uSualod 2 sacxovrebel adgilas. Tu qarxanas moSorebiT aaSeneben da qaris mimarTulebas ar gaiTvaliswineben, gamonabolqvi airebi qarma SeiZLleba dasaxlebuli adgilis mimarTulebiT waiRos.

76

2 Tagvi ufro didxans icocxlebs mwvane mcenarian WurWelSi, radgan cnobilia, rom mzis Suqze mcenareebi Jangbads gamoyofen.

damatebiTi informacia: cnobilia, rom naxSirorJangis Semcvelobis gazrda haerSi 0, 1 %-iT iwvevs sunTqvis Senelebas, xolo 4 % -ze meti raodenobiT ki safrTxes uqmnis cocxali organizmebis sicocxles. adamianis organizmi 7 % naxSirorJangs Seicavs.

haeris dabinZUureba saerTaSoriso sazrunavia, amitom imarTeba saerTaSoriso konferenciebi. erTerT aseT konferenciaze saxelmwifoebi SeTAanxmdnen da daaweses nixrebi, romlebic zRudavs mavne nivTierebebis didi raodenobiT haerSi moxvedras da kanoniT aiZuleben qimiur warmoebebSi gasafiltri mowyobilobebis gamoyenebas. mecnierebma gamoTvales, rom dReisTvis msoflioSi yovelwliurad daaxloebiT 2 miliardi tona qvanaxSiri da 1 miliardi tona navTobi iwveba, ris Sedegadac atmosferoSi aranakleb 120 mln. tona nacari da 60 mln. tona gogirdis anhidridi grovdeba.

a ci da en om ek r

mieciT saSualeba moswavleebs, imsjelon, ratom amboben rom mTaSi sufTa haeria? ratom aris aucilebeli mwvane nargavebis gafrTxileba?

damatebiTi informacia: garda imisa, rom gzispira nargavebi avtomanqanebis mtvers akaveben, isini xmauris CamxSob erT-erT saSualebas warmoadgens. gzispira adgilebSi xilisa da kenkrovanebis mokrefa ar SeiZleba. maTze manqanis gamonabolqvi mtveri ileqeba. saSinao davaleba

1) mag., biznesis warmomadgenlebma Tbilisis gareubanSi mosaxleobas cementis qarxnis ageba SesTavazes. maT mosaxleobas am warmoebis perspeqtivebi da momgebianoba dausabuTes. adgilobrivma mosaxleobam Seafasa proeqtis dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebi: marTalia, adgilobrivi mosaxleoba dasaqmdeba, Seiqmneba infrastruqtura, mowesrigdeba gzebi, dakmayofildeba raionis moTxovna samSeneblo masalaze, saxelmwifos biujeti Seivseba damatebiTi saxsrebiT, magram garemo dabinZurdeba. garemosdamcvelebma Seiswavles garemos dabinZurebiT gamowveuli SesaZlo ziani, moiZies informacia, ra gziT aris SesaZlebeli am problemis Tavidan acileba (mag., filtrebis damontaJeba da Tanamedrove teqnologiebis danergva, mosaxleobisTvis raime saxis sareabilitacio daxmarebis gaweva). 2) qalaqSi haeris dabinZurebas iwvevs Txevad sawvavze momuSave transportis raodenobis zrda, mwvane nargavebis simcire, zogierT sawarmoSi moZvelebuli gamwmendi danadgarebis arseboba da maTi gaumarTavi muSaoba. 3) rusTavSi metalurgiuli qarxnis mSenebloba 1941 wels daiwyo. pirveli foladi 1950 wels gamouSves. es qarxana sawvavad qvanaxSirs iyenebda. rusTavSi mdebareobs qimiuri qarxana "azoti", romelic azotSemcvel sasuqebs awarmoebda. zestafonSi feroSenadnobis qarxana funqcionirebda.

gakv. V - 5 kolokviumi ( 38-e gakveTili) mizani

ganvlili masalis Sejameba, SeZenili codnisa da unar-Cvevebis Sefaseba.

savarjiSoebi V Tavis bolos - pasuxebi

1) marssa da veneraze haerSi Jangbadis Semcveloba Zalze dabalia. 2) azoti, argoni da heliumi qimiurad araaqtiuri - inertuli airebia. maRal temperaturaze (el. deni) inarCuneben mdgradobas da ar Sedian reaqciaSi naTuris mavTulTan, romelsac volframisgan amzadeben. garda amisa, maT axasiaTebT dabali Tbogamtaroba, rac xels uSlis naTuris gadaxurebas. 3) haerSi Jangbadis Semcvelobis gazrda JangviTi procesebis intensivobis gazrdas gamoiwvevs - haerze mimdinare wvisa da Jangvis procesebis SeCereba TiTqmis SeuZlebeli iqneba. haerSi Jangbadis naklebobis SemTxvevaSi ki piriqiT, wvis procesi haerze saerTod ar warimarTeba. aseve SeuZlebeli gaxdeba sunTqva.

