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Farmers' perceptions of constraints and opportunities in vegetable based farming systems in the Red River Delta of Vietnam

Report of the Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal in Son Du Hamlet, Dong Anh District (version 1.0)

EU 5th Framework INCO2 funded research project, contract no.: ICA4-CT-2001-10054

VEGSYS

www.vegsys.nl

Pham Van Hoi Tran Huu Cuong Dr. Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh Dr. Nguyen Van Dung

PR04

The VEGSYS Research Project

Smallholder farmers in China and Vietnam often become trapped in a cycle of ever-higher chemical input use with lower productivity and profitability and reduced sustainability of the natural resource base. The overall objective of this project is to assist in the development of economically viable

vegetable production systems without compromising the natural resource base. To achieve this

goal, improved technologies for vegetable cash crop production will be developed, using a combination of on-farm testing and participatory experimentation. VEGSYS started in March 2002 and will continue until December 2006.

The project has the following objectives: I. To identify and analyse the key biophysical and economic constraints to productivity, profitability and sustainability of smallholder vegetable farming systems. II. To develop and test in a participatory manner improved pest and disease management techniques in vegetable farming systems. III. To develop and test in a participatory manner improved soil fertility management techniques in vegetable farming systems. IV. V. To identify marketing strategies that increase the profitability of vegetable production. To make information on developed technologies widely available to farmers and to formulate complimentary policy and programme options at the local or regional level. The project is funded by the INCO2 programme of the European Union (contract no.: ICA4-CT2001-10054) and the International Co-operation Program of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries (Program no.: 404). Their support is gratefully acknowledged. More detailed information about project activities and outputs can be found on the project website: www.lei.nl/vegsys

The project outputs are organised in the following report series: · PR = Project reports

In these reports the most important results of the project activities are presented. These reports have the status of working papers of which some will be published in scientific journals. · MR = Mission reports

These reports present the activities undertaken during missions of the European project partners to China and Vietnam. · PM = Project Management reports

These reports contain information about two important issues, the progress of the VEGSYS project and accounts of the official project workshops.

EU contract number ICA4-CT-2001-10054

I

The VEGSYS Project Partners

Coordinating Institute

For more information contact

Maarten Siebe van Wijk (Project coordinator) Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI)

www.lei.nl

Address:

Burgemeester Patijnlaan 19 P.O. Box 29703 2502 LS the Hague Tel: (+31) (0)70 3358243 Fax: (+31) (0)70 3615624 E-mail: [email protected]

Participating institutes

For more information contact

Mr. Chen Yibing Soil and Fertilizer Institute (SFI) Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences (SAAS)

Address:

20 Jingnusi Road Chengdu, Sichuan 610066 China Tel: +86 28 8479184 Fax: +86 28 8479184 E-mail: [email protected] Mrs. Xinhong Fu College of Agricultural Economics and Trade (CAET) Sichuan Agricultural University

www2.sicau.edu.cn/Englishversion.htm

Address:

37 Xinkang Road Ya'an, Sichuan 625014 China Tel: +86 835 2882322 Fax: +86 835 288209 E-mail: [email protected]

Dr. Christian Borgemeister Institute of Plant Diseases and Plant Protection (IPP) University of Hannover

www.gartenbau.uni-hannover.de/ipp/

Address:

Herrenhaeuser Str. 2 30419 Hannover, Germany Tel: +49 511 7622642 Fax: +49 511 7623015 E-mail: [email protected] Dr. Carlos Garcia and Dr. Jose Pascual Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC)

Address:

www.cebas.csic.es Campus Universitario de Espinardo. CEBAS-CSIC. P.O. Box 4195, 30080 MURCIA (Spain). Tel: +34 968396325 Fax: +34 969266613 E-mail: [email protected] Dr. Tran Duc Vien and Mr Pham Van Hoi Centre for Agricultural Research and Ecological Studies (CARES) Hanoi Agricultural University (HAU)

Address:

Gia Liam Hanoi Vietnam Tel: +84 (4) 8765607 Fax: +84 (4) 8766642 / 8634612 E-mail: [email protected] Mr. Rik van den Bosch Alterra Green World Research

Address

www.alterra.nl P.O. Box 47 6700 AA Wageningen Netherlands Tel: +31 317 474266 Fax: + 31 317 42 4812 E-mail: [email protected]

Dr. Arij Everaarts Applied Plant Research www.ppo.dlo.nl

Address:

Edelhertweg 1 8219 PH Lelystad Netherlands Tel: +31 320-291671 Fax: +31 320-230479 E-mail: [email protected]

II

EU contract number ICA4-CT-2001-10054

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements ..................................................................................................... V 1 1.1 1.2 1.2.1 2 2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5 2.3 2.4 2.4.1 2.5 2.6 2.6.1 2.6.2 2.6.3 2.6.4 2.6.5 2.6.6 2.7 2.7.1 2.7.2 2.7.3 2.7.4 2.8 2.8.1 2.8.2 2.8.3 2.8.4 2.9 2.9.1 2.9.2 2.9.3 2.9.4 2.9.5 2.10 2.10.1 2.10.2 2.10.3 2.10.4 3 3.1 3.2 4 Introduction................................................................................................... 1 Rationale for choosing the village.............................................................................. 1 Basic information on the research site....................................................................... 1 Nguyen Khe commune ............................................................................................. 1 RDA in Son Du............................................................................................... 5 Natural conditions.................................................................................................... 5 Socio-economic conditions ....................................................................................... 6 Historical events...................................................................................................... 6 Living conditions and infrastructure ........................................................................... 7 Agricultural production ............................................................................................. 8 Cropping calendar ................................................................................................... 9 Changes of cropping yields for major crops overtime ............................................... 10 Training and agricultural technology transformation.................................................. 10 Organizations and social groups affecting (safe) vegetable production in Son Du ........ 11 Importance of the organizations/social groups......................................................... 12 Households types .................................................................................................. 13 Land use in Son Du................................................................................................ 14 Land use situations................................................................................................ 14 Land ownership ..................................................................................................... 15 Land types ............................................................................................................ 15 Topography, physical and chemical characteristics of soils....................................... 15 Crop distribution.................................................................................................... 17 Fertilizer use ......................................................................................................... 17 Water used for irrigation......................................................................................... 20 Water resource ..................................................................................................... 20 Irrigation and drainage methods.............................................................................. 20 Irrigation area........................................................................................................ 20 Water fee.............................................................................................................. 21 Difficulties in relation to soil, fertilizer and irrigation water uses in Son Du .................. 21 Soils ..................................................................................................................... 21 Fertilizer uses........................................................................................................ 21 Irrigation water use................................................................................................ 21 Solutions being applied by farmers ......................................................................... 22 Pest and disease management ............................................................................... 22 Pest and disease treatment time............................................................................. 23 Expenses and effectiveness of pest management measure....................................... 28 Main factors causing pest and disease development ................................................ 28 Criteria used by farmers to define safe vegetables ................................................... 29 Evaluation of safety of major vegetables.................................................................. 29 Vegetable marketing issues.................................................................................... 31 Production expense and revenue analysis................................................................ 31 Marketing channels for vegetables .......................................................................... 32 Farmers' Crop Preference ...................................................................................... 34 Input - output flows of farm household ..................................................................... 36 Problems and solutions for vegetable production and marketing as perceived by farmers .................................................................................................. 40 Problems .............................................................................................................. 40 Solutions............................................................................................................... 41 Conclusions................................................................................................. 42

EU contract number ICA4-CT-2001-10054

III

Annex 1 Members of the Hanoi Agricultural University RDA team ............................... 43

List of Tables

Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6 Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11 Table 12 Table 13 Table 14 Table 15 Table 16 Table 17 Qualitative comparison of the characteristics of the five most important vegetable production communes in Dong Anh district ............................................................... 2 Basic information of Nguyen Khe commune............................................................... 4 Production of major crops by time in Son Du............................................................. 9 Training courses given in son du ............................................................................ 11 Major crops grown on different areas in winter season*........................................... 14 Crop distribution in different soil types .................................................................... 17 Fertilizer used for specific crops (in kg/sao)............................................................ 18 Total fertilizer amount applied for different cropping patterns .................................. 19 Area irrigated by formal water................................................................................ 20 Major pests and diseases on major crops and used control methods........................ 24 Expenses and effectiveness of pest and disease management measures.................. 28 Constraints in plant protection and solutions as given by farmers ............................. 29 Safety of and plant protection cost for vegetables.................................................. 30 Revenue and expense of major crops/sao/cropping time ........................................ 31 Cost/benefit ratio for major vegetables in VND/sao................................................. 32 Crop preferences of farmers ................................................................................. 35 List of researchers involved in RDA in Son Du ......................................................... 43

List of Figures

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Rainfall in son du by year ..................................................................................... 5 Map of Son Du drawn by farmers ......................................................................... 8 Cropping calendar for major crops ....................................................................... 9 Changes in yield of major crops ......................................................................... 10 Organisations and social groups influencing safe vegetable production.................. 12 Transect map of son du..................................................................................... 16 Soil classification based on elevation and physical characteristic .......................... 16 Marketing flow chart for vegetables from Son Du................................................. 34 Resource flow map of To Van Nghi household ..................................................... 37 Resource flow map of the household of Mrs. Nguyen Thi Chinh ............................ 38 Problem and solution tree made by farmers of Son Du ......................................... 41

IV

EU contract number ICA4-CT-2001-10054

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank all farmers of Son Du village who cooperated during the Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal. Especially the village leader who arranged all logistics perfectly for the VEGSYS team. As this RDA report is based on the dedicated work of the whole RDA team, we would like to thank the following researchers during the implementation of the RDA and the writing of the activity reports on which this report was based: Mrs. Dr. Nguyen Van Dinh, Mrs. Dr. Ngo Thi Hao, Mrs. Nguyen Thi Bich Yen, Mr. Ngo The An, Mr. Tran Manh Tuong, Mr. Dang Van Tien, Mr. Dr. Tan Van Chinh, Mr. Dr. Nguyen Nhu Ha, Mrs. Dinh Thi Hai Van, Mr. Ti Xuan Phuc, Mr. Nguyen Minh Ngoc and Mrs. Nguen Thi Huong.

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VEGSYS

PR04: Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal in Son Du, Vietnam

1

Introduction

According to planned objectives of VEGSYS project, 2 hamlets that are representative for RRD in terms of vegetable production will be chosen for developing and testing techniques regarding sustainable pest and disease and soil fertility management as well as marketing strategies in smallholder vegetable production systems. From 13 to 18 of May, 2002, RDA working team of HAU with valuable help from RDA expert of IIED (John Thompson) and project coordinator from LEI (M.S. van Wijik) conducted RDA in Tang My hamlet, Nam Hong commune (Dong Anh district, Hanoi). RDA practitioners of HAU did gain a rich amount of information regarding natural, socio-economic conditions and agricultural production of Tang My hamlet as well as experience on doing RDA. From 25 to 28 of July, 2002, the RDA team continued its work in the second village of Dong Anh ­ Son Du hamlet, Nguyen Khe commune. Participants involved in the RDA field work are presented in Appendix I.

1.1

Rationale for choosing the village

Within Dong Anh district, there is 5 communes that produce more vegetables such as Nam Hong, Van Noi, Bac Hong, Nguyen Khe, and Tien Duong. Of these, Nguyen Khe is chosen for the second village of the project owing to the following reasons: 1. It is one of the 5 more vegetable-producing-communes (some basic information about these 5 communes is presented in Table 1). Nam Hong is already chosen as the first village of the project. Tien Duong locates nearby the district town thus it will be much affected by urbanization. Van Noi, although at present, is a commune most specialized in vegetable production within Dong Anh, it is however a new vegetable producer compared to the other 4. Besides this, several projects, both government and non-government, have been implemented in Van Noi. Thus these 3 communes are not adequately chosen for the project. 2. Unlike Nam Hong commune, to a certain extent, agricultural production in general and vegetable production in particular in Nguyen Khe commune is less intensive. Soil in Nguyen Khe is mainly sandy and of high elevation that is not so favourable for vegetables. Thus, farmers do face difficulties in vegetable production especially in terms of irrigation water and soil fertility management. Help farmers to overcome these difficulties as well as those regarding pest and disease management and vegetable marketing would be very significant.

