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MAKING THE MOST OF SCARCE RESOURCES: A SMALL COLLEGE LANGUAGE DEPARTMENT'S EXPERIENCE WITH HYPERCARD1

Randall P. Donaldson and Leslie Zarker Morgan, Loyola College in Maryland

ABSTRACT "Scarce resources" include equipment, software, and faculty time. They are now, more than ever before, a concern across the gamut of schools, public and private. The article outlines the development and current use of two programs developed by members of a Modern Languages and Literatures Department on the Macintosh using HyperCard. The first is a reading-comprehension program of a Renaissance Italian text; the second, in German, uses scanned-in maps of the various stages of German political development to illustrate the course of German history. Problems involved in using HyperCard as well as unexpected benefits -- viz., shared stacks from other developers -- are included in the discussion. KEYWORDS Hypermedia; HyperCard; German culture; Italian Renaissance literature; reading strategies. INTRODUCTION Though proficiency oriented language teaching is by now an accepted standard throughout four-year colleges in the United States, there are still considerable differences in the way the theory is implemented in individual situations. In this paper, we would like to examine one of those situations and how the implementation of two computer programs using HyperCard on the Macintosh family of computers at a medium sized, liberal arts college assists proficiency in culture and reading. First, as

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background, we will discuss the specific organizational structure within which the programs were developed and the curricular requirements they were designed to address. Secondly, we will present the programs themselves as they will be integrated into the German and Italian language curricula at the College. Finally, we will attempt to assess how this project has affected language teaching for the faculty currently involved and predict where the project will go in the future. Our ultimate goal in this paper is to provide a model for colleagues at institutions similar to ours who must struggle to implement the latest pedagogical theories on a minimal budget and with a minimum of human resources by using available technology. The college where we work is one of 28 Jesuit colleges and universities in the United States. Like its sister institutions, the College preserves the strong commitment to humanistic studies and the liberal arts which has always been a hallmark of Jesuit education. As a part of that commitment, all students, regardless of major, are required to complete a "core" of courses in the Humanities, including languages. The undergraduate population is currently 3,035 students (Fall 1992), all of whom must "complete two courses at the intermediate level of a modern foreign language or a classical language" (as stated in the College's Catalogue). Each year approximately 600 students take beginning and intermediate language courses in French, German, Italian, Japanese, Russian, and Spanish. The Department of Modern Languages and Literatures is the College's largest department, with 16 full time faculty and almost as many adjuncts. The faculty teaches first- and second-year language and offers a major in French, German, and Spanish as well as upper division courses on demand in Italian. All beginning and intermediate courses meet three times a week; additionally, students are required to do a minimum of 50 minutes of work in the Language Learning Center (LLC), which is monitored by work-study students. The LLC has a conventional language lab setup of 30 booths, together with five stations for computer assisted language learning (CALL), of which four are IBMs or compatibles and one a Macintosh, and four video booths. Six of the lab booths are wired to a centrally controlled video setup, which is linked in turn to a satellite dish. There are also computer labs on campus, both IBM and Macintosh, which are open to students 24 hours a day.2 The computer labs, however, have limited audio capacities, and can be booked for classes. Thus, students are not, in fact, guaranteed 24 hour access and cannot use the PCs for a complete range of applications.

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The Modern Languages and Literatures Department has voted to establish and maintain a certain uniformity among all language courses at the first- and second-year levels. It has recently adopted a communicative approach which attempts to include each of the five basic skills: reading, writing, speaking, oral comprehension, and culture. The stated departmental goal, as per departmental guidelines which have been developed and endorsed by the group as a whole regardless of language area, is that the student "generally attains the Intermediate-Mid level of oral proficiency on the ACTFL scale."3 As it works in practice, listening, and speaking play a larger role in the first year and reading and writing in the second, although all four skills as well as culture are addressed at each level. On the surface, then, the situation might seem nearly ideal. There is an institutional commitment to the Modern Languages and Literatures Department as part of a liberal education. The department is large and thriving. A faculty member is surrounded by colleagues with similar interests no matter to which language subsection of the department he or she belongs. There are students enough to go around, and they are required to take language through the intermediate level. The Language Learning Center, as its name indicates, is more than simply a language laboratory with taped exercises; it can provide the facilities for a wide range of audiovisual activities, including computer and videodisc. The situation at the College is not as ideal as it initially appears, however. A captive audience is not always a happy audience. Moreover, the faculty is in somewhat of a bind: they are obliged to teach without assistance from graduate students and nonetheless be both productive as scholars and serve the College and the Department. They need, therefore, to maximize the effectiveness of classroom time and obtain optimal results from each moment of preparation time. The solution for us has been to expand the arsenal of available aids by employing CALL. THE SITUATION IN ITALIAN AND GERMAN SPECIFICALLY The Italian section of the Department consists of two people. Between them, these two individuals offer beginning and intermediate courses in Italian, a number of interdisciplinary courses in English, and, when there are sufficient students, advanced courses (usually "Conversation and Composition" and "Introduction to Modern Italy"). There is no major or minor in Italian. Students of Italian are a diverse group. Many start

