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Cybercrime

Cybercrime

The Investigation, Prosecution and Defense of a Computer-Related Crime

Third Edition

Edited by

Ralph D. Clifford

Professor of Law University of Massachusetts School of Law

Carolina Academic Press

Durham, North Carolina

Copyright © 2011 Ralph D. Clifford All Rights Reserved

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Clifford, Ralph D. Cybercrime : the investigation, prosecution and defense of a computer-related crime / [edited by] Ralph D. Clifford. -- 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-59460-853-7 (alk. paper) 1. Computer crimes--United States. 2. Computers--Law and legislation-United States. 3. Transnational crime. I. Title. KF390.5.C6C924 2011 345.73'0268--dc23 2011020479

Carolina Academic Press

700 Kent Street Durham, North Carolina 27701 Telephone (919) 489-7486 Fax (919) 493-5668 www.cap-press.com

Printed in the United States of America

Contents

Chapter One · Introduction Ralph D. Clifford Chapter Two · Defining Cybercrime: A Review of Federal and State Law Susan W. Brenner I. Introduction II. Cybercrimes: New Crimes or Old Wine in New Bottles? III. Federal Cybercrime Legislation A. Cybercrimes Where the Computer Is the Target 1. Hacking, Cracking, Fraud, Virus Dissemination and Extortion 2. Unauthorized Access to Stored Electronic Communications B. Cybercrimes Involving Improper Communications 1. Sending Obscene, Abusive or Harassing Communications 2. Online Stalking, Harassment and Threats 3. Spam C. Cybercrimes Involving Minors 1. Sexual Exploitation of Children 2. Sending Offensive Material to Minors 3. Transmitting Information about a Minor D. Cybercrimes Involving Fraud and Other Traditional Misconduct 1. Mail and Wire Fraud 2. Fraud in Connection with Access Devices 3. Transporting Stolen Property E. Identity Theft F. Intellectual Property Crimes 1. Copyright Infringement 2. Trademark Infringement

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3. Trade Secret Infringement IV. State Cybercrime Legislation A. Cybercrimes where the Computer Is the Target 1. Hacking and Cracking 2. Denial of Service Attacks B. Cybercrimes Involving Improper Communications 1. Cyberstalking 2. State Spam Laws C. Cybercrimes Involving Minors D. Cybercrimes Involving Fraud and Other Traditional Misconduct 1. Computer Forgery 2. Computer Fraud and Theft 3. Computer Extortion E. Identity Theft F. Cyberterrorism G. Miscellaneous Cybercrime Offenses V. Conclusion Chapter Three · The Investigation and Prosecution of a Cybercrime Ivan Orton Introduction to the Scenarios A. Case 1 -- Janet Davis B. Case 2 -- Mel Howard 1. Domain Hijacking 2. Massive File Deletions C. Case 3 -- Allen Worley II. Tracing E-mail III. Obtaining Records from Third Party Record Holders A. Electronic Communications Privacy Act 1. What Does the ECPA Cover? 2. What Does the ECPA Prohibit? 3. When Is a Disclosure to the Government Allowed? 4. What Is the Remedy for Violation of This Act? B. Practical Issues 1. Limitations of Third Party Records 2. How to Obtain the Records 3. Contact the ISP and then Serve the Warrant/Subpoena C. The Case Scenarios 1. Case 1 -- Janet Davis 2. Case 2 -- Mel Howard 3. Case 3 -- Allen Worley I.

92 94 94 94 96 96 96 97 98 99 99 99 100 100 101 102 103 105 108 108 109 109 112 113 117 120 121 121 121 121 123 124 125 127 128 129 129 129 132

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IV. Search Warrants A. Acquisition of Evidence 1. What Crimes? 2. What Computers? 3. Legal Limits on Searches B. Analysis of Evidence 1. At the Search Location 2. Offsite/Detailed Analysis 3. Can Computers Be Taken Offsite for Examination? 4. What Must Be Returned and When C. The Case Scenarios 1. Case 1 -- Janet Davis 2. Case 2 -- Mel Howard 3. Case 3 -- Allen Worley V. The Use of the Seized Material and the Final Results A. Case 1 -- Janet Davis 1. Items Found During the Execution of the Writ 2. Davis' Deposition in the Civil Case 3. The Criminal Case B. Case 2 -- Mel Howard 1. Comparing the History/Log File Data 2. Gaps in the Evidence 3. Determining Damages 4. Resolution C. Case 3 -- Allen Worley VI. Conclusion Chapter Four · Defending Cybercrime Cases: Selected Statutes and Defenses Joseph F. Savage, Jr. and David Goldstone I. Introduction II. Category 1: Unauthorized Access A. Computer Fraud and Abuse Act 1. Section 1030(a)(5) 2. Section 1030(a)(2) 3. Section 1030(a)(7) 4. Section 1030(a)(6) 5. Section 1030(a)(4) 6. Section 1030(a)(3) 7. Section 1030(a)(1) B. Electronic Communications Privacy Act 1. The Wiretap Statute

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201 201 202 203 205 209 210 211 211 213 213 214 214

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2. Stored Wire and Electronic Communications Act III. Category 2: Cyberfraud A. Identity Theft B. CAN-SPAM Act IV. Category 3: Intellectual Property Crimes A. The Economic Espionage Act 1. Overview of the Statute 2. Constitutional Challenges to the Economic Espionage Act 3. Wide Expansion of Trade Secret Prosecution 4. Defending Against Liability Under the EEA B. The Copyright Act 1. Criminal Copyright Infringement and the NET Act 2. The PRO-IP Act of 2008 3. Defenses to Criminal Copyright Infringement 4. Pseudo-Copyright Infringement 5. Digital Millennium Copyright Act's Anti-Circumvention Provisions V. General Defenses to Cybercrime Allegations A. Search and Seizure Issues 1. Introduction 2. Federal Statutory Protection 3. The Fourth Amendment B. Other Defenses 1. Identification 2. First Amendment as a Defense to Computer Crime 3. Entrapment VI. Conclusion Chapter Five · International Cybercrime: Recent Developments in the Law Miriam F. Weismann I. II. III. IV. Introduction In Search of a Definition Historical Development of International Law Practical Impediments to International Investigation and Enforcement V. The Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime A. General Principles B. Summary of Treaty Provisions C. Application and Analysis of Significant Treaty Provisions

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CONTENTS

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1. Four Basic Definitions 2. Procedural Safeguards 3. Methods of Collecting Evidence 4. Crimes 5. Jurisdiction and Extradition VI. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLATs) and Other International Cooperation Agreements VII. The PATRIOT Act and Other Federal Legislation VIII. Continuing Policy Review by the United Nations IX. The Threat of Global Organized Crime X. The Problem of Enforcement Between Differing Legal Systems XI. Conclusion Index

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