1.2

Basic information on the research site

See basic information in relation to natural, socio-economic conditions and agricultural production as well as vegetable production in RRD, Hanoi, and Dong Anh district in project report nr PR02. 1.2.1 Nguyen Khe commune

Nguyen Khe commune is located northward of Dong Anh district. To the north, it is bordered with Ca Lo River which makes up natural border of Dong Anh and Soc Son district, to the east with Xuan Non commune (Dong Anh dis.), to the west with Bac Hong commune (Dong Anh dis.), and to the south with Tien Duong marked by factories/companies such as Publishing company, Industrial chicken company, Dong Anh enterprises No.II, and Phuc Thinh brick factory. Population of Nguyen Khe by the year

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VEGSYS

1945 was about 2,500, in the year 1965 and 1990 were of 4,495 and 8,466, respectively, and in 2002 population is 11,000. After implementation of the Resolution 10 of Vietnam's government issued in 1989, farmers in Nguyen Khe become the owners of their own labors and production means. Thus, from 1990 up to now, economy in general and agricultural production in particular of Nguyen Khe have been continuously improved. Rice yield of year 2001 was 6 ­7 ton/ha whilst that of year 1986 ­ 1989 was just about 3 ton/ha. At the same time, cropping index increased from 1.3 to 2.2. Together with improvement in rice production, area for vegetable was increasingly expanded. Major vegetables being grown in Nguyen Khe are green squash, tomato, cabbage, climbing beans, field cabbage etc., There is also a development of livestock. Cattle and poultry such as industrial chicken, super mear swan, super egg duck, milk cow, though still at small scale, are being raised by some households in Nguyen Khe with very high economic value. Number of buffalo, cow and pig is increasing.

Table 1

Items

Large economic importance of vegetable production in farm income Major vegetable crops

Qualitative comparison of the characteristics of the five most important vegetable production communes in Dong Anh district

Nam Hong Commune

1

Bac Hong Commune

2

Nguyen Khe Commune

2

Tien Duong Commune

2

Van Noi Commune

1

Kohlrabi, Green pumpkin (?)

Tomato

Dong Du mustard, Tomato

Dong Du mustard, kohlrabi, tomato

Cauliflower, Onion, Sweet mustard, Tomato 3 4 1 1 2 2 1

Large area for vegetable production - During winter/spring 1 season - During summer 1 season - Whole year 2 Good access to market High water quality Good water availability Good infrastructure ( electrical line, wells for irrigation, net house...) High soil fertility High chemical fertilizer use High organic fertilizer use Low pesticide use Little threat of land loss by urbanization Large population Low poverty rate Low number of other ongoing projects 2 1 1 2

5 5 5 3 3 3 3

4 3 4 3 3 3 3

2 2 3 2 2 2 2

1 1 2 3 2 4 (9600: inhabitant) 1 2

3 1 2 2 1 3 (9800) 4 1

3 1 2 2 1 2 (10300) 3 1

2 1 1 3 2 1 (13400) 2 1

2 1 1 1 3 5 (8700) 5 (poorest) 3

Source: Information provided by the head of the agricultural department of Dong Anh, Mr. Nguyen van Quyen

and Mr. Huang Van May (agricultural officer). Both go to the field often and have been working in this district since respectively 33 and 18 years.

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PR04: Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal in Son Du, Vietnam

In 2001, it was estimated that 98% of households of the commune have television, 10% have motor. Living standard of farm households was clearly improved compared to that of collectivisation production period (from 1960 to 1989) (Nguyen Khe Communist Party 2002). Natural land area of Nguyen Khe is of 745.39 ha of which agricultural land is 432.94 ha or 58% of the total, forestland 5.17 ha, water surface area 9.4 ha, special use land 151.5 ha, and underused land 32.8 ha. After some changes overtime affected by war and administrative policies of Vietnam's government, Nguyen Khe commune at present is made up by 8 hamlets and 1 street (Khoi pho) as follows: 1. Nguyen Khe Street (specializing in services) 2. Son Du hamlet 3. Dai Bang hamlet 4. Khe Nu hamlet 5. Can Khe hamlet 6. Tien Hung hamlet 7. Nguyen Khe hamlet 8. Lam Tien hamlet 9. Dong hamlet The last 8 hamlets are all involved in agricultural activities. Of these, Son Du is considered as the hamlet which has specialised the most in vegetable production. Of the others, some also produce vegetables however with smaller area, and some produce very less (see Table 2). On the basic of the project objectives and suggestions of local officials and dwellers, project staffs of HAU come to chose Son Du as the second village for the project.

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Table 2

Items

Agricultural land Vegetable Spring area Summer Share of vegetable land in agricultural land (%) Importance of vegetable production Vegetables/area production ranking

VEGSYS

Basic information of Nguyen Khe commune

Dai Bang

7 -

Son Du

2 1

Thon Dong

6 3

Khe Nu

1 2

Can Khe

3 4

Tien Hung

4 (doing services)

Nguyen Khe

5 5

Lam Tien

8 (growing industrial crops)

1 1

3 4

2 2

4 3

5 5

1 Beans (2) Field cabbage (1) Tomato (1) Cabbage (3) Kohlrabi (3) Cotton 1 bollworm Diamondback moth Soft rotten Nematode 1

1

1

2

3

Pests and diseases

Pest insects

3

Diseases

Safe vegetable production area Pesticide uses 1 2 3 4 3 Year-round vegetables 1 3 2 4 4 Fertilizer Organic 1 1 2 4 4 uses Chemicals 4 4 3 1 1 Irrigation water 1 2 3 3 3 availability Poverty rate (poor 27/110 48/350 27/120 35/450 27/340 35/400 16/490 27/87 HHs/total HHs) Infrastructure (electric 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 3 line, wells...) Area of net house (for 1 (1000 m2) safe veg.) Access to market 2 1 1 1 2 2 Soil quality 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 Potential land lost by 2 4 1 3 urbanization Note: 1 ­ highest/largest; 10 ­ lowest/smallest; - unremarkable Source: Information provided by Mr. Tuan (Nguyen Khe statistic official), Mr. Gioi, Mr. Tinh, Mr. Ro (Officials of Son Du hamlet).

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PR04: Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal in Son Du, Vietnam

2

2.1

RDA in Son Du

Natural conditions

Son Du is one of eight (agricultural) hamlets of Nguyen Khe commune. To the east, it is bordered with Khe Nu hamlet, to the west with Bac Hong commune, to the south with Dong hamlet, and to the north with Ca Lo River (see Figure 1). It is a hamlet with the largest area devoted to vegetables in Nguyen Khe commune. Conditions for vegetable production such as access to market, irrigation water, are more favourable here than others. It is the only hamlet that has net house with an area of 1,000 m2 plus some other areas for safe vegetable production within Nguyen Khe commune (see more in Table 2). According to local dwellers, months with the highest rainfall are June and August, then May and July (see Figure 2). In years that rain season starts earlier, farmers usually face difficulties in harvesting spring rice and planting summer vegetables because soil will be harder that impedes vegetables growing or farmers have to replant them. To overcome this problem, farmers don't carefully prepare the soils for vegetables. The other months especially winter months usually have very low rainfall. Thus irrigation is very important especially for early winter crops that start in august. Besides that, august is usually time for fixing water channels so that farmers usually face difficulties in satisfy their vegetables with water.

Figure 1 Rainfall in Son Du as perceived by farmers

10

Rainfall/month

8 6 4 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Month

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2.2

2.2.1 1949:

Socio-economic conditions

Historical events French soldiers raided and killed 45 officials and farmers of Son Du (locally called August 8 event). Establishing low-level cooperative Building Ap Bac channel, starting growing rice in spring season. Facing hungry, farmers had to use kohlrabi instead of rice. Drought, low yield rice varieties (Chan chau lun, Nong nghiep 8) are used. Combined "small" cooperatives into a "big" one (first time). The big cooperative disintegrated Area cultivated with tomato increased enormously Tay lang pumping station was constructed Combined "small" cooperatives into a "big" one (second time). The 19/5 water channel was constructed under the budget of Nguyen Khe commune. Area for vegetables was expanded Implementation of the Resolution 10. Area for vegetables was increased. Field cabbage was more planted (at present, the varieties are imported from Hongkong) (named in Hongkong Choi Hingle). Combined cooperative was disintegrated into small servicing ones. Farmers were firstly trained IPM on vegetables Agricultural land was long-term allotted to farmers in accordance with the Resolution 64/CP of Vietnam's government. 1.000 m2 of firmly net house was constructed (total budget was 25 mil. VND of which Dong Anh district contributed 70%, the remainder 30% contributed by farmers (2 households). Constructed electric line into the field for safe vegetable production worth 43 mil. VND from the district budget. Upgraded the hamlet "cultural" house cost almost 35 mil. VND of which 80% of the expense was contributed by the hamlet, 20% by the commune. Upgraded roads inside the hamlet Nematode negatively affected the production of field cabbage Price of tomato was too low (some households had to plough it down) Mice increasingly destroyed the crops Upgraded electric line (for domestic demands) Established Phuc Thinh safe vegetable cooperative with 12 households involved and an area of 2.5 ha. Upgraded kindergarten school into 2 floor buildings Climate was of more sunny days and less rainy ones. Animals such as grasshopper, amphibians, cats are more developed. Mice reduced

1960: 1964: 1974 - 76:

1980 - 81:

1984:

1989-92:

1998: 1999:

2001:

2002:

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PR04: Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal in Son Du, Vietnam

2.2.2

Living conditions and infrastructure

Through time, living conditions especially in terms materials are more and more improved. With the present living standard, some farmers reveals that in the past, they could not think of it even in their dream only. If the present living condition is ranked by 10, 1995 ranked 7, 1990 ranked 5, 1980 ranked 4, 1970 ranked 3 and 19954 ranked 2 only. In general, as revealed by farmers, before the 1980s, they were usually faced by hungry. For instance, in 1974 ­ 76, they had to eat kohlrabi instead of rice, only "rich" households had chance to eat spring corn. At present, 48/350 households are classified poor whose owners are unable to buy necessary things for living as television, good bicycle and the like (as perceived by farmers). 8 households are considered rich that normal farmers can not approach them (for loan or communication only, for instance). Heads of these households are mainly state officials or private businessmen. The remainder are classified middle (244 households) and better-off (50 households). Poor households mainly produce rice. By contrast, the middle and better-off engage more in vegetables especially in winter season. At present, there are 2 pumping stations. However, water channel just reaches major fields. Thus, the left fields, even those with high elevation, are not irrigated enough. These are usually used for food crops such as sweet potato and maize in winter season. Besides, water being used for crops in Son Du is the end of the irrigation systems (pass by Nam Hong and Bac Hong commune) so that soil easily become saltier. About 60% of households in Son Du have a motor, some have even 2 or 3 ones. Son Du received the first telephone in 1994, and now there are 20 within the hamlet. People first used electric for living purpose in 1984 ­ 85, and now 100% of households use it. Around 95% of households use water from drilled wells, the left from deep wells. 100% of children at schooling age have chance to pursue education. All of them finish secondary school. However, only 10% continues high school and even 2% continue education at college/university level. There is no market at the hamlet at all. Local people often go to 3 markets that locate nearby the hamlet, as far only as 2 km from the hamlet center, such as Lap Ghep, Nguyen Khe, and Bac Hong. Lap Ghep opens in the afternoon, people come here to buy/sell vegetables/foods/miscellaneous things. Nguyen Khe market opens in the morning where local people do market their vegetables. Bac Hong market is a place mainly for marketing foodstuffs. People travel to these markets mainly by bicycle. In terms of marketing vegetables, Lap Ghep and Nguyen Khe market are more important to local people. There are 4 households in the hamlet engaging in doing services such as pesticides, fertilizers. To do this, the owners have to get permission from authority that is they must be certified by district Department of plant protection in relation to pesticide technical know how that acquired via training courses organized by the same department. There are 4 other households also doing services such as selling salt, fish source, candy, and miscellaneous things.