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the language in college -- some for personal reasons, some as a change from study of another language in high school. Occasionally, students from other local colleges which do not offer Italian attend courses, as do faculty and administrators from the College. Since Italian is a less-taught language, there are fewer didactic materials available at the college level. More recently many items have been produced for the secondary school curriculum, especially in the New York-New Jersey area; the University of Toronto has been producing high quality advanced material for some time.4 While there have long been many choices of first year textbooks, until the appearance of a new second year text in 1991 there was a single intermediate Italian text. High quality additional materials f or textbooks (test manuals, laboratory books, multicolored transparencies, computer drills) have not been in evidence. As of 1992, no textbooks include computer drills and transparencies remain monochromatic, unlike their counterparts in French and Spanish.5 The German section of the Department of Modern Languages and Literatures at Loyola is small as well. It basically consists of two-and-one-half members, as one of our instructors frequently splits her time with Spanish. It does offer a major and a minor in addition to language courses and may have as many as six or seven majors over four years taking advanced courses in culture, language, and literature in any one semester. Its situation is not then very similar to that of Italian beyond its size, although both have to try to attract students to their courses and away from the more popular French and Spanish. The German section's main problem is trying to overcome the persistent rumors about the difficulty of the German language. It is aided in its efforts to recruit students these days by the heightened visibility of Germany on the international political and economic scene. Once enrolled, however, students whose knowledge of English grammar is limited prove a challenge to the teacher of German. A primary pedagogical difficulty in teaching required courses is encouraging and developing motivation. Affective filters can strongly influence student retention of second language materials: "...positive emotions and attitudes can make language learning far more effective and enjoyable" (Oxford 1990, 140). While there have been no conclusive studies proving the value of CALL, anecdotal evidence suggests that it can be a help. As Oxford suggests, "... the combined attitude/motivation factor strongly influences whether the learner loses or maintains language skills after language training

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is over" (141-142). Thus, teachers can work with intuition and according to the most recent findings about language learning to select or produce CALL material.6 GOALS AND COMMON INTERESTS: CULTURAL SCHEMATA AND ADVANCED THINKING SKILLS The two projects, though in different languages, have two points in common, based in large part on departmental objectives and the current student population. Both address: 1) teaching schemata for cultural literacy; and 2) the desire to encourage higher-level thinking skills. Cultural literacy is acquired by experience with the traditions and history of a country; it is not easily taught since it covers everything from a sense of the formality level of language (style or discourse type, written or oral) to adages and common jokes. It is this lack of cultural background that makes many students uncomfortable with the idea of reading in a FL even though their language ability is acceptable (Martin 1993,205). In order to put students at ease, it is necessary to provide the cultural underpinnings of a text and perhaps offer further direction in finding the cultural clues themselves.7 The second piece of common ground is the development of higher-level thinking skills. As advocates for the liberal arts, we feel that students should go beyond their previous knowledge in all aspects of learning. They should not merely memorize by rote all formal aspects of language. They should also be able to use the language in original conversation and composition as well as incorporate the cultural aspects of another culture into their own world view. Thus, as Schurr's 1990 Dynamite in the Classroom (based on Bloom's 1956 Taxonomy of Knowledge) suggests, students should move beyond the point of simply learning the information (Knowledge Level Objectives in the Schurr/Bloom terminology). They should have sufficient control of the material to mold it to their own purposes without merely restating information or parroting back forms. To do so, students must: understand the information (Comprehension Level Objectives); use the information (Application Level Objectives); examine specific parts of the information (Analysis Level Objectives); do something new and different with the information (Synthesis Level Objectives); and, finally, judge the information (Evaluation Level Objectives). Within this framework and with the common theoretical grounding inspired by Schurr's work, the two projects were conceived, albeit with different focuses.

