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Saudi Arabia

THE SKYLINE OF THE MAIN CITIES IN SAUDI ARABIA

NO LONGER BELONGS TO PALM GROVES, BUT TO STEEL TOWERS AND ECONOMIC

Blueprint for the future

WITH BILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN OIL WINDFALL, THE KINGDOM HAS TURNED INTO AN OASIS FOR CONSTRUCTION. AND ITS COMPANIES ARE EXPORTING THEIR EXPERTISE.

CLUSTERS.

W

When Ibn Saud captured the dusty garrison of Riyadh in January 1902, it was just a small oasis town in southern Najd. Riyadh's name is derived from the Arabic plural for orchard: most Saudi chroniclers refer to its beginnings as a Bedouin camp emerging around wells that made irrigated agriculture possible. Today, the former Ottoman-era citadel continues to bake in the harsh sun of the central plateau. But the skyline no longer belongs to palm trees and mud-brick constructions. Instead, it is perforated by steel silhouettes like the futuristic Kingdom Tower--beacons of a new age of engineering prowess. The surge in oil prices, in tandem with high population growth, has led to a multi-billion dollar building frenzy in Saudi Arabia. Sudden growth has created a new demand for slick engineering and architectural elegance, as well as for innovation in building materials. Riyadh not only benefits from net oil exports that were worth $150 billion in 2005, it also straddles a manufacturing corridor that links it to factories in Buraydah and Al Kharj. An estimated $1 billion have been sunk into city earthworks. Housing demand has also spiked, with 600,000 new homes planned. In the Olaya district, the heart and soul of downtown Riyadh, private firms are busy designing shopping outlets. A network of 467 kilometers of pipelines, meanwhile, supplies water from desalination plants in the Gulf. The construction boom is also driven by infrastructure needs. If demographic trends continue apace, Saudi Arabia will need to funnel $123 billion into an expansion of its electricity grid by 300% over two decades. Road construction will require another

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$5.4 billion in investments. A complete overhaul of water supply, including desalination plants and pipelines, will require $93 billion. Housing is worth another $6 billion, hospitals $5 billion and education facilities a further $2 billion. There is also buzz about a $3 billion causeway link across the Red Sea from Egypt's Sharm Al Sheikh to Saudi Arabia's coastal town of Dibah. Recent government tenders include sewage mainlines for Jeddah and water storage facilities for Mushaytt City. According to the US-Saudi Arabian Business Council (USSABC), the investor pre-qualification process for the MeccaMedina rail link already began in September. If one adds the earthmoving projects at new industrial parks

a network of construction and materials-related SMEs that are now in a position to sell products abroad. Engineering giants like Saudi Oger and the Saudi Binladin Group, meanwhile, are courted for their state-of-the-art technology. Saudi Oger is one of four companies doing the ground preparation work for a North-South Railway, valued at $480 million. In a second phase, $2 billion will be spent on equipment for the railroad that will transport bauxite and phosphate ores from northern Saudi Arabia to processing facilities in the Gulf. The Saudi Binladin Group is also involved in the massive project, which includes 254 concrete bridges, 1059 culverts and the procurement of 4,800 kilometers of rails. According to Saudi Arabia's Ambassador to the US, Prince Turki bin Faisal ibn Abdul Aziz Al Saud, FDI opportunities could rise to $650 billion. The bids are open to build petrochemicals, power plants, telecom networks, desalination plants and more railroads. Business

Courtesy of Xenel

Traditonal methods of building in the old walled capital of Diriyah (above) as well as the use of materials like wood and natural pigments (above right) have given way to the creation of state-of-the-art steel structures such as the one built by Hidada (right) for the Ministry of Interior.