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PR04: Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal in Son Du, Vietnam

VEGSYS

2.2.3

Agricultural production

Total land area of Son Du is 78.7 ha of which agricultural land is 74.6 ha or 94% of the total, resident land 1.8 ha and underused land 2.3 ha. Although farmers just started growing vegetables in 1960s with mainly cucumber and tomato, they have gained a lot of experience in relation to vegetable production, especially when their soils are not favourable for vegetables (sandy soil, topsoil layer is thin, and soil layer below is hard that impedes water to enter the soils). To satisfy consumers' demand, for instance, for cucumber, farmers apply less phosphate and more potassium so that cucumber fruits look whiter, by contrast, for cabbage, farmers use more phosphate and less potassium so that cabbages look greener.

Figure 2 Map of Son Du drawn by farmers

According to local people, though still at small scale, from the 1970s, farmers started growing vegetables in summer season (see Table 3).

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VEGSYS Table 3

PR04: Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal in Son Du, Vietnam

Production of major crops by time in Son Du

Crops

Spring rice2 Summer rice Maize3 Sweet potato Peanut Beans Tomato Cucumber Kohlrabi Cabbage Field cabbage4 Climbing bean

Note:

1 2

Year1

1954 1% 100% 0 10 10 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 1970 0 10 10 10 1 4 0 0 0 0 1975 60% 100% 0 8 5 7 3 6 2 2 0 0 1980 0 7 3 4 5 6 3 2 0 1 1990 85% 80% 1 5 0 0 8 4 5 3 3 3 1995 85% 85% 3 3 0 0 8 3 7 4 5 7 2002 80% 70% 1 1 0 0 4 2 8 5 8 7 2005 60% 40% 0 1 0 0 4 2 10 5 8 5

Mark of time is chosen by farmers Rice has long been major food crops in Son Du so that farmers can recall relatively exact its growing area overtime, so we use percentage to weight it. 3 For maize and other crops, farmers weight them by scoring, 10 as largest/highest; 1 smallest/lowest; 0 ­ not grow or not yet grown 4 Farmers first grew field cabbage originated from Dong Du (name of one area in Gia Lam district, Hanoi) in the beginning of the 1990s. At present, the varieties used by farmers originate from Hongkong (local name Choi Hingle), but farmers still use the name Dong Du field cabbage.

2.2.4

Cropping calendar

In the production cycle of farmers, there are 3 main growing seasons such as spring, summer (autumn) and winter. Depend on growing time of crops, farmers can grow one, two or even three crops per growing season. Cropping calendar for major crops grown in Son Du is presented in Figure 3.

Figure 3 Cropping calendar for major crops

M onth Crops R ice F.Cabbage Tomato

1

2

3 Spring Crop 1

4

5

6

7 Summer Crop 2

8

9

10

11

12

Crop 3 US tomato French tomato

Bean Ko lhrabi C.bean Cabbage Green squash Crop 3 Crop 1 Crop 2

First harvest after planting 50 days Crop 1 Crop 2

2 crops/year, 2 varieties, First harvest after planting 40 - 50 days Crop 1 Crop 2

Labor use

40% 60%

M an Wo man

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2.2.5

Changes of cropping yields for major crops overtime

There was an stable increase of cropping yield for major crops grown in Son Du from the implementation of the Resolution 10 (1989) to 1999. However, from 1999 to the present, yield of some crops is level off such as kohlrabi and rice, and reduced such as tomato and field cabbage (see Figure 4). Land degradation is considered as main reason inducing to increasingly disease affected by plant, that induces to reduction of cropping yield. Farmers also apply technologies to overcome this problem such as adoption of new varieties, rotate the crops, or increasing pesticide and herbicide uses. However, these just can help remain the cropping yield or limit its reduction, not powerful enough to increase it. Besides, negative side of overuse pesticides, fertilizers, and even the soils has induced to changes in physical and biochemical composition of the soils than in turn affects on cropping yield.

Figure 4 Changes in yield of major crops

Trend of crop yield

2000 Kg per Sao 1500 1000 500 0 1986 1990 1999 2001 Year Rice Tomato Mustard Kohlrabi

2.3

Training and agricultural technology transformation

As revealed by farmers, from 1993, many farmers in Son Du have been given training in relation to agricultural production such as IPM on rice, climbing bean, tomato, and techniques for safe vegetable production, and other issues (see Table 4).

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VEGSYS Table 4

PR04: Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal in Son Du, Vietnam

Training courses given in son du

Organizing agencies

Dong Anh Dept. of plant protection Hanoi Farmers' Union (funded by Danida) Hanoi Farmers' Union (funded by Danida) Hanoi Farmers' Union (funded by Danida) Hanoi Dept of epidemic Hanoi Farmers' Union (funded by Danida) Dong Anh Dept. of family planning Dong Anh Dept. of Agricultural and Rural Dev't (DARD) (DARD) (DARD) Bio seed company Dong Anh People Committee Dong Anh People Committee (DARD)

Training course

IPM on rice IPM on tomato IPM on cabbage IPM on climbing bean Protection from negative side of pesticide uses Giving the first aid to electrocuted people Population communication Techniques for safe vegetable production Techniques for milk cow production Techniques for breeding pig production Techniques for maize production (Bio seed) Land use management Enhancing legality understanding Accountancy skill

Time

2,5 days (in 1994) 3 month (1999 - 2000) 3 month (2000 - 01) 3 month (2000 - 01) 0.5 day (in 2002) 3 month (1999 - 2000) 0,5 day/year (from 1993 - 02) 0.5 day/year (from 2001 - 02) 0.5 day (in 2001) 0.5 day (in 2001) 1 day (in 1998) 1,5 day/year (from 1993 - 02) 4 days/year (from 2001 - 02) 3 month (in 2001)

No. of class

1 2 2 1 1 2 10 2

No. of people/ class

5 30 30 30 50 50 100 40

1 1 1 10 2 1

2 2 80 2 2 1

2.4

Organizations and social groups affecting (safe) vegetable production in Son Du

A venn diagram was constructed to investigate organizations and social groups that are existing in- and outside Son Du hamlet and have certain effect on (safe) vegetable production in Son Du. There are various organizations and social groups that affect on living and agricultural production activities of local people. By contrast, there are few for regular vegetable production, because farmers "spontaneously" produce vegetables under the effect of market demand. They, themselves, have to find the market for their own produces, to arrange the production, and others. Thus, when asked, they are confused to determine which organizations/social groups really have effect on their vegetable production. Instead, they provoked those that clearly have effect on safe vegetable production, though, just some ten households involved in it. By this reason, the Venn diagram was constructed particularly for safe vegetable production. We may also refer to ordinary vegetable production by the Venn (see Figure 5).

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Figure 5

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Organisations and social groups influencing safe vegetable production

Hamlet Communist Party

Hamlet servicing cooperative Safe veg. pro. volunteer group

Hamlet government

FARMERS INVOLVED IN SAFE VEG. PRO.

Hamlet Women Union

IPM training courses Phuc Thinh cooperative

Family association

Dong Anh Bicycle factory

Noibai Airport restaurant

Hamlet Farmer's Union 382 Brick factory Machine Company

Commune Farmer's Union

Dong Anh Dept. of plant protection

Note:

Political and social organizations Cooperatives Non-governmental organizations Outside-hamlet organizations/social groups

-

-

Size of the block represents importance of the organization regarding safe vegetable production. Bigger size means more important and so on. The arrow represents the relations between organizations/social groups or between these with farmers engaged in safe vegetable production.

2.4.1

Importance of the organizations/social groups

Number of organizations/social groups which are considered important for safe vegetable production is 14 of which 8 locate inside the hamlet and the other 6 outside. !

Hamlet Communist Party. It is considered most important not only for safe vegetable

production but other living and agricultural production activities. It does not directly involve in the activities of farmers, but serve as a guiding actor in these, for instance, if the hamlet Communist Party discovers that farmers involving in safe vegetable production do not follow needed production steps/requirements, it then, can require the hamlet government to stop these farmers. Even for organizations that locate outside the hamlet, the hamlet Communist Party can also have a decisive voice if their activities don't follow legal framework of Vietnam's government or of the contract signed between these and farmers.

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!

!

!

!

!

!

Hamlet government. Headed by one hamlet leader and one deputy. These persons serve as manager of agricultural land and responsible for agricultural tax within the hamlet. They are also the ones who can assign area for safe vegetable production. Agricultural service cooperative. Headed by one manager, and headers of servicing teams such as irrigation water team, electric team, plant protection team. They are responsible for "selling" water, electric, and some agricultural inputs for farmers such as varieties and pesticides. Hamlet Women and Farmer's Union. These serve as middle actors in safe vegetable production of farmers. They are responsible for propagate and co-organize training courses regarding vegetable production of farmers especially IPM courses. Safe vegetable production volunteer group. It was just established and includes 7 members who have been given IPM training and techniques for safe vegetable production as well. This group starts to produce vegetables by safe techniques. In terms of organization, it includes one group header, one secretary-treasurer. Budget for group activities is contributed by these members. They open their own "safe vegetable shop" and responsible for their selling. It is supposed that each of these 7 members will be one group header of safe vegetable production groups in the future. Phuc Thinh safe vegetable production cooperative. Established in 2002, with 12 members involved. The Management Board includes one manager, one accountant, and one treasurer. They have to find market for their produces by themselves. At present, they have contracts to sell their vegetables to 4 agencies such as Dong Anh Bicycle-part company, Noibai Airport restaurant, 382 Brick factory, and Machino factory. Family association. A number of farmers voluntarily groups themselves and each periodically contribute a certain amount of money to the group and one member will take this money (as free interest loan) to invest in his/her own business. Next time another member will be the one who get this loan.

2.5

Households types

For classifying the households in the hamlet the farmers used the main income sources of households as the classification criteria. This resulted in the following household types: 1. Service specialized farmers (2 households). These are characterized by lack of labour force, thus they rent out their agricultural land to the others and engage in doing services such as goods, salt, fish source and miscellaneous things. 2. Service and livestock raising farmers (5 households). These engage in doing services such as beer, mechanics, pesticides, fertilizers, and rice milling. Besides these, they also doing livestock production such as pig, chicken, duck, and even doing agricultural production but with a small area. 3. Service and cropping production (18 households). These households are characterized the same as those focusing on service and livestock raising, however, they have larger area for cropping production which accounts for a significant share of their household's income. 4. Vegetable specialized households (5 households). These are often better-off households with good labor force and production technical know how. Most of their agricultural land is used for vegetables around the year. The left is used for rice as a way to reclaim the soil. 5. Rice specialized households (10 households). These are characterized by shortage of labour for vegetable production. However, they have labour for working outside as

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labourer. In winter season, they mainly grow food crops such as sweet potato, maize and a bit of vegetable for domestic consumption. Some also involve in doing services. 6. More vegetable and less rice production (150 households). These are mainly betteroff and middle households, with a good source of labor. Their agricultural production is characterized by: a. Spring season: 70% of agricultural land area for rice and 30% for vegetables b. Summer season: 60% of agricultural land area for rice and 40% for vegetables c. Winter season: 90% of agricultural land area for vegetables and 10% for food crops. 7. Less vegetable and more rice production (150 households). These are mainly middle and poor households. Their agricultural production is characterized by: a. Spring season: 80% of agricultural land area for rice and 20% for vegetables b. Summer season: 80% of agricultural land area for rice and 20% for vegetables c. Winter season: 90% of agricultural land area for vegetables and 10% for food crops. 8. Non-agricultural production (8 households). These usually have member(s) involving in state affairs or doing business or garment. Among these, except rich households whose member(s) are working in state sector or doing business, better-off and middle households can be fallen in any abovementioned typologies, however 48 poor households in the hamlet are mainly found in less vegetable and more rice production typology.

2.6

2.6.1

Land use in Son Du

Land use situations

Land in Son Du is divided into 14 areas with different land use purposes. Most of these are named by after a particular building which is nearby, such as Sau chua (behind pagoda), Cua chua (front of pagoda), Giai phuon etc. Only 3 areas are divided by their fertility such as A, B, and R22 (see Figure 2). It seems to be random that all areas locating nearby resident are fertile. Further areas are characterized by infertile, difficult land preparation, difficult drainage, and susceptible to damage of mice and pests. Because of these, land use is particular for each area (see Table 5).