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The Italian project was conceived with two goals: 1) to assist learners in reading and comprehending literary Italian; and 2) to entice them to synthesize and to go beyond comprehension to understand the background of the story and something about the time in which it was written. One of the most difficult steps in learning to use a language taught formally in a classroom is reading and comprehending native, cultured language, i.e., the classics of the language. In Italian, that difficulty is compounded by the fact that much of the most famous Italian writing is in Medieval or Renaissance Italian, the structure and vocabulary of which is far removed from both modern usage and from the colloquial speech frequently taught in a communicative classroom. The German project also has two goals: 1) to instill a sense of cultural history in students; and 2) to provide an awareness of the geopolitical situation in the reunified Germany of today. Having decided upon specific goals and outlined our projects, the next step was to decide upon how to accomplish the goal. The theoretical basis of the programs, availability of hardware and software, low cost of hardware and software, and a quick learning curve for programming were prime concerns. Much recent research has been dedicated to strategy training, which addresses the needs of students unaccustomed to or not well trained in a given skill.8 In studying a foreign language, strategy training is particularly useful as research has demonstrated that even students with good language skills in L1 may not be able to transfer those skills to L2 (Baker and Brown 1984,381). Thus, pre- and post-reading exercises were incorporated into the Italian project to assist students in acquiring and retaining the necessary vocabulary and to promote comprehension. Skimming and scanning f or specific information help the student pick up details which will enhance overall comprehension. Schemata training offers students any missing cultural background in the reading (Phillips 1984, 287). As the emphasis in second-year, intermediate courses is on reading and writing, the use of a mute medium, combined with in-class discussion and follow-up in the target language, is acceptable. The goal of both projects is student-directed learning: allowing the students to progress at their own pace and to utilize their own interests to draw them into the project. As students must be largely self-motivated to benefit from the 50 minutes of independent work in the LLC (lab) each week, it is important to encourage them to produce meaningful results even when working alone. As Landow (1989,174-198) says: "Studies of novice readers ... confirm what many teachers have long suspected namely, that inexperienced or unskilled students fail to make use of introductions, footnotes, glossaries, and other apparatus created specifically for them. Many novice readers do not find such information because they lack the necessary reading skills and cannot recognize the relevance of the information offered" (183). Landow's conclusions are

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based on observations of students using a program in English literature of the Victorian Age developed at Brown University. The graders in the courses taught with the program at Brown find that identification questions on examinations are answered in a manner which is much more detailed and intellectually sophisticated than previously. The Brown program is written in Context32 and provides the student with multiple pathways through the material. Such an elaborate system would be far too much for a single programmer with a full course load to prepare, but the insights are instructive. Hypertext seems to help the students better utilize printed materials. In creating or seeking out computer programs, Stevens (1989,35) suggests that instructors and programmers observe three parameters for "humanistic CALL software": 1) Intrinsic motivation, by which he means that the learning environment should be relevant and risk free, that the learning itself should be incidental to some other activity, that there should be opportunities to use language in problem solving, and that the materials should be multi-modal. 2) Interactivity, i.e., that the program should adjust to the project of an individual student and that it should create an environment facilitating interaction with the computer and humans. 3) Eclecticism, by which he means creative adaptation of software designed for other audiences and purposes to classroom use in language learning. The last is at the center of a lengthy debate about the applicability of materials specifically constructed for a FL class.9 The programs under discussion here are specifically for language learners, and the issue of adapting materials originally designed for other purposes does not arise. Accordingly, the third parameter has been ignored, but the other two have been specifically incorporated into the project. In selecting a platform for the project, we had to choose between the prevailing vendors: Macintosh or IBM compatible. We chose the Macintosh because HyperCard, the software for producing both graphics based and text-based materials in any language as it was bundled with the system. Furthermore, HyperCard offers an environment which can be enhanced with peripherals, such as a videodisc player, as the programmer becomes more adept and/or as more resources are acquired over time. There is also a tradition of sharing within the HyperCard community, a set of 'manners" which encourages free and open exchange of program code and thus benefit the novice user.10

