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Wilderness Planning

A framework for developing Wilderness management direction. Produced by Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center March 1995 USDA Forest Service, USDI Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service and the Fish & Wildlife Service

Acknowledgements Contributors

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Primary credit for information found in this publication goes to Linda Merigliano, Bridger-Teton National Forest. Her enthusiasm and dedication to this project made it a reality. Special thanks to Susan Marsh, Bridger-Teton National Forest for her endless hours of writing and editing; Jerry Stokes, USFS, Washington D.C. and Liz Close, USFS, Northern Region for helping to initiate this project; David Cole, Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institute and Steve McCool, University of Montana for their insightful ideas; Peter Landres, Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Institue for the discussions on desired conditions and standards; and Ruth Monahan for setting up the workshop to pilot test the materials. Lesson plan writers or contributors included Lois Ziemann, Chugach National Forest; Kevin Elliott, Shoshone National Forest; Jerry Stokes, USFS, Washington D.C., Marilyn Hof, NPS, Denver; Jim Hammett, NPS, Denver; Leslie Kerr, USFWS, Alaska; Steve Markason, Bridger-Teton National Forest (former); Karen Barnett, Bridger-Teton National Forest (former); Frank Beum, Routt National Forest; Ed Krumpe, University of Idaho; Joe Ashor, BLM, Dillon, Montana; Lisa Therrell, Wenatchee National Forest; Dan Ritter, Nez Perce National Forest; Ruth Scott, Olympic National Park; John Romanowski, Cherokee National Forest; Bill Reynolds and Doug Welker, Ottawa National Forest; Martha Merrill, Targhee National Forest; Brian Kenner, Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore; Clark Tucker, Ashley National Forest; Jerry Reese, Targhee National Forest; Susan Sater, USFS, Pacific Northwest Region; Dennis Haddow, USFS, Rocky Mountain Region; and Ken Butts, USFWS, Washington D.C. Numerous sets of eyes reviewed this document, some several times. They include Susan Sater, USFS, Pacific Northwest Region; Dan Burgette, Grand Teton National Park; Glenn Casamassa, USFS, Intermountain Region; Curt Spalding, Payette National Forest; Bryant Smith, Coronado National Forest; Andy Norman, Bridger-Teton National Forest; Liz Close, USFS, Northern Region; Keith Corrigall, BLM, Washington D.C.; Wes Henry, NPS, Washington D.C.; Jeff Jarvis, BLM, Phoenix; Ed Loth, USFWS, Washington D.C.; Ruth Monahan, USFS, Intermountain Region; Steve Morton, USFS, Northern Region; Gayne Sears, Ashley National Forest; Mike Skinner, USFS, Pacific Southwest Region; and Anne Zimmerman, Lolo National Forest.

Supporters

In addition to daily District duties, Ninemile Ranger District employees strongly supported this and other national wilderness projects. Their willingness to lend a hand when needed is invaluable. For their vision of excellence in wilderness mangement and genuine support of this project, special thanks are extended to National Wilderness Program Leaders John Twiss, USFS; Jerry Stokes, USFS; Keith Corrigall, BLM; Wes Henry, NPS; Pete Jerome, USFWS; USFS Regional Wilderness Program Leaders: Liz Close, Steve Morton, Ruth Monahan, Margaret Petersen, Larry Phillips, and Arn Albrecht.

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Table of Contents

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgments......................................................................................... i Introduction.................................................................................................. iii Agenda for Training Workshop.................................................................. ix Definitions...................................................................................................... xix Case Study..................................................................................................... xxiii Units #1 Wilderness Management Philosophy........................................................ 1-1 #2 The Planning Process................................................................................ 2-1 Introduction to planning................................................................ 2-23 Evolution in planning concepts..................................................... 2-31 Fish and Wildlife Service planning framework............................. 2-39 Forest Service planning framework............................................... 2-47 National Park Service planning framework................................... 2-65 Potential Topics to be included in Planning.................................. 2-75 #3 Getting Started........................................................................................... 3-1 #4 Need for Change........................................................................................ 4-1 #5 Public Involvement.................................................................................... 5-1 #6 Current Conditions..................................................................................... 6-1 #7 Desired Conditions..................................................................................... 7-1 #8 Monitoring Indicators................................................................................ 8-1 #9 Standards.................................................................................................... 9-1 #10 Scoping the Proposed Management Direction......................................... 10-1 #11 Developing and Evaluating Alternatives................................................. 11-1 #12 Documenting the Decision....................................................................... 12-1 #13 Implementing Management Direction..................................................... Fish and Wildlife Service framework........................................... Forest Service framework............................................................. National Park Service framework................................................. 13-1 13-5 13-9 13-35

Appendices References..................................................................................... A-1 Module Writers and Reviewers..................................................... A-5

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Introduction

Background

In the past, many plans focused on making land allocation decisions. Thus, the primary planning task relative to wilderness was deciding whether or not to recommend a particular area for inclusion in the National Wilderness Preservation System. However, there is now growing emphasis on how these areas are managed so that the values associated with these special places are protected for future generations as Congress intended. As the emphasis on Wilderness management increased, a number of events occurred which created confusion about how to develop Wilderness management direction within the framework of NEPA and each agency's planning process. Some of these events were: 1. Passage of the National Forest Management Act (NFMA) and the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) mandated the development of one comprehensive management plan to provide programmatic direction for all resources including Wilderness, rather than developing separate plans for each resource. This began the Forest Service process to develop Forest Plans and the Bureau of Land Management process to develop Resource Management Plans. 2. Critiques of land management planning helped clarify what decisions were actually made in programmatic plans. Increased emphasis on using an ecosystem approach has led to recommendations that management direction focus on desired conditions rather than outputs and direction should be specific to a particular area rather than just repeating direction found in existing legislation and policy directives. 3. Growing demands on the Wilderness resource raised numerous complex issues. While Wilderness legislation does constrain the decision space, there is still considerable interpretation within the Act. Existing direction contained within plans often did not provide managers with the guidance needed to make defendable decisions and there was often no way to assess whether progress was being made toward desired conditions. 4. Wilderness planning has often been delegated either to field people who know about specific area conditions but lack knowledge about NEPA and agency planning processes or to planners and staff officers who know about NEPA and planning but lack knowledge about wilderness management. Both types of people had their own set of jargon and planning concepts. This created communication barriers which slowed wilderness planning efforts. 5. Wilderness management and planning has had a decided focus on recreation. There is an increasing emphasis on moving beyond recreation to address other Wilderness purposes. 6. There is increased interest in "fuzzing" the boundaries between administrative jurisdictions and recognizing that the four agencies responsible for management of the National Wilderness Preservation System share common issues and could benefit from shared information on planning. As a result, many managers do not feel they currently have effective programmatic Wilderness management direction and want to begin the planning process. However

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they would like guidance on developing such direction so their time is used effectively. This module was developed to respond to this need.

A line officer's perspective

Managing the Wilderness Resource in today's world is a challenging and often daunting task. As emphasis shifts from the effort to establish wilderness to the equally important work of managing wilderness, more and more issues are finding their way to the public forum. Wilderness managers often find themselves caught between the dichotomous goals of the Wilderness Act--the need to preserve wilderness for specific purposes and benefits for ourselves and future generations, and the need to provide for use and enjoyment by this generation of Americans. One thing is certain. Issues don't go away by ignoring them. They need to be addressed and resolved. One way to do this is to develop good programmatic direction in our forest plans to guide our wilderness management efforts. Very few programmatic plans have adequate direction for wilderness management. Many efforts are underway across the country to amend plans to provide quality direction. These processes are the result of the recognized need to resolve wilderness management issues and do so in a manner which insures direct involvement and influence by the public. Citizen participation in the process in one of the key benefits of establishing programmatic direction. Open discussion of issues, objective setting, debate, and consensus building where possible, all lead toward direction that is reasonable, lawful, practical, and implementable. We must have this participation to have wilderness management direction that is acceptable and workable. Once established, programmatic direction provides guidance and rationale for local wilderness managers to resolve local issues. Even in situations where a particular issue is not specifically addressed, programmatic direction can help by stating goals and objectives to be achieved, the desired conditions for the wilderness resource, specific standards that need to be met, and what are acceptable and unacceptable impacts to the wilderness. Programmatic direction provides for a degree of consistency. When local managers make a decision that may impact wilderness resources, the direction defines what the public expects and can form a solid basis for the rationale of the decision. Programmatic direction provides a basis to make anchored budget proposals and annual work programs. Once we know what objectives we need to achieve and to what standard we are to manage for, then we can prepare and defend outyear budget proposals, and make logical and consistent current year programs of work. We can also better define our needs--for trail maintenance, trail construction, visitor management, grazing management, fire management, etc., and define, track, and report reasonable and practical outputs. Keeping the Wilderness Implementation Schedules updated and current is made much easier once this direction is in place. The most important reason for having good wilderness management direction at the programmatic level is the guidance provided to on-the-ground managers and wilderness rangers. The everyday work of these dedicated individuals is where the payoff is for the wilderness resource. The management direction can be used to help wilderness rangers define wilderness education opportunities when making public contacts, focus monitoring efforts on priority needs, set schedules and work priorities, recommend changes in procedures, direction, or the desired future condition of the resource, and assess the practicality of the indicators and standards used. It is

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important that wilderness managers constantly assess whether the direction provided is adequate and appropriate for meeting the stated objectives. Feedback into the system for further refinement and improvement of the direction should be a continuing process and an important role of wilderness managers and rangers. It is imperative that the wilderness management direction be developed and incorporated into the existing programmatic plans through proper amendment or revision procedures. These plans are the legal vehicle for defining desired conditions and setting programmatic direction. Wilderness direction must be included in the plans to lawfully form the basis for the benefits described above. CLARK TUCKER District Ranger, Roosevelt District Ashley National Forest

A forest supervisor's perspective

I have spent a considerable and enjoyable portion of my career in management of quality wildernesses, including the Bob Marshall in Montana, the Frank Church-- River of No Return in Idaho and the Teton in Wyoming. Good wilderness management direction is crucial to successfully meet our responsibilities to "secure for the American people the benefits of an enduring resource of wilderness." Too often, I think we view wilderness as requiring little management attention (i.e. we just need to stand back and let whatever happens, happen). In reality, wilderness management is often more complex than management of non-wilderness lands because of the need to maintain the delicate balance between preserving natural ecological processes and providing for human use and enjoyment of the wilderness. For example, trail systems must be located and designed to the proper standards to provide access and provide a quality wilderness experience, while maintaining basic wilderness attributes. Similarly, natural events such as fire or insect/disease infestations must be addressed and the role of these change agents must be coordinated with objectives on adjacent lands. Standards for human use, including outfitter-guide operations, are needed to protect wilderness resources, while maintaining a quality visitor experience. The list goes on and on, but the key to successful Wilderness administration is solid wilderness management direction tailored to the specific resources and needs of your particular Wilderness. JERRY REESE Forest Supervisor Targhee National Forest

Purpose

The Wilderness Planning Training Module was developed to help managers prepare management direction that describes what is to be achieved and how progress will be measured. Effective management direction can provide guidance that improves onthe-ground Wilderness stewardship. The focus is on concepts and ideas to prepare management direction that describes desired conditions, establishes standards for acceptable conditions, and identifies monitoring indicators to track progress. Development of this type of management direction requires National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) analysis, thus this module is organized into units that will help managers work through the steps required to develop a proposed action and prepare

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the NEPA document. Each unit contains the purpose of the section, background information, suggested activities, overheads, and work sheets which can be used to complete this unit for your own Wilderness. Examples are provided where they were available. Planning does not end with the development of desired conditions, standards, and monitoring indicators. You should seek additional training and assistance from specialists to learn about implementation of management direction at the project level as well as the details associated with your agency's planning process, NEPA, and wilderness management.

Goals

1. To provide guidance (concepts and ideas, NOT policy) on developing programmatic Wilderness management direction (desired conditions, standards, and monitoring indicators) which is comprehensive, integrated, defendable, responsive to citizen input, and ensures protection of the Wilderness resource under the intent of enabling legislation. 2. To provide a framework for developing Wilderness management direction that recognizes that there is one National Wilderness Preservation System managed by four federal agencies. 3. To bridge understanding and terminology gaps between Wilderness resource specialists and planners.

Objectives

1. Participants understand their agency's planning process to develop programmatic direction and associated NEPA requirements. Participants know how to develop goals, objectives, desired conditions, standards, and monitoring indicators. The basic relationship between planning documents and processes can be explained. 2. Participants understand how planning helps translate the intent of the Wilderness Act into direction for a specific area. 3. Participants can assess public involvement needs and are able to create an environment for meaningful public involvement that leads to public acceptance of management direction. 4. Participants can define commonly used terms so that concepts can be communicated. 5. Participants are able to assess what is needed (staff, time and cost) to complete the planning process.

Organization

Included in this notebook is all the material you will need to conduct wilderness planning training in your unit. The information presented provides a flexible framework to be adapted according to the target audience needs, knowledge level and agency specifics. This module is designed to be used in conjunction with a training workshop. A training forum is necessary due to the subtleties of planning processes. Regional or specific area training sessions offer the best opportunity for participants to learn the

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material since instruction, classroom discussion, and hands-on exercises can bring out questions and provide immediate feedback. Included in the module is a case study that can be used in conjunction with the worksheets, if your group is not working through an existing planning process together. The module should be used as a reference guide only by those who have taken such a training course or who already fully understand planning processes. Presented in the next section is the fundamental information needed to get started. You will find information for facilitators, tips on what to look for when considering the target audience, and a step-by-step approach for conducting your own wilderness planning session. The text includes background reading that you must complete to ensure you (or your facilitator) are fully prepared, and it also includes supplemental information that may be used in your training session. One final word: this module is not intended to be policy. Planning is a very dynamic field and will continue to evolve. The module simply represents the experience of managers who have developed Wilderness management direction and are willing to share their experience to help others. This module is purposely contained in a 3-ring binder so that units can be updated and easily inserted. The focus of the module is on concepts rather than "how to's." There is no "cookbook" for planning but we hope that this module used in conjunction with instruction and discussion will provide useful ideas to develop management direction for a particular Wilderness. The philosophy behind this module is that--"Processes are for thinkers, not crutches for the thoughtless" (Michael Soule).

Target audience

The target audience for this module is program managers for wilderness, wilderness planning coordinators, line officers, and planners. Ideally, the interdisciplinary team charged with developing wilderness management direction would work through this material together. Cooperators in wilderness planning efforts, such as State Wildlife and Fish agencies, may also benefit from better understanding of the planning process so they can be more effective participants.

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Agenda for Training Workshop

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Sample Training Session Outline

Preparation Target audience

The key to a successful training session is preparation. Before you can figure out how much and what information to provide, which activities to use, and who is best suited to convey the information, you must first consider your target audience. The target audience for this training is program managers for wilderness, wilderness planning coordinators, line officers, and planners. Participants will get much more out of the session if they have some prior experience with NEPA planning. The session will work best if several people per wilderness attend (e.g. entire interdisciplinary team). This will allow groups to focus on their particular Wilderness and leave the session with the planning process already underway. Be aware that you will need to modify the way information is presented depending on your audience. For example, an audience including representatives from all four wilderness managing agencies requires sensitivity to the different terminologies used to describe the wilderness planning process.

Group size What participants should bring Length Instructors

The ideal group size is 25 to 35 with 5-6 people per wilderness for 5 or 6 wildernesses. Participants should come equiped with their Programmatic Plan (Resource Management Plan, Comprehensive Plan, Forest Plan, or General Management Plan), other documents with wilderness management direction (e.g. activity plans, implementation schedules), and a map of wilderness large enough to refer to in group exercises. The ideal length of a wilderness planning training session is 3 1/2 days with an optional 1/2 day at end for the training cadre to give assistance to individual wilderness units. An effort has been made to provide all the information and materials you will need to conduct a wilderness planning training session. However, every teaching situation is different and it is your responsibility to review the enclosed materials and decide what is most appropriate to meet your specific needs. If necessary, supplement the information with your own materials. Instructors should be a mix of wilderness managers and planners with experience in developing wilderness management direction. Instructors must know the material, be able to cite real examples, and be dynamic presenters and able to relate to the target audience). Instructors need to meet before the session and after each day to evaluate how it went and plan for the following day. Ideally, there should be enough instructors so that participants don't have to listen to the same person for hours and an so instructor can help facilitate each group during the exercises.

Props needed

You will need flip charts, an overhead projector, two poster-size charts of planning framework, stick-on colored labels, an object that isn't easily identifiable (big enough to see from back row), little treats to toss to people when they give the right answer. Room should be set up to have tables in back with resource materials, sign-up sheets if people want copies, and other displays.

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Agenda for Training Workshop

Have tables set up so that participants can easily refer to their training notebooks and plans. Arrange the tables so everyone can see each other thus encouraging discussion. One idea for room layout is:

Recommended room layout

Front of room, flip charts < Tables at an angle, in a circle

Back of room - tables for small groups, resources

Group exercises

Worksheets are provided for each unit of the training module so participants can apply the information discussed in each unit to their particular Wilderness. Depending on the audience, instructors may choose to develop a case example that all participants can work with. This may be necessary if only one participant attends from each Wilderness or if participants are unable to bring information about their Wilderness. A sample evaluation form is included at the end of the agenda so participants can evaluate the material and the instruction. You may want to consider evaluating how well each participant understands the material (rather than assuming that attendance means the material is understood). The objectives for each unit should be the basis for evaluation. The following suggestions are provided as preliminary steps in preparing your program: 1) Thoroughly study all of the information included in this notebook. Do not make the mistake of thinking that just because the information has been gathered for you that your job is complete. It is critical that you take time to decided what information and activities are most appropriate to your situation. Start with the Agenda and Evaluations and modify them to meet your needs. 2) Determine the most appropriate time and place to conduct a wilderness planning training and send out a brief description of the course, goals, agenda, educational outcome and targeted audience to generate participation. 3) Once your training session is scheduled, re-focus your attention on this notebook. Based on your audience, decide which activities, handouts and overheads to use. Search our available wilderness references to supplement the material as necessary. 4) Select dynamic, qualified instructors and facilitators to help with the program presentation. Provide them well in advance, with appropriate materials. 5) You and your instructors should consider testing the various activity options on wilderness co-workers for effectiveness and preference. Present information and conduct the activities that are most comfortable for you and your instructors.

Evaluation

Preparation Steps

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6) Develop and distribute a final agenda and include information about the instructors, location, appropriate clothing, eating arrangements, travel and lodging, if necessary. 7) Prepare handouts, notebooks, overheads, displays, reference materials, maps, quotes and any other appropriate materials. Be certain that necessary equipment is available including flip charts, markers, overhead projector, extra bulbs, video player, extension cords, screen, tables and chairs. 8) Complete a summary of the course evaluations and forward it to Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center, 20325 Remount Rd., Huson, MT 59846. Please include copies of your agenda and any supplemental information you may have used. This will help us assist others in conducting this training. 9) Appropriately acknowledge instructors and others who have provided course support and follow up with attendees as requested. Have fun and don't wait too long to schedule your next course!