Table 5

Major crops grown on different areas in winter season*

Veg. crop

Cua kho

A + R22

Giai phuon

Goc xen

Tay lang Dong

Cucumber 10 3 3 2 Green quash 6 2 4 3 Beans 5 2 2 Field cabbage 3 10 10 10 10 10 as grown in largest area; 1 smallest; - ­ not grown. *See production areas in Figure 1.

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2.6.2

Land ownership

Agricultural land allotted to individual households (in accordance with the Resolution 64/CP) is relatively equal in terms of area, quality, and distance from farmers' home. At present, almost 70% of households received land use certificate for long-term use (250 households). The left have not yet gotten land use certificate for their assigned land mainly because of "time lag" regarding administrative procedures, only 7 households fall into agricultural tax debt, land conflict, or refusing allotted land. Land exchanges are taken by just some households who have family relations. Up to now, there has not been any land selling regarding both agricultural and resident land. 2.6.3 Land types

Son Du has no grass land and hill land. Residential land is used for housing, and hamlet affairs. Special use land is used for construction of irrigation system, transportation system, and cemetery. Agricultural land is used for agriculture and aquaculture. In general, present infrastructure base is relative good for living and production activities of farmers. 2.6.4 Topography, physical and chemical characteristics of soils

In term of topography, land in Son Du is divided into 3 types such as high, medium and low elevation. High land accounts for 60% of the total, medium 30% and low 10%. Characteristics of each type are as follows: A: High and medium land area is cropped for 3 seasons/year with cropping patterns such as spring rice - summer rice ­ winter vegetables; spring vegetables summer rice ­ winter vegetables; spring rice ­ summer vegetables ­ winter vegetables. B: High land is used for residential and special use purposes. Water from rains run off from this area to ponds/lacks, which serve as water source for aquaculture and crop irrigation. C: High land is cropped for 3 seasons/year with cropping patterns such as spring rice -summer rice - winter vegetables; spring vegetables - summer rice - winter vegetables; spring rice ­ summer vegetables ­ winter vegetables. D: Low land is also cropped for 3 seasons with 2 rice in spring and summer and 1 food crop such as sweet potato and maize in winter season (see Figure 6 and 7). In term of physical characteristic, soil in Son Du is divided into 3 types such as sandyloam, light loam and heavy loam soil of which sandy-loam soil accounts for 50% of the total (mostly in high land areas); light loam soil 40% (mostly in middle land areas and little in high land areas), and heavy loam soil 10% (see Figure 7). Soil profile is different from that of other areas within Dong Anh district. Soil surface layer is thin with only 10 - 12 cm, maximum is of 15 cm for some. The second layer is hard that impedes water to penetrate into. Thus, run-off is a main way for water drainage after rains. These together with topographic characteristic, usually causes locally waterlogged areas. At the same, it induces to accumulation of toxic elements in particular [waterlogged] areas and increase of soil temperature under sun radiation. These negatively affect on vegetable growth.

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In term of quality, soil is divided into 2 types such as type II and III. The authority classified soil based on its ability to produce rice, not vegetables. Thus, farmers said that even soil type II is more tax charged but less favourable for vegetables than soil type III. To overcome constraint of thin cultivation soil layer, farmers make high beds for their vegetable production.

Figure 6 Transect map of Son Du

North

Resident land (D) (A) Sand soil, light loam Grey and infertile soil Soil type III Easy for land preparation Spring rice - summer rice winter vegetables Spring vegetables - summer rice - winter vegetables Spring rice - summer vegetables - winter vegetables 30% of the area is irrigated by gravity water 70% is irrigated by pumping or manual (B) (C) Sand soil, light loam Grey and infertile soil Soil type III Easy for land preparation Spring rice - summer rice winter vegetables Spring vegetables - summer rice - winter vegetables Spring rice summer vegetables - winter vegetables 30% of the area is irrigated by gravity water 70% is irrigated by pumping or manual Heavy loam Soil type II Difficult for land preparation Spring rice - summer rice winter food crops

Dong hamlet

Ca Lo

30% of the area is irrigated by gravity water 70% is irrigated by pumping or manual

Figure 7

Soil classification based on elevation and physical characteristic

10%

High land Middle land

10%

Heavy loam

50% 40%

30% 60%

Low land

Light loam Sandy-loam

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2.6.5

Crop distribution

In soils with different topography and physical characteristic, farmers adopt relatively different cropping patterns. However, rice is a crop that dominates in spring and summer season in all types of soil (see Table 6).

Table 6

Crop

Spring rice Summer rice Field cabbage Kohlrabi Cabbage Tomato Climbing bean Maize Green squash Vegetable Long bean Cucumber Chili Aubergine Jasmine Sweet potato Note: +

++ +++

Crop distribution in different soil types

High land

Sandy soil +++ +++ +++ ++ ++ + ++ + ++ + + +

: : :

Middle land

Sandy - loam +++ +++ +++ ++ ++ + + + ++ + ++ + + + + Loam +++ +++ + + + + + ++ + + + + + +++ +++ +++ ++ ++ + + ++ ++ + +

Low land +++ +++

+ ++

++

Less usual grown Usual grown More then usual grown

Crop distribution by cropping seasons. In spring season, rice is main crop that accounts for 80% of total cropping area, and vegetables account for the left. In summer season, rice is grown with 70% of total area, and vegetables are grown in the left. In winter season, almost area is used for vegetables (90%) with field cabbage, climbing bean, cabbage and kohlrabi as major crops. Among these, field cabbage and kohlrabi are usually grown twice. To reduce effect of pest and disease, farmers do rotate their crops seasonally. 2.6.6 Fertilizer use

As mentioned above, rice is major crop in spring and summer season that takes almost 80% of cropping area. The left ­ 20% - is used for vegetables with field cabbage, climbing bean, and cucumber as major crops. In winter season, field cabbage accounts for largest area, the next is kohlrabi, tomato, and cabbage. Others just account for a small area. Fertilizers used for specific crops is presented in Table 7.

Organic fertilizers. In the past, farmers did buy night soil from other places, but now they don't buy it anymore because as they revealed they did usually encounter skin allergic because of it. At present, development of animal raising, to a certain extent, satisfies farmers' demand on manure. Some households raising chicken have enough manure for their own and sell some to neighbours, which account for 20% of households within the hamlet. The left - 80% - have to buy chicken manure from other places. However, at the peak of manure demand, farmers face difficulty in buying it.

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Table 7 Fertilizer used for specific crops (in kg/sao)

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Crop

Spring rice Summer rice Dong Du Kohlrabi Cabbage Tomato Climbing bean Maize Green squash Vegetable Long bean Cucumber Chili

Manure*

Nitrogen

Phosphate

Potassium

Compost

300 8 10 5 300 7 10 5 150 20 20 10 - 15 300 20 10 - 15 12 - 15 800 20 30 10 800 ­ 1,000 30 30 15 600 30 20 20 500 ­ 1,000 12 20 5 800 ­ 1,000 10 50 12 100 6 6 2 700 35 20 12 300 30 20 6 200 chicken 20 50 15 or 800 mix of other manures Aubergine 400 40 30 30 Jasmine 400 15 12 10 Sweet potato 100 5 10 10 Note: *Manure is mix of night soil, pig, cattle and chicken manure and mixed with lime.

20 20

Inorganic fertilizers. Farmers buy inorganic fertilizers from private shops in the hamlet. Nitrogen costs 2,300 VND/kg, phosphate 1,000, potassium 2,400, and micro organic fertilizer 1,000. Methods of fertilizer use

Most of households (80%) use mix of types of manure brewed with lime for about 30 - 40 days before use. The left (20%) use fresh manure without treatment. Particularly, there are cases that apply fresh manure for vegetables which then makes vegetables death because of hot temperature. Amount of organic fertilizers used for field cabbage is smallest (150kg/sao), but its area is largest. Thus, total organic fertilizers used for this crop is biggest. The next is green squash, maize, chili with fertilizer amount used ranges from 800 ­1,000 kg/sao. Inorganic fertilizers used less for rice and sweet cabbage, followed by green squash, field cabbage with the amount applied is about 20 kg of N, 20 kg of P, and 10 ­ 15 kg of K/sao. Tomato, long bean, and kohlrabi are more fertilizer applied than the above crops. Inorganic fertilizers are mostly used for aubergine with 40 kg of N, 30 kg of P, and 30 kg of of K/sao) because growing time of this crop is long. Fertilizers are applied for crops several times during their growing time such as basal application, top dressing, and dissolve in irrigation water. Up to now, farmers don't be clear about how much fertilizers needed for their crops, and how to combine different kinds of fertilizers to maximize use effectiveness. Besides, farmers also make use of plant residues as fertilizers for crops. Plant residues from green squash, and tomato help improve soil quality and reduce amount of fertilizer needed to use for crops. For example, if rice is rotated with vegetables, farmers can use

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a half of N amount and no organic fertilizers, phosphate and potassium for rice in comparison with rice in pure rice system. Plant residues from tomato, green squash are cut into small pieces and spray directly to the field. This is a source of pest and disease for crops especially when the crops are also tomato or green quash. In the whole production cycle, total fertilizer amount applied for different cropping patterns is presented in Table 8. In general, farmers use high amount of fertilizers that leads to high residue of fertilizers in soils because crops can't use all fertilizers applied by farmers especially for field cabbage and kohlrabi.

Table 8 Total fertilizer amount applied for different cropping patterns

Manure (kg/sao)

Dong Du Dau trach Kohlrabi Dong Du Cabbage Kohlrabi Dong Du Dong Du 1,350 925 1,175 700 1,500 700 1,200 1,150 Kohlrabi Dong Du Dong Du 1,300 1,025 1,275 1,300 1,800 600 750 900 1,400 1,400 1,300 700

Cropping pattern

Spring rice Spring rice Spring rice Spring rice Spring rice Spring rice Spring rice Spring rice Green squash Vegetable Long bean Cucumber Chili Aubergine Spring rice Spring rice Spring rice Spring rice Spring rice Spring rice Green squash Dong Du Long bean Cucumber Chili Aubergine Seet cabbage Maize Summer rice Summer rice Summer rice Summer rice Summer rice Summer rice Summer rice Summer rice Summer rice Summer rice Summer rice Summer rice

N (kg/sao)

43 58 68 53 43 48 34 40 45 65 70 65 45 45 35 35 45 35 27 20

P (kg/sao)

83 55 50 45 80 40 66 50 85 57 52 57 87 37 40 35 50 50 40 30

K (kg/sao)

35 43 35 21 25 35 22 25 40 48 40 26 30 35 25 25 25 20 15 20

Dong Du Dong Du Dau trach Kohlrabi Tomato Cabbage

Dong Du Kohlrabi Tomato Cabbage Maize Sweet potato

Though farmers do understand that overuse of nitrogen can cause difficulties in storage of green squash even makes it ruined at the field. However, kohlrabi is fertilized more so that farmers can get higher yield. In fertile soil that accounts for 25% of total agricultural land, farmers grow 4 crops/year, one rice and 3 vegetable crops. Fertilizers used for this cropping pattern is highest compared with other cropping patterns. Organic fertilizers

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used range from 925 ­ 1,350 kg/sao. Nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium used with amount of 43 - 70, 50 - 85 and 35 - 48 kg/sao, respectively. Area with 3 crops accounts for most of agricultural land. Cropping pattern with 2 rice crops and 1 winter vegetable crop is mostly organic fertilizer used. For this, organic fertilizers used range from 1,300 ­ 1,400 kg/sao, however inorganic fertilizers is less applied.