77

4) a) almodebuli tansacmlis Casaqrobad gamoiyeneba wyali, aseve mZime sqeli qsovili (brezenti, sabani); b) aalebuli benzinis Casaqrobad iyeneben qviSas, brezents; g) xis saamqroSi xanZris Casaqrobad iyeneben wyals, Camqrob qafs, qviSas; d) navTis wyliT Caqroba Znelia - navTi wylis Tavze eqceva da agrZelebs wvas, amitom aseT dros zogjer cdiloben, xanZris lokalizaci moaxdinon da dawva daacadon. aseve iyeneben brezents, Camqrob qafs, wyals wveTebis saxiT afrqveven. 5) ozonis daSlisas miiReba atomuri Jangbadi. is Zalian aqtiuria da aqvs madezinficirebeli Tvisebebi. atomuri Jangbadis areSi baqteriebi iRupebian. 6) 4 Fe + 3O2 = 2Fe2O3 4Na + O2 = 2Na2O 7) 4Al + 3O2 = 2Al2O3 a) 4 moli aluminis dawvis Sedegad miiReba 2 moli aluminis oqsidi. b) 4:3; g) w(O) = 3Ar (O)/Mr (Al2O3) = 48/108=0, 47 anu 47 % d) kolbis masa ar Seicvleba, radgan aluminis wva daxurul WurWelSi mimdinareobs. 8) 2Cu + O2 = 2CuO; w(Cu) =Ar (Cu)/Mr (CuO) = 64/80 = 0,8 anu 80 % Si + O2 = SiO2 4P + 5O2 = 2P2O5 2Fe + O2 = 2FeO C + O2 = CO2 2Ca + O2 = 2CaO 4Al + 3O2 = 2Al2O3

w(O) = 100 % - 80 % = 20 %

9) daxurul oTaxSi bunebrivi airis sunis SegrZnebisas saWiroa oTaxis ganiaveba. aseT dros naTuris anTeba saxifaToa, radgan naperwkalma SesaZloa, xanZari gaaCinos. 10) did qalaqebSi, sadac haeri sawarmoebisa da avtotransportis gamonabolqvi airebiT aris dabinZurebuli, parkebis da skverebis arseboba xels uwyobs haeris gajansaRebas. mwvane mcenareebi mzis Suqze Jangbads gamoyofen. nakrZalebi da daculi teritoriebi garemos gafrTxilebis mizniT iqmneba. maT kanoni icavs. mosaxleobas aseTi adgilebis gakafvisa da sawarmoo daniSnulebiT gamoyenebis ufleba ar aqvs. 11) msoflios mravali qalaqisTvis problemad iqca toqsikuri nisli - smogi. smogi avtotransportis an fabrika - qarxnebis gamonabolqvis SEedegad dagrovil airTa narevia. smogi azianebs Tvalebs, filtvebs, iwvevs uamrav daavadebas. 1952 wels londonSi aseTi smogiT 4 aTasi adamiani daiRupa. 12) dedamiwaze minis funqcias atmosfero asrulebs. naxSirorJangiT dabinZurebuli atmosfero veRar atarebs dedamiwis zedapiridan areklil siTbos, ris gamoc haeris temperatura imatebs. 13) 2Zn + O2 = 2ZnO I. davadginoT, ramdeni molia 8, 1 g ZnO: Mr (ZnO) = 65 + 16 = 81, M (ZnO) = 81g/moli, n = m/M = 8,1/81 = 0, 1moli II. reaqciis mixedviT 0, 1 moli ZnO-s misaRebad saWiroa 0,1 moli Zn. davadginoT misi masa: m (Zn) = Mn = 65.0,1=6, 5 g an, 2 moli anu 162 g ZnO-s misaRebad saWiroa 2 moli anu 130 g Zn 8, 1 g ---------------------------------------------- X, X = (8, 1.130)/162 = 6, 5 g 14) 4Fe + 3O2 = 2Fe2O3. 4 moli Fe2O3 is misaRebad saWiroa 8 moli rkina da 6 moli Jangbadi. davadginoT maTi masebi: Ar (Fe) = 56, M (Fe) = 56 g/moli, m = Mn = 56.8 = 448 g Ar (O) = 16, M (O2) = 32 g/moli, m = Mn

= 32.6 = 192 g

15) 2Ca + O2 = 2CaO I. davadginoT, ramdeni molia 5, 6 g CaO: Mr (CaO) = 56, Mr (CaO) = 56 g/moli, n = m/M = 5,6/56= 0,1moli II. reaqciis mixedviT 0, 1 moli CaO -s misaRebad saWiro iqneba 0, 1 moli kalciumi da 0, 05 moli Jangbadi. davadginoT maTi masebi: m (Ca) = Mn = 40.0,1 = 4 g da m (O2) = Mn = 32.0,05 = 1, 6 g an 2 moli anu 112 g CaO -s misaRebad saWiroa 2 moli, anu 80 g Ca 5, 6 g ----------------------------------------------- X, X = (80.5,6)/112= 4 g

2 moli anu 112 g CaO -s misaRebad saWiroa 1 moli, anu 32 g O2 5, 6 g ------------------------------------------------- X, X = (32.5,6)/112= 1, 6 g

