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LINKING STRESS, DISTRESS, DEPRESSION, AND PHYSICAL HEALTH

Presented by: Doug Burnham, Health Specialist, UK HEEL Program

Mother's Advice

Eat Sensibly Exercise Regularly Get Enough Sleep Take Breaks from Work

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

The Brain is Part of the Body

Your body is a system. This system has sub-systems. All of the sub-systems are connected. What affects one part of a system (subsystem) will interact with and affect the entire system.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

Mysteries of the Brain

We have just begun to scratch the surface of the power of the brain. What we do not understand, we ignore or mystify. We are learning that the brain has significant power to control the functions of the rest of the body.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

The Body's Response to Stress

The body is programmed to respond to immediate stressors. Prolonged (or chronic) stress disrupts the body's natural process of coping. This disruption affects every system of the body.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

What Happens When We Experience Stress?

In an immediate response to a stressful situation, the hypothalamus, through a circuit of nerves, alerts the adrenal gland of danger. The adrenal gland releases adrenaline, the first of two major stress hormones.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

Stress Response (cont.)

Adrenaline causes:

· ·

·

an increase in heart rate oxygen to rush through the bronchial tubes, causing them to dilate more oxygen to fill the lungs (adrenaline rush)

Simultaneously, more oxygen is entering the brain ­ helping you to remain alert or even hyper-vigilant.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

Stress Response (cont.)

To insure further defense against harm, the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and the adrenal gland team up to provide backup (HPA axis). The hypothalamus produces corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) which moves through the blood vessels to stimulate the pituitary gland.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

Stress Response (cont.)

The pituitary gland then produces adrenocorticotropic hormone (ATCH) which travels through the bloodstream to the adrenal gland. The adrenal gland produces cortisol, the second major stress hormone, into the circulatory system.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

Stress Response (cont.)

Cortisol replenishes the energy stores depleted by the adrenaline "rush." Once energy is replenished and the level of immune activity is adequate, cortisol triggers the brain (through the hypothalamus and pituitary) and the stress response is adjusted ­ adrenaline is then reduced to a normal level.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

Stress Response (cont.)

While this process is occurring, other parts of the brain are adjusting to and interpreting the event that produced the stress reaction. The hippocampus and the amygdala (part of the memory and emotion centers of the brain) interact with the hypothalamus to register and record the event or situation.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

Stress Response (cont.)

This process allows a person to manage the usual or even traumatic stress experienced in life. HOWEVER, chronic stress (near constant and intense stress) disrupts this fragile process causing the production of too much of the stress hormones: adrenaline and cortisol.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

Stress Response (cont.)

Too much adrenaline:

·

·

creates surges in blood pressure which can damage the blood vessels of the heart and brain creates lesions that encourage the build up of plaque which restricts blood flow through the organs

This is a major risk factor for heart attack and stroke.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

Stress Response (cont.)

Too much cortisol: suppresses the immune system, thus, decreasing the body's ability to ward off illness and infection. blocks the action of insulin to stimulate muscle and take up glucose. encourages the storage of fat around the middle of the body, a risk factor for heart disease. contributes to the loss of protein from muscles and converts it to fat. causes loss of minerals from bone.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

Remember What Mother Said

Eat sensibly Exercise regularly Get enough sleep Takes breaks from work All things in moderation (too much of a good thing can be a bad thing!) You are worth loving

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

Sources

Amen, Daniel and Routh, Lisa C. (2003). Healing anxiety and depression. New York: G.P. Putman's Sons. Bruno, Leonard. Stress Reduction. Health A to Z (Medical Network, Inc.). Retrieved September 30, 2003 from http://www.healthatoz.com Charney, Dennis and Nemeroff, Charles B. (2004). The peace of mind prescription: an authoritative guide to finding the most effective treatment for anxiety and depression. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co. McEwen, Bruce. (2000). The end of stress as we know it. Washington, D.C.: Joseph Henry Press.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

Sources

McEwen, Bruce. (2000). The neurobiology of stress: from serendipity to clinical relevance. Brain Research, 889, 172-189. Sapolsky, Robert M. (1998). Why zebras don't get ulcers: an updated guide to stress, stress-related disease and coping. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company.

This information is provided by the H.E.E.L. Program. Health Education through Extension Leadership (H.E.E.L.) is a partnership among the University of Kentucky College of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service, Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program, the University of Kentucky College of Medicine, and the Kentucky School of Public Health.

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LINKING STRESS, DISTRESS, DEPRESSION AND PHYSICAL HEALTH

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