2.7

2.7.1

Water used for irrigation

Water resource

Surface water. Before year 2001, farmers bought water for irrigation from Hanoi

irrigation water company. Water is pumped by Ap Bac pumping station and run off via Dong channel. However, owing to long distance from Ap Bac station to water source, this station could not supply water enough for agricultural production. Nonetheless, poor water management of nearby commune gives a big volume of water to ponds/lakes of Son Du. This is a good source of water for farmers to irrigate their crops via 2 local pumping stations such as Cua Lang pumping station built in 1960 and Tay Lang pumping station built in 1981. The power of each pumping station is 20 KW. Groundwater: There is one well drilled in the net house of Son Du. However, quality of water fetched from the well is not good with high content of iron. Thus, farmers don't use that water for irrigation. 2.7.2 Irrigation and drainage methods

Farmers basically use 3 irrigation methods, basin irrigation used for rice, stump and plough irrigation for vegetables. Of these, plough irrigation can cause expansion of pest and disease on the farms. Though there are 2 pumping stations in the hamlet, area can be irrigated by gravity water just accounts for about 30% of the total agricultural production area. The remaining - 70% - is irrigated by small pumps or even manual. The main reason for this is that water channel is badly managed as mentioned above. 2.7.3 Irrigation area

Before year 2001, Son Du contracted with Hanoi irrigation water company for water. The area irrigated with that water is presented in Table 9.

Table 9 Area irrigated by formal water

Cropping seasons

Spring rice Summer rice Winter crop

Area irrigated by gravity water (%)

50 60 50

Area irrigated by semi-gravity water and by manual (%)

50 40 50

In fact, because of long distance from water resource, water was not provided to Son Du on time. Son Du had enough water for irrigation because of poor-management of water of nearby communes. However, farmers did have to pay 2 fees for irrigation water ­ one for Hanoi irrigation water company, and another for electric used for 2 local pumping stations. Thus, from summer of year 2001, Son Du has no longer contracted with Hanoi

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irrigation water company. What they use now is water that run off from nearby communes. 2.7.4 Water fee

Before year 2001, farmers had to pay 12 kg of rice for irrigation fee/sao in each spring and summer season and 4 kg in winter season to Hanoi irrigation water company. The company then returned the hamlet 1.75 kg of rice /sao to hamlet irrigation team for maintaining water channel. From summer of year 2001, farmers don't have to pay to Hanoi irrigation water company so they just have pay less - 7 kg of rice in spring season/sao; 6 kg in summer; and 4 kg in winter for operation of 2 hamlet pumping stations. At present, 80% of households pay irrigation fee, the other 20% don't because they are poor and some other reasons as explained by hamlet officials.

2.8

2.8.1 ! ! ! ! !

Difficulties in relation to soil, fertilizer and irrigation water uses in Son Du

Soils

Cultivation layer is thin, the layer below is hard and low water-absorb capacity. Farms are characterized by uneven and dissect that induce to specific waterlogged areas. Cultivation layer is mainly sandy that becomes harder after rains and water evaporates quickly when sunny. All negatively affects on crop growth. High concentration of toxic element in soil layer below the cultivation one. Soils are infertile and acid Each household possesses a number of agricultural land plots which locate in different areas. Some varieties are grown in the same plot. These make farmers difficult in tending, irrigating and managing pest and diseases for their crops. Fertilizer uses

2.8.2 ! ! ! ! !

There is still 20% of households using fresh organic fertilizers without any pretreatment before use. Organic fertilizer is limited while demand on it is high. To deal with the problem of infertile soil and to get high cropping yields, farmers have to use more inorganic fertilizers. Farmers use N and K with water to irrigate crops periodically (5 - 7 days/time) without consideration on last application before harvest. Many farmers use compost fertilizer but they don't pay attention to its component that induce to low effectiveness of application. Irrigation water use

2.8.3 ! !

!

Water source is located far from the fields thus water quality is low both in terms of fertility and chemical component. Water channel is not often dredged. Besides that, farmers usually throw weeds, plant residues into it, some farmers even grow crops on banks of the channel. All negatively affects on water transfer and drainage capacity of the channel. Only a small area is irrigated by gradient water.

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Ground water is of low quality that can't be used for irrigation without adequately pretreatment. Solutions being applied by farmers Make high beds for vegetables to overcome thin cultivation layer of soil and waterlogged problem. Cutting rice straw into pieces which are then used to cover surface of vegetable beds in order to reduce erosion, chemical leaching, water evaporation, and problem of harding the soil. Use more chicken manure and bio-fertilizers Dredge water channel more often. Forbid cultivation and livestock raising on banks of channel. Better water management so that more area can be irrigated by gradient water. Exchanging land to enlarge cultivation plots of households. Pay more attention to fertilizer application especially to inorganic ones.

2.8.4 ! !

! ! ! ! !

2.9

Pest and disease management

Crops are diverse and grown without a careful plan leading to heavily pest damage. Many of pest become resistant to pesticides, new pest occur and farmers do not know how to control them, for instance, bacterial wilt, and dry branches of eggplant, spots on leave of beans and root disease of field cabbage. Pest and disease are also diverse and cause different damages to different crops (see Table 10). -

-

-

-

Rice. According to the marks given by farmers, main pests on rice are stem borer (10)*, blast (10), leaf folder (8), stink bug (4), brown plant hopper (4), and sheath blight (2). Most of them occur in fruit making stage. Using pesticides is a main way of farmers to protect their crop. Farmers spray 1 - 3 times/crop with a dosage of 10 30 liters/sao. However, for controlling stem borer, the farmers usually root up affected stems, and apply lime and ash in combination with chemical pesticides. Beans. Main pests including fruit borer (Etiella zinckenella)(10), red spider mite (10), green hopper (10), yellow leaf (8), leaf miner (5), leaf spot (4) usually occur one month after planting and in flowering stage. The main control measure is spraying pesticides, in which insecticides including sat trung dan, regent, lanate, biological agents and other pesticides made in China, and fungicides including champion, copper oxyclorua, zinep, etc. Farmers indicated that insecticides generate a good result in term of pest control effect in comparison with fungicides and bactericides for fungus and bacteria control. Cucumber. Pests include aphids (10), Armyworm (8), Yellow virus (7), Root wilt (Rhizoctonia solani) (8), leaf miner (7), fruit wasp borer (4), and Pseudoperonospora cubensis(6). Pests occur 15 days after planting to the harvest time. Main control method is pesticide application. For the yellow virus, farmers pick up disease infested leaves. And for the root wilt, a high effective measure is application of validacin. Green squash. Important pests are bacterial wilt, leaf curl and virus disease (7), fruit wilt Erwinia carotovora(5), looper(Trichoplusiani) (6), armyworm (7), red spider mite (10), white mealdow Erysiphe cichoracearum. Except red spider mite, which occurs 7 days after planting, the other pests and disease occur from the young fruit stage to harvesting time. Farmers reported that chemical application for the above-mentioned pests and disease give a good result, except Pseudomonas solanacearum.

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-

-

-

-

-

Kohlrabi. Often attacked by black diamond moth (10), flea beetles (6) from the beginning to the end of the crop. Farmers told that when humidity is high, yellow leaves, leaf spot (7) and wilt of the head (5) usually occur. Chemical application is also the only measure for control these. For black diamond moth, Regent, Sat trung dan, and Monitor are used. And for yellow leaf (Peronospora brasicae) and leaf spot (Alternaria brassicae), Zinep and fungicides are used. Cabbage. Pests and diseases are black diamond moth (10), gray wilt (Rhizoctonia solani) (10), root wilt (Rhizoctonia solani) (10), and flea (2-3). Among these, only gray wilt (R. solani occurres when the cabbage is formed, but others occurre after planting. Pesticides used are Bassa, Ma luc, Tap ky that give high effect. Gray wilt is controlled by Champion. Root wilt can't controlled by pesticide, farmers just root up infested plants and throw them away. Tomato. Often is attacked by bacterial wilt (10), late blight (7), leaf curl (10), pink aphids (7), leaf miner (5), fruit borer (3). According to farmers, there has not been any method to control important diseases such as bacterial wilt, leaf curl. Insect pests usually occurre from 1 month after planting to fruit making. For leaf miner and pot borer farmers do cut leaves and use pesticides such as Tap ky, Monito, and Wofatox. Late blight (Phytophthora infestans) is well controlled by copper sulfite and Zinep. Field cabbage. Important pests are cabbage flea beetle (8), diamond black moth (10), shortcut worm (5), bacteria wilt (5), decaying wilt (8), root disease (10), red spider mite (7), and late blight (7). The root disease may be caused by the fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae, which can not be controlled yet. Other pests and disease can be controlled by using one of following pesticides: Tap ky, Regent, Padan, Ma luc, Sat trung dan, Daconil, Validacin, and Chinese fungicide. Eggplant. Important pests are dry branches (10), red spider mite (10), fruit borer (5), bacterial wilt (5), root wilt (5). They mainly occurre from flowering stage to harvesting time. For dry branches and bacterial wilt, there are not any control measures yet. Chemical application gives a good result for controlling the red spider mite, pot borer, root wilt with Lanate, Tap ky, Regent, Ma luc, Micrological agent, Validacin, Champion, Zinep and Padan. (*Above figurers represent occurrence and effect of pest and disease; 10 as most frequently, 1 as least frequently).

2.9.1

Pest and disease treatment time

Farmers do only apply control measures when the pests and diseases occur or start to damage their crops heavily. They do not pay attention on preventive measure such as resistant varieties, clean seeds, and field sanitation before planting and after harvesting to remove pest and disease residues from the previous crops. Together with lack of knowledge on plant protection, these lead farmers to overuse of pesticides, increase of production cost, bad influence to the natural enemy population (see Table 11). Two main methods for pest and disease management adopted by farmers are chemical using and cropping rotation.

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Table 10

Crops

Major pests and diseases on major crops and used control methods

Major pests Damage level 3 5 10 Occurrence time Flowering Flowering Flowering Controlling methods Spray Chine fungicide Spray Sat trung dan Spray Regent, or Bio-pesticides, or Tap ky, or Zinep Spray Champion, or Americal fungicid, or Copper oxyclorua Spray Lanate Spray Champion, or Americal fungicid, or Copper oxyclorua. Controlling methods Application time When detected When detected When detected When detected When detected When detected When detected When detected When detected When detected When detected When detected Last application before harvest (day) 15 5 Aerosol/Sao × spraying times/crop-ping season 2x3 3x2 Spraying method All the plant All the plant Effectiveness 10 10

Rust (urumyces) Leaf miner

Fruit borer

Beans 8 Flowering

5

3x3

All the plant

10

Yellow leaf Red spider mite Leaf spot

10 10 4 Flowering 1 month after planting 30 days after planting (DAP) Haversting fruits (first time) 20 DAP Haversting fruit Young fruit

5 1

1-2x3 3x3

All the plant All the plant

8 10

-

-

All the plant

-

Green hopper

7

Spray Chine fungicides Spray Dipterex, or Sat trun dan

3

3x2

All the plant

10

Leaf miner Aphid

Cucumber 10 4 7

5 1 2

3x2 1-3 x 2 2x2

All the plant All the plant All the plant

10 10 10

Spray Chine fungicide Spray Chine fungicides, or Dipterex Cut disease leaves Spray Dipterex, or Bio-pesticides, or Uthan Spray Validacin

Fruit wasp borer Yellow leaf Root wilt

2-3 1

3x2 1x5

All the plant Roots

10 10

8

15 DAP

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Table 10 (continued---)

Major pests Crops Damage level 6 8 5 Occurrence time Harvesting fruit Young fruit to harvest Flowering Controlling methods No controlling method Spray Vofatox, or Tap ki Cut disease leaves Spray Tap ki, or Vofatox Collect insects, cut disease leaves Spray Mornitor Spray Lanate, or Tap ki No controlling method No controlling method Spray Copper Sunphate, or Zinep Spray Bassa Spary Tap ki, or Regent Spray Padan, Sat trung dan, Ma luc Spray Daconil Controlling methods Application time Last application before harvest (day) Aerosol/Sao × spraying times/crop-ping season Spraying method Effectiveness

(Cucumber)