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Agenda for Training Workshop

NATIONAL INTERAGENCY WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT PLANNING AGENDA

Tuesday, October 17 8:00 am Introductions Introduction of instructor cadre and participants. Identify participants expectations, review course objectives. Walk through notebook. Icebreaker--The Same Game (See back of the agenda for instructions.) 8:45 am Planning Framework Review material on wilderness management (planning questions) and planning concepts. Introduce general planning framework. Involve participants in identifying attributes of effective plan direction. Activity- W. Planning Jeopardy 10:15 am Break 10:30 am Agency Planning Frameworks Presentation of general framework. Discussion of where people are in their particular planning process. 12:00 am Lunch 1:00 pm Getting Started Defining assessment area. Review material in book, including building line officer support. 1:45 pm Need for Change Start with exercise related to "need for change" - 15 minutes. Present material from notebook - 30 minutes. Group reports - 30 minutes. 3:00 pm Break 3:30 pm Creating an Environment for Meaningful Public Involvement Present material from notebook - 30 minutes. Exercise - 45 minutes. 4:45 Questions

Wednesday, October 18 8:00 8:15 Review course objectives, highlight ones that will be met today. Current Conditions

Introduce exercise stressing key parts from notebook - 15 minutes. Exercise - what do we have and what do we need - 30 minutes. Report out, group discussion - 30 minutes.

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9:30 9:45 Break Goals and Desired Conditions

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Present material from notebook - 30 minutes. Exercise - 45 minutes. Report out, group discussion - 45 minutes. 11:45 pm Lunch 1:00 Monitoring indicators

Present material in notebook - 30 minutes. Exercise: Have participants complete worksheets. 30 minutes. Report findings, group discussion - 30 minutes. 2:30 3:00 Break Objectives and Standards

Present material from notebook - 20 minutes. Exercise: Worksheet - 30 minutes. Report findings, group discussion - 25 minutes. 4:15 Wrapup

Thursday, October 19 8:00 8:15 Review course objectives, highlight ones that will be met today. Proposed Management Direction

Review what has been covered so far. At this point, participants should have a preliminary description of desired conditions for a couple "zones", a few monitoring indicators identified, and a few standards identified. Have participants draw one proposal (on their Wilderness map) for how direction might be applied to their Wilderness. 1 hour 15 minutes. 9:30 10:00 Break Scoping Proposed Management Direction

Present material in notebook - 30 minutes. Exercise: Complete worksheets to develop a concise description of proposed action and why new direction is needed. What issues will be generated by implementing the proposed management direction and which are significant for developing alternatives? - 30 minutes. Report findings, group discussion - 30 minutes. 11:30 1:00 1:15 Lunch Creative exercise relating to team work - 15 minutes. Developing and Evaluating Alternatives

Present material from notebook - 30 minutes. Exercise - 30 minutes. Report findings, group discussion - 45 minutes. 3:00 Break

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3:30 Documentation

Present material from notebook - 20 minutes. Exercise - 20 minutes. Report findings, group discussion - 20 minutes. 4:30 Questions

7:00 pm Round table discussion- Participants from each Wilderness share experiences and advice on what is working and what is not. Resource Table of materials.

Friday, October 20 8:00 8:15 Review course objectives, highlight ones to be met today. Implementing Management Direction

Note that switching gears (going from programmatic level to project level). Start with a creative exercise related to identifying management actions at project level. Present material from notebook - 30 minutes. Exercise - 30 minutes. Report findings, group discussion - 30 minutes. 9:45 10:00 Break Practical Applications

Discussion of implementation schedules, annual work plans, building out-year budgets, how to use the information generated during the planning process to build a more effective field program. Ask participants to share what seems to be working from them. 11:00 Wrapup. Recap Objectives, anything left unanswered?

The Same Game This activity can be used as an icebreaker for participants to immediately get up, move around and quickly get to know one another. Give each person the following sheet and 10 minutes to complete the activity. The first person to finish or the person who gets the most initials after ten minutes, gets a prize.

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The Same Game

Your goal is to find other people with the same attributes as you. When you find another person with the same attribute, initial each other's sheet. The same person can only initial one attribute.

1. The same color socks__________ 2. Born in the same state__________ 3. Likes the same type of music__________ 4. The same height__________ 5. Own the same type of pet__________ 6. Went to the same university__________ 7. Likes the same author__________ 8. Has the same number of children___________ 9. The same name__________ 10. The same style or length of hair__________

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Evaluation--Day One

Please refer to the following presentations when commenting: · Setting the Stage: National Perspective--Jerry Stokes · Wilderness Planning Framework--Linda Merigliano Poor 1 Good 2 3 Outstanding 4 5

1. Overall impression of the Day

2. Were stated objectives met?

3. Were presentations appropriate for Wilderness Managers and Planners?

4. Which presentations were most helpful?

5. Which presentations were least helpful?

6. Were there questions left unanswered?

7. What improvements would you suggest for future sessions?

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Agenda for Training Workshop

Overall Course Evaluation

Evaluation Overall Course Evaluation Poor 1 Good 2 3 Outstanding 4 5

1. Overall impression of the Day

2. What topics should be dropped or given less emphasis?

3. What topics should be added or given more emphasis?

4. Where there enough opportunities to ask questions or discuss specific concerns?

5. Do you believe this session has helped clarify what successful Wilderness Planning means?

6. Do you believe this session will help you improve the quality of Wilderness Planning on your home unit?

7. Other comments?

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Definitions

These definitions should be considered working definitions as of September 1994 and are included to aid communication between wilderness managers and planners. New planning regulations being considered by federal agencies and evolving interpretation of concepts may change these definitions.

Citizen task force

(As it pertains to wilderness planning) A group of citizens with diverse interests, backgrounds, and values regarding Wilderness management. Task forces are designed to represent the larger public interest in Wilderness including those with veto power and those with the ability to generate support for implementation of the product (Krumpe and Stokes 1993, Stokes 1990). They are charged with working together through open dialogue to produce a particular product (e.g. proposed Wilderness management direction). The task force must develop recommendations within the context of the Wilderness Act and operate within the bounds of the Federal Advisory Committee Act. Task forces do not have decision-making authority--the agency must adopt the recommendations before they become official. Citizen task forces are often viewed as an extension of staff specialists offering new information and insights gained from personal experience and expertise in a particular Wilderness. Task forces are used as one tool in an overall public involvement strategy. Creating and implementing a decision that all members of a group can support. It is not a unanimous vote, a majority rule, or the lowest common denominator. (Center for Conflict Resolution, 1981). Desired conditions are timeless, potentially measurable descriptions of Wilderness conditions to be achieved or maintained in the future (descriptions include resource conditions, processes, and experiences and are outcome-based). Desired conditions are normally expressed in terms that describe intent, thus they are not necessarily attainable in the foreseeable future. "Desired" does not necessarily mean "ideal" from a particular perspective. Rather, descriptions of desired conditions are the result of an optimization process that integrates scientific and managerial information with citizen values. Using an ecological approach to manage a Wilderness (or Park, Forest, Resource Area, Wildlife Refuge) by blending people's needs and values in a way that results in diverse, healthy, productive, and sustainable ecosystems. Key concepts of ecosystem management are: 1. Focus on desired conditions of the land and its human communities seeking to balance goals for the land (beauty, stability/fertility of soil, quality/flow of water, clarity of air, diversity of plants/animals/biological communities, and the interconnectedness and character of habitats and landscapes that provide health and resilience of ecological systems and processes) with goals for people (prosperity, diversity, health and vitality of the people who depend on the land for their livelihood, outdoor recreation, and inspiration). 2. Integrate thinking and actions at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Make administrative boundaries invisible. 3. Protect special places and things such as wetlands, endangered species, rare plant

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populations, and cultural resources. 4. Work within the ecological potential of sites and landscapes, maintain native diversity, and employ nature's processes to the greatest degree possible. 5. Get people involved in planning and carrying out project work. Involve interested and affected people in the full process of making decisions about common resources. 6. Involve scientists. Integrate research into management and set resource management up as a continual experiment and learning opportunity. 7. Think holistically. Integrate all resources and actions and build communities of interests.

Guideline

Guidelines are similar to standards that limit a manager's discretion except adherence is not mandatory. They are written as "should statements." Guidelines represent what is advisable based on the best information available (i.e. there is some uncertainty about the best action to be applied). They are also used when it is desirable to allow some flexibility before the need for corrective management action is triggered. The grudging willingness of opponents to go along with a course of action that they are actually still opposed to. Willingness to give it a try. (Institute for Participatory Management and Planning). A point, matter, or question of public discussion or interest to be addressed or decided through the planning process. Using an integrated, coordinated approach to determine what needs to be done to achieve desired conditions. It involves selecting an analysis area (opportunity area), analyzing desired future conditions, scheduling and budgeting projects, designing projects, carrying out projects, and monitoring/evaluation. A team of agency personnel representing several disciplines that integrates knowledge of the physical, biological, economic, and social sciences. The team must consider problems collectively rather than separating them along disciplinary lines. A process that focuses on describing desired conditions and defining how much change in conditions is acceptable, rather than focusing on how much use an area can withstand. Once acceptable conditions are defined, management actions are identified to achieve acceptable conditions and monitoring is implemented to track trends in conditions. The basic premise of the LAC concept is that some change in conditions is inevitable with any human use, thus the real question is to determine what is the acceptable level of change. Any projects or activities carried out or authorized by the managing agency.

Informed consent Issue Integrated resource analysis Interdisciplinary team Limits of acceptable change (LAC)

Management action Monitoring and evaluation indicators Natural

Measurable variables that can be used to track progress toward achieving desired conditions and standards. Monitoring indicators are valid measures that change in response to human activity and can be used to assess the quality of resource or experience conditions. The definition of "natural" is a topic of continuing debate. However, the most common use of "natural" refers to a process or situation free of human influence (Anderson 1991, Hoerr 1993). The American Heritage dictionary defines "natural" as "present in

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or produced by nature; not artificial or man-made." The debate over what is natural centers around the role of humans and whether human influences are natural or unnatural. Increasingly, there is recognition that, while humans are part of nature, the use of human technologies to control and dominate nature, are not natural (Franklin and Bloedel 1990). The Wilderness Act states that wilderness is a place "untrammeled" (not controlled) by humans where humans are just visitors, thus in this context, natural means without human influence.

Outcome Output Programmatic decision level Project decision level Range of natural variability Objectives

Resource conditions, processes, and experiences that will be achieved as a result of management. Projection of products (goods or services) anticipated to be produced as a result of management (e.g. recreation visitor days, animal numbers). This decision level defines what is to be achieved (desired conditions and standards) and how progress will be measured (monitoring indicators). Programmatic decisions form the basis for what types of human activities (including management activities) MAY occur, but it does not mean that any particular activity must occur. This decision level defines how a particular action will be done at a site-specific level. At this level, managers are making a commitment to carry out a particular project on a particular piece of land. The spectrum of conditions (composition, structure, and interrelationships) that would occur on a landscape if it were subject only to natural processes (free of human control). Variability in any system must be defined over time and space. Measurable statements that describe the resource and experience conditions that are considered realistic, attainable in the foreseeable future, and acceptable. They are expressed in specific, measurable terms so that they can be used to clearly trigger the need for corrective management action. Objectives are statements against which existing conditions can be measured. They are established to promote achievement of desired conditions. Objectives relate to what the land and the experience is minimally expected to be like. For further discussion regarding the concept of "acceptability," refer to Brunson 1993. A statement of management requirements that limit the discretion of managers. Adherence is mandatory and within the control of the agency. Standards are the bounds on the methods which could possibly be used to achieve desired conditions. Standards relate to how management actions are carried out. Standards should only be imposed where there is a clear need to limit the discretion of managers to choose what they think might be the best path to achieve desired conditions. Standards should be limited to those things which are mandatory no matter what the conditions are on the ground. Often, standards is found in policy directives and do not need to be repeated. An approach to planning that emphasizes grass-roots involvement of people who may be affected by planning decisions. Open dialogue, mutual learning, and action/ guidance are key elements. Guidance is characterized by a willingness to share decision-making authority, an emphasis on action, and sharing responsibility for achieving the desired end result. This approach recognizes the importance of social interaction among those affected by a decision, and stresses continuous two-way communication between planners and citizens (Force and McLaughlin 1981, Stokes 1982, Ashor, McCool and Stokes 1986).

Standars

Transactive planning

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Definitions--D

A process being developed by the National Park Service which incorporates the concept of carrying capacity into visitor use planning and management. It involves establishing zones that cover the range of desired resource and social conditions, and developing management strategies for achieving desired conditions. A 3- to 5-year schedule of actions needed to implement programmatic direction. It identifies the actions to be done, costs, timing, priorities, and responsibilities. It is a flexible and dynamic document that serves to identify what site-specific projects are needed and obtain the budget and staff needed to carry out projects. It documents the results of an analysis comparing existing conditions with desired conditions. It is not a NEPA document, nor is it part of a programmatic plan. (Also called Opportunity Class or Desired Condition Area): A mappable portion of an area that has the same direction for management (i.e. same set of desired conditions, standards and monitoring indicators). In many Wildernesses, it is common to establish three to four zones which provide a spectrum of settings ranging from very little human evidence to more human evidence (still within bounds of Wilderness Act).

Visitor experience and resource protection (VERP) Implementation schedule

Zone

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Case Study

FLAPJACK WILDERNESS

Affected Environment

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The 100,000 acre Flapjack Wilderness was Congressionally designated in 1976 and is administered by the Coho National Forest. It is bordered by Interstate 60 to the East and Blackfoot National Park to the West. That portion of Blackfoot that borders the Flapjack is also Congressionally designated Wilderness. Many of the recreationists that visit the area travel through both of the areas. Cities and towns in the vicinity are Megatown, 120 miles to the west, population 800,000; Milltown, 5 miles to the SW, population 600; and Happy Camp, 10 miles to the NE, population 1500. Happy Camp is a popular tourist destination and the "gateway" to Blackfoot National Park. The largest pulp mill in this region is located in Milltown. The mill is one of the three largest employers in the County. Characteristics of the area include wide glaciated valleys with large stands of ponderosa pine in the lower elevations and subalpine fir, white pine and alpine larch on the ridges. Big open meadows provide ample feed for several sheep allotments as well as recreation stock. There are over 50 high elevation lakes, most of which are accessible by trail. There are a couple of very prominent features that contributed to the designation of the Wilderness and are attractions for visitors. The Rim is a very popular 500 acre rock climbing area that is accessed by user built trails off of trail #1010. Climbers camp either at the foot of the cliffs or at Deep Lake. There are no sanitation facilities either place. Summertime use is approximately 100 people per weekend. Crystal Canyon is a very unique geologic feature where people have dug crystals for years. This use has increased dramatically in the past ten years with the growing popularity of crystals. In 1990 there was a gathering of approximately 100 people from a "New Age" organization to dig crystals and celebrate the summer solstice. There are no developed trails to Crystal Canyon and the easiest access is through the Park from Crystal Canyon Vista. There are user built trails from there as well as from Rd. 6540 out of Milltown. Access: Access to the four major trailheads on the east side of the Flapjack is by Interstate 60. The north side is accessed by Road #10, a paved two lane road with several developed campgrounds and picnic areas. This road also provides access to the North Entrance of Blackfoot National Park. Trails: There are 100 miles of maintained trail in the Flapjack Wilderness, accessed primarily by four major trailheads. These trailheads also provide relatively easy access to 35 miles of trail in Blackfoot. There are two major trailheads in Blackfoot that provide easy access to the Flapjack. Recreation Use: Visitor use in the Flapjack has increased dramatically over the past ten years, a direct result of a permit system implemented in Blackfoot National Park that restricts amounts of use in the park Wilderness. In 1975 there were approximately 10,500 visitors to Flapjack. In 1985 there were nearly 13,000 and in 1994, 15,000. The permit system was implemented in 1980.

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The increased use has resulted in degradation at many of the lakes. The party size limit in the Flapjack is 10 people and 15 head of stock. The party size in the adjacent park Wilderness is a total of 15 people and stock. This has resulted in an increase in large parties visiting the Flapjack. The high use season is June-October with the bulk of the use in July, August and early September. Late September and October are mostly hunters. There are four permitted outfitter and guides, two horse packers, one llama packer and one climbing guide service who operates in The Rim area. Approximately 60 % of the visitors are from Megatown, 10 % from the local County, 20 % from other parts of the State and 10 % from outside this State. Grazing: There are two active sheep grazing allotments in the Wilderness. One covers 20,000 acres the other 25,000. Forage utilization in the riparian areas is 70 % and 55 % in the uplands. Monitoring of the allotment has shown that 20 % of the plant communities are in early seral, 30 % in mid seral and 50 % in late seral stages. The grazing season generally runs from June through October, depending on the snow levels. The increase in recreation use over the past 15 years has resulted in an increase in conflicts and complaints from recreationists. The allotments are in areas that are popular with horsemen due to the abundance of feed. Both allotment permits are up for renewal in 1998. Vegetation: Broad vegetation types have been mapped for the Flapjack Wilderness. There is a known population of sweet-flowered rock jasmine, a sensitive plant, in the Rim area. Several populations of this plant exist outside the Wilderness also. This is the only known threatened, endangered and sensitive plant in the Wilderness. The head of Mule Creek has been proposed as a Research Natural Area. Known plant communities include two alpine habitat elements, eight coniferous forest habitat types, two aspen communities, six riparian communities, five tall forb communities, one grassland community and three upland shrub communities. Noxious weeds known to occur are: Canada thistle, musk thistle, spotted knapweed, and hoary cress. Spotted knapweed is a growing problem in several drainages, including Mule Creek, Dogwood Creek, and Triple Creek. It has been seen up to six miles up these drainages. Air Quality: Under current Clean Air Act regulations, Flapjack Wilderness is classified as a Class I air quality area. Five years of monitoring visibility in this Wilderness indicates that the standard visual range is 100 miles 50 % of the time. There are days when visibility is impaired. Some of the high lakes have been monitored and shown moderate levels of acid deposition. Wildlife and Fish: Habitat types have been mapped and maps were updated during the summer of 1992 for the following big game species; elk, moose, mule deer, antelope and bighorn sheep. Population distribution and abundance of these species are monitored annually by the State Fish and Wildlife Department. Currently, population objectives are being met for all these species. There is some concern of lungworm and pneumonia being passed on to the bighorn sheep from the domestic sheep. There are no known populations of any threatened, endangered, or sensitive species, though habitat exists for a number of them. All of the 50 lakes in the Flapjack Wilderness have been stocked with fish at some point in time. Currently 30 of those lakes are stocked about every 3-5 years on a rotating basis. They are stocked either by fixed-wing aircraft by the Department of

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Fish and Wildlife or by horseback by the Hi-Laker Club. Fish stocked are rainbow and cutthroat trout, eastern brook, and golden trout.

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Heritage Resources: There are 43 known prehistoric sites in the Flapjack Wilderness. These include lithic scatters, stone circles, vision quest sites, conical lodges and lithic source areas. The condition of many of these sites is not known. There are four known historic sites; a sheep driveway and camp, a trappers cabin, and two administrative cabins that were constructed in the 1930s by the CCC's. None of these sites have been formally recorded, thus their current condition and significance is unknown. The administrative sites are used by Wilderness Rangers in the summer months. Historic Disturbance Regimes: Fire has been a major factor in the ecological development of the Wilderness. In the recent past the Wilderness has experienced numerous small and one large lightning caused fire. All of these fires were suppressed at less than 10 acres except the large fire which was suppressed at 900 acres. These fires were all within 1980 and 1994. There isn't an approved prescribed natural fire plan for the Wilderness. The natural regime has historically been many small, low intensity fires in the low elevations with a mix of low and high intensity fires at higher elevations. With the suppression of fires both inside and outside the Wilderness there is an unnatural fuel buildup in the heavily forested drainages.