and economic clusters, the Kingdom is smack in the center of a very lucrative market--the largest in the Middle East. And these figures hardly reflect private sector plans for office buildings, tourist resorts and entertainment centers. Spillover effects from the oil windfall are particularly being felt in commercial real estate along the Gulf. Between Al Khobar and Dammam, contractors are razing 3.4 square kilometers of waterfront to build villas, apartment buildings and a marina. Nowhere is this breakneck pace as patent as at the current International Construction Technology and Building Materials Exhibit, a.k.a. Saudi Build 2006. The Kingdom's multi-billion dollar infrastructure projects are showcased at the fair, which caters to domestic and foreign bidders. With 24,000 visitors and 500 companies in 2005, the show keeps selling out year after year. A significant trend will emerge in this year's edition: building materials are becoming a precious commodity. Though the lion's share goes to China, the region has an annual turnover of $3.6 billion in this type of intermediate goods. Shipments of iron, steel and copper are quickly whisked off to building sites from seaport terminals. On the cement front, if total Gulf production was estimated at 11.2 million tons in 2005, demand soared to 12.8 million tons over the same period. Prices edged upward 10% as a result. A more dramatic scenario is in store for steel: prices for hot rolled plates were up 45% last August, month-on-month, because of unabated demand. Since 2002, the Saudi development model has been clusterbased and multi-sector. Industrial parks like Jubail and Yanbu are the preferred formats for regional growth, job creation and technology transfer. Petrochemical plants in particular have generated

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leaders and government policymakers met at Al Khobar earlier in 2006 to coordinate the management of future infrastructure. Sponsored by Saudi Aramco, the state-owned oil company, and Saudi Basic Industries Corporation (SABIC), the main decision to emerge was the necessity of using mega-projects as an excuse to lift the skills level in construction and engineering. The Kingdom will thus have an edge in engineering excellence, which opens the door to opportunities in the region and beyond. According to the Senior Vice President of Engineering and Operations Services at Saudi Aramco, Salim Al Aydh: "In the last boom we invested heavily in construction of new plant facilities. We left behind a legacy of steel and concrete. This time, as we build up new plants, we will invest not only in our physical capacity for oil and gas production, but also in the capacity of our people to execute major projects. We want to leave behind a core competency in engineering, procurement and construction." Now flash forward to 2015. Saudi Arabia's building frenzy will have changed more than the cities's skyline. The construction boom will have lifted the skills of Saudi contractors so that their services are sold globally. Products like stone finishings, tension bridges and stress software for structural engineers will increasingly be seen as value-added Saudi exports. The net result is creativity and innovation like it has never been seen in the Arabian deserts.

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FOCUS: ECONOMIC CLUSTERS

Future-proof design

As the landscape of wealth expands, so does the Kingdom's urban and industrial sprawl. Architects in Saudi Arabia are using creativity to change the skyline of the desert, while new economic clusters and industrial parks combine the best of design, functionality and IT.