Perpnospora cubensis Armyworn Leaf miner

When detected When detected

5 7

3x2 2x3

All the plant All the plant

10 8

3

Flowering

Armyworn Fruit borer

7 Tomato

When detected When detected

7

Combined with pesticides for controlling leaf miner

All the plant

-

Green peach aphid Leaf curl Bacteria wilt Late blight Cabbage flea beetle Diamond back moth Sshort cut worm

1 month after planting Flowering Harvesting time Haversting fruit (second time) All season 10 DAP 3 ­ 4 DAP 15 ­ 20 DAP

7

3x3

All the plant

10

10 10 7

8 10 5 5

When having frost 1 - 2 DAP 10 DAP When detected When detected

1­2 15 10 15 20

3x3 1 ­ 2 (2 days/ time) 2x3 2x3 2x2

All the plant All the plant All the plant All the plant All the plant

10 10 10 (R), 5 (TK) 10 10

Field cabbage

Bacteria wilt

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Table 10 (continued---)

Major pests Crops Damage level 8 10 7 7 10 6 7 Occurrence time 20 DAP 15 - 20 DAP 25 DAP 25 DAP 7 DAP 20 days before harvest 30 DAP Young fruit Controlling methods Spray Validacin, or Chines fungicides No controlling method Spray Kenthan Spray Uthan Spray Chine fungicide Spray Ma luc, or Sat trung dan Spray Fuguran Spray Copper oxyclorua, or Daconil, or Zinep No controlling method No controlling method Spray Regent, or Sat trung dan, or Monitor Controlling methods Application time When detected Last application before harvest (day) 10 Aerosol/Sao × spraying times/crop-ping season 1x2 Spraying method All the plant Effectiveness 7 10

Decaying wilt

(Field cabbage)

Root disease Red spider mite Late blight Red spider mite

When detected When detected Flowering

7 - 10

2x2

All the plant All the plant

7

After harvesting (the first time) 10 After crossing time Young fruit

2x5

All the plant

10 7 10 10 10

Green squash

Looper Armyworm Leaf curl Fruit wilt White mealdow Bacteria wilt Diamond back moth Cabbage flea beetle Yellow leaf & leaf spot Fruit wilt

When detected When detected Young fruit

2x2 2x3 2x2

All the plant All the plant All the plant

7 5

10 6 7 5 All season Shortly af-ter planting Root forming

After planting

7 - 10 days

1-3x6

All the plant

10

Kohlrabi

Spray Zinep Spray Chines fungicides

When detected Harvesting time

10 2x2 Roots 10

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Table 10 (continued---)

Major pests Crops Damage level 10 Occurrence time 45 DAP ­young fruit Flowering Young fruit to harvest Harvesting time 20 DAP Shortly af-ter planting 15 ­ 20 DAP Making cabbage Young plant Preparing fruit Controlling methods Cut disease branches, Spray Padan, or Champion, or Zinep Spray Lanate, or Tap ki, or Regent Spray Tap ki, or Biopesticides, or Ma luc No controlling method Spray Validacin, or Chines fungicides Spray Bassa Spray Ma luc, or Tap ki, or Zinep Spray Champion No controlling method Spray Padan, or Sat trung dan, or Monitor Spray Monitor, or Vofatox Spray Vofatox Spray Kitazin, or Hinosan, or Fuji one, or Kasai Spray Validacin, or Chines fungicides to Spray Bassa Controlling methods Application time When detected When detected When detected Young plant When detected 7days/time When detected Last application before harvest (day) 15 30 7 × spraying Aerosol/Sao times/crop-ping season 1-2 x 2 2x3 2x2 Spraying method All the plant All the plant All the plant Effectiveness

Dry branch Red spider mite Fruit borer Bacteria wilt Root wilt Cabbage flea beetle Diamond back moth Gray wilt Root wilt Stem borer Leaf folder

Rice 8 4 10 10 5 5 5 2-3 10 10 10 10

10 10 10

Eggplant

1x3 1x3 7 7 1-3 x 12 2x3

All the plant All the plant All the plant All the plant

10 10 10 10

Cabbage

Young plant Flowering Young flowering Young plant Flowering harvest

Stink bug Blast Sheath blight Brown hopper plat

When detected When detected Flowering When detected When detected Flowering

Maturing Maturing Maturing Maturing

1-2 1 1 1x 2-3 1-2 1-2 All the plant All the plant All the plant All the plant All the plant 5-10 10 10 10 10

to

2 4

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2.9.2

Expenses and effectiveness of pest management measure

The highest expense in terms of pest and disease control is for climbing beans, followed by eggplant, cucumber, field cabbage with a cost of about 200,000- 250,000 VND/sao. The expenses for pest management of kohlrabi, cabbage and tomato are lower with 120,000-150,000 VND/sao. This is only counted for pesticides, labour and equipment expenses are not yet taken into account. Farmers reported that they tested several pesticides for pests and diseases, and effective ones would be selected for continuous use until they turn out to be less effective. They do not pay attention to how toxic these are, they are only concerned about their killing effectiveness and how expensive there are. For diseases such as bacterial wilt and virus disease, the only method used by farmers is to root up death plants and throw them away.

Table 11

Crop Rice Field cabbage Vegetable bean Tomato Cucumber Kohlrabi Cabbage Eggplant Green squash

Expenses and effectiveness of pest and disease management measures

Spraying times/crop 2­3 6 9 ­ 10 3­4 10 7 10 25 - 30 10 - 12 Expenses (1,000VND/sao) 50 - 70 100 - 200 200 70 250 120 - 150 120 - 150 250 250 Effectiveness High Fair Fair High High Fair Fair Fair High

2.9.3

Main factors causing pest and disease development

The average cultivated area per household was low. This forces farmers to use their soil intensively to satisfy their food and cash demand. As a result, soil is cultivated continuously without resting time thus sources of pest and disease always exist. ! Unplanned production, lack of production cooperation, agricultural land is divided into small pieces that induces to uninformed crop growing time. Thus pest and disease have chance to survive ! Farmers lack of knowledge on biological characteristics of pests and how to use pesticide properly. These lead to poor- and overuse of pesticides. As a result, natural enemies are killed, production cost increases, quality of vegetables reduces and environment is polluted. ! In order to get high gain, pesticide traders in the hamlet do not only consult farmers incorrectly about pest control methods, but also sell forbidden and expired pesticides. Although there is a person responsible for pest forecast in the hamlet, the information of pest and disease situation on crops given by forecaster to farmers is usually not in time. Consequently, control measures applied are of low effectiveness.

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Table 12

Constraints in plant protection and solutions as given by farmers

Causes for pest development

High cropping index

Consequences

Soil is not rested, pest and disease residues are not removed Badly affect on human health and domestic animals, Polluting environment, Reduction of cropping yield, Reduction of [chemical] investment effectiveness.

Solutions

More rotation of different crops yearly, Sanitation of farms, apply more organic fertilizers Mixing pesticides for use and increase using dosage Good management for pesticide production and trading Give more training to farmers regarding technical know how on plant protection

Pests and diseases developed resistance Poor quality of pesticides, low spraying effectiveness Lack of technical know-how regarding pesticide uses inducing low pesticide use effectiveness Untimely pest and disease forecast Overuse of chemical fertilizers

Reduction of vegetable quality Reduction of [chemical] investment effectiveness

Good arrangement for vegetable production Reduce amount of nitrogen used, increase amount of potassium and phosphate

Besides, farmers raised some concerns that they need help from researchers to deal with some intractable pests and diseases such as: - Root disease "tuber formation" on field cabbage, kohlrabi, and cabbage. - Bacterial wilt on beans, tomato, green squash, eggplant, and cucumber - Virus leaf curl on beans, tomato, green squash, eggplant, cucumber, and chilli - Dry branch on eggplant. 2.9.4 Criteria used by farmers to define safe vegetables

Farmers use fice criteria to qualify vegetables in terms of safety. They said that producing clean vegetables is impossible for them (clean vegetables means no pesticides and chemical fertilizers used) but safe vegetables is possible for them, as they can still use pesticides and chemical fertilizers as long as they stop applying these well before harvesting. Five criteria are used by farmers for defining safe vegetables: ! Pests and diseases are controlled by biological means, ! Stop using pesticides 7 - 15 days before harvesting (as recommended by pesticide agents), ! No use of fresh manure, ! Do not use to much nitrogen, and ! Use clean water for irrigation (water taken from Ca Lo river is considered as clean water). ! 2.9.5 Evaluation of safety of major vegetables

In comparison of safety of agricultural products, farmers ranked rice as the first safe product because last pesticide application before harvest for rice is long enough, moreover rice is milled before use so that pesticide residues on the skin would be removed. Besides, rice is less pesticide applied which is of only 2 - 3 times/crop. Cucumber, eggplant, beans, field cabbage, and cabbage are ranked least safe products,

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because last pesticide application before harvest for these is short with only 3 - 5 days and application is of 10 - 15 times/crop. Green squash and kohlrabi though are highly pesticide treated, but farmers ranked these as safe because they are peeled before cooking/eating (see Table 13).

Table 13 Safety of and plant protection cost for vegetables

Crops

Safety

Plant protection cost

Rice 10 3 Cai Dong du 4 7 Beans 4 8 Tomato 8 4 Cucumber 5 9 Kohlrabi 8 5 Cabbage 5 6 Eggplant 5 10 Green squash 8 10 Note: 10 as safest/highest; 1 unsafe / lowest.

Main constraint in safe vegetable production: ! No actors serve as patronage for vegetable marketing, ! High labour input cost, ! Difficult to have both safe and good looking vegetables, ! Lack of capital to build net house, ! Improper arrangement of area for safe vegetable production, ! Lack of technical know how on safe vegetable production, ! Bad water channel system (weeds, domestic animals, and crops planted on banks of channel negatively affect on water transfer and drainage capacity of channel), ! Poor management of pesticide distribution system so that low quality pesticides, and forbidden pesticides are still traded.

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2.10

Vegetable marketing issues

2.10.1 Production expense and revenue analysis Farmers discussed and come to chose 4 major crops such as paddy rice, field cabbage, tomato, and kohlrabi to calculate expense and revenue of their cropping production. For rice, farmers took an average of expense and revenue of two crops - spring and summer, and all vegetables are analysed as those grown in winter season. Production expenses are: ! Seeds (which are bought from servicing cooperative or private shops in the hamlet or places nearby. ! Manure (from domestic animal raising and for some chicken manure bought from neighbours households or Dong Anh Agricultural Enterprises No. II). Inorganic fertilizers such as nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium. And pesticides and herbicides. ! Soil preparation, crop tending, and harvesting (in case of using hired labourers as households lack of labour forces, or at high-labour-demand time). ! Agricultural land tax (paid to government) ! Other expenses such as buying bamboo for making frame for tomato, green squash or buying plastics for preventing mice for kohlrabi etc., Revenue of cropping production/sao is calculated by revenue minus expenses for 1sao. Revenue and expense of major crops/sao/cropping time is presented in Table 14.

Table 14

Items Expenses Seed Manure Nitrogen Phosphate Potassium Pesticides Herbicides Irrigation Land preparation Tax Others Revenue Margin

Revenue and expense of major crops/sao/cropping time

Rice Amount 4 kg 300 kg 8 kg 10 kg 5 kg Spraying times Spraying time 10 kg Value 244 16 60 20 10 12 15 3 15 40 18 300 56 Field cabbage Amount 1 box 200 kg 12 kg 5 kg 8 kg Spraying times Spraying time Value 253 11 60 30 5 20 60 3 6 40 18 400 147 Tomato Amount 0,5 box 1,000 kg 25 kg 50 kg 20 kg Spraying 10 time Spraying 1 time Value 645 45 200 63 50 50 120 3 6 40 18 50 800 155 Kohlrabi Amount 2,000 seedlings 400 kg 20 kg 10 kg 15 kg Value 434 80 120 50 10 37 50 3 6 40 18 20 600 166

3 1

6 1

Note: Unit used for value is 1,000 VND

Expense for tomato production is of 654,000 VND as the highest among major crops and revenue is of 800,000 VND also as the highest figure for all crops. Expense for rice is lowest with 244,000 and revenue is also lowest with 56,000 VND. These figures for field cabbage are 253,000 VND and 400,000 VND, respectively and for kohlrabi 434,000 VND and 600,000 VND, respectively.