History of Designations Public support and attention to the Flapjack can be traced back to the 1940s. Several local prominent wildlife biologists recognized the outstanding wildlife opportunities and recommended that the area be studied for possible classification as Wilderness. The Outdoor Recreation Resource Review Commission report of 1962 also listed the Flapjack as suitable for Wilderness. Legislation was introduced by Senator John Bucks in 1970 but no action was taken. The core area was recommended for Wilderness by the Department of Fish and Wildlife and a citizen's ad hoc committee in 1972. Numerous letters were received on the proposal and nearly all of them were in favor of Wilderness designation. The Flapjack was formally designated through the Flapjack Wilderness Act on October 2, 1976. Key values articulated during the debate regarding Wilderness designation were: · The area's outstanding habitat for important big game species including elk, deer, bear, and bighorn sheep. The State Fish and Wildlife noted this area was "perhaps the finest remaining unprotected wildlife habitat" in the State. · The Flapjack Wilderness was the largest roadless area in the lower 48 States identified during the RARE (Roadless Area Review and Evaluation) II inventory in 1978. It was seen as a rare opportunity to protect an entire area intact, from high alpine peaks to sagebrush foothills, with all the associated beauty, vegetative diversity and geologic features. · There are several very unique geologic features, including the Rim and Crystal Canyon. · Its key location adjacent to Blackfoot National Park provides a large continuous area for both recreationists and wildlife.

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· Its watershed values were considered to be of utmost importance. · It was considered to be an excellent area for hunting, outfitting, climbing and backpacking. Public Concerns Regarding This Plan Rock climbing--Climbers are concerned that the increase in use may result in restrictions being placed on them. Crystal Mining--Crystal miners want to continue unrestricted digging. Recreation Use--It is becoming increasingly difficult for overnight visitors to find a suitable place to camp, particularly large stock groups. Complaints of noise, crowding, litter and human waste have also been received. There is a concern of lack of consistency in regulations between the Park Wilderness and the Flapjack. Visitors don't realize when they've crossed into the park and are entering without permits and in oversized groups. Grazing--Conflicts between sheep and recreationists is increasing. There also is concern of the impacts to vegetation by the sheep. Vegetation--Concern of potential impacts by climbers to the population of sweet-rock jasmine in the Rim area and increased recreation use in the head of Mule Creek, a proposed Research Natural Area. The continued spread of noxious weeds is a real concern. Air Quality--Days where the visibility is impaired are occurring more frequently. Moderate levels of acid deposition have been found in some lakes. Bighorn Sheep--Concern of diseases being passed from domestic sheep to the native bighorn population. Fish Stocking--Concern that fish stocking has impaired the natural functioning of the aquatic ecosystem and that native plants and insects may have been eliminated or decreased. Fishermen are concerned that stocking may decrease. Structures--There are concerns that the two CCC cabins will be removed and other concerns that they are inappropriate in Wilderness. Some people think there should be more administrative structures for stock containment and human waste. Fires--Concern that continued suppression will result in large, stand replacement fires that will change the natural vegetative components. Concerns over air quality associated with fires. Allotment owner is concerned that fires could endanger his sheep.

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Flapjack Wilderness

N

Hwy 10

Happy Camp

Blackfoot National Park Entrance Visitor Center Deep Lake

The Rim

Flapjack Wilderness

Blackfoot NP Wilderness Hwy 60

Mule Creek

Legend Paved, two lane road Trail

Vista

nyon Crystal Ca

Wilderness Boundary Campground

Rd 6540

Picnic area Administrative cabin

Hwy 65

Milltown

Sheep allotment

1/2" = 1 mile

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Management Activity/Practice General Direction Standards and Guidelines

Flapjack Wilderness BNRA

Management Unit Number 4A-B

Management Goal

Manage the land to protect and enhance values described in the Wilderness Act of 1964 and Public Law 92-400.

General Description

Manage wilderness to provide protection of the natural environment for recreational, scientific, and cultural resource values. Natural processes, soil erosion, and insect cycles proceed unrestricted unless unacceptable damage may occur outside the management unit. Natural occurring fire may be subject to modified suppression where it is not within preplanned prescriptions. Emphasis is on providing opportunities for users to experience essentially unmodified natural ecosystems with minimum restrictions on visitor numbers or activities, except where there is evidence of basic resource degradation. Opportunities for isolation, solitude, self-reliance, and challenging travel are provided. Management Practices, Standards, and Guidelines

Management Activity/Practice Recreation (A) Planning

General Direction

Standards and Guidelines

Provide for enhancing and sustaining a quality recreation experience for future users by prevention of site deterioration through limited direct controls. Trailheads will be constructed outside of the area; however, they should provide parking commensurate with the desired use level.

Develop a Limit of Acceptable Change (LAC) approach to wilderness planning.

Trailhead Facilities

Minimum trailhead facilities include: parking for 5-40 cars, a bulletin board for information, a trail sign, possible trail register, and, if open to horses, some tie posts and an unloading ramp. Trailless areas may be closed to pack and saddle stock. No facilities or signs will be permitted. Cairns or other route markers established by users will be removed.

Use Administration

Provide for trailless opportunities in appropriate areas for primitive and confined recreation activities featuring solitude, the chance to experience unmodified natural ecosystems, and cross-country travel. Emphasize horseback riding and pack trip opportunities on the west side of the wilderness. Provide and maintain signs for public safety and administration in trailed areas.

All new signs will conform to wilderness standards.

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Management Activity/Practice Recreation (continued)

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General Direction Standards and Guidelines

Manage meadows to retain conditions that enhance scenic viewing and naturalness. Supplemental feed for recreation livestock is required at camping areas where natural feed is not available.

Require supplemental feeding (processed pelletized food only) of recreation stock in non-forage areas. Limit recreation livestock use on meadows to 25% utilization. Permit no new outfitter-guide permits or increase in priority use, unless there is a demonstrated public need and the area carrying capacity has been determined. Increase in temporary use will be on a case-by-case basis.

Outfitter-Guide Use Administration

Permit camping only at sites specified in outfitter-guide permits, or operating plans. Keep outfitter-guide activities harmonious with activities of nonguided visitors. Include outfitter-guide operations in calculations of level-of-use capacities. Allow development of temporary camps away from high use areas on a case-bycase basis. Authorize no permanent camps.

Trail Reconstruction & Construction

Reconstruct trails primarily to prevent soil erosion, reduce maintenance costs, and limit human contact. Construct no new trails. Keep light use trails on the system. Phase out bridges and other structures that do not meet wilderness standards.

Relocate trails 1/4 mile away from or out of sight and sound of lakeshores and important cultural resource areas, where terrain permits. Maintain trails to Level I standard where light use exists or is desired.

Cultural Resources (A) Protection and Enhancement Cultural resource sites will not be developed or interpreted on site. Stabilization of significant sites should be accomplished. Visual Resources (A) Planning The Flapjack Wilderness will be managed for the preservation or retention of the natural landscape. Design and locate management activities to meet visual quality objective of "preservation" in all areas, except where specific surface occupancy is authorized by wilderness legislation. In these areas, the visual quality objective is "retention".

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Management Activity/Practice Wilderness (B) Use Administration Manage to provide opportunities to users to experience essentially unmodified natural ecosystems with minimum restrictions on visitor numbers and activities. Emphasis is on isolation from the sights and sounds of mechanized human activities, solitude, self-reliance and challenge. General Direction Standards and Guidelines

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The following prohibitions will be continued and may be modified as necessary to achieve management objectives: - Camping within 100 feet of main trails. - Failure to pack all refuse out of the area. - Shortcutting trail switchbacks on foot or with pack and saddle stock. - Digging toilet pits within 100 feet of springs, lakes, streams, or not covering toilet pits before breaking camp. - Grazing pack and saddle stock within 200 yards from lakeshores and 100 yards from streams and trails. - Taking hay or straw into the area. - Having campfires around designated lakes in alpine and subalpine areas where firewood is scarce. Lakes now closed are Alpine Lake (Radfish Lake Creek), Alpine Lake (Iron Creek), Saddleback Lakes, Sawtooth Lake, and Boat Lake. - Cutting of standing dead trees. - Not having dogs under voice or physical control. - Overnight camping on areas closed to camping. - Building improvements of a permanent nature.

Consider closure of certain high use areas to overnight camping. Provide for a high level freedom of choice with minimum regimentation.

Close camping sites exceeding Frissell's condition Class S. Direct control measures will be used to distribute visitors when indirect methods have not proven successful. Use regulations as a last choice.

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Management Activity/Practice Wilderness continued General Direction Standards and Guidelines

Phase out non-conforming uses and restore areas. Require written approval for use of pack and saddle stock. Require written approval for groups larger than 10 people and 15 head of stock. Consider implementing a permit system when limits of acceptable change are exceeded on 25% of the use area.

Needed restoration will be compatible with wilderness objectives. Limit pack and saddle stock to not exceed 25 animals per group. Limit group size to not exceed 10 people. Emphasis will be on visitor education through books, magazines, maps, signs, public sessions, etc., to prevent changes to the wilderness environment. Wilderness ethics will be emphasized to the public and outfitters. Use of fuelwood will be limited to dead and down material. Trees will not be cut for fuelwood.

Wildlife and Fish (C) Planning Predator control will only be done in rare and unusual circumstances. Cooperate with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game to design fisheries management plans consistent with the natural capabilities of the waters and surrounding land to meet wilderness objectives. Fish stocking in currently barren lakes will be discouraged. Continue aerial stocking of lakes. Do not permit bear baiting. Range (D) Planning Permit livestock grazing at current levels as long as grazing use protects the range resource from deterioration. Locate livestock herder campsites away from trails and recreation campsites. Non-Structural Treatment of noxious weeds or other nuisance plants, by chemicals, is permitted after Chief's approval. Use levels will not exceed present authorized level of 1,201 AUMs. Discourage the stocking of species not previously established. Restrict aerial stocking to seasons of low visitor use. Hunting and trapping are the preferred methods for control of problem animals. Aircraft hunting will not be permissible.

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Management Activity/Practice Administration and Management General Direction Administer sheep alottments so they have the least lasting impact and effect on wilderness resources and values. Standards and Guidelines Forage utilization from all livestock (including horses) should not exceed an average of 50%. Strive for a condition of good or better.

Air (F) Air Quality Protect the Class I air quality related values, including visibility from adverse impacts of any proposed major emitting facility. Cooperate with the Environmental Protection Agency and State Air Quality Bureau in regional and/or local studies to determine baseline visibility conditions. Minerals (G) Processing of Site-Specific Development Proposals Administer and mitigate all mineral related activities so that they have the least lasting impact and effect on wilderness resources and values. Prior to surface disturbing management activities, an examination to determine justification and logical development sequence will be made. Require use of state-of-the-art models to estimate air pollutant impact on visibility and depositions. Automated monitoring stations, if needed, will be located outside the wilderness.

Lands (J) Special Uses Special uses will be limited to those that are consistent with the management objectives. No permits for development will be issued. Maintain all wilderness boundary posting to Forest Service Standards. Authorize surface disturbing activities only where needed for mineral activities on existing valid claims and for access to valid claims.

FERC Licenses Boundary and Corner Maintenance Protection (P) Fire Planning

Maintain a natural ecosystem by allowing fire to play a natural role when predetermined prescription criteria are met.

Confine or contain fire spread within natural barriers unless additional measures are necessary to protect life and/or property values. Conduct all fire management activities in a manner compatible with wilderness management objectives. Preference will be given to methods and equipment that least alter the wilderness landscape, or disturb the land surface. Locate fire camps, helispots, and other temporary facilities or improvements outside the wilderness boundary whenever feasible. Rehabilitate disturbed areas within wilderness to as natural a state as possible.

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Management Activity/Practice Suppression General Direction Fire suppression of wildfire will avoid the use of heavy mechanized equipment or retardant drops until an Escaped Fire Situation Analysis is completed. Standards and Guidelines The use of heavy equipment for fire suppression of wildfire requires Regional Forester approval. Areas disturbed during fire suppression activities will be restored to meet or exceed the retention visual quality objective. Seeding of burned areas, if needed, will be with native or naturalized species. Prescribed Fire Planned prescribed fire as a management tool may be considered where lightning-caused fires are not sufficient to return the area to natural conditions. Allow use of aircraft during emergency situations. Control of insect and disease outbreaks will be initiated only after anlysis.

Aircraft Transportation Insect and Disease

Management Area/Unit 4A-B

Total Acres 217,088

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WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT

PHILOSOPHY

"Wilderness is vast panoramas, full of height and depth and glowing color, on a scale so overwhelming as to wipe out the ordinary meaning of dimensions. It is the song of the hermit thrush at twilight and the lapping of waves against the shoreline and the melody of wind in the trees. It is the unique odor of balsams and of freshly turned humus and of mist rising from mountain meadows. It is the feel of spruce needles underfoot and sunshine on your face and wind blowing through your hair." Bob Marshall

Wilderness Management Philosophy

1

Wilderness Management Philosophy

Purpose

The purpose of this unit is to present an overview of the philosophy which guides Wilderness planning and management (based on the Wilderness Act). This sets the stage for the assumptions, values and decisions on which management direction is based. A list of topics which should be considered in developing Plan direction is provided along with references for legislative/policy sideboards. A series of questions are provided so you can determine if your Wilderness management direction meets the intent of the Wilderness Act. This unit presents an overview of the Wilderness Act and Wilderness management principles that must guide development of management direction. More detailed information and activities to increase understanding of the Wilderness resource can be found in the Wilderness Awareness Training Module (USDA 1993).

Objectives

1. Participants understand that what is different about Wilderness planning is the content of the direction, not the planning process. 2. Participants can identify the three characteristics that define the Wilderness resource and guide development of management direction. 3. Participants can identify six purposes of Wilderness and describe the values associated with each purpose. 4. Participants can identify seven principles which guide Wilderness management activities. 5. Participants can list at least four sideboards that constrain the Wilderness management "decision space." 6. Participants can list five planning questions they will address in their Wilderness planning process.

Key points

· Planning task for Wilderness is to translate Wilderness Act legislation into direction for a specific area. · · Definition of Wilderness--the three characteristics that define resource setting.

ce

Decision space.

Re so

W

ur

.A ct

Values

Socio-Political Env.

·

Success--moving overall conditions up the scale toward less human interference.

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Wilderness Management Philosophy

Wilderness Management Philosophy

Overview

The planning task for Wilderness management is to translate the Wilderness Act, enabling legislation, and agency national Wilderness policy into direction for a specific Wilderness. There has been a tendency to think that because management of the Wilderness resource is different than management of non-Wilderness lands, the planning process is somehow different. This is not true. The process to develop management direction is the same as for other resources. What is different is the content or substance of the direction that is developed. You are encouraged to put your energy and creativity into developing the content of the direction rather than trying to reinvent the process used to develop this direction. Any good planning effort requires the involvement of an interdisciplinary team of specialists. Wilderness is no different. It is essential to have at least one member of the team who is very knowledgeable about the Wilderness Act and Wilderness management principles to ensure that management direction meets the spirit and intent of the Act. This specialist can help all members of the team define the planning questions to be addressed. Experience has shown that simply reading the words of the Wilderness Act and enabling legislation is not enough. One must also understand the intent of the words. This can be done by researching the history that led to establishment of the National Wilderness Preservation System as well as why an individual Wilderness was designated. Wilderness legislation is typically characterized by years of debate, thus an area must be supported by the public to ensure designation. By understanding the values people attributed to a particular place, you will be able to develop management direction that better meets the intent of the legislation. It is often possible and very enlightening to invite key people who were involved in the designation of a particular Wilderness to describe this history at an initial public meeting. Historical agency files and newspaper articles can also provide a wealth of information. And of course, there is no substitute for getting out into the Wilderness to experience its values firsthand.

Sideboards

While there is room for interpretation within the Wilderness Act and national policy, it is very important to recognize up front what the "sideboards" are so that time is not wasted on items that are not open for discussion. Sideboards are the parameters under which both the public and the agency must work. They help define the "decisionspace." Sideboards come from legislation, the code of federal regulations, and national or regional policy. They also include the "sacred cows" that the decisionmaker does not want to address at this time. General sideboards that typically are identified for Wilderness management planning include (but are not limited to): · The Wilderness boundary cannot be changed. · Motorized or mechanized use is not allowed except where specifically provided for in enabling legislation. · No caches are allowed. · Where threatened or endangered species are present, direction must meet the requirements of the Endangered Species Act and also must protect listed sensitive species and their habitats. · Livestock grazing cannot be curtailed simply due to Wilderness designation.

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· Cultural resource values must be protected (although, not necessarily the physical site). · Special provisions must be managed as intended in the enabling legislation (e.g. airstrips, mining, access to inholdings). To date, Wilderness management has been very focused on managing recreational use. However, there is growing emphasis on the scientific, educational, conservation, historical, and scenic purposes of Wilderness designation. There is also increasing recognition that the less visible, more extensive impacts to Wilderness may have greater long-term consequences than the more visible, localized impacts to trails and campsites. For these reasons, Wilderness management direction needs to address all resource components in an integrated fashion (physical and biological conditions, ecological processes, and types of experiences desired). Notable examples of strides towards addressing non-recreation issues include efforts to develop management direction for prescribed natural fire, air quality, fish stocking, and noxious weeds.

Wilderness defined

Definitions are a function of cultures, and cultures are constantly changing. The definition for Wilderness has and will continue to evolve. During the course of U.S. history, wilderness has been viewed as a barrier to civilization of the frontier; a romantic and ethereal inspiration to art, literature, and philosophy; a diminishing resource in need of legal protection; and more currently, a relatively undisturbed landscape that can provide a multitude of biological and social benefits. The fact that it took eight years of negotiations, 65 different versions of the bill, and 18 congressional hearings before the Wilderness Act passed is testimony to the difficulty of legally defining Wilderness. But in the end, we did something no other country had done--established a National Wilderness Preservation System to "assure that an increasing population, accompanied by expanding settlement and growing mechanization, does not occupy and modify all areas within the United States, leaving no lands designated for preservation and protection in their natural condition" (Wilderness Act of 1964, PL 88-577). The Wilderness Act has remained virtually unamended since 1964, demonstrating the staying power of its authors' vision. Congress's stated purpose was to "secure for the American people of present and future generations the benefits of an enduring resource of Wilderness." While the term "wilderness" continues to be widely interpreted, Congressionally designated Wilderness is defined by the Act as an area, "where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain, in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape." A key word is "untrammeled" which means unconfined, unhindered, or uncontrolled. Wilderness contains many basic resources--air, water, wildlife, fish, cultural sites, soil, and vegetation--but what makes Wilderness unique is the setting which ties these basic resources together. The Wilderness Act defined the setting as: 1. A place not controlled by humans, where the land's primeval character and influence are retained and natural processes operate freely. 2. A place not occupied or modified by humans, where humans are visitors and the imprint of their work is substantially unnoticeable.