A rush of ideas has taken hold of Saudi architects and Global Competitiveness Forum in Riyadh on November 8. The contractors. Never before has there been so much space to Microsoft chairman focused his lecture on IT as an enabler. By develop, so much cash to invest and such a prodigious amount investing in knowledge, Saudi Arabia can make itself future-proof. of political will. The results of the synergy between industrial need, Investing in mega-projects is a way to put excess capital to engineering creativeness and the increasing sophistication of work, and it also advances official policies of economic construction and technology are beginning to be seen. The first diversification. But the real shock to foreigners is not so much the economic city was launched in December 2005 in Rabigh, 200 magnitude of the earthworks, but the elegance of the designs. kilometers north of Jeddah. Its focus will be on energy and Dubai was an obvious trailblazer in contemporary desert logistics. Hail, in the northern plateau, has been chosen as a architecture. Its sophisticated taste turned the austere Gulf logistical node. According to the Gulf Finance House, one of its waterfront into a Las Vegas style fantasy, with projects like Palm promoters, 156 million square meters of land with a clusterIsland and Burj Dubai tower. In Saudi Arabia, there is less taste based layout will be leased to supply chain companies, foodfor the extravagant, yet impressive icons like the Kingdom Tower processing firms and mining outfits. In southern Assir, near the and the Al Faisaliah Center have introduced elegant lines and Yemeni border, the port of Jizan will be home to a third intelligent functionality into the Riyadh skyline. Inside, visitors economic city, including a university. Medina is also taking the wander out of their lead by announcing an hotels or offices to stroll economic cluster of its through otherworldly own entirely devoted to entertainment arcades. knowledge industries. In fact, mixed-use is The Saudi Organization a concept of residential for Industrial Cities and living that can be traced Technology Zones also back to early Islamic has plans for a new site architecture. When the in Dammam that will Umayyads transferred cluster energy, their capital from Medina environmental and to Damascus in the 7th synthetic materials. century, they came into Of all the direct contact with late knowledge clusters and classical design in former industrial parks, King Roman provinces. Abdullah Economic City Ummayad architects (KAEC) is the ultimate developed a unique Pharaonic project. KAEC fusion of elements, one is the single largest of them being the private sector mixed-use concept. A development in Saudi Saudi group has taken Arabia today. Located the idea to Orlando, on a greenfield site in Florida. The Xenel Group Jeddah, the KAEC plans to open Xentury Master plan for King Abdullah Economic City master plan has been City in Osceola County expanded to include a on 400 acres of land. The challenge is how to introduce the seaport, an industrial district, a central business district with versatility of Eastern design to commercial real estate in the US. mixed-use areas, retail stores and a financial island. The seaport So far, Xenel has partnered with county authorities to design alone will cover 13.8 million square meters with capacity for scenic parkways leading to a hotel complex. 10 million Twenty-Foot Equivalent Units (TEU) containers per However, rather than channeling the oil bonanza into hotel year. Overall, KAEC will cover 40 million square meters of land, and entertainment venues like Dubai, Saudi Arabia's money is five times larger than was originally planned. According to mostly finding its way into knowledge clusters and industrial Saudi business circles, the industrial park has the potential to parks. King Abdullah wants to make his country one of the 10 generate 1 million jobs. The jobs for light manufacturing most competitive economies in the world by 2010 and industries are estimated at 330,000 and the R&D sector will purpose-built sites for large-scale industry are seen as the most employ another 150,000. KAEC will also be home to two efficient way to harness comparative advantages. The number million people. As in other economic cities, parks and wadis of areas designated as industrial parks has therefore grown will enhance its aesthetic appeal. A canal system will replicate from 14 to 24. In addition, to keep up with the impressive the waterways of Amsterdam to provide 75 kilometers of strides of other emerging markets Saudi officials are pedestrian promenade. Residents will relish another fact: increasingly placing their bets on IT, with all its refined the proximity of the coral reefs of the Red Sea, a stone's throw products. Bill Gates delivered the keynote address at the First from their front yards.

Courtesy of Asdaa

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Contractors: an expert system

THE

BOOM HAS USHERED IN A NEW ETHOS OF QUALITY AND EXPERTISE INTO THE

SAUDI

CONTRACTING SCENE.

TECHNOLOGY

AND INTERNATIONAL PARTNERSHIPS GIVE

COMPANIES IN THE FIELD THE ULTIMATE EDGE.

E

Even if oil prices slide downward, nothing will stop the earthmoving changes in Saudi Arabia's landscape. They will certainly not affect the mega-projects with completion dates slated for 2010. King Abdullah has invested his political capital to use the windfall revenue as a modernizing agent and the sheer number of active building sites ensures an internal dynamic that will take a while to run out of speed. No longer generalists, Saudi contractors became a discerning bunch--and one that is beginning to export its know-how. These days the Saudi construction market demands dexterity, as well as the highest professional standards, and it is technology that gives contractors their comparative edge. Successful firms make use of new equipment and IT applications developed in-house or obtained from international partners. Because of the soft budget