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According to farmers, expense for crop production is increasing year by year because of increasing effect of pest and disease and thus farmers have to use more pesticides that contributes to increase of production expense. Besides, yield of crop varies much between main season and off-season (main season is winter one and off-season is spring and summer, for most of vegetables). In winter season, cropping yield is relatively stable. By contrast, it is lower, unstable in off-season and in some cases crops are all lost. However, high market price for off-season vegetables is considered as a "reimburse" to the lost for farmers. In general, market price for vegetables varies depending on market demand which is also much affected by consumers' psychology when they may scare of some kinds of vegetables as unsafe for them. On the basic of the above mentioned production expense and revenue, revenue per 1 VND invested for major crops is presented in Table 14. Revenue for 1 VND invested for field cabbage is highest with a net gain of 58 VND/100 VND invested, that is 38/100 for kohlrabi, 24/100 for tomato, and 23/100 for rice ­ the lowest figure of all. Thus, field cabbage is a crop with the highest net gain/1 VND invested, kohlrabi is a crop with the highest gain/production unit (i.e. sao). These figures for rice are lowest. However, farmers have still remain rice as a main means to reduce production risk and satisfy their food demand.

Table 15 Cost/benefit ratio for major vegetables in VND/sao

Items

Revenue Costs Gross margin Gross margin cost ratio

Rice (in VND/sao)

300,000 244,000 56,000 0.23

Field cabbage (in VND/sao)

400,000 253,000 147,000 0.58

Tomato (in VND/sao)

800,000 645,000 155,000 0.24

Kohlrabi (in VND/sao)

600,000 434,000 166,000 0.38

-

2.10.2 Marketing channels for vegetables Characteristics of marketing vegetable chain - Most of vegetables are marketed shortly after harvesting - Most vegetables are marketed seasonally, especially those mainly grown in winter season. Some vegetables can be harvested throughout the year such as green squash, climbing bean, and field cabbage. - Crops grown in the main season (winter season) produce high yield but receive a lower price. On the contrary, those grown in off-season (spring and summer) produce lower yield, sometimes lost all, but easily marketed with higher market price. Actors involved in marketing channels - Producers: Most of farmers in the hamlet engage in vegetable production and also in marketing their vegetables in the markets. However, only 50% of farmers have a clear plan on vegetable production and marketing. By contrast about 10% of them grow vegetables without production strategies, just follow other farmers. The left are inbetween. Producers base on their conditions and resources like labour forces, transportation means, management capacity, to decide which markets they can sell vegetables and how to sell. Some of them have graded their products and set up schedule for production and marketing so that they can get a high gain.

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-

-

Vegetable collector. Collectors are classified into two groups - seasonal collector and professional collector. Seasonal collectors are usually vegetable growers. Apart from their own vegetables, they collect more vegetables from neighbours to market so that they can reduce transportation fee. Professional collectors are living on doing vegetable trade. They do their job all time in the year. There are 5 professional collectors living in Son Du while the other come from outside the hamlet. Market systems. Vegetables produced in the hamlet are mainly marketed in some places as follows: - Night markets: These usually open at 2 - 3 a.m. everyday. These are Bac Qua, Dich Vong market (in Ha Noi down town, about 30 ­ 35 km far from the hamlet), and To market in Dong Anh district. Farmers usually sell vegetables of higher quality night markets and of cause at a higher price. Buyers are wholesale traders or people working for big restaurants. - Local markets. These locate in Dong Anh district, or neighbor districts with distance of less than 15 km from producers' home such as Van Tri, Phu Lo, Soc Son, Bop, Cho Moi Dong Anh. Buyers in the markets are wholesaler, retailers, and final consumers who account most. - Provincial markets. Vegetables are also marketed in places far away from the hamlets such as Yen Bai, Tuyen Quang, Thai Nguyen, Phuc Yen province. At that time trucks and cars are main transportation means. - Hamlet markets. These are places inside the hamlet where producers gather their vegetables and sell to wholesale traders.

Vegetable selling methods - Vegetables sold at field. Buyers are usually collectors and wholesalers. About 10% of total volume of vegetable produced in the hamlet is sold at the field. - Vegetable sold in the hamlet markets. In case producers do not have enough labour force, or transportation means, or have small amount of vegetable, they can sell vegetables in hamlet markets. Approximately 7% of total vegetable produced in the hamlet is sold in these markets. - Vegetable sold at home. Some of vegetables like green squash, and tomato can be stored at home for sometime. Buyers are collectors who live in the hamlet or acquainted customers. More than 10% of vegetables grown in the hamlet is sold through this method. - Vegetables sold directly at markets by farmers. 70% of the vegetable volume is directly sold by producers in markets mentioned above. Depending on climate condition, market demand, distance from home to market, the sellers can decide to sell their vegetables in retail or wholesale or both. - There are few professional collectors and producers who have a close relation (contracts) with big consumers such as restaurants, schools, factories/companies, and vegetable volume sold to these actors is not much.

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Figure 8

Marketing flow chart for vegetables from Son Du

Sold at the field (10%)

PRODUCER

Mustard Tomato Kohlrabi Bean Egg plant Green squash Cabbage ...

Village market (7%)

Collector

Full collector Seasonal collector (also producer )

Markets

Village markets

Near market: Phu Lo, Soc Son, Bop, Van Tri (wholesale and retail) To, Ha Noi markets (wholesaler) Far market: Yen Bai, Tuyen Quang, Thai Nguyen, ...(wholesale and retail)

Vegetables

Villager

Outsider

At home (13%)

Direct selling (70%)

Fixed customer

Farmers sell vegetables to collector

Collector sell vegetables in the markets

Farmers sell vegetable in the markets

Some issues in vegetable production and marketing activities - Some vegetables are graded to sell in particular markets, They are usually graded into 2 grades - better quality and normal vegetables. Better quality vegetables that accounts for 30 - 50% of total vegetables produced in the hamlet, are sold in markets in Hanoi and other provinces. - Transportation means maybe bicycles, motorcycles, trucks or even human forces depending on farmers' condition, amount of vegetables, or distance to markets. - Vegetable price varies daily depending on quality, selling methods and market types (meaning how far from markets to producers' home). For example, vegetables sold at home is with a price of 10% lower than in other markets. - Vegetable producers do not get information regarding market price in any media sources, they usually get this information from other farmers or when they are in markets. - Payment is usually done immediately in cash between buyers and sellers. In some cases, buyer can do late payment if they have trustful relationship with sellers. - Main constrains of vegetable marketing activities are climate changes (especially raining), vegetable price variation, low power in price negotiation (at far markets), and high transportation cost. 2.10.3 Farmers' Crop Preference Farmers identified the following eight indicators for choosing what vegetables should they grow: ! Most common vegetable (10 score as largest) ! Shortest growing time (10 score as shortest) ! Lowest seed cost (10 score as lowest) ! Highest gain (10 score as highest) ! Cultivate easily (10 score as easiest) ! Market easily (10 score as easiest) ! Least infected by pests and diseases (10 score as least) ! Lowest production cost (10 score as lowest) With these criteria, farmers scored major vegetable crops as presented in Table 16.

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At present, field cabbage is grown with the largest area in Son Du (10). Short growing time and low seed cost, less production technique knowledge, easily marketing, low production cost, and less affected by pest and disease. Thus, though, field cabbage just generates a medium gain, farmers do interest in growing it. Kohlrabi and tomato are grown in fair area (5 for both). Production cost for these two crops is higher than that of other crops (1 for kohlrabi and 2 for tomato). However, these crops can generate a good gain for farmers (9 for kohlrabi and 7 for tomato). Between these two, tomato requires more production techniques than kohlrabi. Besides, market price for tomato varies much whilst that for kohlrabi is relatively stable and perceived safer by consumers. Cabbage is also a crop that generates a good gain for farmers (8), but it just accounts for a smaller area than kohlrabi because its growing time is relatively long (5), production cost is high (3), especially cabbage is difficult marketed (owing to consumers' psychology as revealed by farmers).

Table 16

Crops

Crop preferences of farmers

Area (largest) 10 5 5 8 3 4 2 1 Growing time (shortest) 10 9 3 7 1 5 3 2 Seed cost (lowest) 10 1 3 4 9 2 5 7 Revenue (highest) 6 9 7 10 1 8 4 5 Teachniques (easiest) 9 7 1 6 10 5 3 2 Marketing (easiest) 9 7 2 8 10 1 5 3 Pest and disease (fewest) 8 5 1 6 10 4 3 2 Total cost (lowest) 9 1 2 5 10 3 7 1

Field cabbage Kohlrabi Tomato Long bean Maize Cabbage Egg plant Chilli

Eggplant generate a low profit owing to its long growing time, more affected by pest and disease, requiring more production techniques. However, eggplant is easily marketed. Chilli is newly grown in Son Du, thus its area is the smallest. Its production cost is high (1), much affected by pest and disease (2), requiring more production techniques (2), long growing time (3), and generating a medium gain. According to farmers, at first, market price for chilli was 25,000 ­ 30,000 VND/kg, however, at present, it is only of 2,500 ­ 3,000 VND/kg. Maize is also one of the crops grown in winter season especially in high elevation area. Though maize generates a low gain, it requires less production techniques, easily marketing, less affected by pest and disease, low seed cost, and low production cost. Corn is mainly used for livestock.

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2.10.4 Input - output flows of farm household Based on farmers' typologies, farmers came to chose three farm households which are considered as representatives for farmers in Son Du as a whole. Mr. To Van Nghi households (better-off), Mrs. Nguyen Thi Sinh household and Duong Thi Toan household (middle economic) to analyse input - output flows. Mr. To Van Nghi (42 years old) (see figure 9) ! General information of farm household: - No. of person: 5m of which 2 main labourers; 3 children are students in primary and secondary schools. - Agricultural land: 7 sao (with Red Book) and 3.5 sao (borrowed from father and old brother). - Gross income of farm household per year (2001): 12 - 13 million VND. - Expenditure of farm household per month: 800,000 VND ! Production strategy: - Crops: rice and vegetables - Livestock: Pig ( sow and pork), buffalo and chicken ! Production performance: - One buffalo (3 million VND), one calf (1.5 million VND). Buffalo provides draught power for land preparation and provides manure to crops. - Pig: One sow ( Mong cai purebred, 1 million VND). Sow has two litters per year with 10-12 piglets per litter. Weight of piglets which can be sold is about 13- 15 kg per head. Piglet price: 13,000 VND per kg. Total gross revenue of piglet: 1.51.7 millions VND. - Pig for meat: raising two litters per year; 1- 2 pigs per litter. Piglet comes the farm, weight of live saleable pig of 70- 80 kg per head; pig revenue: 1.7- 2 millions VND. - Chicken: 50 head/year; all for home consumption. - Paddy rice: 8 sao of spring rice; 6 sao of summer rice; Rice yields average of 160 kg/sao; 80% of rice for home consumption and 20% marketed. - Field cabbage (Hong Kong variety): 4 Sao; revenue of 700,000 VND/sao. - Green squash: 1.7 Sao, total revenue 2 millions VND. - Kohlrabi: 7 Sao, revenue of 700,000 VND/Sao. - Cabbage: 0.5 Sao, revenue of 100,000 VND/sao. - Tomato: 1 Sao (American tomato), revenue of 500,000 VND/sao. ! Input flows: - Manure (from buffalo and pig): 90% of manure is used for the rice, and the rest to tomato. - Chicken manure bought from other households at 2,000 kg/year with price of 250 VND/kg. Chicken manure: 500 kg for field cabbage; 900 kg for kohlrabi; and 100 kg for cabbage. - Seed, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, pesticides, etc. are bought from private and state shops. - Pig feed: besides feed available at home, household buy some industrial feed at a cost of 700,000 VND/year and some corn from private shops cost 150,000 VND/year. - Buffalo feed: rice straw and grass only ! Output flows: - Selling 80- 90% of piglet, the rest for domestic raising

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!

!