78

16) 4P + 5O2 = 2P2O5 I. davadginoT, ramdeni molia 568 g P2O5 : Mr (P2O5) = 142, Mr (P2O5) = 142 g/moli,

n = m/M = 568/142= 4 moli

II. 2 moli P2O5-is misaRebad saWiroa 4 moli fosfori, 4 moli P2O5 misaRebad saWiro iqneba 8 moli fos fori. 8 moli fosforis masaa: m = Mn = 31.8 = 248 g an, 2 moli anu 284 g P2O5 sWirdeba 4 moli anu 124 g P 568 g ---------------------------------- X, X = (568.124)/284= 248 g

17) 4Al + 3O2 = 2Al2O3 , 2HgO = 2Hg + O2 6 moli vercxliswylis daSliT miiReba 3 moli Jangbadi; 3 moli Jangbadi ki srulad Sedis reaqciaSi 4 mol aluminTan; 4 moli aluminis masaa: m = Mn = 27.4=108 g . testi V Tavis bolos - pasuxebi 1. a; 2. g; 3. a; 4. b; 5. a; 6. b; 7. b; 8. a; 9. a; 10. b; 11. a; 12. g; 13. b; 14. g; 15. b; 16. g; 17. g; 18. b.

U L K P V I Tavi: wyali

gakv. VI - 1 wyali bunebaSi. wylis gasufTaveba (39-e gakveTili) Sedegi

5. moswavle aRwers wylis Tvisebebs, msjelobs xsnarebis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb.

indikatori mizani

5. qmnis wyalsawmend sadgurebSi sasmeli wylis gasufTavebis sqemas. CamoTvlis wylis bunebrivi gafiltvris magaliTebs. agrovebs informacias bunebrivi wylis dabinZurebis Sedegebis Sesaxeb, gamoTqvams varauds wylis dabinZurebis Tavidan acilebis saSualebebze.

Camouyalibdes garemoze zrunvis unar-Cveva, gaiazros, ra Sedegebi SeiZleba mohyves adamianis saqmianobas, ra mniSvneloba aqvs garemoze zrunvisTvis mecnierul-teqnikur progress. Tovl-Wyaps uwodeben wylisa da Tovlis narevs, sadac wyali or agregatul mdgomareobaSi imyofeba - Txevadsa da myarSi.

1

2 fiz.: agregatuli mdgomareobis cvlileba damokidebulia molekulebs Soris manZilis cvlilebaze, molekulebs Soris manZilis cvlilebas ki temperaturis cvlileba iwvevs. alt.: gansazRvrul temperaturaze nivTiereba icvlis agregatul mdgomareobas. 3 I, II, III abzacSi aRwerilia wylis agregatuli mdgomareobis cvlileba Txevadidan airadSi da Semdeg myarSi. (fiz.: SesaZloa, kidev erTi fizikuri movlena amoicnon (difuzia): wylis wveTi mdinaris wyalSi ixsneba, aorTqlebuli wyali haers ereva). agregatuli mdgomareobis cvlileba temperaturis cvlilebam gamoiwvia.

I - naleqebis saxiT dedamiwaze brundeba, II- aorTqlebuli wyali atmosferoSi adis, III- kondensirdeba.

a ci da en om ek r

mieciT saSualeba moswavleebs, imsjelon, ra moxdeba wylis ciklis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi. ra Sedegebi SeiZleba mohyves wylis dabinZurebas?

sxvadasxva mineraluri wylis gemo gansxvavebulia da damokidebulia masSi gaxsnili nivTierebebis bunebaze. borjomis xeobaSi sxvadasxva WaburRilze mopovebul wyalsac ki gansxvavebuli Sedgeniloba da gemo aqvs. sasmelad, gasarecxad, sabanaod, wamlis dasamzadeblad saWiro wyali erTmaneTisgan masSi gaxsnili nivTierebebis bunebiT da raodenobiT gansxvavdeba.

4 5

is dasaxlebebi, romlebic wyals rezervuaridan ar iReben, wyaros, Wis an mdinaris wyals iyeneben.

6 7

Tu WiqaSi wyali mRvriea, mas ayovneben an filtraven.

79

8

qimiurad sufTa wylis misaRebad gamoxdis meTods mimarTaven.

damatebiTi informacia: wylis saerTo raodenoba dedamiwaze daaxloebiT 1400 milioni kub. metria. aqedan mxolod 2 , 5 % aris mtknari, danarCeni 97,5 % ki msoflio okeaneze modis. Tavis tvinis 70-80 % wyalia, guli - 79%, Tirkmelebi-82 %, kani- 72%, sisxlis 80% wyals Seicavs. wylis gareSe adamiani mxolod 8 dRes Zlebs. Tu wyals naklebi raodenobiT miviRebT, organizmi sakvebis monelebisTvis saWiro wyals organoebidan iRebs, ris Sedegadac organizmSi Cndeba wylis nakleboba da adamians swyurdeba. fizikuri datvirTvisas sxeulis temperatura imatebs da sxeuli rom ar gadaxurdes, siTbo oflis saxiT gamoiyofa. dietologebi miiCneven, rom 1 molekula cximis monelebas 3 molekula wyali sWirdeba, amitom xSirad cximiani sakvebis Semdeg wyurvilis SegrZneba imatebs.