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constraints tied to a period of economic boom, they are increasingly self-reliant as far as building materials are concerned. For executives like Ali Dayekh, President of the Saudi Group of Companies for Construction Materials, the change was inevitable. "We were forced to follow the evolution of construction itself because of the customer demand for new products. They want different shapes, different designs. You have to provide them with products that are reasonably priced and give them variety while at the same time educating other customers about the changes. Nowadays if you don't follow the trend it will pass you by," says Dayekh. In business circles, King Abdullah is credited for making the market more receptive to new ideas. At the construction projects underway in Mecca, for example, IT has been involved from the very outset, marking a first for local transfer of technology. "I believe that King Abdullah is doing a great job, especially with transparency. Everything is clear and there are no hidden agendas. Saudi business professionals value his policies and this will affect the interaction with foreign companies. You can already see the benefits," says Ali Al Swailem, the General Manager of MASCO (Mohammed A. AlSwailem Co. Ltd). In May 2006, Al Swailem went into a jointventure with a US-based firm: the partner visited his installations in the Kingdom and returned impressed by the high level of skills. MASCO has also signed agreements with French and German firms to bid for tenders in the railway sector. "Whenever we see a new opportunity, we just focus on it and do the research. The growth comes gradually, step-by-step," says Swailem Al Swailem, Deputy General Manager. The government is using billions of petrodollars to finance a general overhaul of public infrastructure and, as a sub-contractor, MASCO has taken part in highprofile road construction projects and maintenance jobs. The Al Swailems track the issue of tenders on upcoming projects and the location of new infrastructure sites. The company thus got involved in water supply and sewage lines through tenders that began 4 to 5 years ago. "We are a construction firm and we seek all the building sites we can possibly work in. Our philosophy is generally not to move away from a field in which we have the know-how. We prefer to focus on areas where we have expertise," adds Swailem Al Swailem. MASCO is an umbrella for 13 subsidiaries. It has a separate department pursuing real estate opportunities. It also holds minority stakes in a cable production plant which Ali Al Swailem believes was a good investment choice. "We're expanding so fast, it's good to share this with others," he says. Al Swailem believes the boom will last and keep creating opportunities. "Even if oil prices go down, that will not affect the boom in the next 5 or 6 years. There are already a lot of commitments from infrastructure companies. As you can see, the Saudi government is diversifying the resources, we are not

so dependent on oil only. We are expanding our industries into petrochemicals and even tourism. So we believe that the boom will not be affected," he states. The Kingdom became a member of the WTO in December 2005 and Fadi Moumne, the Principal of Diyar Consultants, is certain that exogenous factors like these will optimize performance. "What globalization and the WTO do is to lift the cover off your business. Then you have two options. You either try to protect the way you do business until you die. Or you just go along and make the best out of new opportunities. We opted for the latter," says Moumne. Diyar is a leading multi-discipline design firm in the region offering technical and management support through architects and structural, mechanical and electrical engineers. Banking on its expertise, Diyar has become much more open to working with outsiders and employs professionals in Cairo, Beirut and Riyadh. "We are very good at providing partners with the services they need locally at the same time that they provide us with additional knowhow. It's a win-win situation," says Diyar's President Nafez Mustafa Al Jundi. For Al Jundi, specialization is just another facet of the globalization trend. Clients are increasingly picky about track records and architectural pedigrees. That is why his company needs to remain pliable. Diyar is involved in a range of development projects, from water supply to hospitals and residential villas. "We offer complete services. We do architecture, hotels and residential projects," says Al Jundi. A major challenge will be the King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC): Al Jundi thinks the 40 million square meters of land to be developed on the Red Sea coast will serve as a litmus test for competitors. "KAEC will move lots of business from Jeddah to New Jeddah. That means power and desalination, among others," says Al Jundi. In the emerging macroeconomic framework of lower oil prices, contractors like Khalid Al Turki think internal diversification will pay off. As President of the Al Turki Group, he is conscious of the risk in specializing in a single market niche. Too many areas of activity, on the other hand, can disperse corporate targets. "It is a good idea to diversify, to have a basket of businesses. If it is low in one element, there is likely to be excess somewhere else," says Al Turki. "The most important thing is management and having the right people run an operation." Al Turki himself is a man of many talents. Although he began his career in construction, he still has energy for 8 working farms, where he gets the pleasure of seeing life appear and a change from cement and steel. Earlier in the year he started a project in India to grow medicinal plants. His group is also opening electricity markets in Bangladesh and factories in Kyrgyzstan. But despite this geographic diversity, Al Turki's enterprise is a stickler for methodology. As an individual, he is also known for problemBusinessWeek