Meat pig: selling 100% produced to slaughter in the commune Paddy rice: selling 20% of total production to village trader at 1,800- 2,000 VND per kg. - Field cabbage and green squash: selling 100% of production to collectors at the field. - Kohlrabi: sell 100% of production in Ha Noi markets such as Dich Vong, Cau Giay night markets, transported by motorcycle. - Cabbage and tomato: selling to retailers in Phu Lo, Nguyen Khe markets, transported by motorcycle. Payment transaction: - Most of case, payment is done immediately in cash - Some products like piglet, meat pig, few vegetables can do late payment around 1- 2 weeks after selling. Farm household expectation of project: Good quality of agricultural inputs and moderate price Good marketing organization -

Figure 9

Resource flow map of To Van Nghi household

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Figure 10 Resource flow map of the household of Mrs. Nguyen Thi Chinh

VEGSYS

Mrs. Nguyen Thi Chinh (48 years old) (see figure 10) ! General information: - 5 persons in which 2 labourers, 2 dependents (one is over 65 and one child), one worker in industry company. - Agricultural land: 7 Sao (on the Red Book) and 1.5 Sao of garden - Total income of farm household: 5 million VND from agriculture and 4 million VND from off-farm activities/year - Expenditure of farm household: 500,000- 600,000 VND/month. ! Production strategy: Animals: buffalo, pig and chicken Crops: rice and vegetables One member works in industrial factory with a salary of 400,000 VND/month. ! Production performance - Buffalo provides draught power for land preparation - Sow: One sow ­ two litter; 10 - 12 piglets/litter; total revenue of 3.5 millions VND/year. - 50 chickens for home consumption and marketed with revenue of 1 million VND/year - Rice: 7 sao of spring rice with a yield of 220 kg/sao; 7 sao of summer rice with a yield of 150 kg/sao; 100% of rice production for home consumption in which 50% for human and the rest for animals - Field cabbage: 1 sao; total revenue of 300,000 VND/year - Vegetable sponge (grown in home garden); total revenue of 300,000 VND/year ! Input flows - Manure (cattle and pig) from the own household, and bought 500 kg of chicken manure with price of 250 VND/kg from other households in Xuan Noi commune (as far as 3 km) - Rice seed bought from agricultural cooperatives; amount of 4 kg/sao/season at a price of 4,000 VND/kg.

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!

!

!

Field cabbage seed and chilli are bought in Van Tri market Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and pesticides are bought from private traders in the hamlet or Bac Hong market (as far as 2 km) - Animal food is mainly available at home, and bought 40 kg of industrial food (Con Co) at price of 7000 VND/kg at private shops in the hamlet. Output flows: - Piglets are sold to a wholesaler in Hanoi - 70 of chicken production sold in Van Tri market (to final consumers) - Field cabbage transported by bicycle and sold in Phu Lo and Nguyen Khe markets. Payment transaction - Payment is done in cash. Some production inputs can do payment later one month. Farm household expectation: nothing and she does not want to expand her production scale. -

Mrs. Duong Thi Toan (47 years old) ! General information: - 5 persons of whom 2 are agricultural labourers - Agricultural land: 6.2 Sao - 30% of total income used for reproduction and the rest for home consumption. ! Production strategy: - Livestock: sow and meat pig. - Crop: rice and vegetables ! Production performance: - Animals: 1 sow with 2 litters/year; 9 - 10 piglets/litter; weight of saleable piglet of 10- 12 kg/ head. Meat pigs are raised two/year from litter, weight at selling time is 80 kg/head. - Rice: 4 sao of spring rice and 4 sao of summer rice. Average yield of 160 kg/sao. - Field cabbage: 1 sao with 600 kg of production. Selling price: 1,400 VND/kg. - Kohlrabi: 2 sao. Yield of 700 kg/sao. Selling price of 1,400 VND/kg. - Long bean: 1.1 sao. Yield of 200 kg/sao. Selling price of 1000 VND/kg. - Green Bean: 1 sao. Yield of 500 kg/sao. Selling price of 1500 VND/kg. - Cucumber: 336 m2. Revenue of 200,000 VND/year ! Input flows: - Pig manure used for crops. 200 kg of chicken manure is bought from other places. - Seed, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and pesticides are bought from private shops in the hamlet. - 70% of animal food is bought from markets and 30% available at home. ! Output flows: - Piglet sold to other farms in the hamlet at price of 13,000 VND/kg. - Meat pig sold to slaughter in the hamlet at price of 16,000 VND/kg. - Almost 100% of vegetable production sold in markets such as Da Phuc, To, Phu Lo, Moi. ! Farm household expectation: Have loans with low interest for production purpose Good marketing organization for vegetables.

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PR04: Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal in Son Du, Vietnam

VEGSYS

3

Problems and solutions for vegetable production and marketing as perceived by farmers

The study group used a "problem tree" tool (see figure 11) to identify problems and solutions for vegetable production in Son Du hamlet. The diagram presents two main problems which are: ! Soils are infected by pests and diseases ! Difficulties regarding vegetable marketing.

3.1 Problems First problem - soil is infected by pests and diseases.

Farmers said that most of vegetables that are grown in the hamlet, are infected by pests and diseases, even though seeds and seedlings are bought from other places. This induces to increase of pesticide application and reduction of pest and disease killing effectiveness. Causes of soil infected by diseases are: - Pest and diseases can follow irrigation water. Water used in the hamlet, is "second" water from nearby communes, which also grow vegetables, or from neighbour farms nearby whose crops are already pest and disease affected. - Less of crop rotation. Though there are certain cropping patterns being adopted by farmers in Son Du, however, rotation time is too short to kill pest and disease sources and many farm households usually grow one kind of vegetable for two or three times continuously. - Soil is not rested. It is main and intractable constraint in Son Du because of low agricultural land per capita while off-farm job is limited. Therefore, farmers have to try to exploit the soils. They grow rice for domestic consumption and grow vegetables for cash and less time is between these. For example, farmers may harvest rice in the morning and prepare land for next (vegetable) crops in the afternoon. - Lack of technical know how. Farmers grow different crops on the same field or the same crops grown with different cropping growth. This makes pesticides used difficult and less effective. Besides, due to shortage of labour force (for agricultural production), farmers use more pesticides to protect their crops. They even don't known characteristics of pesticides they use especially when many new kinds of pesticide are marketed. What they know regarding pesticide use techniques is information provided by pesticide sellers or neighbours. They even simply think that by mixing different pesticides they can increase killing effectiveness. Farmers complain about low quality of pesticides, while they do not understand that some pests or diseases are already able to resist pesticides

Problems with vegetable marketing.

Farmers are facing difficulties in selling their products because: - Lack of a rational production plan - Low market demand (or poor distribution system?) - Market price varies - Consumers' psychology on certain vegetables that they think unsafe.

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EU contract number ICA4-CT-2001-1005

VEGSYS

PR04: Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal in Son Du, Vietnam

3.2

Solutions

Farmers proposed solutions for above mentioned problems of which treatment of disease infected on soil and improvement of vegetable distribution system are their first priority. In order to achieve the first solution, it is necessary to carry out activities as follows: - Technical know-how training on safe vegetable production for farmers. Although many farmers in the hamlet have been trained on IPM on some types of vegetable, vegetable producers can not follow IPM procedures, because they have to spend much labour force for plant protection, then they still use pesticides even high toxic ones for high killing effect. - Treatments of water for irrigation. Farmers mentioned that they can take direct water from the Ca Lo river or underground water from wells if they get some help from authority. - Adding lime during land preparation - Carefully preparing land before planting - Need some time for soil resting between two crops - Rotating crops In order to improve vegetable marketing system, farmers considered two measures as follows: ! Setting up production and marketing plan ! Establishing cooperatives responsible for vegetable distribution ! At present, almost all farmers in the hamlet directly sell their vegetables in markets. They are still facing constrains as lack of transportation means, competition among vegetable producers, low power for price negotiation, etc. Farmers said that they need organizations responsible for vegetable marketing.

Figure 11 Problem and solution tree made by farmers of Son Du

Problem tree

Improve technical know-how

Solution tree

Give soil time to "rest", fallowing

Plant infested by pest and disease through irrigation water

More use of chemicals

Soil is not rested

Less crop rotation

Use lime

Careful land preparation

Poor technical know - how

Soil infected by diseases

Water treatment Plants affected by pest and diseases

Soil treatment

Crop rotation

Reduce pest and diseases

More use of chemicals

High production cost

Market price variation

Lack of market information

Consumers' opinion regarding food safety

Make production plan

Reduce chemical input level

Difficulty to market veg.

Form a cooperation in veg. marketing Easier to market veg.

Poor planning of production

Low market demand

EU contract number ICA4-CT-2001-10054

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PR04: Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal in Son Du, Vietnam

VEGSYS

4

Conclusions

Son Du is one of 8 hamlets within Nguyen Khe commune. It is a hamlet with the largest area devoted to vegetable production among others. At present, major vegetables are field cabbage, climbing bean, kohlrabi and cabbage. Cultivation soil layer is thin, the layer below is hard, Son Du soil is representative for those in Soc Son district (Hanoi), Vinh Phuc and Phu Tho province (Northern Vietnam). According to soil experts, this type of soil is not favourable for most vegetables. However, in the struggle for existence, farmers in Son Du have, to a certain extent, overcome this problem for vegetable growing. Vegetables growing started in Son Du in the 1970s in winter season and in the 1980s, farmers started to grow summer vegetables as well, though still at a small scale. Area for vegetables has expanded from the beginning of the 1990s, and at present, it accounts for a large share of agricultural land and agricultural production as well. Vegetable production is relatively intensive, both in terms of chemical uses and cropping index, however less intensive than those of Tang My hamlet. Chemicals are main way to protect farmers' crops from attack of pest and disease. Farmers use pesticides based upon on their own experience and technical know-how given by pesticide sellers only. Some high toxic pesticides that are forbidden in Vietnam are still used by farmers. Besides, chemical fertilizers are more applied for crops. However, organic fertilizers used in Son Du is more than that used by farmers in Tang My. Using more organic fertilizers helps to reduce effects of intractable pest and disease as revealed by farmers. Apart from these, farmers are using water that had been used by farmers in intensive vegetable production area such as Nam Hong and Bac Hong commune, thus negatively affect on their soil. Vegetable marketing issue is also much concerned by farmers. According to farmers, they reduce area for tomato because of unstable market demand for tomato and some intractable disease as well, which induce to high risk of production. Early vegetable crops can usually generate high economic value but they also encounter a high risk that is why farmers' don't want to use more land area for early vegetables. Studies aiming at increasing effectiveness of fertilizer and pesticide uses and improving marketing conditions for vegetable production as proposed in VEGSYS project proposal would be helpful for farmers and environment as well.

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EU contract number ICA4-CT-2001-1005

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PR04: Rapid Diagnostic Appraisal in Son Du, Vietnam

Annex 1

Table 17

Members of the Hanoi Agricultural University RDA team

List of researchers involved in RDA in Son Du

Full name

Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh* Nguyen Van Dinh Nguyen Thi Hao Nguyen Thi Bich Yen Pham Van Hoi* Ngo The An Tran Manh Tuong Tran Huu Cuong* Dang Van Tien Ngo Thi Thu Hang Nguyen Van Dung* Tran Van Chinh Nguyen Nhu Ha Dinh Thi Hai Van To Xuan Phuc Nguyen Minh Ngoc Nguyen Thi Huong

Specialization

Entomologist Entomologist Pathologist Entomologist Environmentalist GIS Cropping science Agri. economist Agri. economist Agri. economist Land use planning Soil science Soil science Environmentalist Social economist Environmentalist Cropping science

Adds

Faculty of Agronomy Faculty of Agronomy Faculty of Agronomy Faculty of Agronomy Faculty of Agronomy Faculty of Agronomy Faculty of Agronomy Faculty of Agri. economic and Rural Development Faculty of Agri. economic and Rural Development Faculty of Agri. economic and Rural Development Faculty of Land and Water management Faculty of Land and Water management Faculty of Land and Water management Center for Agricultural Research and Ecological Studies (CARES) CARES CARES Graduate student

Note: * team leader

EU contract number ICA4-CT-2001-10054

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