10 g navTobproduqti 800 l wyalze sakmarisia, rom is cocxali organizmebisTvis uvargisi gaxdes. 1 t qaRaldis warmoebaze 900 m3, 1 t foladis warmoebaze ki 120 m3 wyali ixarjeba. wyali Cveni planetis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi, Seucvleli resursia. Tu liTonis maragi gamoileva, SesaZloa is xelovnuri masaliT Seicvalos. Tu mcenareuli da cxoveluri cximebi sakmarisi ar iqneba, sinTezur cximebs Seqmnian; Cveulebrivi haeris nacvlad zogjer SesaZlebelia airTa xelovnuri narevis gamoyeneba. wyali ki Tavisi bunebrivi saxiT aucilebeli iqneba yvelgan da yovelTvis, sadac ki iarsebebs sicocxlis miwieri formebi. wyali sicocxlis wyaro da is saSeni masalaa, romelsac yvela cocxali organizmi iyenebs. mas organizmSi yvela saWiro nivTiereba Seaqvs, yvelaferi zedmeti ki organizmidan gamoaqvs. wyali universaluri gamxsnelia. mas adamianisTvis yoveldRiur yofaSi udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs. cxovelebis da mcenareebis organizmis 50%-mde wyalia, zogi ki 98%-mde wyals Seicavs. adamianis yvela sakvebi produqti Seicavs wyals: bostneuli - 80-90%, xorci - 50%, rZe - 87-89% da a.S. TviT adamianis organizmSi 70%-mde wyalia. wylis es raodenoba SenarCunebul unda iqnas, vinaidan 20%-mde wylis dakargva organizmis daRupvas iwvevs. Tu sakvebis gareSe adamiani Tveebis ganmavlobaSi Zlebs, wylis gareSe is ramdenime dReSi iRupeba. wyali amave dros samrewvelo nedleuls warmoadgens. teqnikur progress Tan axlavs garemos dabinZurebis mateba da pirvel rigSi - wylis gaWuWyianeba. xSirad mdinareebSi, zRvebsa da okeaneebSi mravali sxvadasxva nivTiereba Caedineba. janmrTelobis dacvis saministros sanitarul-epidemiologiuri samsaxuri pasuxs agebs wyalsacavebis dacvis im aspeqtebze, romlebic mosaxleobis janmrTelobis da cxovrebis sanitaruli pirobebis interesebs Seexeba. garemos dacva, upirveles yovlisa, samSoblos siyvaruliT iwyeba. i. gogebaSvili ocnebobda "axali tipis qarTveli patriotebis" aRzrdaze da marTebulad miuTiTebda, rom patriotizmi ar aris Tandayolili grZnoba da is aRzrdis Sedegia. "Znelia, roca kacs kaci, Tu kacs sofeli marto dReisaTvis unda da saxvalioT aRar ufrTxildeba" vaJa-fSavela. naTqvamia, roca wyals svam, wyaro gaxsovdeso. aucilebelia narCeni nivTierebis raodenobis kontrolis zusti meTodebis damuSaveba da danergva. biblia swored wylis pirvelsawyisobis aRiarebiT iwyeba. ,,miwa iyo usaxo da udaburi. bneli ido ufskrulze da suli RvTisa iZvroda wylis zemoT". (dabadeba 1.1) sxvadasxva momwamlavi nivTiereba, umciresi doziTac ki, cocxali organizmis ujredSi moxvedrisas arRvevs sasicocxlo procesebis normalur msvlelobas. saxlebidan da qarxnebidan gasawmendi wylebis Cadineba mdinareebsa da zRvebSi wylis dabinZurebas iwvevs. roca wyali bevr ,,nagavs" Seicavs, baqteriebi, romlebic organul naerTebs Slian, dasaSveb normaze metad mravldebian da TiTqmis mTel Jangbads iTviseben. wyalSi sicocxle ispoba, Tu ar CavTvliT mavne baqteriebs, romlebsac Jangbadis gareSec SeuZliaT arseboba. gaWuWyianebas iwvevs agreTve eqskrementebi, pesticidebi da momwamlavi nivTierebebi, rogoricaa tyvia da vercxliswyali. momwamlavi nivTierebebi Tevzis organizmSi grovdeba da SeiZleba, sxva cxovelis da adamianis organizmSic moxvdes. Camdinare (narCeni) wyali zRvaSi, mdinareSi moxvedramde unda gaiwmindos. ,,nagvis" moSorebis mizniT wyali Camdinare wylebis gasufTavebis sistemaSi ifiltreba. Camdinare ewodeba sawarmoebis, komunaluri warmoebisa da mosaxleobis mier gamoyenebul wyals, romelic sxvadasxva minarevebisagan gawmendas saWiroebs. gaWuWyianebisgan wylebis dacvis ZiriTadi RonisZieba im meTodebis danergvaa, romlebic mTlianad an nawilobriv gamoricxavs Camdinare wylebis warmoqmnas. mrewvelobis mTeli rigi dargebis unarCeno teqnologiaze gadayvana Camdinare wylebis arsebobas gamoricxavs. erTi romelime meTodiT gawmenda, rogorc wesi, ver uzrunvelyofs wylis gawmendas sanitaruli moTxovnis donemde. yovel konkretul SemTxvevaSi gawmendis meTodis SerCeva xdeba Camdinare wylis Sedgenilobis, raodenobis, gamoyenebuli meTodis ekonomiurobis mixedviT da a.S. Camdinare wylebis gawmendis erTiani, universaluri meTodi jerjerobiT ar arsebobs. samrewvelo Camdinare wylebis gawmendis yvela arsebuli xerxi SeiZleba meqanikur, qimiur, fizikur-qimiur, bioqomiur, Termul meTodebad gaerTiandes.