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solving skills, which have given closure to seemingly intractable issues. In his trajectory from businessman to investor and philanthropist, he thinks transparency is the most tangible asset. Clients of the Al Turki Group, including state-owned oil company Saudi Aramco, have learned to trust his efficiency. The Al Turki Group has not shied away from residential compounds and amusement parks for private clients. The ideal situation for Al Turki personally is to get involved in marketing, business networking and support services like procurement and project finance. "In Saudi Arabia, the private sector now offers many opportunities. With our expertise, we can achieve the same goals for housing projects and SMEs, at reasonable rates," he says. In the ever faster race towards modernization, crews of ACE can be seen along Saudi highways leveling desert mounds to provide drainage for newly inaugurated roads. Al Fadl Contracting & Engineering (ACE) is the arm of Al Fadl Group created to handle large-scale civil engineering projects. Its construction facet, Nesma Al Fadl, is involved in bridges, roads, schools, factories and residential buildings. Al Fadl BRC, in the meantime, supplies government projects with reinforced steel mesh, the invisible sheets that hold concrete structures upright. Abdulaziz Al Fadl, president of the group, thinks transparency is the most important tool in daily transactions. A prudent man, he is nonetheless enthusiastic about seeing Saudi Arabia grow into an industrial player in only 60 years. "I've learned to communicate with different people, different nationalities. Living in Michigan was an important part of my life," says Al Fadl, who studied engineering at Ann Arbor before returning to Jeddah. But Al Fadl is cautious about long term projections: construction may be booming, but he gives real estate just another 5 years before it lands softly. "That's my gut feeling. It's happened before," he says.

Roads are being built and updated throughout thousands of kilometers in the desert.

Like others in its midst, the Al Fadl Group has chosen to downplay risk by internally sourcing a large part of its building supplies. At the Jeddah factories of the Electro-Mechanical Engineering Company (EMEC), it produces sewage equipment for water treatment projects and generators for new electricity plants. EMEC also shares its expertise in civil engineering equipment as a turnkey consultancy. Meanwhile, he has partnered with other groups like Saudi Binladin to produce modular steel structures that can be easily assembled. In a region like the Gulf, prefabricated buildings are fast becoming an export commodity. "The population is growing faster than we thought. There is so much to build!" adds Al Fadl.

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Building materials: the catalysts

ARE ABLE TO PRODUCE EVERYTHING FROM TITANIUM OXIDE TO STEEL WIRE MESH.

B

Behind the boom in earthworks is a quiet revolution in downstream industries. The cranes breaking ground at King Abdullah Economic City (KAEC) are lifting more Saudi-made building materials than ever before. With WTO entry, Saudi companies face a steep learning curve. The benefits, however, are at the end of the tunnel. In the near future, building materials specialists will have to walk the extra mile to remain competitive. The construction market is 100% globalized and the Kingdom faces stiff competition from China. The Saudi government has taken steps to install quality controls on cheap building materials, which will help the domestic industry. In the meantime, R&D has extended the range of materials into hundreds of products. "What one gains from the experience [of globalization] is the necessity to be flexible, imaginative, creative and customer-oriented. You just need to understand what the customer wants and you'll be there in no time," says Talal Ali Al Shair, Group President of Shairco and Chairman of Cristal. Shairco is an umbrella group that owns Cristal, a manufacturer of titanium oxide coatings. For companies like Cristal, the WTO will open doors to new markets and

Arranging rolls of cable at SCC (Saudi Cable Company)

drive up quality standards. "The challenge for any company will be competitiveness in new materials and new ideas. The product cycle has to be perpetual," says Al Shair. Downstream specialization is inevitable for manufacturers like Cristal. It has produced high-quality titanium oxide (TiO2) coatings out of its ultramodern plant in Yanbu since 1991. Imported ores are transformed into industrial coatings and sold as far as Singapore and the UK. In 2002, the Yanbu plant increased its production capacity from 70,000 metric tons per year of TiO2 to 100,000 tons. The output leap was programmed to meet a 3% rise in global demand.