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Wilderness Management Philosophy Picture the following scenario:

Many things have changed since the days of your grandparents who lived in the late 20th century. For instance, communication with anyone in the universe is virtually instantaneous and in three-dimensional living color. Modern transportation allows you to be in your Denver office for lunch on Tuesday and at the headwaters of the Congo River for supper on the same day. There is no environment so harsh, so remote, or so forbidding that it cannot be made comfortably habitable with the aid of contemporary technology. The earth's population has risen to about 21 billion, or 42 billion pairs of feet walking over the spinning orb we call home. You can reflect, with great comfort, on the fact that your great, great grandfather and his professional and Congressional colleagues were successful in passing the Wilderness Act 130 years ago in 1964. But now, imagine that your grandmother, your great uncle, and their professional land manager colleagues were unsuccessful at preventing detrimental acid depositions in wilderness lakes, or in controlling outbreaks of exotic weeds, or in managing the clamoring hordes of people who are competing with each other for a chance to camp near a wilderness river. Now imagine that after a hard week at the office (where you work as a virtual imagery engineer, designing imaginary landscapes and outdoor experiences for people), you decide that you must somehow escape from your steel and glass workplace, from your SmartHome, and from your 2 million other fellow bio-city inhabitants to experience firsthand the solitude and "naturalness" of a real mountain landscape. But where are you going to go? There is no place--not even the depths of the oceans or the remote corners of the polar regions--that has not been explored, modified, and somehow "improved" for human use. Your chances of being the only person at your chosen destination are slim to none. And your chances of finding a place that has not somehow been influenced by humans are even less. Outlandish? Maybe. But if you had described to the North American pioneers of the 18th century what might be seen if they could have been magically transported 300 years into the future, "outlandish" would hardly have been a strong enough word to describe their reaction. 3. A place with outstanding opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation.

Benefits

The Wilderness resource produces many benefits for individuals and society. These benefits can be categorized under the six purposes of Wilderness identified in the Act. Recreation Wilderness is a place of freedom from the crowds and motorized and mechanized intrusions of modern life, where shared experiences can strengthen bonds between family or friends, and where we can feel a sense of humility, inspiration and spiritual connection to the land and other living beings. It is a place where we can challenge ourselves to develop our skills thereby enhancing self-reliance and esteem. It is peace and quiet where we can renew our mind, body, and spirit. Scenic Wilderness is a place of natural beauty which offers an uplifting view, even for those who may never enter. This beauty has inspired art, music and literature.

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Scientific Wilderness is increasingly being viewed as a place where we can study how ecosystems function. It is a living laboratory for all types of research such as medical, social, biological, and genetic. It can provide a baseline for global monitoring and an ecological benchmark to assess the impact of human activities in more developed settings. As David Brower said. "Wilderness holds the answers to questions we do not yet know how to ask." As we strive to restore diversity, resilience, productivity, beauty, and compatible human uses, ecosystem management will require an understanding of natural variability, large scale landscape processes, and species evolution. Wilderness is a "natural" candidate to help fill the gaps in our knowledge base. Currently, 157 of the nation's 261 ecotypes are represented in Wilderness (Davis 1989). Educational Wilderness is an outdoor classroom where we can learn firsthand about nature and people's relationship to the land. Conservation Wilderness is a storehouse for gene pools--plants, animals and other forms of life that are being displaced by human occupation elsewhere. We are just beginning to recognize the value of some species, including plants with medicinal value. As Aldo Leopold noted, "the first law of intelligent tinkering is to save all the parts." Wilderness also provides clean air and water that greatly reduces costs for air or water treatment in nearby communities. Wilderness is also seen as a bequest of wild places that we pass on to future generations. Historical Wilderness is a link to our heritage--a reminder of what America was like in earlier times (both in terms of conditions and processes). It is a place where we can protect the traditional, primitive skills that might otherwise be lost (e.g. canoeing, horsepacking, crosscut saws). It is also a place where evidence of past human history can reveal valuable stories about survival in harsh environments.

Management Principles

Since the Wilderness Act passed, most efforts have focused on deciding which lands should be designated Wilderness. Increasingly, people are recognizing that Wilderness is not protected simply by drawing a line around it. The time has come to turn our attention toward taking care of what we've got. The Wilderness Act says that Wilderness "shall be administered for the use and enjoyment of the American people in such manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness." Wilderness management is not management in the sense of manipulating, improving, or molding nature to suit people or maximize a particular human benefit. Rather, it is the control of human activities so that interference with nature is minimized. It is important to recognize that the authors of the Wilderness Act legitimized numerous human uses, thus Wilderness was not envisioned to be a place with no impacts. The goal of management is to continuously strive to minimize the impacts associated with all human activities so that the wild character of the area is maintained or restored over time. The following principles, based on the Wilderness Act, guide Wilderness management. 1. Strive for less human interference by minimizing the effects of human activities so that activities do not dominate natural conditions and processes. This means that rather than trying to change the land to suit people, we limit the effects of our activities so that conditions develop in response to natural disturbances and processes. In wilderness, wildlife population fluctuations, native insect and disease infestations, fire,

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and windthrow that result from natural processes are neither good nor bad; they are natural. 2. Provide a spectrum of high quality wilderness experiences that retain elements of solitude, spirituality, surprise and discovery. Provide opportunities for travel using "primitive" means in an unconfined environment where one can experience challenge and risk. 3. Manage Wilderness as one resource with inseparable parts, each of which supports the three-part definition of the Wilderness resource. Provide opportunities to fulfill all the purposes of Wilderness--recreational, scenic, scientific, educational, conservation, and historical. 4. Use the minimum tool concept which means that every action should be evaluated to determine if it is needed to protect the land or the experience. If the action is needed, then it should be done in a way that has the least impact on the Wilderness resource and visitor experience (with the use of primitive skills emphasized over mechanical or motorized). Decisions should not be made based on what is fastest, easiest or least expensive. The minimum tool concept is especially useful for evaluating trail projects, structures, fire suppression activities, visitor regulations, and requests for scientific use. 5. Manage the special provisions in the Act (section 4d) with the minimum impact on the resource and experience. The Wilderness Act would not have become law if compromises were not made. Key provisions are: A. Livestock grazing (cattle and sheep) is permitted where it was established prior to the Act. In 1980, Congress further clarified how they wanted grazing to be managed in Wilderness. a. There shall be no curtailment of grazing in wilderness simply because an area is designated wilderness, nor should wilderness designation be used as an excuse to slowly phase out grazing. b. Supporting facilities, existing in an area prior to classification as wilderness (including fences, line cabins, water wells and stock tanks) can be maintained in wilderness. c. Deteriorated facilities or improvements do not have to be replaced using natural materials, unless the material and costs are such that the use of natural materials would not impose unreasonable additional costs on permittees. d. New improvements may be constructed or deteriorated facilities replaced if they are in accordance with these guidelines and management plans for the area. e. Motorized equipment can be used for emergency purposes such as rescuing sick animals or placing feed in emergency situations. It is important to note that cattle and sheep grazing must still be managed to protect basic resources under the same direction as BLM or National Forest land outside Wilderness. B. Commercial enterprises are generally prohibited except "commercial services may be performed to the extent necessary for activities which are proper for realizing the recreational or other wilderness purposes of the area." Outfitting and guiding is the

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most common activity which meets this provision.

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C. The State retains authority over management of fish and wildlife populations, thus hunting and fishing are allowed on federal lands that are open to hunting as long as State regulations are followed. D. Management activities are permitted "as necessary to meet minimum requirements for the administration of the area for the purpose of the Act." This includes measures required in emergencies involving the health and safety of people in the area. Wheelchairs are also permitted for people whose mobility requires their use. E. Mining is permitted on valid claims existing prior to Dec. 31, 1983. F. Measures may be taken as necessary to control fire, insects and diseases subject to conditions deemed desirable. G. Where State or private land is completely surrounded by Wilderness, the owner must be given reasonable access to the land. 6. Harmonize wilderness and adjacent land management activities. Wilderness does not exist in a vacuum and must be managed within the context of the larger landscape. For example, constructing a large campground next to a Wilderness trailhead could create unacceptable levels of encounters within the Wilderness. Conversely, a fire or insect and disease infestation within Wilderness could escape and damage valuable resources outside of Wilderness. Similarly, some of the recreation use occurring in Wilderness may be better served in backcountry, roadless areas. 7. Ensure an inheritance of Wilderness for future generations to enjoy. Every action should help maintain or improve wilderness character so that over the long term people will continue to reap the benefits of an enduring Wilderness resource.

Success defined

Once you have developed management direction for your Wilderness, you can test how well the direction meets the intent of the Wilderness Act by asking the following questions. Refer to Unit #2 to test whether your direction meets the characteristics of effective plans. · Does your direction ensure that natural processes operate freely so that the land's primeval character and influence are retained? · Does your direction ensure that Wilderness is not occupied or modified so that natural conditions are dominant and the imprint of humans is substantially unnoticeable? · Does your direction ensure that there are opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation? · Does your direction retain spirituality and the elements of surprise, discovery, and self-reliance? · Is your direction integrated so that it supports the Wilderness resource in its entirety? · Does your direction recognize the unique characteristics of the particular Wilderness? · Is your direction consistent with Congressional intent for managing the special

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provisions within Wilderness? · Does your direction ensure that future generations will be able to enjoy the benefits of an enduring resource of Wilderness?

Suggested Activities Wilderness Jeopardy game with wilderness-oriented prizes for winners. Wilderness management principles: Break participants into eight small groups. Give each group one of the seven management principles (divide principle #5 in half). Each small group discusses the principle and identifies examples of how it would be applied as management direction is developed. Each group reports findings to large group.

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WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT PLANNING

The Planning task is to translate the Wilderness Act into direction for a specific area. The Planning process for Wilderness is no different than for other resources. The philosophy that guides development of management direction is different

Sideboards need to be defined up front so time isn't wasted on items not open for discussion.

Wilderness management direction needs to address all resource components.

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NATIONAL WILDERNESS PRESERVATION SYSTEM

PURPOSE "To assure that an increasing population, accompanied by expanding settlement and growing mechanization, does not occupy and modify all areas within the United States, leaving no lands designated for preservation and protection in their natural condition." Wilderness "Shall be devoted to the public purposes of recreational, scenic, scientific, educational, conservation, and historical use"

THE NATIONAL WILDERNESS PRESERVATION SYSTEM 1990

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The Wilderness Resource... ...Producing Social, Cultural and Natural Resouce Benefits for Humans

Improved Performance Physical & Mental Health * Uncontrolled by humans * Natural Processes Operate Freely *Primeval Character & Influence * Not Occupied or Modified * Humans Are Visitors Only * Human Evidence Unnoticeable Self-Esteem Self-Sufficiency Spiritual Values Outdoor Skills

µ

Ecosystem Preservation Benchmarks Species Diversity Gene Pools Clean Air & Water Water Supply

*Outstanding

Opportunities for Solitude

µ

Tie With Our History National Character Bequest to Future Research Education Economic Values

Soil Air Water Vegetation Wildlife

Fish Cultural Sites Fire Scenery Minerals

(Source: USDA, Forest Service

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WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT

Wilderness "shall be administered for the use and enjoyment of the American people in such manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness, and so as to provide for the... *protection of these areas *preservation of their wilderness character *gathering and disseminating information regarding their use and enjoyment and wilderness" Definition The control of human activities so that interference with nature is minimized and visitors are able to experience solitude of primitive, unconfined recreation. It is NOT management in the sense of manipulation or improving the resource to maximize a particular human benefit. Activities: Recreation use Outfitting Livestock grazing Fire suppression Trail construction

Introduction of exotics Human-caused air pollution Special uses such as mining Adjacent land uses

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Screens To Determine Success

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Does your management direction meet the intent of the Wilderness Act? Does your direction ensure that natural process operate freely so that the land's primeval character and influence are retained? Does your direction ensure that Wilderness is not occupied or modified so that natural conditions are dominant and the imprint of humans is substantially unnoticeable? Does your direction ensure that there are opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation? Does your direction retain spirituality and the elements of surprise, discovery, and self-reliance? Is your direction integrated to support the Wilderness resource in its entirety? Does your direction recognize the unique characteristics of the particular Wilderness? Is your direction consistent with Congressional intent for managing the special provisions within Wilderness? Does your direction ensure that future generations will be able to enjoy the benefits of an enduring resource of Wilderness?

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THE PLANNING

PROCESS

"The richest values of the wilderness lie not in the days of Daniel Boone, nor even in the present, but rather in the future." Aldo Leopold

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The Planning Process

The purpose of this unit is to identify what effective planning means (i.e. characteristics/qualities of effective plans) and discuss how Wilderness management direction fits into each agency's overall planning framework (including NEPA requirements). A major goal of this section is to sort out the relationship between planning documents used in each agency, describe NEPA requirements, and discuss how Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) and Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP) concepts can be used to develop management direction.

Contents

Introduction to Planning Evolution in Planning Concepts Bureau of Land Management Planning Framework Fish and Wildlife Service Planning Framework Forest Service Planning Framework National Park Service Planning Framework 1. Participants can identify at least six characteristics of effective plan direction. 2. Participants can define commonly used terms (e.g. desired conditions, standards, monitoring indicators, programmatic) 3. Participants can identify shortcomings of the carrying capacity approach and can describe how the limits of acceptable change/visitor experience and resource protection concepts differ. 4. Participants can diagram the general planning framework used to develop programmatic direction within their agency. 5. Participants can identify the types of decisions made in programmatic plans (e.g. Resource Management Plan, Comprehensive Management Plan, Forest Plan, General Management Plan). 6. Participants can describe how limits of acceptable change/visitor experience and resource protection concepts can be used to develop programmatic wilderness management direction.

Objectives

Key points

· · ·

Characteristics of effective design. Evolution in planning. Two-stage decisions.

Teaching

1. Evolution. 2. Why plans fail--effectiveness test. 3. Framework 4. Interagency process--decisions made.

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Activity

The Planning Process

Have people share stories of why planning is important. Have interagency group identify types of decision made in program level plans.

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EVOLUTION IN WILDERNESS PLANNING

Allocation Functionalism

¡ Stewardship ¡ Across

Boundaries

¡ Integration

Outputs Rational/Objective

¡ Outcomes ¡ Value-based

(rvds, PAOTs)(resource + experience conditions)

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WHY DO PLANS FAIL?

* Lack of specificity * Unresolved issues * Unrealistic * Lack of flexibility * Lack of integration * Lack of public or agency acceptance

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EFFECTIVE PLAN DIRECTION Screening Questions

* Is it clear what is to be achieved? * Do you know how you will measure success? * Is it meaningful for your area? * Is it understandable? * Can it be implemented? * Will implementation improve on-the-ground conditions?

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GENERAL PLANNING FRAMEWORK (Two Staged Decisions)

Wilderness Act/ Enabling Legislation National Policy Program Level

(Strategic direction for specific area)

What do we want to achieve? How do we know when we get there?

NEPA

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Project Level

What needs to be done to get there? Integrated Analysis) How are we going to do it?

NEPA

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Monitoring--Evaluation Feedback

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DEVELOPING PROGRAM LEVEL WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT DIRECTION

Assessment

Develop proposed direction Summarize information Need for change

NEPA

Scoping Issues Alternatives Effects

Significance Identify Area Decision

Implementation and monitoring

FEEDBACK Proposed management direction = Proposed goals, desired conditions, zones, objectives, standards + monitoring indicators

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PLANNING PROCESS SUMMARY

· Know what your end product is · Focus your effort (Need for Change & Issues) · Involve the public · Use an interdisciplinary approach · Work within the overall planning process

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Bureau of Land Management Planning Documents

RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN Contains general guidance for Wilderness Requires NEPA analysis

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WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT PLAN (part of the Ecological Land Unit Plan) There are also habitat management plans, fire plans, cultural resource plans, etc. Contains goals, objectives, policies and specific actions for management of resource including monitoring procedures. Identifies general sequence of implementing management actions.

Requires NEPA analysis

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Annual Work Plans Program packages to request funding

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PROJECT PLANS Site-specific direction on how a particular action will be done

Requires NEPA analysis

NOTE: The BLM planning process currently is undergoing significant changes in order to incorporate an ecosystem approach to management of all resources. One possibility being considered is to have small Resource Management Plans with very general guidance. Ecological land units would then be identified for each Resource Area. Specific direction on desired conditions, standards, and monitoring indicators would be developed in a management plan for each ecological land unit. Under this system, an Ecological Land Unit Plan might contain management direction for one or more Wildernesses. However, Wilderness management plans will likely exist for the foreseeable future.

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Fish and Wildlife Service Planning Documents

COMPREHENSIVE MANAGEMENT PLAN or COMPREHENSIVE CONSERVATION PLAN (Alaska) Resource management, visitor use, refuge operations, and development addressed in general terms (including direction for Wilderness). Requires NEPA analysis

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WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT PLAN These plans may be part of the Comprehensive Management Plan or may be a separate step-down plan. Identifies actions that will be taken to protect natural and cultural resources.

Requires NEPA analysis

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Annual Work Plans Refuge Operation Needs System (to request funding)

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PROJECT PLANS Site-specific direction on how a particular action will be done

Requires NEPA analysis

NOTE: Planning guidance for the Fish and Wildlife Service is under revision and will eventually be published in a new Service Manual.

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Forest Service Planning Documents

FOREST LAND AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PLAN (FOREST PLAN) Contains management area direction and monitoring/evaluation requirements. Each Wilderness is a separate management area. Management area direction includes goals, objectives, and standards/guidelines. Each management area (e.g. Wilderness) can have one or more "prescriptions" (zones with different management emphasis). Requires NEPA analysis

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OPERATIONAL PLAN AND IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE These documents contain possible actions needed to meet desired conditions, priorities, costs, and responsibilities. They are not NEPA documents since they are just documenting the results of an analysis process and scheduling POSSIBLE actions.

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Annual Work Plans Out Year Budgeting (to request funding)

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PROJECT PLANS Site-specific direction on how a particular action will be done

Requires NEPA analysis

NOTE: Planning within the Forest Service is also evolving due to the emphasis on incorporating an ecosystem approach to management of all resources and the development of new planning regulations. Rather than goals and objectives for management areas, managers now refer to "desired conditions." Managers are encouraged to use limits of acceptable change concepts to develop Wilderness management direction within a Forest Plan.

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National Park Service Planning Documents

GENERAL MANAGEMENT PLAN Contains measures for the preservation of resources, indications of the types and general intensities of development, and identification of visitor carrying capacities. Requires NEPA analysis

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WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT PLAN Contains more detailed direction for Wilderness including management strategies to be implemented.

Requires NEPA analysis

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Wilderness Action Plan contains annual goals, actions, priorities, responsibilities and costs

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PROJECT PLANS Site-specific direction on how a particular action will be done

Requires NEPA analysis

NOTE: The National Park Service is re-examining their entire planning process. The Visitor Experience and Resource Protection process is being developed as a method to prepare visitor management direction contained within the General Management Plan. Thus, in the future, Wilderness direction that describes a spectrum of desired resource and social conditions, monitoring indicators, and standards for each management zone would be found in the General Management Plan. Separate Wilderness Management Plans are likely to exist for the foreseeable future.

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Introduction to Planning

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Introduction To Planning

Why plan?