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One story suggested itself in particular for the Italian project: Machiavelli's Il demonio che prese moglie (or Belfagor). It appeals in terms of both length and content. As originally written, it is divided into five chapters, has a clear plot, and includes a bit of humor. It is also possibly controversial due to its misogyny and denigration of Florence. There are items of clear cultural interest: demonic possession; geographical and political references to Florence and Tuscany; musical instruments specifically named; and even the practice of usury, which might be of particular interest to business students. In short, there is something for many interests. In order to fulfill the needs for pre-reading, post-reading, and cultural notes, the program is divided into several stacks. The "home card" is Niccolo START (so that there is no doubt about where to click when starting the program); it leads to all the other stacks: one for the text (sample.machiavelli), one for grammar, one for the glossary, one for comprehension-based questions, one for answers, one for history and cultural information, and one for help.11 All "exits" lead to the same place, the home card, so that the first time user can click on "help" to return to that familiar card, as well as go to "help," to avoid getting lost. Certain design considerations remain constant throughout the program, in spite of different stacks: the same size and type of button is used within a stack for similar functions (cf. Figures 1 and 2, sample TEXT [story] and CULTURE cards). Thus whenever users want help or to return to home, they encounter the same type of button. Each story card bears a "page number" as well as a chapter number at the top. There is limited text on each card in order to make reading less onerous. The reader may call up grammar, vocabulary or help from any card, as well as exit. The program does take advantage of HyperCard's graphic capabilities, especially in the cultural background section. In the culture and history stack, there is a "dissolve" from a drawing of Machiavelli from his time to a summary of his life. Since the function is different (that is, it produces a different effect), the button type is different (see Figure 2). Furthermore, maps of the Italian peninsula, Tuscany and Florence have been scanned, edited, and annotated for relevant portions of the Machiavelli story. A further advantage of the HyperCard format is the possibility of searching for further information at any point. Since vocabulary is frequently perceived as being the source of comprehension difficulties (Yorio 1971), a glossary was created using Stephen Clausing's MacConcordance freeware.

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The inclusion of a glossary posed a number of theoretical and practical problems and can serve as an example of the types of problems to be solved. There are two aspects of the glossary to be considered. The first concern is the scope of the glossary. The glossary for the Machiavelli story includes all uninflected Italian word forms in the text, which in Italian are prepositions, adverbs, exclamations, and conjunctions. The glossary was created from a concordance of every word in the text and then edited to conform to the exact uses of specific words. Definitions, including phrases where appropriate, discourage word-for-word translations. The inflected forms of regular verbs are not included where multiple forms occur; thus for potere, an irregular verb, the imperfect, the past participle, etc., which are regular forms, do not appear; however, the irregular present indicative (posso) and present subjunctive (possa) are included. Irregular simple pasts and past participles are present and defined, including the infinitive from which they derive (which is an accepted pedagogical dictionary technique for Italian). The choice to provide a glossary has made more work in the long run, as ideally the users should be able to check the definition of any word from the text. The original plan was that a user, in order to check a word, would tap on that word with the mouse. The program should then go to the glossary, find the word and definition and bring it back to the text where it would appear in a window. This has involved writing a search routine which involves a certain amount of parsing (removing the final letter(s) to find a declined or conjugated form) and trying to find the line on which a word desired is found in the glossary. For the moment, a glossary search is elementary: the word is found and highlighted in the glossary, the appropriate section of which appears in a separate window. In order to return to the text, the reader must click on a box. The second point, which came up in developing the program and which we discussed at length (and still do), is the purpose of the glossary. The basic question is whether or not one should allow users to look up every single word. Is this not contrary to everything we try to teach in reading strategies (finding meaning from the context, checking for cognates, etc.)? We have decided to allow for a variety of learning styles. In a student-centered environment, students must be allowed to direct their own learning. While we hope to direct them to new coping skills, a glossary, or any tool which helps readers cope, seems reasonable, particularly if it makes the environment nonthreatening and as helpful as possible. As the program becomes more elaborate, the use of a glossary maybe confined to certain situations or restricted in other ways.