80

mag., safrangeTis tba nantua "mkvdaria". md. mante gaWuWyianebulia ludis sawarmos narCenebiT, md. siara - yurZnis narCenebiT, md. du - Txevadi sawvaviT. 1967 wlidan iaponiis mdinareebSi aRaravin banaobs. erT dros sufTa navsadguris toto-no-uras sufTa wyali mowiTalo-moyavisfro momwavlel narevad iqca, romelSic yoveldRiurad 12 mln. t. Camdinare wyali Cadis. saSiSi xdeba dabinZurebuli zRvebis Tevzis sakvebad gamoyeneba. cnobilia vercxliswylis naerTebiT mowamvlis faqtebi iaponiaSi, aSS-Si aseT mowamvlas "minimates daavadebas" (qalaq minimates saxelis mixedviT) uwodeben. iaponiuri kompaniis "tisos" sawarmoebis Camdinare wylebic Seicavda vercxliswylis organul naerTebs. 1977 wels iaponiaSi registrirebul iqna am daavadebis 307 SemTxveva, aqedan 68 sikvdiliT damTavrda. 1 kg navTobs SeuZlia 100 milioni lifsita moklas. dadgenilia, rom naleqebTan erTad dedamiwaze mineraluri marilebic xvdeba. naleqebi didi raodenobiT Seicavs organul naerTebs: vitamin B12 -s, nikotinis mJavas, biotins. aRmoCnda, rom es nivTierebebi RrublebSi arsebuli mikroorganizmebis cxovelqmedebis produqtia.

saSinao davaleba

1) dedamiwaze wylis maragi wylis ciklis gamo praqtikulad ucvlelia. mzis siTbos moqmedebiT aorTqlebuli wyali atmosferos zeda fenebSi kondensirdeba da naleqebis saxiT isev dedamiwaze brundeba. bunebaSi wylis wrebrunva mudmivad mimdinareobs. 2) sasmeli wyali gamoxdili wyali

Seicavs organizmisTvis saWiro nivTierebebs

gavlili aqvs gawmendis etapebi

gawmendilia yvela saxis minarevebisgan

ua r x a sf T o jn r e o am Tl bs vs iTi orive narevia Seicavs misTvis damaxasiaTebel minarevebs

mineraluri wyali 3) gamoxdili wyali sufTaa minarevebisgan, amitom sadac unda gamoxadon wyali, mimRebSi yovelTvis sufTa wyali dagrovdeba. sasmeli wylis Sedgeniloba ki imazea damokidebuli, Tu ra Sedgenilobis niadagis gavliT xvdeba is wyalsacavSi. 4) sxvadasxva mineralur wyals sxvadasxva Sedgeniloba aqvs, amitom maTi gemoc gansxvavebulia. mag., borjomi: K - 15-45 mg/l, Na - 1000-2000 mg/l, Ca - 20-150 mg/l, Mg - 20-150 mg/l, qloridebi - 250-500 mg/l, hidrokarbonatebi - 3500 - 5 000 mg/l, sulfatebi - < 10 mg/l. nabeRlavi: K, Na - 1100-1500 g/dm3, Ca - 7- 150 g/dm3, Mg - 110-150 g/dm3, qloridebi -70-100 g/dm3, hidrokarbonatebi - 3900-4500 g/dm3, sulfatebi - 130 - 180 g/dm3. 5) ormoSi sufTa wyali grovdeba, filtris rols qva-RorRi asrulebs. 6) SesaZloa ivaraudon, rom tansacmlis warmoebas (kerva), avejis an saiuveliro nawarmis damzadebas wyali ar sWirdeba. Tumca advili warmosadgenia, ra problemebi Seiqmneba, Tu aseT sawarmoSi Tundac onkani an tualeti ar iqneba. 7) sicxeSi organizmidan didi raodenobis wyali orTqldeba da Sesabamisad, wyalze moTxovnileba izrdeba. 8) savaraudoa, rom zRvis wylidan sasmeli wylis miRebis procesi Tanamedrove fizikuri meTodebis Sesatyvisi iyo: dawdoma, gafiltvra, gamoxda da Semdeg gamoxdili wylis gamdidreba organizmisTvis aucilebeli sxva nivTierebebiT. 9) ix. samodelo gakveTilebSi (gv. 37)

