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london city hall

project basics Site: In the Southwark Borough on the South bank of the Thames on The Queen's Walk, London SE1 2AA Client: More London Development Ltd., CIT Markborough Properties, London Bridge Development, Greater London Authority Owner: CIT Markborough Properties Designers: Norman Foster and Partners, Arup Engineering Building Type: Office Completion: Construction began:1998 Completed: May 2002 Size: Lower ground level, Ground level, plus 9 stories above. 185,000 SQ FT background and context The GLA is the home of London's City Hall. This building was designed by Norman Foster without the specific intention of being a government building. Following a competition held in search of a new location for the London Government, London Minister Nick Raynsford chose the GLA for the new residing place of the Government. The GLA is located in an area needing the redevelopment, and with such a location, the government was able to claim their part in the regeneration process. The design of this building is also one that provided a symbolic break from the past. Contrary to some believe, the London Authority doesn't actually own the GLA. CIT group owns the building, in fact, the Authority inherited a 25 year lease from CIT.

The assembly chamber houses the 25 elected members of the London Assembly as well as the offices of the mayor and the staff of the Greater London Authority.

01. Rampway across Thames

02. Assembly Chamber 03. Chamber from Ramp Above 04. Chamber

design intent and validation The London Authority thrived for expressing the transparency of the democratic process; allowing accessibility for the people and all aspects of government. The assembly chamber is clearly visible from many vistas and anyone interested can view all the meetings. There is a ramp way circling above the chamber that is open to the public that is in sight and can be heard from the ramp way thus further emphasizing the accessibility of the democracy. Foster built upon a previous design of his to strengthen this transparency. His redesign of the German Reichstag built upon the aggressive yet transparent democratic power. It was designed with a similar spiral above the assembly chamber and a reflective sculptor of glass that reflects daylight down into the relight skylight of the chamber and at night the light from the chamber is reflected into the sky as a beacon. Foster created a much tighter and compact rendition of the Reichstag in the GLA design.

05. GLA Rampway from Chamber

07. Light Sculptor

reichstag

06. Light Sculptor

key design strategies Foster, along with Arup the engineers of the building, desired this building to represent a radical rethinking of architectural form. Designing a perfect example of energy efficient and passive design and using advanced computermodeling were the ways of achieving this rethinking they so wanted. Basic Shape: With no front or back, in conventional terms, the shape of the GLA is derived from a modified sphere; a shape that has the minimum surface area which in a building's case achieves optimum energy performance by minimizing surface exposure to direct sunlight. This reduces the heat loss and gain. Orientation: To further improved the shape and performance of this building the sphere shape was skewed to more of an egg shape that leans South blocking the direct sunlight with it's own shape.

08. GLA leaning egg shape

Shading: The egg shape is in itself a strategy for passive design. The South side of the building leans back so the floor-plates step out over the windows below each other providing shade for the naturally ventilated offices. Cooling: The cooling system utilizes ground water pumped up via bore holes from the water table. This water cools the offices via chilled beams then cools the air entering the building via cooling coils. This water is then used in the toilets. Insulation: Highly insulated panels and high performance glazing reduces heat loss and gain from the building that well out performs regulations. On top of being well insulated, there is a sophisticated Building Management System that regulates all the systems in the building to maximize the performance to it's peak abilities. With all the energy-saving techniques used in the GLA, the bore hole chillers are not required at all times and heating is not needed for most of the year. This means the GLA has the potential to perform using only a quarter of the energy a typical air-conditioned office building.

09. Thermal Mapping

10. ramp volume cutout

performance studies Since the completion of the GLA, the building has not performed quite as well as intended. There are no post-occupancy surveys to be found, however, the occupancy turned out to be double what was expected. There is a far larger load required of the building. The building uses more energy than the previous London Authority building, yet it is accommodating twice the people. Overall, the building is performing much better than a typical office building. There has been a major modification to this building since it's completion. There has been a large array of photovoltaic panels installed on the roof of the GLA to aid in the generation of the energy to run everything in the building. The array will reduce the CO2 emissions by 1000 tonnes in 20 years.

13. Roof Solar Array 11. Solar Awning

12. Roof Solar Array

further information City Hall Web site- http://www.london.gov.uk/gla/city_hall/index.jsp Foster and Partners Web site- http://www.fosterandpartners.com references http://www.london.gov.uk/gla/city_hall/index.jsp http://www.building.co.uk/story.asp?sectioncode=284&storycode=3134702&c=0 http://architectslive1.architectsjournal.co.uk/home/london-pridestructure/176094.article http://www.mayorwatch.co.uk/guide-city-hall-home-gla/20041337

map and transport options

15. GLA Location

14. Route from Dorm to GLA

Information

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