Hidada:

precision steel as a work of art

Bright orange cranes handle the bulk cargo upon entry at Jeddah's seaport. At 90 meters each, the towering cranes have capacity for 50 metric tons. Hidada is the only regional producer of this type of crane technology in this part of the world. With the bustling trade at Saudi Arabia's seaports, it has proven that indigenous manufacturing can be world-class. The firm was awarded ISO 9001 certification in 1994 and has since diversified into electricity towers, lighting pylons and storage tanks. "In 1998 we had a major breakthrough when we penetrated the US market and supplied steel structures to 8 power plants. I am really proud of that," says Adnan Abduljawad, President and CEO of Hidada. Established by the Xenel Group in 1982, Hidada was originally created to provide structural steel for the Kingdom's burgeoning construction industry. Its output has grown from 2,000 tons per year to 184,000 tons ever since and customers now include the oil & gas sector, petrochemical plants, airports, seaports, skyscrapers, metal smelters, desalination plants and cement makers. The focus on Jeddah quickly gave way to contracts in Egypt and Libya. Since 1995, Hidada has exported 60 thousand tons of precision steel to Tripoli. Today, it is a professional member of the American Institute of Steel Construction and involved in delicate projects such as the production of blastproof doors for the aviation industry--one of only three companies in the world able to meet NATO specifications. Abduljawad has no qualms about labeling a recent project for Gas Electric in Qatar as a work of art. "That was the statement of the client. They are very proud of the quality," he says.

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Courtesy of Xenel

SAUDI ARABIA HAS BEGUN TO EXPORT HIGH-QUALITY CONSTRUCTION SUPPLIES. WITH CHEAP ENERGY INPUTS, FACTORIES

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Cristal relies on chlorine gas produced through anode reactions at the Arabian Chemical Center (ACC), a subsidiary unit also based in Yanbu. ACC uses membrane technology to produce chlorine for use in plastics, solvents, pigment, varnishes and other finishing products for the construction sector. Now, Al Shair has come up with plans for a new enterprise called NADA, which will bank on the Cristal Arabia brand. This industrial cluster of seven factories will include a water plant to process minerals, petrochemicals and fertilizers. A novelty in the supply chain is the production of custom-made fertilizer pellets for different regions. Just as Cristal can control the whiteness of its TiO2 coatings, NADA factories will be able to adjust acidity levels for specific fertilizers. "To my knowledge, this is an entirely new concept," says Al Shair. It makes no sense to pay for chemical properties that certain soils do not require. But the real catalyst in this reaction could be the prospect of getting new investors onboard. Technical complexity has pushed the Saudi Cable Company (SCC) up the value chain. When Khaled Alireza, Vice Chairman of Xenel Industries, returned to Jeddah in the booming 1970s, he noticed no one was manufacturing building wire. As a graduate of the University of California at Berkeley, the industrial engineer

Left:Talal Ali Al Shair, Group President of Shairco and Chairman of Cristal Right:Waheeb Linjawi, President and Managing Director of Saudi Cable Company (SCC)

wanted to contribute to his country's economic development. He saw that Japanese and US firms sold cable and high voltage wire at astronomical prices. So Xenel began SCC as another subsidiary at an industrial park. Soon SCC was manufacturing aluminum rods and electrical power cords for large construction projects. Its expertise in wire grew as customers required higher voltage. Xenel realized SCC also had to get into the business of installation. Today, SCC is a turnkey contractor with operations in Jeddah, Riyadh, Al Khobar, Jubail, Istanbul and Manama. According to its president, Waheeb Linjawi, SCC was hired to mount cables over 400 kilometers of power lines in Pakistan. The company produces 265,000 tons of metal cable and another 265,000 tons of aluminum wire and copper rods. "We are considered the 10th largest cable manufacturer in the world. You cannot imagine the savings this company has made to the national economy in the last 30 years," says Linjawi. Quality, prices and delivery costs have earned SCC loyalty among giants like Saudi Aramco, the state-owned oil company. From its factories in Turkey, SCC is able to export extra high-voltage cable to Western markets, including the US. Now Linwaji wants to triple capacity by 2008 and has already purchased the land next to the original factory complex in Jeddah. "The sky is the limit," he says. As the voltage of his cables climbs, so does his business ambition. "My goal is to make the Saudi Cable Company synonymous with quality products, so that when you mention SCC it will be like mentioning GM or IBM," adds Linjawi.

a VEGA MEDIA creation www.vegamedia.com

Marketing: L. Desmaretz - Research: R. Pratt - T. Gallagher - C. Ravina Text: P. de Zardain - Produced by: C. Moura - Design: M.Fuoco

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