81

gakv. VI - 2 wylis Sedgeniloba da Tvisebebi (me-40 gakveTili, ix. samodelo, gv. 39)

1 wylis daSlisas gamoiyofa Jangbadi da wyalbadi. wylis molekula Sedgeba ori atomi wyalbadisa da erTi atomi Jangbadisgan. 2H2O = 2H2 + O2 .

a) cxel abazanaze moTavsebisas milSi wylis done aiwevs. es niSnavs, rom wyali gafarTovda. yinulis 2 abazanaze moTavsebisas milSi wylis done daiwevs. es niSnavs, rom wyali SeikumSa. b) marili wyalSi ixsneba. fiz.: difuzia fizikuri movlenaa. alt.: Tu nivTierebis wyalSi gaxsnis Sedegad axali nivTiereba ar warmoiqmneba, adgili aqvs fizikur movlenas. e. i. marilis wyalSi gaxsna fizikuri movlenaa. g) lursmani ufro male gacivdeba, vidre wyali.

3

airs cecxli moekideba. es airi wyalbadia. natriumis wyalTan urTierTqmedeba qimiuri movlenaa. sTxoveT, aRweron, ra niSnebiT mimdinareobda reaqcia (gamoiyofa siTbo da sinaTle). gaaxseneT, rom airis gamoyofa yovelTvis qimiuri reaqciis niSani ar aris. mag., limonaTis boTlis gaxsnisas boTlidan airi amoityorcneba, magram es ar niSnavs, rom qimiuri reaqcia moxda.

a ci da en om ek r

saSinao davaleba

1)

feri suni

wylis fizikuri Tvisebebi gamWvirvaloba gamWvirvale

t

dR, o

C

t

gay.,

Co

r, 20

Co-ze

moluri masa 18 g/moli

ufero

usuno

100

0

1 g/sm3

2) wyalbadnaerTebSi elementis valentoba ricxobrivad wyalbadis atomebis raodenobis tolia. wyalSi OH jgufis valentoba erTis tolia - is 1 wyalbadatoms ukavSirdeba. Al(OH)3. 3) n = m/M = 4,5/18 = 0.25 moli an 1 moli wylis masa 18 g-ia. X moli --------4, 5 g, X = 4,5/18 = 0, 25 moli

4) Ca + 2H2O = Ca(OH)2 + H2, CaO + H2O = Ca(OH)2 5) Na2O + H2O = 2NaOH I. davadginoT, ramdeni molia 6, 2 g Na2O: Mr (Na2O) = 62, M (Na2O) = 62 g/moli,

n = m/M = 6,2/62 = 0, 1moli

II. 1 molia Na2O-dan miiReba 2 moli NaOH, maSin 0, 1 moli Na2O-dan miviRebT 0, 2 mol NaOH. 0, 2 moli NaOH-is masa tolia: M (NaOH) = 40, M (NaOH) =40 g/moli, m = Mn = 40.0,2 = 8 g

r

an

62 g Na2O -isgan miiReba 80 g NaOH 6, 2 g ------------------------ X g, X = (80.6, 2)/62 = 8 g.

gakv. VI - 3 wyali - gamxsneli. xsnari (41-e gakveTili) Sedegi

5. moswavle aRwers wylis Tvisebebs, msjelobs xsnarebis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb. 5. CamoTvlis xsnarebis magaliTebs da msjelobs maTi mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb bunebasa da adamianis cxovrebaSi. gegmavs da atarebs cdas da adgens gaxsnili nivTierebis masur wils. Sedegebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT.

indikatori mizani

Sesabamisi sazomi erTeulebis gamoyenebiT xsnaris raodenobrivi aRweris unar-Cvevis ganviTareba.

1 limonaTi: wyali, xilis sirofi, Saqari, airi. haeri: azoti, Jangbadi, inertuli airebi, wylis orTqli, naxSirorJangi, mtveri. Cai: wyali, Cais nayeni, Saqari. bulioni: wyali, cximi. CamoTvlili narevebi, haeris garda, meti raodenobiT wyals Seicavs. 2 82

marilis wyalxsnari erTgvarovania. masSi marilis molekulebis danaxva mikroskopiTac ki SeuZle-

belia. qviSis wyalxsnari - araerTgvarovania, rac SeuiaraRebeli TvaliTac kargad Cans. carcis wyalxsnari Txevad nivTierebaSi gaxsnil myar nivTierebas warmoadgens, zeTis wyalxsnari 3 ki - Txevad nivTierebaSi gaxsnil sxva Txevad nivTierebas.