Wilderness planning is not the solution for poor management, but planning is an essential part of the Wilderness management program and is becoming more and more important. WHY? Consider the following scenario (adapted from true story): Ranger Pulaski had been the caretaker of the No-see-um Wilderness for more than 25 years. He could tell you precisely where the campsites were, what condition the trails were in, what plants and animals were present, and patterns and levels of visitor use. Not that many people visited the No-see-um Wilderness and Ranger Pulaski had talked with most of them. There was no management direction, but Ranger Pulaski had consistently observed changes over the years, knew visitors' desires, and knew just what needed to be done. Then one day the inevitable came and Ranger Pulaski retired. He was replaced by Ranger Mattock, a conscientious manager with a particular interest in improving trail conditions. Ranger Mattock felt that relocating trails was desirable because the new trails would require less maintenance in the long run. For four years, he instructed the trail crew to systematically reconstruct every trail in the No-see-um Wilderness. Ranger Mattock wanted to have a new network of better, low-maintenance trails completed in six years. Some visitors complained because the new trails reduced the primitive feel of the area and in some cases, eliminated areas that previously had been essentially trailless. Ranger Mattock felt they were probably just a radical minority and went on with his plan. However, after four years, Ranger Mattock transferred. He was replaced by Ranger Adze, who also had a strong interest in trails. Unlike Ranger Mattock, Ranger Adze believed that restoring the original trail was preferable to relocating trails because there would not be a new scar created and the original trail would not continue to erode. Thus, Ranger Adze instructed the trail crew to begin restoration of all the trails in the No-see-um Wilderness. The new, uncompleted sections of trails built under Ranger Mattock's direction were abandoned. The result was visitors who were still upset about the loss of primitive areas, confused visitors who accidently followed sections of trail that led nowhere, scars on the land, and a frustrated trail crew who was angry at abandoning years of hard work. The lesson here is obvious: Without an overall plan to guide how human activities (including management activities) will be managed, management is very dependent on the philosophy of the person who currently is responsible. This may include taking no action due to disagreement about whether or not there is a problem. The result is haphazard management (i.e. management by crisis) which slowly erodes Wilderness values.

Planning benefits

· Prevent a series of minor decisions from producing undesirable results. · Eliminate uncoordinated, haphazard management. · Provide long-term direction, which provides continuity and stability over the course of changing managers. · Provide clear, measurable standards so there is agreement regarding when management action is needed and trends in conditions can be tracked.

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· Resolve issues up front so that the needs of a diverse and interested citizenry are met. · Develop integrated solutions to problems and identify priorities for management. · Provide the basis to identify budget and personnel needs. · Increase ownership and acceptance of management direction by interested citizens and within the agency so that the plan actually gets implemented.

Why plans fail

By now, you are probably convinced that effective Wilderness management direction is needed. However, many managers have found that their programmatic plan (e.g. Resource Management Plan) provides only minimal, general direction that does not provide guidance for on-the-ground management. Before we go further, it may be useful to examine why many plans fail.

Lack of specificity This is probably the most common flaw. Vague, general direction may never be achieved because it is unclear what is to be achieved. If there are no measurable results, it is difficult to know if management actions have been successful or even if trends in conditions are getting better or worse. The direction may also be subject to multiple interpretations, which can lead to management that produces undesired results. Unresolved issues If major issues (including differing citizen desires) are not resolved up front, the consequence is that tough decisions are pushed down to the project level and nothing may get done due to the high level of conflict. A typical example of this flaw is the failure to provide direction regarding desired levels and types of outfitter services. Unrealistic Sometimes standards specifying acceptable conditions are set so high, achievement of the standard in one area may result in just moving the problem to another part of the Wilderness. Setting standards too high may also necessitate very restrictive or costly management that is acceptable to no one (however, this argument should not be used as an excuse to establish standards that mimic current conditions where there is a recognized problem). Lack of flexibility If a plan is written very rigidly, it may not offer the flexibility needed to deal with new or unforeseen situations. This results in decisions that are made outside of the plan direction. Over time, this results in the return of haphazard, piecemeal management. Lack of integration A plan that treats each resource or human use separately, may look good on paper, but as it is implemented, the lack of integration will become obvious. Management actions that are not directed to a common set of desired conditions, will not be effective and will inadvertently compromise resource values. Lack of acceptance This is the classic plan that sits on the shelf gathering dust or being used as a paperweight and never gets implemented. There are endless examples of mega bucks spent on developing plans with lots of technical analysis, only to have these plans never see the light of day or never get the funding needed for implementation. In other cases, managers may try to implement the plan but meet resistance at every step. The simple reason; lack of public and/or management support, understanding, and ownership.

Effective plan direction

1. Describes desired conditions (what you are trying to achieve). Desired conditions must describe resource conditions, processes, and experiences to be achieved (i.e. the effect of human activities), rather than focus on human or management activities themselves. Writing desired conditions requires identifying conflicts between individual public desires and resolving the differences up front (i.e. "optimization" process that produces negotiated outcome). In doing this, it is essential

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that conflicts between various values/expectations are negotiated within the bounds of land capability, stewardship requirements, and legislative mandates. 2. Provides a diversity of resource conditions and experiences. Management direction needs to recognize the importance of providing a spectrum of desired conditions within Wilderness. Providing a spectrum of opportunities allows people with different personal definitions of a wilderness experience to pick the area that will best meet their desires. Providing a spectrum of settings also recognizes that there are different land capabilities with some sensitive areas needing more stringent standards than other areas. 3. Establishes measurable, attainable standards for conditions. The plan must establish measurable and attainable standards that describe what the land and the experience is minimally expected to be like (i.e. what is acceptable). These standards are used as triggers to signal when a change in management is needed and are the "yardsticks" used to measure progress. 4. Identifies valid monitoring indicators. The plan must clearly identify what variables will be used to track trends in conditions so that management effectiveness can be determined. 5. Specific to particular area. Desired conditions, standards, and monitoring indicators need to be meaningful for a particular area. The focus of planning is to translate legislative mandates into direction for a specific area. Broad direction that is open to wide interpretation and could apply to any piece of land is meaningless. 6. Adaptable. Plan direction needs to be adaptable so that it can accommodate new knowledge or unforeseen situations. Managers should not complete plan direction and lock it in concrete. However, where conditions on-the-ground do not meet standards, managers should not change the standard because they don't want to change their management. 7. Clear and understandable. If only planners and specialists can understand the plan direction, it will not be effectively implemented. Jargon that must be used needs to be defined in a way that is understandable. 8. Streamlined. Plans should not repeat direction that is found elsewhere (e.g. policy manuals). If only one course of action is possible due to legislative and policy mandates, then no decision needs to be made. Focus on developing well-written, concise, meaningful desired condition descriptions, standards, and monitoring indicators that present a clear picture of what is to be achieved and how progress will be measured for a particular Wilderness and eliminate the "fluff." 9. Coordinated. Plan direction needs to be coordinated across administrative boundaries so that visitors do not encounter different conditions or experiences when they cross between units. Develop plan direction for geographic areas that make ecological sense. Define the geographic area the plan will cover up front. 10. Integrated. Development of plan direction needs to be integrated among resource specialists so that incompatible desired conditions are not developed. 11. Developed with public input. Direction for desired conditions, standards and monitoring indicators must be developed by blending science, manager experience, and public values. Managers need to recognize that their decisions are inherently value-based and subjective.

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12. Improves on-the-ground management. Plan direction must lead to better management on-the-ground by providing the means to make explicit, trackable, defendable decisions that resolve conflicting public desires regarding goals (what should be achieved) up front. Trackable and defendable means that managers are able to provide the rationale for how specific direction was developed.

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Evolution in Planning Concepts

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Evolution In Planning Concepts

Recreation carrying capacity

As early as the 1940s, managers began voicing concern about the "recreation saturation point of wilderness" (Stankey and McCool 1984). In response to increasing pressure on National Parks and Wildernesses, the carrying capacity concept was applied to managing recreation use. Carrying capacity has its foundation in the range and wildlife sciences. As defined in the range sciences, carrying capacity means "the maximum number of animals that can be grazed on a land unit for a specific period of time without inducing damage to vegetation or related resources." Recreation carrying capacity was modified to include the visitor experience as well as the physical-biological resource but it was still used to determine the maximum number of people an area could accommodate without being damaged or detracting from people's experience. The underlying assumption was that there was a linear relationship between the amount of use and the amount of impact. The recreation carrying capacity concept was affirmed by legislation both within the Forest Service and National Park Service. Within the Forest Service, the 1976 National Forest Management Act directed the agency to "limit and distribute visitor use in accordance with periodic estimates of the maximum levels of use that allow natural processes to operate freely and do not impair the values for which wildernesses were created." Similarly, the National Park Service was directed by the 1978 General Authorities Act to include in each Park's General Management Plan, the "identification of and implementation commitments for visitor carrying capacities for all areas of the unit." The carrying capacity concept spawned many years of research regarding the nature of human impact in wildlands. The recurring finding of over 2000 studies was that no linear relationship existed between the amount of use and the resultant amount of impact (Krumpe and Stokes 1993). We now know that, for many types of impacts, most of the impact occurs with only low levels of use. Additional use does not cause the amount of impact to increase (i.e. amount of impact eventually levels off with additional use). This research revealed that visitor behavior, site resistance/resiliency, type of use, and timing of use are more important in determining the amount of impact than the amount of use, although amount of use is still a factor (Hammitt and Cole 1987). The shortcomings of the carrying capacity approach became apparent. Foremost was a recognition that searching for a single number was an elusive and probably impossible task. Second, by focusing on determining how many visitors an area could accommodate, managers lost sight of what they were trying to achieve (goals and objectives). Third, if you assume that there is a linear relationship between use and impact, your only management option is to reduce use when there is a problem. The carrying capacity approach is still a useful tool if managers recognize the potential shortcomings and address them. Given the sheer number of people in some Wildernesses, there is still a role for applying use limits. McCool (1989) identifies seven criteria needed to effectively apply use limits: 1. There must be agreement on resource and experience conditions to be achieved. 2. There must be agreement on acceptable levels of impact. 3. There must be a clear relationship between use levels and resource or experience condition.

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4. Use levels must be a more important factor in causing the particular impact than visitor behavior or site location. 5. There must be agreement on what will be achieved by rationing use. 6. The agency must have the resources to administer use limits. 7. There must be agreement that the established use limit represents either the maximum or the optimum number of people.

Suggested activity:

Demonstrate the shortcomings with a carrying capacity approach via a participatory "game." The Utopia Peaks Wilderness is defined by a rope circle. Participants are day hikers, horsepackers, backpackers, low-impact campers, maximum impact campers. Demonstrate that it is impossible to determine one single carrying capacity--it is dependent on many variables (e.g. type of use, behavior).

Limits of acceptable change (LAC)

The shortcomings of the carrying capacity approach resulted in a recognition that "How many are too many?" focused on the wrong question. The relevant question is "How much change is acceptable?" The Limits of Acceptable Change process was pioneered by the Forest Service to address the shortcomings of the carrying capacity approach for managing recreation use. Key LAC concepts are: 1. Some change in conditions is inevitable. Wilderness resources are not static but are constantly evolving. Natural events occur over time and space causing conditions to change. Wilderness conditions also change due to human influence. Indeed, there is no place on earth which has not been influenced in some way. Because human use is a legitimate part of Wilderness, the goal is not to eliminate all human effects but rather to determine how much change is acceptable within the intent of the Wilderness Act. 2. The focus is on human-induced change. A major goal in Wilderness management is to minimize human interference so that nature can do the "managing," thus the focus is on setting limits of change that result from human activities rather than changes that occur due to natural events (e.g. wildlife population fluctuations, fire, windthrow, avalanches). Examples of human activities are camping, trail maintenance, fire suppression, introduction of exotic species, livestock grazing, and human-induced air pollution. 3. The effects of human activities are what is important. LAC is basically a management-by-objectives approach. A fundamental concept is that management needs to focus on the desired conditions to be achieved, rather than the activities themselves. Use levels (numbers of people) can still play a role, however use levels must be tied to the conditions managers are trying to achieve. 4. A diversity of settings is important to maintain. Diversity normally occurs within Wilderness due to differences in ease of access, topography, water sources, and proximity to towns. This results in differing levels and patterns of human use. Similarly, there are differences in the quality of habitat for various wildlife species, thus some areas are more crucial than others. Rather than disperse human use evenly throughout the Wilderness, it is better to identify different levels of acceptable human impact. Typically, management direction is established so that some zones have very little human influence, while other zones allow for more change in conditions. This

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creates a spectrum of opportunities so that visitors can choose the type of wilderness experience they want and more resource protection is offered in especially sensitive areas. 5. Determining what is acceptable is value-based. LAC was intended to be an optimization process to find the best balance between conflicting desires. Standards that define acceptable conditions need to incorporate scientific knowledge regarding how human activities affect resource and experience conditions, however what is acceptable is still based on society's values and beliefs (O'Brien 1994). One assumption inherent in determining how much change is acceptable is that you can define the conditions that would exist without any human influence (i.e. you can define your zero point so you can decide how much change is acceptable). References include: Stankey et.al. 1985, Stokes 1990, Stankey, McCool and Stokes 1984, Krumpe and Stokes 1993, Stokes 1991.

Visitor experience and resource protection (VERP)

While the Limits of Acceptable Change process was being developed and tested, the National Park Service was also exploring ways to respond to shortcomings in the carrying capacity approach. An early effort developed by the National Parks and Conservation Association was called the Visitor Impact Management system. This system was similar to the LAC system in that it focused on setting objectives, selecting key impact indicators, establishing measurable standards, comparing existing conditions with standards, developing management strategies to reduce impacts, and monitoring. It differed by placing greater emphasis on identifying the causes underlying visitor impacts (Graefe, et.al. 1986). More recently, the National Park Service has been developing and pilot-testing a framework called the Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP) system (USDI 1993). This system was developed by incorporating concepts from Limits of Acceptable Change, Visitor Impact Management, and Recreation Opportunity Spectrum. It is intended to be used to manage visitor impacts in all areas of a Park-- not just Wilderness. Major components of the VERP system are: A. Develop clear statements of park purposes, significance, and primary interpretive themes. B. Identify potential management zones that cover a range of desired resource and social conditions. C. Select quality indicators and specify measurable standards. D. Compare existing conditions with desired conditions. E. Identify the probable cause of discrepancies and develop management strategies to address discrepancies. F. Monitor

Conclusion

The response to deficiencies in the carrying capacity approach has been very similar. Key components of all these processes are: 1. An emphasis on describing desired resource and experience conditions (goals, objectives) that define what is to be achieved.

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2. A recognition that zoning is desirable to maintain diversity across the area. 3. Selecting indicators and defining measurable standards so it is clear when management action is needed. 4. Comparing existing conditions with desired conditions. 5. Developing management strategies to address problems (gaps between existing and desired conditions). 6. Monitoring and evaluating so that trends in conditions can be tracked. Both LAC and VERP are methodologies that help structure development of management direction. They are NOT public involvement methods. However, due to the emphasis on the inherently subjective nature of developing desired conditions and standards defining limits of acceptable change, it is essential to involve the public as managers work through the planning process (Stokes 1988, Krumpe and Stokes 1993, Stokes 1990). It is also important to recognize that neither LAC nor VERP are separate planning processes. However, the concepts in these frameworks are useful to develop management direction within each agency's overall planning process. Within the National Park Service, VERP is recognized as a methodology to develop direction contained within the General Management Plan. Within the Forest Service, LAC is recognized as a methodology to develop direction within the Forest Plan. While each agency differs somewhat in how management direction is packaged, there is general agreement that the first 3 components (desired conditions/zones, objectives, and monitoring indicators) are programmatic in nature. Programmatic direction is usually found in Resource Management Plans, Comprehensive Management Plans, Forest Plans, or General Management Plans, however this type of direction may also be found within separate Wilderness management plans in some agencies. Other components of planning require more frequent review and adjustment, thus are more appropriately packaged in operational-type plans.

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LAC/VERP CONCEPTS

* Change in conditions is inevitable. * Focus on human-induced change. * The effects of human activities are what is important. * A diversity of settings is important to maintain. * Determining what is acceptable is value-based. LAC and VERP are methodologies to develop management direction. They are not separate planning processes, nor are they an approach to public involvement. Apply these concepts within your overall agency planning framework.

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HOW MUCH IS TOO MUCH?

Amount of impact is not solely dependent on numbers Not one capacity, but many: the "RIGHT"capacity depends on management objectives

How much is too much is wrong question EFFECTS of use, not how much use is the concern

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Fish and Wildlife Service Planning Process

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Fish and Wildlife Service Planning Process

Objectives

The objectives of this chapter are: to introduce Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) requirements for preparation of Wilderness Management Plans; to outline the agency's wilderness management objectives which guide planning; to introduce references which describe management activities and resource based uses allowed in Service managed wilderness; and, to briefly describe planning process guidance currently in place. Management direction for each designated wilderness on Service land must be stated in a Wilderness Management Plan, which can be either part of an overall management plan or an independent step-down plan. In Alaska, overall management plans are called Comprehensive Conservation Plans and meet specific requirements outlined in the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA). Elsewhere overall management plans are called Comprehensive Management Plans. The Service manages nearly 20.7 million acres of designated wilderness, comprised of 75 wilderness areas on 63 national wildlife refuges and one fish hatchery. About 20 wilderness areas have independent wilderness management plans, most of which were completed from 1978 to 1981. An additional 23 wilderness areas are within refuges that have overall management plans in place. The 21 wilderness areas in Alaska total 18.6 million acres. These areas are addressed in comprehensive conservation plans developed in the 1980s; more detailed management guidance may be included in comprehensive conservation plan revisions or in independent step-down plans. Planning guidance for the entire agency is under revision and will eventually be published in a new Service Manual. The wilderness planning and management chapters of the Service Manual are found in Part 610, Chapters One through Five; currently in draft form. Wilderness management planning guidance is found in Part 610, Chapter Five; cited 610 FW 5. The Project Leader for the land system unit which contains designated wilderness is ultimately responsible for preparation of the unit's Wilderness Management Plan.

Overview

Description

The Wilderness management plan

The wilderness management plan guides the preservation, management, and use of a particular wilderness. The wilderness management plan describes the relationship between wilderness management objectives and unit purposes, system goals, and unit objectives; · Establishes indicators, standards, conditions, or thresholds that will trigger management actions to reduce or prevent impacts on the wilderness; · Contains specific, measurable management objectives that address preservation of wilderness-dependent cultural and natural resource values; and, · Is developed with public involvement.

Objectives The Fish and Wildlife Service's management objectives for wilderness are to:

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· Fulfill the purposes for which the Service land system and Wilderness System were established; · Maintain and perpetuate an enduring resource of wilderness for future use and enjoyment as wilderness; · Maintain wilderness in a condition that appears to have been primarily affected by the forces of nature, with human impact substantially unnoticeable; · Protect and perpetuate wilderness character and public values including, but not limited to, opportunities for scientific study, education, historical use, solitude, physical and mental challenge and stimulation, inspiration, and primitive recreation; and, · Gather information and carry out research, in a manner compatible with preserving the wilderness environment, to increase understanding of wilderness ecology; wilderness uses; management opportunities; and visitor behavior, use patterns and expectations.