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The issue of vocabulary outside of dictionary use is also addressed. In the help stack there are five parts, one of which is specifically for vocabulary development. It treats both cognates and false cognates which appear in the story. Each is given in context and examples of other words in the same family are included so that the user can examine and compare the meanings. The false cognates are currently asterisked in the glossary; eventually the cognates will be marked also. Other help sections -- comprehension questions, history and culture, grammar are deliberately not completed. The users navigate through and then undertake a research project related to the stack, with the ultimate goal of producing a card to be added for future use. Thus, one person may study the area around Florence, including Prato and Peretola, which are mentioned, another usury and its definition by the Church, another, the role of Classical characters in Christian Hell (Pluto, Minos, and Radamanthos are there) for inclusion in the cultural help section. If students' inclinations are more linguistic, they may examine Machiavelli's style or the terms used for certain phenomena, such as demonic possession (which can be included in the vocabulary or grammar help section). Thus, users will be assisting those who follow them, producing richer material from which to draw. Not only do the students benefit by participating in their own learning, but we also make the most of our own scarcest resource, time. Student participation makes sense not only for the production of a more complete and interesting program, but also since it involves students in synthesis and analysis of materials related to their learning. There are still things to be done. For future development, readings of the card, in the form of a button on each text page will be incorporated. A colleague, a native speaker of Italian, has recorded them for input. However, each card currently requires 4-5 megabytes of storage space when the sound is included. Compression programs for the sound and multimedia possibilities, such as laserdiscs which contain cards and high quality stills and supplement the cultural message of the text, look to be attractive additions. As CD-ROM drives come down in price, they may offer further storage capabilities for sound and graphics, facilitating greater development but necessitating other programming techniques. In short, by following their own paths through the stack and subsequently adding information to it, students go beyond mere knowledgelevel learning. In a classroom framework, this learning can be continued with written compositions, discussions and commentary, as will be necessary for the creation of the student cards.

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THE GERMAN PROJECT The German project is born of two concerns: one which has likely always haunted instructors of German who sought to introduce a sense of the cultural, political, and physical landscape into the classroom and one which is relatively recent. It has always been difficult to instill a sense of the cultural landscape in students. They have little sense of geography in North America and less still of European geography, yet if they could connect the information they receive in the classroom with a mental image of the physical surroundings as well as the people and customs of the place they might have a better means of retaining the material. The difficulty here has been exacerbated since the fall of the Berlin wall and the reunification of Germany. The media in the United States have given little coverage to the social and psychological disruption in the lives of the people involved. Moreover, to attempt to evaluate the ongoing events in light of the First and Second World Wars is particularly difficult for a generation like today's high school and college students, who see John Kennedy's assassination as ancient history. The events of 1989 have intensified the need for an appropriate vehicle for teaching German cultural and political history. A whole new dimension has opened up. Places like Leipzig, K6nigsberg, Chemnitz, Jena, and Weimar are back on the map of a reunited Germany and the historical sites which dominate German history are once again easily accessible. Moreover, the events leading up to reunification were themselves so epoch-making that they demand explanation. How can an academic institution graduate a student in German who couldn't engage in intelligent conversation about recent events in Germany? Maps of the area seemed the place to start. If several maps of the same area as it changed over time could be set to the same scale and superimposed, it might be possible to depict the enormity of the changes visually. The German hypermedia project becomes then one focused on graphic images whereas the Italian project is primarily textual. The decision to create a largely graphical project brought with it questions of scale, resolution, and clarity. It is often difficult to find two maps of the same area at different historical times drawn to the same scale. If any map is to be used in HyperCard, it must be imported into the stack, and any cropping or adjustment of scale must be done beforehand. Just as the inclusion of sound in the Italian project had meant that an individual stack often became too big for a single floppy disk, so too scanning and