4 CamoTvlili narevebi droTa ganmavlobaSi dawdeba: rZis Tavze cximi mogrovdeba, carci WurWlis fskerze daileqeba, qva-qviSa gubis fskerze daileqeba, xolo msubuqi nawilakebi (mag., foTlebi) wylis zedapirze mogrovdeba. 5

w (Na) = n Ar (Na)/ Mr (NaCl)= 23/58, 5 =0, 39 anu 39 % sTxoveT, erTmaneTs Seadaron qimiuri elementis da nivTierebis masuri wili da ipovon gansxvaveba. Tu ver SeZles, gaaxseneT nivTierebis Sedgenilobis mudmivoba. nivTierebis Sedgenilobis mudmivobidan gamomdinare, naerTSi qimiuri elementis masuri wili mudmivia. xsnarSi komponentis masuri wili icvleba.

a ci da n me ko re

gaamaxvileT yuradReba, rom zogierTi xsnaris damzadebisas gansakuTrebuli sizustis dacvaa saWiro. mag., medikamentebis damzadebisas mcireodenma uzustobam adamianis janmrTelobas SeiZleba gamousworebeli ziani miayenos. arasworad Sezavebuli cementi ngrevis mizezi xdeba. SesaZloa, ganumartoT, rom aerozolic erTgvari xsnaria - tivtivari, romelic airSi Setivtivebul Txevad nawilakebs warmoadgens.

saSinao davaleba

1) sazamTros 100 g Seicavs 95 g wyals, 300 g-Si iqneba 3.95=285 g. 2) iodis spirtxsnaris 100 g Seicavs 5 g iods, 200 g xsnari unda Seicavdes X g iods, X = 10 g. iodis 5 % -iani spirtxsnaris 200 g -is mosamzadeblad 10 g iodi unda gavxsnaT 200 - 10=190 g spirtSi. 3) Tu 2 kovzi SaqriT davatkbobT 200 g Cais, Saqris masuri wili iqneba: w = mSaqris/mxs = 0,5.2/(200+0,5.2) = 0, 00498 anu 0, 5 %.

Saqr

4) Taflis yoveli 100 g Seicavs 16, 7 g wyals, 88, 78 g Saqars da 4, 2 g saqarozas. Tu 100 g TaflSi 16,7 g wyalia, 200 g TaflSi iqneba 2.16,7 = 33,4 g wyali. 5) davadginoT xsnaris masa: mxs = mwy + mnivT = 513 + 27 = 540 g. marilis masuri wili iqneba:

wmarilis = m marilis/ m xs = 27/540 = 0, 05 anu 5 % .

6) gaxsnili nivTierebis masuri wili: w = m nivT / m xs = 0, 25/25=0, 01 anu 1 %.

gakv. VI - 4 xsnadoba (42 - e gakveTili) Sedegi

5. moswavle aRwers wylis Tvisebebs, msjelobs xsnarebis Taviseburebebis Sesaxeb 5. gegmavs da atarebs cdas da adgens nivTierebaTa xsnadobaze moqmed faqtorebs (mag. temperatura, gamxsnelisa da gaxsnili nivTierebis raoba da masa, nawilakTa zoma, moreva). Sedegebs warmoadgens cxrilis saxiT.

indikatori mizani

Sesabamisi sazomi erTeulebis gamoyenebiT xsnaris raodenobrivi aRweris unar-Cvevis ganviTareba. xsnadobaze moqmedi faqtorebis Seswavla

fiz.: boTlis njRrevisas xsnaridan gamoiyofa airi, romelic siTxis Tavze grovdeba, ris gamoc izrdeba airis wneva siTxeze. Tavsaxuris moxsnisas wneva mcirdeba, airi farTovdeba da boTlidan amoityorcneba. alt.: Tu WiqaSi Casxmul borjoms movurevT, borjomi "aSiSindeba" da wylis zedapirze buStukebis raodenoba gaizrdeba. es niSnavs, rom morevis Sedegad airis xsnadoba mcirdeba.

a) ganusazRvreli raodenobiT; b) ganusazRvreli raodenobiT; g) praqtikulad ar ixsneba; d) pra4 qtikulad ar ixsneba.

1 2 3

a) movurev; b) marili wyalSi srulad ar gaixsna, Saqari - gaixsna. g) marili wyalSi srulad gaixsna. buStebis gaCena imaze metyvelebs, rom wyali airs Seicavs.

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saSinao davaleba

1) xsnari gavacxeloT an davamatoT gamxsneli; 2) CavamatoT vercxlis nitrati an xsnari gavacioT. 3) a) ujeri; b) ujeri; g) najeri. 4) anaduRari wyali Jangbads mcire raodenobiT Seicavs. 5) sufris marilis xsnadobaa 35, 9 g/100 g H2O. Tu 100 g wyalSi 35, 9 g marils gavxsniT, xsnaris masa iqneba 100 g + 35,9 g = 135,9 g 135,9 g xsnari Seicavs 35, 9 g marils 1000 g xsnari ---------------- X, 6) 20 gradusze: a) X = 35,9.1000/135,9 = 264 g b) 1 kg najeri xsnari Seicavs 264 g marils da 1000 - 264 = 736 g wyals.

~ 57g/100 g H2O. 40 gradusze: a) ~ 76g/100 g H2O.