Management activities and public uses Management activities and resource based uses allowed within wilderness are discussed in 610 FW 3; see Appendix C for a DRAFT version of this chapter. Uses allowed within designated wilderness in Alaska, where ANILCA modifies certain provisions of the Wilderness Act, are summarized in Appendix C 92

Plan contents The minimum contents of a wilderness management plan are summarized in the plan outline presented in Figure 1.

Planning process Planning process guidance is not provided in the Service Manual chapters on wilderness management. Planning process guidance will appear in the Service Manual chapters on comprehensive management planning (602 FW 2); however these chapters are still in draft form and may be substantially changed when, or if, "organic" legislation currently pending in Congress is passed. Because Alaska refuges have legislated planning requirements, the Alaska Region does have a general planning process in place. Basically, all plans in the Alaska Region follow a standard National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) outline and planning process. Other regions also use this process when unit size, complexity ,and controversy warrant. The NEPA process and outline are essentially a national planning standard that provides sound basic planning guidance; see Figure 2. Staff must know the NEPA process anyway, and books explaining the process are readily available; Part 550 of the Service Manual provides additional guidance. Concepts from the Limits of Acceptable Change planning methodology and the Recreation Opportunity Spectrum are integrated into the planning process as appropriate. Since Service planning activities are not governed by regulation, agency

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planners are free to adapt the best ideas from current research.

2

Refuges furnish most of the planning team for any given project, which fosters "ownership" of the eventual product, and pragmatic solutions to management problems. Regional office planning staff generally function as "process experts," providing guidance on NEPA, coordination, public involvement, and policy consistency. They sometimes serve as principal authors so refuge staff can attend to operational responsibilities. The project leader, who is ultimately responsible for plan preparation, is a member of the planning team but does not necessarily manage the planning project. The project manager is selected from either the refuge staff or the planning staff, depending on the needs of the particular situation. In Alaska, several members of the planning staff are stationed at refuges but are supervised from the regional office.

Figure 1. Wilderness Management Plan Outline

I. Introduction A. Summary of establishing legislation and relevant legislative history. B. Relationship of wilderness to unit purposes, system goals, and unit objectives. C. Wilderness management objectives. II. Description Of the Wilderness. A. Legal and narrative description of the area. B. Map displaying Service land unit boundary and wilderness area boundary. C. Discussion of natural resources. III. Public Involvement. Describe public involvement activities and provide a summary and analysis of comments received and how the plan responds to them. IV. Management. Provide detailed discussions of existing and planned biological, public use, cultural resource, and administrative management activities and permitted uses. If an activity is specifically authorized by legislation, it should be noted. Limits of acceptable change should be identified and discussed. V. Research. Describe past and current research; identify research needs. VI. Funds and Personnel. Discussion of staff and funding needed to manage the wilderness. VII. Monitoring. Identify monitoring requirements and thresholds for action. VIII. Implementation Schedule. Prioritization of action items, target dates for completion, staff assignments, and funding requirements. IX. Compatibility Determination. X. Review and Approval. XI. Appendices. A. A copy of the Wilderness Act. B. A copy of establishing legislation. C. Service wilderness regulations (50 CFR 35), except Alaska. D. Wilderness study report for the wilderness. E. NEPA documentation. F. Public hearing record from wilderness study. G. Congressional hearing record. H. Congressional committee report accompanying the authorizing legislation. Source: Summarized from 610 FW 1, Appendix 3

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Figure 2. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Step-down Management

2. Identify Issues

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v · Analyze comments · Identify significant issues Public process to determine scope of issues

v

Planning Process. 1. Plan the Plan · Identify decision(s) to be made and preliminary issues · Review available information: - General Management Plan/Comprehensive Conservation Plan - Laws, regulations, manuals, policies - Other agency plans - Related plans · Identify goal(s) and objective(s) · Plan the process: - Prepare the work plan with timeframes - Assign tasks and identify expertise needed - Prepare the public involvement plan Decide if action is a Categorical Exclusion (CE), requires an Environmental Assessment (EA), or Environmental Impact Statement (EIS); if an EIS is required, publish a Notice of Intent · Conduct public involvement activities for: - refuge users - internal USFWS - other federal, state, and local agencies - Native American interests - other interests 3. Gather Information · Describe the No Action Alternative · Prepare preliminary alternatives · Identify information needed for analysis · Use issues to guide analysis/documentation · Gather information from existing sources · Collect additional field data (if necessary)

4. Develop Alternatives · Develop alternative strategies to resolve the identified issues · Group into a reasonable array of alternatives v

7. Publish Final Plan · Review public comments (written and oral) · Review any new information collected · Modify preferred alternative (if necessary) · Confirm recommendation with responsible official · Prepare final plan and release to public Prepare, review, and publish Final EIS (an EA would not need to be republished) v

¡

v 5. Assess Environmental Effects · Describe effects on the physical, human, and biological environment · Determine how each alternative would resolve issues and achieve objectives · Select preferred alternative Recommend preferred alternative (project leader); decision confirmed by responsible official 6. Publish Draft Plan · Prepare internal review draft plan · Publish draft plan · Provide for public review and comment · Hold appropriate public involvement activities Prepare, review, and publish EA or Draft EIS (minimum 60 day public review) 8. Make Decision · Responsible official formally adopts plan v Prepare Record of Decision after 30-day waiting period (EIS), prepare Finding of No Significant Impact or decision to prepare an EIS (EA) 9. Implement Plan · Initiate proposed action · Monitor/evaluate implemented actions · Periodically review/revise plan - minor changes - amend plan - major changes - use full planning process · Keep public informed and involved Note: This table integrates the USFWS planning process with requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act

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Forest Service Planning Process

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Forest Service Planning Framework

Introduction

Prior to 1976, separate Wilderness management plans were developed, as were many other "functional" plans. However, with passage of the National Forest Management Act (NFMA), every Forest was directed to prepare a comprehensive plan--a Land and Resource Management Plan (commonly referred to as the Forest Plan)--so that direction for all resources would be integrated. Planning regulations were developed to guide development of Forest Plans. Today, most Forests operate under the umbrella of a Forest Plan. Most of the effort in Wilderness since 1964 has revolved around designation of areas, thus it is not surprising that the first round of Forest Plans dealt primarily with roadless area review and recommending which areas should be designated. Very little attention was placed on developing direction within the Forest Plan for how Wilderness should be managed. However, some Wilderness Management Plans were prepared as unbound appendices and just referenced in the Forest Plan. These early plans often contained information on existing conditions, assumptions, and management objectives. In 1988, Congress held oversight hearings on Forest Service Wilderness management (GAO 1989). Two principal findings were that monitoring information was lacking and funding/staffing levels necessary to fully manage Wilderness were unknown. The Forest Service responded by directing Forests to complete Wilderness Implementation Schedules (WISs) by the end of 1993. The WIS was supposed to identify the actions needed to implement the Forest Plan and calculate the budget and staff needed to implement the actions. The purpose was to generate a more accurate picture of what was required to manage the entire Wilderness resource. In a letter providing guidance on preparing Wilderness Implementation Schedules, the Washington Office noted that "the Forest Plan should provide the overall objectives, direction and desired condition for each Wilderness and the WIS should document the actions needed to manage the Wilderness. Some Forest Plans do not have the level of detail necessary to define the standards and guidelines and the desired condition for wilderness. If that is the case, that entire step needs to be completed before going on to the WIS, preferably in an amendment to the Forest Plan" (USDA 1990). As WISs were developed, many managers found that their Forest Plans did not contain desired conditions and standards for managing Wilderness. At the same time, managers were also being encouraged to use the LAC process to develop Wilderness management direction. Due to the lack of adequate management direction in Forest Plans and resistance to doing Forest Plan amendments, WISs were sometimes mistakenly viewed as substitutes for Forest Plan direction. Other managers followed the LAC process without a clear understanding of whether the product would become part of the Forest Plan or part of a WIS. The result was considerable confusion about the relationships between documents and integration of LAC and NEPA. As the emphasis on Wilderness management was growing, Forest planning was also evolving. Much has been learned in the process of trying to implement the first Forest Plans. More recently, the emphasis on ecosystem management clearly has implications for how planning is done. In 1993, a national team was chartered to develop a prototype for Forest Plan revisions and amendments. Concepts advanced by

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the Prototype effort include: 1. Using a hierarchical, ecological approach to portray direction for a Forest. 2. Developing desired conditions which are outcome-based (i.e. what the land and experience should be like). A summary of reasonably expected outputs, services and associated budget costs are identified in an Appendix. 3. Streamlining the plan by not including information that is found elsewhere and making the plan understandable, adaptable and meaningful. Three "rules of thumb" were developed to screen Forest Plan contents: 1. Is there really a decision to be made, or realistically is there no option due to existing direction? 2. Does the management direction provide standards for on-the-ground resource management? 3. Is the direction applicable to a particular Forest or area, or does it apply to almost any Forest in the Region? The Prototype effort did not develop "the answer." Planning is continuing to evolve and there is still uncertainty over how Forest Planning is best done using an ecosystem approach. Questions exist relative to where direction is best "packaged" (i.e. what direction really belongs in the Forest Plan). We do know that Forest Plan direction consists of desired conditions, standards, and monitoring requirements but the appropriate level of specificity is uncertain. Other questions revolve around spatial scales - how should management areas be defined and how do zones fit in? Recognizing that planning will continue to evolve, this section will explore how Wilderness management direction is developed within the general framework of Forest Planning based on the current state of knowledge. Please note that the framework presented here can be used to complete Forest Plan amendments for any resource. Developing management direction for Wilderness is simply used as the example due to the emphasis of this module. The framework used in this module to amend Forest Plan direction follows the same thought process as the Forest Plan Implementation process (refer to 1900-01 course). The difference is that the content prepared for each step is programmatic in nature (i.e. focusing on direction for what is to be achieved), rather than site-specific (i.e. focusing on how to do a particular action).

Forest planning framework

(Refer to Handout -- Wilderness Management Planning Framework). The purpose of planning (relative to Wilderness) is to translate the Wilderness Act, enabling legislation, and national policy into management direction for a specific area so that public expectations, legislative intent, and resource protection are achieved. The key document that contains management direction for a particular Wilderness is the Forest Plan. This document describes what is to be achieved. Project plans describe how a particular action at the site-specific level will be done. To get from the Forest Plan to the Project Plan, analysis must be completed to identify what needs to be done in a comprehensive, integrated manner so that projects can be budgeted and workload can be anticipated. The results of this type of analysis are documented in

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operational plans and implementation schedules (refer to WO letter 5/27/92). Operational plans provide a place to re-state desired conditions and standards from the Forest Plan, describe existing conditions, and identify actions that are needed (along with relevant policy guidance for particular actions). This can provide a one-stop place to look for wilderness management direction.

Staged decision-making

The Forest Plan and the Project Plan represent two different decision levels in planning. (Refer to Overhead -- Forest Planning: Two Decision Levels) NEPA analysis and documentation is required for both decision levels. As Forest Plans were implemented, it became increasingly clear that Forest Plans did not make site-specific decisions. Forest Plans contain programmatic decisions. These decisions define what is to be achieved (desired conditions, standards, monitoring requirements). This type of management direction implies what kind of human activities MAY occur. A Forest Plan is analogous to a city zoning ordinance. A zoning ordinance divides an area into various zones and establishes standards for development within each zone. Development MAY be permitted in a certain zone if it conforms with the rules established for that zone. But the zoning ordinance DOES NOT COMPEL development. Similarly, Forest Plans do not require specific projects to occur, but do require that site-specific actions comply with the standards established in the Plan. For example, desired condition descriptions for a portion of the Wilderness may imply that activities like outfitting, trail maintenance, campsite rehabilitation, and livestock grazing will occur but Forest Plan direction does not require that these activities take place. It is only after the project-level NEPA analysis is done that there is a commitment made to carry out or allow a particular activity. However, all projectlevel activities carried out or permitted must meet standards and help achieve desired conditions in the Forest Plan. Project plans contain site-specific decisions that define how a particular action will be done. A simple way to determine whether an action is site-specific is to apply the following test: If you can read the proposed action, the alternatives, or the environmental consequences in a NEPA document and you could apply those descriptions to some other area of land, then it is NOT site-specific. At the site-specific (project) level, a commitment of resources occurs.

Forest plan decisions

Refer to Overhead -- Forest Plan Decisions) As Wilderness management direction is developed, it is critical to know what the end product will be (i.e. what decisions will be made and what kind of document will be produced). The Forest Plan makes six types of decisions. If you are intending to amend your Forest Plan to incorporate new Wilderness management direction, you will be focusing on decisions #3 (management area direction) and #5 (monitoring requirements). If you are developing new Wilderness management direction as part of the Forest Plan revision process, you will be primarily focusing on decisions #1 (goals and objectives), #3 (management area direction), #4 (land suitability), and #5 (monitoring requirements). Have participants use their own Forest Plan to find each type of Forest Plan decision.

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Focus on Wilderness direction within the Plan. Emphasize the positives -- don't get caught up dwelling on deficiencies either perceived or real.

Forest-wide goals and objectives (36 CFR 219.11b) A goal is a concise statement that describes an intended result. It is normally expressed in broad, general terms without a specific timeframe for achievement. An objective is a concise statement which describes a specific result that will contribute to achieving a goal. EXAMPLES of Forest-wide Goals and Objectives related to Wilderness management: · Communities continue to gain prosperity. a. Provide undisturbed areas for use by outfitter and guide clients. b. Help re-establish historic elk migration routes to provide increased viewing and hunting opportunities. · Sensitive species are prevented from becoming federally listed Threatened species. a. Protect National Forest Intermountain Region sensitive plant and animal species and provide suitable and adequate amounts of habitat to ensure that activities do not cause: (1) long-term or further decline in population numbers of habitats supporting these populations; and (2) trends towards federal listing. · The wilderness character of Congressionally designated Wilderness is retained or regained. a. Retain and where necessary, restore high quality wilderness environments. b. Prevent human overcrowding in Wilderness that leads to a loss of wilderness values, providing alternate recreation locations when a wilderness setting is not key to a visitor's experience. · Grazing use of the National Forest sustains or improves overall range, soils, water, wildlife, and recreation values or experiences. a. Retain or enhance riparian vegetation, stream-channel stability, sensitive soils, and water quality where livestock are present. b. Coordinate the management of livestock with recreation use. c. Help control the spread of noxious weeds. · Cultural resource values are preserved. a. Find and protect cultural resources so that their scientific, historic, and social values are retained.

Forest-wide management requirements (36 CFR 219.2 7) These are the standards and guidelines which are imposed no matter where you are on the Forest. This avoids endless repetition of the same standards for every management area. For example, if a Forest has more than one Wilderness, there may be a section on Wilderness management direction. This direction applies to every Wilderness on the Forest. In addition, each Wilderness is its own management area, thus direction which differs by area can be included in the management area section. Again, this prevents repeating direction which does not vary by Wilderness.

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Management area direction (36 CFR 29.11c)

2

Management areas are areas with common management direction (i.e. similar objectives). Each Wilderness must be established as a separate management area (FSM 2322.03). Management area direction consists of desired conditions with associated standards and guidelines. This direction can vary by "zones" established within the management area (e.g. desired conditions and standards for a "transition" zone versus desired conditions and standards for a "very primitive" zone). The descriptions of desired conditions should imply what activities may occur. This is where the bulk of the planning effort is. Units 7 and 9 will discuss development of this direction in more detail and will provide examples.

Suitability of lands for resource use and production (36 CFR 219.14, .16, .20, .21) The planning regulations call for a number of suitability characterizations relative to timber harvest, range suitability for domestic animals, suitable habitat for indicator species and recreation suitability.

Monitoring and evaluation (36 CFR 219.11d) The selection of monitoring indicators to track progress toward desired conditions is a Forest Plan decision. The planning regulations specify that Forest Plans need to identify monitoring requirements, set monitoring frequencies, and identify acceptable deviations. Unit 8 will discuss development of monitoring indicators in more detail.

Recommendations for wilderness, wild and scenic rivers (36 CFR 219.17) Forest Plans identify areas recommended for Wilderness or Wild and Scenic River designation, however only Congress has the authority to designate these areas. The allocation question is now largely resolved on Forest System Lands (exceptions are Idaho and Montana). However, when Forest Plans are revised (every 10-15 years), additional areas can be recommended for Wilderness or Wild and Scenic River designation.

(Refer to Handout -- Why programmatic Wilderness direction needs to be in the Forest Plan)

Legal significance

The Forest Plan is a legally binding document that is our contract with the public on what we are trying to achieve. Other separate plans are not legally binding. For this reason, it is important that programmatic wilderness direction be included in Forest Plans. The difference between existing conditions and desired conditions is what triggers the need for management action. Clear, measurable standards that are not open to wide interpretation will provide the rationale needed to justify management actions. There is strong direction to not violate Forest Plan standards. In a letter to all employees (February 1992), former Chief Dale Robertson stated: "If there is a conflict between management standards and guidelines and other

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objectives, the standards and guidelines must take precedent. If you suspect you will violate environmental laws or Forest Plan standards and guidelines, stop. Amend your Forest Plans. Involve your publics. Base your changes on the best resource data available. We expect every project to be in full compliance with standards and guidelines set forth in Forest Plans."

Integrating Wilderness

A major goal for the Wilderness program is to make Wilderness a full, legitimate partner within the Forest Service. One way to accomplish this is by working within the existing planning process. This greatly reduces communication barriers and allows everyone to learn from each other. Managers are encouraged to use their innovation and creativity to develop the content of wilderness management direction, rather than trying to create a different planning process. Programs are developed and budgeted based on direction in the Forest Plan. If adequate Wilderness management direction is not in the Forest Plan, it is unlikely that the Wilderness program will receive the attention it deserves.

Program budgets

Developing forest plan direction

(Refer to Handout -- Development of Plan Direction) Most people in the Forest Service are familiar with the NFMA-NEPA triangle for Forest Plan Implementation. Amending or revising Forest Plan direction follows a similar triangle with some modifications since you are working at the programmatic level rather than the site-specific level. Take a loop of string and ask a volunteer to make the bottom two corners of a triangle. Demonstrate that the length of the triangle sides can vary. If you put a lot of effort involving specialists and interested citizens in the development of proposed management direction (analysis side), the NEPA work will be shorter. It doesn't necessarily change total time, but you can choose which side of the triangle to want to spend time on.