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importing graphics produced files which exceeded the capacity of a floppy disk. Concerns about where to store the graphics for importing gave rise to questions about the portability of the finished product. If the finished stack(s) could not be put on a floppy, at least in compressed form, then the project could only be made available to a limited number of students on a fixed disk in a given location. Most of the technical issues did, finally, prove solvable. The finished images in a given stack were often a much more manageable size than their scanned counterparts, and the final stacks are quite portable. In fact, the appearance of the final stacks betrays little of the anguish of its generation. In its current state, the project presents a map of the German Federal Republic within its present borders. The student/user is encouraged to take full advantage of HyperCard's versatility to pursue cultural topics freely with a map as a point of departure. There are buttons which move the user to another map of the same area before reunification and ultimately to maps of the political entities which occupied the same area in earlier eras. The points which mark the location of certain key cities on the map are in reality buttons which allow the user to explore the cultural history of the area in question. For Leipzig and Dresden, for instance, there are excerpts on the history of the city as well as a graphic of the city's coat-of-arms. For the time being the focus of the project is the federal state of Saxony and the area around Leipzig and Dresden. The geographical scope is narrow in order to allow a measure of depth in the coverage of areas involved, but is wide enough to include the city of Weimar, which does not in fact lie within the political borders of Saxony. The area is appropriate for a fledgling project because of its rich and varied connections to both the cultural and political history of the German speaking states. Weimar will always be associated with Goethe and German Classicism as well as with Germany's first failed attempt at a republican form of government; the fields and villages immediately around Leipzig have often been the venue for crucial military encounters from the Napoleonic Wars to the Second World War; and, of course, Dresden is known for both the porcelain which bears its name and its museums, which house some of the world's artistic treasures. Currently, the stacks exist in German and are being used to teach German culture and civilization to majors and minors.

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CONCLUSIONS Certainly we hope that we have been able to provide some insight into the project we are developing in HyperCard and what attracted us to that particular program. Yet there are frustrations and disappointments. The question is, finally, are the results worth the effort? Both of us would answer in the affirmative - with several important caveats. The first important result of such an undertaking is something colleagues in business, and perhaps others as well, call synergy: the result is finally greater than the sum of the parts. One obtains more than simply the finished stack or stacks. Most obvious for us is the opportunity to work together. Although it is true that we share an interest in computers which we brought with us to this common effort, we are in other ways very dissimilar. We teach different languages from different language families, we have widely differing research interests, we were trained differently, at different times and places. But, while working on this project, we shared something which is very close to both of our hearts each day -- language teaching. In a very real and practical sense we probed the pedagogical theories which we had read about and tried to implement. Among other things, we discussed whether it is wise to create a glossary which focuses on individual word when we want students to learn to overcome the urge to decode texts word-for-word with no eye to context. Often it is difficult to discuss problems one encounters in class with colleagues who have not taught the same course. And even the same course varies from semester to semester according to the students enrolled. Teaching styles differ, philosophies of teaching diverge. Yet having a concrete problem, as well as a concrete example on the computer screen in front of you facilitates discussion tremendously. From the teacher's viewpoint, then, time is a problem best resolved by sharing resources with other faculty and by planning to use programming results in several courses. Programming with other faculty members provides the opportunity to consult and share across specialties about the theoretical concerns as well as the practical applications of the pedagogical methods involved. A second synergy arose between us and certain students. For this project the interaction was with a young man named Andy. Andy is an undergraduate who works part time in one of the College's computer labs. We do not know his major or even his last name, but we have spent many hours together bent over a scanner -- hours, by the way, which clearly exceeded Andy's required work hours. We learned from each other -- we