~ 30g/100 g H2O. b) ~ 63g/100 g H2O.

g) ~ 35 g/100 g H2O.

g)

~ 37 g/100 g H2O.

temperaturis zrdasTan erTad myari nivTierebis xsnadoba imatebs.

gakv. VI - 5 kolokviumi (43-e gakveTili) mizani

ganvlili masalis Sejameba, SeZenili codnisa da unar-Cvevebis Sefaseba.

savarjiSoebi VI Tavis bolos - pasuxebi

1) mTis qanebi da qviSa bunebrivi filtria. amitom wyaros wyali ufro sufTaa, vidre mdinaris. 2) navTobi wyalze msubuqia, amitom is wylis zedapirze gaiRvreba da xels uSlis Jangbadis wyalSi gaxsnas. garda amisa, is abinZurebs wyals, aRwevs wylis binadarTa organizmSi da safrTxes uqmnis maT sicocxles. 3) 2Na + 2H2O =2NaOH + H2 Ca + 2H2O = Ca (OH)2 + H2 4) Ba + 2H2O = Ba(OH)2 + H2 w (Ba) = Ar (Ba)/Mr (Ba(OH)2 ) = 137/167 = 0, 82 anu 82 % 5) CaO + 2H2O = Ca (OH)2 I. davadginoT ramdeni molia 168 g CaO: Mr (CaO) = 56, M (CaO) = 56 g/moli, 2:2 1:2

n (CaO) = m/M=168/56=3

II. 3 moli CaO miiReba 3 moli Ca (OH)2. davadginoT ramdeni gramia 3 moli Ca (OH)2 : M (Ca(OH) ) = 74 g/moli, m (CaO) = Mn = 74.3 = 222 g

2

an

56 g CaO -sgan miiReba 74 g Ca (OH)2 168 g CaO --------------------- X g, X = 222 g

6) w (NaCl)= mNaCl/mxs = 30/(30+120) = 0, 2 7) mxs = 300 + 40 = 340 g. davadginoT 300 g sxnarSi gaxsnili nivTierebis masa: Tu 100 g xsnarSi 20 g gaxsnili nivTierebaa 300 g ------------- X, 8) mnivT = mxsw = 50.0,1 = 5 g X = 60 g.

w = mnivTl/mxs = 60/340 = 0, 1764 anu 17, 64 %

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an 100 G xsnari Seicavs 10 g marils 50 g ------------------- X, X= 5g 9) WeSmariti xsnarebi: CAai, xilis wveni, borjomi. tivtivarebi: kakao, rZe, borSCi, sodis wyalxsnari. 10) w= 0, 9 % = 0, 009, m = m w = 1 000.0,009 = 9 g

nivT

xs

an

100 g fiziologiuri xsnari Seicavs 0,9 g NaCl 1000 g ---------------------- X , X = 9 g.

11) w= 3, 5 % = 0, 035, mxs=mnivT/ w = 700 /0, 035 = 20 000 kg an 100 kg zRvis wyali Seicavs 3, 5 kg marils X kg -----------------------700 kg, X = 20 000 kg 12) Saqris xsnadoba 20 gardusze aris 203, 9 g/100 g H2O. davadgino^T xsnaris masa: mxs. = 100 + 203, 9 =303, 9 g 303, 9 g xsnari Seicavs 203, 9 g Saqars 500 g ---------------------- X, mwy = 500 - 335, 5 =164, 5 g. X = 335, 5 g. e. i. 164, 5 g wyalSi unda gavxsnaT 335, 5 g Saqari. 13) w= 5 % = 0, 05. mnivT = mxsw = 300.0,05 = 15 g

w= 10 % = 0, 1. mnivT = mxsw = 400.0,1 = 40 g

mnivT. = 15 + 40 = 55 g mxs. = 300 + 400 = 700 g. w= mnivTl/mxs = 55/700 = 0, 08 anu 8 % xsnarSi arsebuli nivTierebis masebi SeiZ;leba proporciiTac daadginon: 100 g xsnari Seicavs 5 g nivTierebas 300 g ------------------ X, X = 15 g

100 g xsnari Seicavs 10 g nivTierebas 400 g ------------------ X, 14) 100 g vaSlSi 76 g wyalia 300 g --------- X g, X = 228 g 15) 100 g wyalSi 60 gradusze ixsneba daaxloebiT 46 g KCl. xsnari ujeria, radgan masSi SeiZleba kidev gaixsnas 46-20=26 g KCl. 16) 1000 g wyalSi ixsneba 2 g TabaSiri 1 500 g ------------------ X, X=3g w = mnivT/mxs = 3/(3+1500) = 0, 002 anu 0, 2 % 17) w (KOH) = m(KOH)/mxs = 0,16/(100 +0,16+100) = 0, 08 18) a) xsnadoba izrdeba; b) xsnadoba mcirdeba. X = 40 g

testi VI Tavis bolos - pasuxebi 1. a; 2. a; 3. a; 4. b; 5. b; 6. a; 7. b; 8. a; 9. g; 10. g; 11. a; 12. a; 13. b; 14. b; 15. b; 16. a; 17. b; 18. a;

gakv. VI- 6 Semajamebeli wera IV (44 - e gakveTili)

Semajamebeli werisTvis variantebi SegiZliaT Tavis bolos mocemuli savarjiSoebidan SearCioT .

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