Suggested activity

N FM

Equal Effort

Effort on NFMA Side

NF

M NF

MA

A

A

NE

N EP A

NE PA

PA

Effort on NEPA Side

Select location

Analysis side (NFMA) of triangle

Determine the geographic area for which you want to develop management direction. Most efforts to develop Wilderness management direction have focused on geographic areas defined by the Wilderness boundary. However, in the spirit of ecosystem management, we need to strive to make boundaries less visible. Sometimes, the Wilderness you are focusing on is adjacent to another Wilderness and it makes sense to combine the planning effort. Other times, there are adjacent non-Wilderness lands that are ecologically tied to the Wilderness (e.g. foothills of a mountain range where the higher elevation area is Wilderness). In these cases, it is important to be clear up front that, while the analysis to develop proposed direction will cover a larger area than the Wilderness, we must recognize that Wilderness is a distinct component of the

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National Forest that requires a different management philosophy than non-wilderness lands. By the same token, we must be clear that we will not expect non-wilderness lands to conform to the provisions of the Wilderness Act (i.e. the goal is to recognize that animals and processes move across boundaries, thus the analysis must look at broader landscapes. It is not to create defacto wilderness or compromise designated Wilderness). There are good examples of this type of planning for adjoining National Recreation Areas and Wilderness. Identify need for change (including issues) To be effective, you need to focus on what really needs to be fixed. Start with the Forest Plan direction that applies to your geographic area of interest. Compare this direction with what is considered adequate direction. Identify what needs to be changed. Work with specialists and interested citizens to identify significant issues to further focus your effort. Unit 4 discusses need for change in more detail. Collect information This involves gathering the information on current conditions that will be needed to describe desired conditions and establish realistic standards. Focus information collection on the issues that were identified in the need for change. Unit 6 discusses information collection in more detail. Prepare proposed management direction This involves developing descriptions of desired conditions, standards, monitoring indicators, and a map showing the proposal for how zones would be allocated on the ground. Units 7, 8, and 9 discuss development of proposed management direction in more detail.

Scope the proposed management direction

NEPA side of triangle

During scoping, the public is invited to identify the issues associated with the proposed management direction. In all likelihood, there will be issues that surface during development of the proposed management direction that were not resolved by the proposed direction. These should be identified and refined during the scoping process. Unit 10 discusses scoping the proposed management direction in more detail. Develop alternatives Alternatives to the proposed management direction are developed that address the significant issues and still fulfill the purpose and need. Each alternative displays a particular way that zones would be allocated across the Wilderness. Unit 11 discusses developing alternatives in more detail. Evaluate alternatives (disclose effects) Each alternative must be described in terms of potential effects on resource conditions, the visitor's experience, and managerial implications. The purpose is to disclose effects so that differences among the alternatives are apparent and an informed decision can be made. Unit 11 discusses evaluating alternatives in more detail.

Document decision

The decision maker must select one alternative and document the rationale for his/her decision. The type of environmental document used depends on the significance of the proposed change. There are two types of significance determinations. The first relates

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to the significance of the proposed management direction in terms of environmental effects. The second type of significance relates to how much the new management direction will change the current Forest Plan goals, objectives and outputs. Unit 12 discusses determining significance and documenting the decision in more detail. Now you have Forest Plan Wilderness management direction that gives you a clear target to shoot for and provides the rationale for determining when management action is needed. However, the planning job isn't over. You still need to decide what management actions are needed, how they should be carried out, and whether you are making progress on-the-ground. Unit 13 briefly describes the analysis necessary to determine possible management actions (i.e. developing operational plans and implementation schedules) and the NEPA analysis for site-specific projects. Monitoring indicators were identified as part of your Forest Plan direction but monitoring must be carried out so that trends in conditions can be tracked. This provides a feedback loop so you know if Forest Plan direction is being met. You will notice that public participation is continuous. The intent is to move away from the traditional approach of involving the public only during the NEPA phase of planning. We need to work towards a more collaborative approach where we continuously exchange ideas, build relationships, and develop solutions.

Applications of LAC

In the section on the evolution from carrying capacity to LAC, we discussed that the intent of LAC is to shift the focus of planning from trying to determine how many is too many to a focus on desired conditions and determining how much change in conditions is acceptable. We also discussed that a diversity of settings is important to maintain, thus zoning is appropriate within Wilderness and determining what is acceptable is value-based, thus standards must be established by blending scientific information with public desires and managerial expertise. We also know that LAC is a methodology for developing wilderness management direction, not a separate planning process. LAC concepts are not obsolete. However, following the nine-step process has not been effective because it leaves out important steps (e.g. identifying the need for current Forest Plan direction to change, specifically identifying the proposed action, scoping, determining significance, and documentation) and it does not distinguish between programmatic and site-specific decisions. It should be apparent that the LAC concepts are very relevant to developing desired conditions, zones, standards, and monitoring indicators. These are the type of decisions that are made in Forest Plans at the programmatic level. Thus, using LAC concepts is encouraged to develop the proposed management direction.

Summary

· Know what your end product is. Be clear right from the beginning about whether or not you are making a decision and if so, what type of decisions you are making (programmatic or site-specific) and what type of document will be produced (Forest Plan amendment or Project Plan). If you are just doing the analysis to determine what needs to be done to implement Forest Plan direction, be clear that the document is not a decision document. · Focus your effort. Try to build on existing direction. Focus your effort on what needs to be changed and major issues that need to be resolved. · Involve the public. Work on creating an environment for continuous public involvement.

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· Use an interdisciplinary approach. Management direction needs to be integrated and support the Wilderness resource in its entirety. · Work within the overall planning framework. Apply LAC concepts within the overall framework of Forest Service planning to develop proposed management direction.

Suggested activity

Ask each group of folks representing each Wilderness to briefly describe what they have done already, relative to developing Wilderness management direction, then have them (with help from rest of group if needed), identify where they are now on the triangle. Place a colored, round label (with Wilderness name written on) on one of the poster-sized planning triangles. The end result should be a clear picture where each Wilderness planning effort is. Suggest that people pay particularly close attention to the instruction unit which represents their next step in the process.

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WILDERNESS MANAGEMENT PLANNING FRAMEWORK

Wilderness Act Enabling Legislation Policy

Forest Service National Wilderness

Ä

Forest Plan

Operational Plan and Implementation Schedule PROJECT PLAN

Ä

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Forest Plans Decisions

The National Forest Management Act of 1976 requires each Forest to prepare a Forest Plan to guide management of all resources in a coordinated manner.

The Forest Plan establishes: * Forest-wide Goals and Objectives * Forest-wide Management Requirements * Management Area Direction Desired Future Conditions Standards and Guidelines * Suitability of Lands for resource use and production * Monitoring and evaluation requirements * Recommendations for Wilderness, Wild and Scenic Rivers

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WHY PROGRAMMATIC WILDERNESS DIRECTION NEEDS TO BE IN THE FOREST PLAN

* The Forest Plan is legally binding * Forest Plan standards are what triggers the need for management action * Wilderness needs to be fully integrated integrated into overall * Forest program Programs are budgeted based on Forest Plans

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United States Forest Washington 14th & Independence SW Department of Service Office P.O. Box 96090 Agriculture Washington, DC 20090-6090 ______________________________________________________________________________ Reply to: 2320/1920 Subject: Wilderness Management Planning To: Regional Foresters Wilderness now constitutes approximately 18 percent of the National Forest System and is becoming an increasingly significant element of the Forest Service mission. The General Accounting Office and Congress have called attention to the need for high quality wilderness planning. The Department and this Agency are committed to responding to that need for attention. Field units must ensure the land and resource management plans covering National Forests that contain wilderness, or wilderness complexes, provide substantive programmatic wilderness management direction. Our 2320/1920 letter of September 4,1991, established the framework for wilderness management planning as a part of the forest planning process. Also, our 6140 letter of November 1,1991, established a performance standard for Regional Foresters and other personnel responsible for wilderness management that `assures that wilderness planning is being initiated.' The first step in complying with the above direction is to determine if the wilderness management direction contained in the current forest plan is adequate. If the direction is adequate, a Wilderness Implementation Schedule (WIS) must be developed to carry out that direction. The WIS should be a 1 to 5 year schedule of actions to guide annual wilderness management activities. It should schedule and prioritize project and normal operations and maintenance (O&M) activities. It should clearly identify the tasks, the costs, the time line, and who is responsible for each action item. The WIS is a flexible and dynamic document that is updated at least annually. It should be signed by the appropriate line officer(s) and staff to ensure adequate commitment and support for its implementation. lt should reflect the interdisciplinary tasks necessary to manage wilderness and include support activities-and costs in other functional areas In cases where forest plans did not provide sufficient wilderness management direction, forests with wilderness management responsibility should develop refined direction through forest plan amendment or revision. A process that can be used to develop wilderness management direction for the appropriate components of the wilderness resource is the Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC). The LAC has been increasingly recognized as substantive methodology for developing wilderness management direction and monitoring procedures. Where a LAC process is needed to develop the wilderness direction for forest plan amendment or revision, the WIS must identify the tasks, the time line, the costs, and those responsible for the activities involved. The WIS will incorporate the work plan (for the LAC process) to guide the development, revision, or amendment to the land management plan (LMP) as required by the Land and Resource Management Plan Handbook. Line officers and the staff officer support for and commitment to the completion of the LAC process must be demonstrated through sign off on the WIS. In addition to scheduling the LAC process, the WIS in this situation would also include the other project and regular ongoing O&M activities and costs that should be carried

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out while the LAC management proposals are being developed. The LAC provides the data and analysis of some of the wilderness components for the LMP process. The planning elements of LAC (opportunity classes, indicators, and standards, monitoring, management actions, etc.) become the elements of forest plan management direction (standards and guidelines, management area prescriptions, monitoring, evaluation requirements, goals, and objectives). A range of opportunity class alternatives must be incorporated through the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process and a record of decision must be maintained. In working through the LAC process with the public, it should be made clear that their role is to help define the wilderness elements for the NEPA process to amend or revise the forest plan. The proposal resulting from completion of the LAC process must become a part of the land and resource management plan in order to be effective wilderness management direction. This is accomplished through forest plan amendment or revision with full compliance with NEPA procedures. Though this direction must be incorporated into the forest plan, it may also be set out in a supporting operational plan that details the management program necessary to translate that direction into project level actions. The operational plan may be necessary to display the consolidated wilderness management program where multiple wildernesses and/or multiple forests are involved. Site specific (project-level) wilderness management decisions should not be included as forest plan amendments. Additional site specific NEPA analysis may be required for these subsequent decisions. For further information contact Jerry Stokes, National Program Leader for Wilderness Planning at (202) 205-0925 or DG:G.Stokes W01C. /s/ James C. Overbay JAMES C. OVERBAY Deputy Chief

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National Park Service Planning Process

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National Park Service Planning Framework

Introduction

Individual units administered by the National Park Service (e.g., national parks, monuments, recreation areas, historic sites) are required to have general management plans (GMPs) which provide the basic management philosophy and development plan for a park unit. This was mandated by Congress in the National Parks and Recreation Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-625). GMPs are completed for each unit every 10 to 20 years. Generally comparable to the U.S. Forest Service's forest plan, the GMP addresses resources and visitor management as well as park wide facility development. In accordance with the National Park Service's Planning Guideline (NPS-2) and PL 95-625, a GMP is required to include the following elements: 1) measures for the preservation of the area's resources; 2) indications of the types and general intensities of development. This includes visitor circulation and transportation patterns associated with public enjoyment and use of the area, including general locations, timing of implementation, and anticipated costs; 3) identification of and implementation commitments for visitor carrying capacities for all areas of the unit; and 4) indications of potential modifications to the external boundaries of the unit, and the reasons therefore. Typically, a GMP provides only general guidance for managing a park's wilderness or back country. Typically this guidance is in the form of management objectives for a wilderness or back country zone. Specific wilderness management plans, the National Park Service's second level of wilderness planning, are much more detailed and are prepared to outline management strategies for issues not adequately covered in a GMP. For most park units with designated wilderness, the LAC approach has been used, at least in part, to develop wilderness management plans. However, a new planning process, VERP (Visitor Experience and Resource Protection process), is now being used to address visitor use management in all areas of a park unit, both front country and back country. This new planning approach is intended to provide a consolidated park wide visitor management strategy and be applicable in different areas of a park, ranging from the most remote wilderness to the urban-like mall in Yosemite Valley.

Visitor Experience and Resource Protection--VERP As noted in the previous section, the National Park Service has had a statutory mandate to determine "visitor carrying capacity" for all areas of a park unit each time a GMP is completed. Unfortunately, planners have never had a defendable methodology or process to determine this capacity. Until now, planners have approached this several different ways: 1) they have determined park carrying capacity based on the area's total infrastructure capacity (i.e., number of campsites, hotel rooms, parking spaces, roadway capacity); 2) they have stated that carrying capacity determinations would be completed later after obtaining "more information;" or 3) they have ignored the

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mandate all together. The impetus to develop VERP came, in part, from park managers being continually frustrated by gridlocked conditions in some of the most popular parks. In the past two decades, it has become increasingly apparent to planners and park managers that an increasing number of national park units are becoming "loved to death"--severely threatened by ever increasing visitation. Annual visitation to national parks is now counted in the hundreds of millions. In the decade of the 1970s visitation increased by 30 percent; in the 1980s it rose 35 percent. If this trend continues, national parks can expect a demand for an additional 60-90 million recreation visits by the year 2000. Because most park use occurs in areas close to park roads and facilities such as concessions, campgrounds, and visitor centers, the Park Service needed to develop a strategy that would work in these often crowded settings. For the past several years planners at the Park Service's Denver Service Center and consultants at the University of Minnesota and the University of Vermont have been developing this process.

The VERP Process VERP defines carrying capacity as: the type and level of visitor use that can be accommodated while sustaining the desired resource and social conditions that complement the purposes of the park units and their management objectives In other words, the VERP process interprets carrying capacity not so much as a prescription of numbers of people, but as a prescription of desired ecological and social conditions. Measures of the appropriate conditions replace the measurements of maximum sustainable use that are often used to measure other types of carrying capacities (e.g., range capacity for domestic ungulates, wildlife habitat (Dassmann 1964)). The process identifies and documents the kinds and levels of use that are appropriate, as well as where and when such uses should occur. The prescriptions, coupled with a monitoring program, provide park managers the information and the rationale needed to make sound decisions about visitor use, and gain the public and agency support needed to implement those decisions. As shown in Figure 1, the VERP process consists of nine steps. The first six steps are requirements of general park planning, and ideally should be part of each park's GMP. The later steps in the process require annual review and adjustment, and are accomplished through park operations and management activities.

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Process for Addressing Visitor Experience and Resource Protection in the National Park System General Management Planning Amend GMP Reevaluate indicators & modify if necessary

w w Step 1. Assemble the project team. Step 2. Develop statements of park purposes, significance and primary interpretive themes. Step 3. Map and analyze resources and visitor experiences. Step 4. Establish the spectrum (or range) of desired resource and social conditions. Step 5. Use zoning to identify proposed plan and alternatives.

2

Park Management

w

Step 9. Develop/refine manaagement strategies to address discrepancies. w Step 6. Select quality indicators and specify associated standards for each zone. w Step 7. Compare desired conditions to existing conditions. Step 8. Identify probable causes of discrepancies between desired and existing conditions.

The VERP process is based on many of the same elements and underlying logic included in LAC and the National Parks and Conservation Association's visitor impact management (VIM) methodologies (Graefe, et al 1990; Lime and Stankey 1971). The primary difference between VERP and these other processes is that VERP is intended to be used in all areas of a park, both front country and back country whereas LAC and VIM have primarily been used in wilderness or back country settings. One of the main elements of VERP involves examining a park's topography and resources and segmenting the park into landscape units which ultimately guide zoning. Landscape units are areas of the landscape that are usually defined by their visual enclosure. When viewed from within or from the outside they are perceived as distinctive areas, each one different from the other. Each landscape unit evokes a "sense of place" and has inherent visitor opportunities unique to its resource characteristics. In a park unit constructed park infrastructure (roads, campgrounds, etc) is left out of this evaluation. This reflects the agency's desire to have a park zoning and visitor use be driven by its resources, rather than by existing constructed facilities. This examination of landscape units looks both at the area's resources (i.e., their sensitivity, scarcity, and "attractiveness" to visitors), and the visitor experience provided, or potentially provided, within the landscape unit. The attempt here is to

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ensure that there is an understanding of resource sensitivity, visitor opportunities, and how that is spatially distributed in a park before decisions are made about what type of uses are allowed in the various areas of the park. A major premise of these methodologies and VERP is that management goals, which are qualitative in nature, must be translated to measurable management objectives through the use of indicators and standards. Measurable indicators will be selected for monitoring key aspects of the visitor experience and resources, then standards will be assigned based upon management goals. When standards are exceeded, land managers must take action to get an indicator back within its defined standard. In a complex park, the park will be zoned to reflect management goals for different areas. Then, specific indicators and standards would be selected for each zone. Indicators are divided into two types: biological/physical indicators-those indicators that measure visitor use impacts to the biological or physical resources of a park; and social indicators-those indicators that measure impacts on park visitors that are caused by interactions with other visitors or with park or concession employees. The underlying logic of indicators is easy to understand; however determining what standard to apply to different parts of the park is not so easy. It requires research, considerable thought, and bravery on the part of managers! Since VERP is driven by indicators and standards, a considerable amount of effort has to be spent determining what they are.

VERP at Arches National Park The VERP process is being pilot-tested at Arches National Park. The purpose of this test application is to refine the VERP process and to provide a model for application to the national park system. The process is currently at step 6. The park has been zoned and the zones have been qualitatively described, indicators selected, and preliminary standards set. The next step is field checking assumptions and monitoring, to ensure existing conditions, the standards, and how to monitor them.

Indicators and standards

Selecting appropriate indicators and standards is the crux of VERP. Because indicators and standards are so quantitative in nature and our perceptions of acceptable conditions so qualitative, most managers are very reluctant to arbitrarily set standards based on their perceptions and "feel for the area." Because of this, the Park Service has spent a significant amount of time and money evaluating every conceivable indicator, and determining what standards (particularly standards for social indicators) visitors would support.

Biological indicators Nineteen indicators were evaluated in different habitats along visitor use corridors with high, moderate, and low use levels. Most of the potential indicators were discarded for a variety of reasons: they were too difficult to measure, too costly, correlated poorly with changes in visitor use, too dependent on environmental variables such as rainfall, too slow to recover once impacts were reduced, or were not usable in different habitats.

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However, three indicators showing considerable promise were selected:

2

cryptobiotic soil crust condition. This crust, which forms atop nearly all soils on the Colorado Plateau, is very important for nutrient cycling; it is very sensitive to visitor use; is easy to measure and quantify visually; and is indicative of overall ecosystem health. soil compaction. Despite their sandy nature, soils of the Colorado Plateau are compactible, which adversely affects water uptake, nutrient cycling, and plant germination and growth. Again, this is a very easy indicator to measure and soils here recover from compaction fairly quickly once causal factors are removed. formation of social trails. This indicator is an effective measure of off-trail use and indicates how much of an area away from designated trails is being trampled by visitors. In addition to the above first tier indicators, which will be monitored on a weekly or monthly basis, a set of second tier indicators will be measured on a 5-year cycle. These indicators include cover and frequency of vascular plants by species, elemental tissue analysis of dominant plants, cover and frequency of ground cover (litter, cyanobacteria, mosses and lichens), soil characteristics (organic matter, bulk density, porosity, etc.). The purpose of these indicators is to more directly measure the ecosystem health, and to also check the validity and utility of the first tier indicators.