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about the scanner and he about maps of Europe, Italian Renaissance literature, and some new things about HyperCard. That kind of rewarding interaction takes place often in the computer world between students and students, between students and faculty, and between faculty members. The single most important caveat is, 'be careful." Simply put: you get hooked. Many hours will pass. And as long as you are going to spend the time you will want to make certain to get the largest possible gain for the hours spent. We have explained our initial plans in establishing our projects, but now we can see that we will have to adapt them to numerous other purposes. We should add English so that we can teach Italian and German culture courses in English. We should grade the level of the foreign language, to teach European geography or the Renaissance to language students from beginning through advanced. We need a template into which the information pertinent to a number of courses can be poured, in a number of languages, and from a number of points of view. Fortunately, HyperCard is by nature multidimensional. It exists in several formats -- text, graphics, video, sound -- and at several levels. Easy and hard questions and concepts can reside in the same stacks and the learner can access the information in whatever order, at whatever time he or she desires so long as the programmer has had the foresight to provide a pathway in and out of each stack and level. For administrators, as for teachers, scarce resources are an issue, especially today in time of recession. While for teachers the scarcity of time is of great concern, for administrators the concern is usually with money. In our introduction we mentioned a Language Learning Center, but when resources are strained, one Macintosh with HyperCard in an entire school suffices so long as that machine is generally accessible to both students and faculty. Clearly, HyperCard can be incorporated even when budgets are strained and has the potential to produce the impressive results which administrators like to see for a relatively small outlay of money12 As for the students, the bulk of the research on CALL indicates that the jury is still out on its ultimate effectiveness. There are many variables: differences in exposure time; texts used; teaching styles and methods; and student learning modes. There is agreement, however, that for a proficiency oriented computer program to be effective it must, at a minimum, meet three criteria: it must be interactive; it must do more than simply "teach" language, i.e., more than simply drill paradigms; and it must motivate the learner beyond the simple expedient of earning a good grade. With the beta tests we have done, we can testify that, anecdotally at least, a computer with HyperCard does

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each of these things. The generation we are teaching is accustomed to using the computer. Students willingly respond to the prompting of a machine, from Nintendo on up. HyperCard programs enhance learning by providing the user with a variety of possible pathways through material presented and have the capability of doing fancy graphics, though not yet in color. One can pursue numerous facets of the same idea or topic from within the same program. Learning happens - perhaps not effortlessly but at least willingly. And students who enjoy what they learn will be the ones who sign up again next semester. NOTES

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This is a highly edited version of a paper originally given at the CALICO Symposium in Monterey, CA, February 27-29, 1992. The twenty-four hour access is handled by card-keys which are issued to students upon registration each fall. Since the cards are computer controlled, the cards can be deactivated from the security office if they are stolen or lost. Intermediate High is defined as "Simple connected texts dealing with basic personal and social needs about which the reader has personal interest of knowledge" in the 1986 ACTFL Guidelines (quoted from Omaggio 1986). For example, the texts marketed by the National Textbook Company (Il mi'stero dell'oasi addormentata [1989, copyright 19761; Nuove letture di cultura Italiana [1992; originally 19811) or AMSCO (Avventure in cittá [1973]; Italian: Comprehensive Practice and Testing [1989]), etc. A few of the University of Toranto's books are: L'Italiano di Oggi (1988); Schede di lavoro (1985, 1988); Un proverbio al giorno (1992). The fifth edition of at least one first year text has computer drills: Oggi in Italia (Houghton-Mifflin). This lack of hard evidence is a problem shared by many aspects of language learning. Chapelle and Jamieson, in Teaching Languages with Computers (1989, 59), say: "computer assisted learning materials `are limited by their lack of general knowledge about the learning topic, about student and about the teaching/learning process' [quote Hartly 1985]. CALL material cannot be based on insights about second language acquisition until those insights become available." Note that the cultural background of readers need not be very different; cf. Bensoussan (1986), where not understanding the gender of names sufficed to cause misinterpretation. For a commentary on the effectiveness of strategy training, see Baker and Brown (1984, 381).

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The controversy extends in two directions. The first is in language learning as a whole. Krashen (1982) has long argued against specially constructed texts for learners, saying that interesting and authentic texts (where text can be oral or written) are essential. Hammerly (1991) and others, argue for comprehensible input, a step-by-step introduction to the FL, where input is always just a little bit ahead of what learners are prepared for. In the CALL world, the dichotomy has been for and against drill programs. More recently, Pusack and Otto (1991) and Garrett (1991) have argued that the type of software adopted should depend largely upon the instructor's method(s) and desired goals. Given the range and variety of personalities and teaching methods within a Modern Languages Department, the arguments of the latter two articles seem more applicable to our case. Unfortunately, Apple has changed its policy toward easy sharing of HyperCard applications and now ships new Macintoshes with only a run-time version of HyperCard. Authoring capabilities are available only with the programmer's kit at extra cost. Separate stacks allow for a variety of organizational considerations. As the stacks were originated under HyperCard version 1, it was necessary to have separate stacks to have different backgrounds. The divisions have been retained to assist in organization. We were aware of various add-ons (e.g., MultiMedioids from the University of Glasgow) and other related programs, such as SuperCard, which allow color and greater flexibility. However, we avoided using them because we wished to use what comes with the Macintosh, so that anyone else using the program(s) would not have to buy extra software.

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REFERENCES ACTFL (1982). ACTFL Provisional Proficiency Guidelines. New York: Hastings-onHudson. Baker, Linda, and Ann L. Brown (1984). "Metacognitive Skills and Reading." Handbook of Reading Research edited by P. David Pearson, 353-94. London: Longman. Bensoussan, Marsha (1986). "Beyond Vocabulary: Pragmatic Factors in Reading Comprehension -- Culture, Convention, Coherence and Cohesion." Foreign Language Annals 19, 399-407. Bloom, Benjamin S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: David Kay. Chapelle, Carol, and Joan Jamieson (1989). "Research Trends in Computer-Assisted Language Learning." Teaching Languages with Computers: The State of the Art, edited by Martha C. Pennington, 45-59. Lajolla, CA: Athelstan.

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Hartly, J. R. (1985). "Some Psychological Aspects of Computer-Assisted Learning and Teaching." Programmed Learning and Educational Technology 22, 2, 140-149. Clausing, Stephen (1989). MacConcordance version 1.2. Garrett, Nina (1991). "Technology in the Service of Language Learning. Trends and Issues." Modern Language Journal 75, 74-101. Hammerly, Hector (1991). "Two Philosophies of Language Program and Language Testing Design." Assessing Foreign Language Proficiency of Undergraduates edited by Richard V. Teschner. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle, 1991. AAUSC Issues in Language Program Direction. A Series of Annual Volumes 61-78. Krashen, Stephen D. (1982). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford, NY: Pergamon. Landow, George P. (1989). "Hypertext in Literary Education, Criticism and Scholarship." Computers and the Humanities 23, 173-98. Loyola College 1993-1994 Undergraduate Catalogue. College of the Arts and Sciences. Martin, Anne L., and Ian Laurie (1993). "Student Views About the Contribution of Literary and Cultural Content to Language Learning at Intermediate Level." Foreign Language Annals 26, 2, 188-207. Omaggio, Alice C. (1986). Teaching Language in Context. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle. Oxford, Rebecca (1990). Language Learning Strategies: What Every Teacher Should Know. New York: Newbury House. Pennington, Martha C., Ed. (1989) Teaching Languages with Computers: The State of the Art. Lajolla, CA: Athelstan. Phillips, June K. (1984). "Practical Implications of Recent Research in Reading." Foreign Language Annals 17, 285-96. Pusack, James, and Sue Otto (1991). "Dear Wilga, Dear Alice, Dear Tracy, Dear Earl: Four Letters in Methodology and Technology." Critical Issues in Foreign Language Instruction edited by Ellen S. Silber. Source Books on Education 22, 80-103. New York: Garland. Schurr, Sandra L. (1989). Dynamite in the Classroom: A How-To Handbook for Teachers. Columbus, OH: National Middle School Association. Stevens, Vance (1989). "A Direction for CALL." Teaching Languages with Computers: The State of the Art edited by Martha C. Pennington, 29-43. Lajolla, CA: Athelstan.

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Yorio, Carlos A. (1971). "Some Sources of Reading Problems for Foreign Language Learners." Language Learning 21, 107-15. AUTHORS' BIODATA Randall P. Donaldson is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Literatures at Loyola College in Maryland, where he teaches German. His research interests include German-American culture and literature. He works with computer assisted language learning on both PCs and the Macintosh. Leslie Zarker Morgan is an Associate Professor in the Department of Modern Languages and Literatures at Loyola College in Maryland, teaching both Italian and French. Her research interests include medieval mixed languages and the contrastive study of Romance languages and English. She works with computer assisted language learning on both IBM compatibles and the Macintosh. AUTHORS' ADDRESS Loyola College in Maryland Department of Modern Languages and Literatures 4501 N. Charles Street Baltimore, MD 21210-2699 Phone: Fax: E-mail: (410) 617-2299 (Randall P. Donaldson) (410)617-2926 (Leslie Zarker Morgan) (410) 323-2768 [email protected] [email protected]

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