Social indicators and standards The social carrying capacity research program at Arches National Park was approached in two phases. Phase I was conducted in the summer of 1992 and aimed at identifying potential social indicators (Manning et al. 1993). Personal interviews were conducted with 112 visitors throughout the park. In addition, ten focus group sessions were held with park visitors, park staff and local community residents. Phase I research was qualitative in nature; its purpose was simply to explore for potential indicator variables. Additional research, phase II, was needed to become more quantitative by asking respondents to rate the relative importance of these potential indicators. This required a larger and more representative sample. It also required some innovative sampling techniques based on image capture technology (Nassauer 1990, Chenoweth 1990, Pitt 1990, Lime 1990). Base photographs of park sites were taken and these images were then modified with computer software to present a range of impact conditions. A set of sixteen photographs was developed for each attraction site and trail presenting a wide-ranging number of visitors present. An analogous set of photographs was developed for a range of environmental impacts caused by off-trail hiking. Respondents rated the acceptability of each photograph. Data from the second phase of the research program was used to determine visitor norms for social crowding in various areas of the park. Individuals were indeed able to determine when crowding levels became unacceptable to them. However, as expected, visitors varied widely in their individual tolerances. At Arches National Park, a decision was reached to set the social standards (the point beyond which requires management action to correct the condition) at the point where 50 percent of the visitors judged crowding as being unacceptable.

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References Chenoweth, R.E. 1990. Image-Capture Computer Technology and Aesthetic Regulation of Landscapes Adjacent to Public Lands. Managing American's Enduring Wilderness Resource. St. Paul. Minnesota: University of Minnesota, pp. 563-568. Dassmann, R.F. 1964. Wildlife Biology. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Graefe, A.R., F.R. Kuss, and J.J. Vaske. 1990. Visitor Impact Management: The Planning Framework. Washington, D.C.: National Parks and Conservation Association. Lime, D.W. and G.H. Stankey. 1971. Carrying Capacity: Maintaining Outdoor Recreation Quality. Recreation Symposium Proceedings, USDA Forest Service, pp. 174-184. Lime, D.W. 1990. Image Capture Technology: An Exciting New Tool for Wilderness Managers! Managing America's Enduring Wilderness Resource. St. Paul, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, pp. 549-552. Manning R.E., D.W. Lime, R. F. McMonagle, and P. Nordin. 1993. Indicators and Standards of Quality for the Visitor Experience at Arches National Park: Phase I Research. University of Minnesota Cooperative Park Studies Unit, 54 pages. Nassauer, J.I. 1990. Using Image Capture Technology to Generate Wilderness Management Solutions. Managing America's Enduring Wilderness Resource. St. Paul, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, pp. 553-562. Pitt, D.G. 1990. Developing an Image Capture System to See Wilderness Management Solutions. Managing America's Enduring Wilderness Resource. St. Paul, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, pp. 541-548.

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Process for Addressing Visitor Experience and Resource Protection in the National Park System

General Management Planning

Amend GMP Reevaluate indicators & modify if necessary Monitoring

Park Management

Step 1. Assemble the project team. Step 2. Develop statements of park purposes, significance and primary interpretive themes. Step 3. Map and analyze resources and visitor experiences. Step 6. Select quality indicators and specify associated standards for each zone.

Step 4. Establish the sprectrum (or range) of desired resource and social conditions. Step 5. Use zoning to identify proposed plan and alternatives.

Step 9. Develop/refine manaagement strategies to address discrepancies. Step 7. Compare desired conditions to existing conditions. Step 8. Identify probable causes of discrepancies between desired and existing conditions. The Planning Process

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Potential Topics to be Included in Wilderness Planning

Planning topics

The intent of this section is to provide a "tickler" list to help managers think about planning questions relevant to developing programmatic Wilderness management. It is not an exhaustive list of topics since individual Wildernesses will have unique situations that generate additional questions. As managers address planning questions, they should be guided by the Wilderness Act, the legislation that established the specific Wilderness, the code of federal regulations, and the agency's national Wilderness policy. The Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) is a significant piece of enabling legislation that affects all Wilderness in Alaska. Due to the special provisions and complexities associated with ANILCA, managers working in Alaska are advised to consult with specialists so that management direction meets the intent of this legislation. Legislation guiding development of management direction for individual agencies: Bureau of Land Management: Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976. National Park Service: Organic Act of 1916 and the General Authorities Act of 1970. Forest Service: Multiple Use - Sustained Yield Act of 1960 and the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974 with associated amendments contained in the 1976 National Forest Management Act. Fish and Wildlife Service: National Wildlife Refuge System Administration Act of 1966. Enabling legislation and individual agency mandates may modify the overall goals identified for the topics listed in this section. For all questions that include determining the range of natural variability, managers must recognize the limitations of data that only cover a short time period or small area. Do not describe a static picture of desired vegetation or population conditions, since this implies that management intervention might be taken to produce a specific condition. This would contradict the intent of the Wilderness Act to study and learn about conditions that evolve as a result of natural processes operating as freely as possible (Sprugel 1991, Landres 1992) Overall Goal

Wildlife

Cooperate with State wildlife agencies to provide an environment where the forces of nature, rather than human actions, determine the diversity, abundance, and distribution of wildlife species. Protect native wildlife from human-caused conditions that could lead to Federal listing as threatened or endangered. Aid recovery of threatened, endangered, and sensitive species and their habitat. Key documents include the Endangered Species Act and the "Policies and Guidelines for Fish and Wildlife Management in National Forest and BLM Wilderness." Planning Questions 1. In general terms, what wildlife species would exist in a naturally functioning system (considering predators, ungulates, small mammals, birds of prey, perching birds, waterfowl, reptiles, amphibians, and insects)? 2. What do we know about the range of natural variability on key habitats (e.g. crucial

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winter range, threatened, endangered, and sensitive species habitat)? How much human impact is acceptable in these habitats? 3. What do we know about the range of natural variability in population abundance and age structure for key species and what are natural movement patterns? Given that hunting is a legitimate activity in National Forest and BLM Wilderness, how much population alteration is acceptable? What should the hunting experience be like? Overall Goal

Fisheries

Cooperate with State wildlife and fish agencies to emphasize quality and naturalness in managing fisheries. Fish stocking may be conducted by the State in coordination with the federal agency where this practice occurred prior to designation and where it meets specific criteria (refer to agency national Wilderness policy and "Policies and Guidelines for Fish and Wildlife Management in National Forest and BLM Wilderness"). Planning Questions 1. What fish species would exist in a naturally functioning system? What do we know about the range of natural variability in population abundance, distribution, and age structure? 2. Given that fishing is a legitimate activity in most Wildernesses, how much population alteration is acceptable from fishing pressure and stocking practices? 3. What standards are needed regarding fish stocking methods? 4. What do we know about the range of natural variability for fish habitat? How much human impact on fish habitat is acceptable? Overall Goal

Vegetation

(Include consideration of rangelands, exotic plant invasion, riparian areas, fire, and insect/disease infestations) Allow natural processes to determine plant community composition, structure, and patterns. Permit naturally occurring fire ignitions and native insects/diseases to play, as nearly as possible, their ecological role within Wilderness. Reduce the risk and consequence of wildfires and insect/disease infestations escaping from the Wilderness. Prevent human-caused introductions of noxious or exotic plants. Protect threatened, endangered and sensitive plant species. Manage rangelands to protect watershed conditions and maintain native plant communities. Apply the Congressional grazing guidelines in a practical, reasonable and uniform manner (refer to the Colorado Wilderness Act of 1980 for complete text of grazing guidelines). Planning Questions 1. What do we know about the variability in natural fire regimes for the vegetation types occurring within the Wilderness? How much human interference with the natural fire process is acceptable (balancing life, property, local economy, and smoke concerns with goal of allowing natural process to occur)? What standards are needed regarding wildfire suppression activities (incorporating minimum impact suppression tactics)? 2. What are acceptable infestation levels of noxious weeds? What standards are

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needed to prevent the introduction of exotics and for the methods of control of existing or new infestations? 3. What do we know about the natural variability in insect/disease infestations? How much human interference with the insect and disease outbreaks is acceptable to reduce the chance of spread outside of the Wilderness? What standards are needed regarding methods of control? 4. Under flooding, beaver activity, and other natural events, what is the range of riparian conditions that might exist? What is the acceptable level of disturbance in riparian areas from livestock and recreational stock grazing, recreation activity and trail development? 5. What standards are needed to protect threatened, endangered, and sensitive plant species and their habitats. 6. What are desired rangeland conditions in areas grazed by livestock or recreational stock? What are acceptable forage utilization levels? Are standards needed to constrain where and when recreational stock grazing occurs? What visual quality standards should range structures conform to?

Overall Goal

Air quality

Protect air quality and related values, including visibility, for Class I airsheds. Relevant legislation includes the Clean Air Act amendments of 1977 and 1990. Any Wilderness 5,000 acres or larger designated prior to 1977 is considered a Class I airshed. Under the Prevention of Significant Deterioration provisions of the Clean Air Act, the federal land manager has "an affirmative responsibility to protect the air quality related values (including visibility) of any Class I area and to consider, in consultation with the Administrator, whether a proposed major emitting facility will have an adverse impact on such values." Planning Questions 1. What are the air quality related values for this Wilderness (those features that are affected in some way by air pollution--visibility, odor, flora, fauna, soil, water, geological features, and cultural resources)? What are the sensitive receptors (an element of an air-quality-related-value that is very sensitive to, or first modified by, air pollution)? How much change in the condition of a sensitive receptor (e.g. lake alkalinity, view distance, lichen species composition) is acceptable?

Overall Goal

Water quality

Protect water quality and natural watershed conditions. Planning Questions 1. What conditions should exist in a naturally functioning aquatic system (considering physical and biological characteristics)? How much human disturbance from recreation activities or introduction of exotic species is acceptable? 2. What water quality is desired in terms of pathological characteristics (bacteria, virus, protozoa)?

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Overall Goal Protect the recreational, scenic, scientific, educational, and historical values of prehistoric and historic resources (although not necessarily the physical site). Relevant legislation includes the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978, the Archeological Resources Protection Act of 1979, and the Native American Graves and Repatriation Act of 1990. Planning Questions 1. What types of prehistoric and historic cultural resources require protection in this Wilderness (what cultural themes are represented)? How much physical evidence of historic resources is desired in different portions of the Wilderness? 2. Are standards needed to protect cultural resources from disturbance by recreational or managerial activities? What standards are needed to constrain scientific or educational study of cultural resources? Overall Goal

Cultural resources

Caves

Protect the scientific, educational, and recreational values associated with caves. Relevant legislation is the Federal Cave Resources Protection Act of 1988. Planning Questions 1. What is the desired condition of cave resources considering unique plants, animals, and physical/geological features which may be present? 2. How much change in cave conditions is acceptable? Overall Goal

Wilderness recreation

(Include consideration of the experience, campsites, trails, signing, trailheads, overflights, and search and rescue). Address unique issues that may be associated with hiking, backpacking, horsepacking, canoeing, skiing, climbing, and organizational group use. Provide opportunities for public use, enjoyment and understanding of wilderness through experiences that depend upon a wilderness setting. Provide outstanding opportunities for solitude, self-reliance, challenge, and primitive (i.e. non-motorized, non-mechanized), unconfined types of recreation. Maximize visitor freedom within the Wilderness. Maximize the opportunity for campsite privacy. Minimize campsite impacts (both in terms of real extent and impact on individual sites). Maintain trails where they are needed to protect the resource and desired for the experience. Maintain trailless conditions where this is desirable. Planning Questions 1. What is the spectrum of experiences desired in this Wilderness. Desired experiences are usually described in terms of acceptable types of activities, acceptable numbers of encounters between groups on the trail or river and at camps, acceptable visitor behavior, and desired degrees of self-reliance and personal risk. 2. What are acceptable campsite conditions? Campsite conditions are usually described in terms of numbers of sites, location of sites, and level of impact associated with individual sites.

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3. What level of trail development is desired to provide a spectrum of experiences within Wilderness and protect the resource? Are trailless areas desired and, if so, how is trailless defined? What maintenance standards are needed? What standards are needed to constrain how trails are reconstructed? 4. What level and type of signing is needed to allow people to enjoy the area while also providing the desired level of challenge and self-discovery? What standards are needed on visual quality of signs? 5. What level and type of development is appropriate at trailheads (including road access) to meet the desired type of experiences (i.e. the level of trailhead development should vary depending on the desired type of experience in the portion of the Wilderness accessed by the trailhead)? 6. What are acceptable numbers and types of overflights seen or heard within the Wilderness? Overall Goal

Outfitting

Provide opportunities for outfitters to help the public use, enjoy and appreciate wilderness in a manner that meets the recreational, educational, conservation, historical, scientific and scenic purposes of Wilderness. Planning Questions 1. What public need exists for outfitter services? (Note: public need refers to the desired role of outfitters to help meet wilderness goals such as helping people enjoy the wilderness in a responsible manner, increasing public understanding of natural and cultural history, and increasing understanding of the Wilderness system so that public support continues. Public need does NOT equal demand)? What types and levels of service are needed to meet Wilderness purposes (considering resource protection needs and desired experiences)? Are standards needed to constrain how outfitting operations are carried out?

Overall Goal

Structures and facilities

Provide a setting that is not occupied by humans, without permanent improvements or human habitation. Provide facilities and improvements only for the protection of the wilderness resource. Limit administrative structures to those determined to be the minimum necessary to meet the purposes of the Act. Structures that are needed for proper management of range allotments are maintained under provisions of the Congressional grazing guidelines. Structures listed on the National Register of Historic Places may be maintained. Planning Questions 1. What structures are the minimum needed for administration of the Wilderness to meet the purposes of the Act? 2. What types of structures are needed for proper management of range allotments? 3. What visual quality standards should structures meet? 4. What standards are needed to constrain how structures are maintained or reconstructed?

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Overall Goal Encourage scientific uses that help protect the wilderness character or promote better understanding of natural systems and people's relationship with nature. Ensure scientific methods are compatible with wilderness values. Planning Questions 1. What types of scientific uses are desired? 2. What standards are needed to constrain the type of equipment or scientific methods used?

Scientific use

Overall Goals (For example, airfields, dams, mining, access to private lands)

Other special

Minimize the impact associated with activities that are specifically covered in the Wilderness Act or enabling legislation. Planning Questions 1. What are acceptable levels and types of airfield use? What is the desired condition of airstrips? What standards are needed to constrain how maintenance of airstrips is carried out? 2. What is the desired condition of dams owned by the federal agency or operated under special use permit? What standards are needed on how maintenance of dams is accomplished? 3. What standards are needed to keep the impacts associated with mining to an acceptable level? What is considered reasonable access to valid mining claims or private inholdings?

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GETTING

STARTED

"We do not inherit land from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children." Kenyon Proverb

Getting Started

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Getting Started

The purpose of this unit is to present ideas on what needs to be done before you jump full-bore into the planning effort. How do you get management team support, assess what will be needed to complete the effort, and develop a timeline? The role of the project leader, interdisciplinary team, line officer, facilitator, and wilderness ranger is also discussed.

Objectives

1. Participants are able to assess what skills and resources will be needed to complete the process to develop wilderness management direction.

Key points

· · · · ·

Identify assessment area that makes ecological sense. Build internal and external support. Recapture institutional memory. Find people who have the skills you need. Strategize--develop checkpoints along the way.

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Getting Started

What do you already have?

Defining the task

What already exists in the way of plans or direction that could be used as a starting point for completing wilderness management direction? The more linkage that can be made to already completed and sanctioned plans the better. Look for direction in: · Enabling legislation and the Wilderness Act. · The Congressional Record pertaining to the wilderness bill that created the area you are about to plan for. · Agency National Wilderness policy. · Results of the roadless area reviews and wilderness study area reviews done by various agencies over the past 25 years. · Old plans that still contain valuable information (Forest Service "unit plans," Park Service backcountry management plans, etc.) · The primary values, themes, or resources for which the wilderness or the surrounding federal land was designated (this one will be easiest for the National Parks). Old files on history of designation. Invite key members in community who were involved in the designation debate. · Known resources, features, wildlife of special concern. Often threatened, endangered, and sensitive species, archeological sites, or scenic and geologic features have management direction written specifically for them. Even if this is not the case, you probably have knowledge of special attributes that need to be given consideration in the plan. · Is there a range of settings already described--wilderness zones, ROS classes, backcountry management zones? How does the wilderness fit into range of settings offered in other places -- what are the primary values, most significant or least replaceable attributes or features, links with adjoining areas?

Limit scope and prioritize tasks

Once you have tentative agreement that new wilderness management direction is needed, line officers need information on how much time and energy the plan will take to complete. Limit the scope of the plan by setting priorities. If you decide on only one wilderness management problem to solve, you will be ahead of where you were. Give your leadership team the means to answer these questions to the extent possible: · How significant is the problem? · What will happen if we don't address it? · How much more will it cost in the long run to ignore it for now? In defining the purpose and need for a project, the "no action" alternative serves the function of answering the question above. It helps us show that there is a need to change the current direction. Another way to ask these questions has been widely distributed among those familiar with Hans Blieker's training, "Systematic Development of Informed Consent." He offers the following questions as the ones to ask in order to get agreement that action is needed.

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· Is there a serious, significant problem? · Will failure to solve it result in unacceptable consequences? · Is this the right time, place, level of organization to solve it?

3

· Will the action plan create a framework for reasonable solutions to the problem? If the answer to these questions is YES, you are ready to embark on developing new wilderness management direction. But your work isn't done yet; the agency leaders still want to know more. For example, what's this going take in terms of time, resources, and funding? You can help answer these questions by outlining tasks or planning steps, developing a timeline, listing roles and skills needed, and providing a rough cost estimate. Within the Forest Service, the recently completed Wilderness Implementation Schedules should have identified actions, costs, and time frames for developing Forest Plan wilderness management direction if this was identified as a need.

Develop a schedule

Your schedule will have to be tentative, because you'll be surprised how quickly some tasks go and how slowly others do. Some of the key planning tasks can be stated in general terms as follows, with guesstimates on the amount of time to expect (assuming intensive public involvement). 1. Identify the need to change current Plan direction. (One month.) 2. Identify issues and boil them down to the most significant ones. This will help focus the planning effort on the most important things to address. (One to three months.) 3. Next, summarize information on current conditions relative to the main issues. This may require some field inventory. (This could take up to five months.) 4. Develop desired conditions, given what you know about existing conditions and the issues. What are the primary values, most significant or least replaceable attributes or features of the wilderness that need to be considered? Desired condition can be described in parts--the significant physical and biotic attributes and the recreation setting and experience. (Three to four months.) 5. Identify indicators that can be used to measure whether or not you are making progress toward desired conditions. (One to two months.) 6. Identify objectives and standards for each indicator that define realistic, attainable conditions to be achieved. (Four months or more, depending on kind of public involvement.) 7. Develop proposed management direction showing how different "zones" would be allocated on-the-ground. Each zone contains description of desired conditions, indicators, and standards. (One to two months.) 8. Identify issues associated with proposed management direction through scoping process. (Two to three months.) 9. Develop alternatives to the proposed management direction that address the issues raised and fulfill the purpose and need. (Three months.) 10. Evaluate alternatives disclosing the potential effects on resources, visitor experiences, and management implications. (Four to five months.)

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11. Prepare NEPA document. Send out for public review. Summarize public comments and prepare final document. Issue decision document and notify public of decision. (Six months or more.)

Resources needed

This will depend largely on the scope of the planning effort, the level of public interest, and the degree of complexity. At a minimum, treat wilderness planning like any other integrated resource planning effort. You will need an interdisciplinary team (IDT) and leader, with involvement from the line officer in charge. If there are few issues, relatively low public interest, or the public simply wants to be kept informed by mail, an IDT is probably all you need. What about more intensive public involvement? If you have meetings, field trips, work groups, open houses, or other intensive public involvement techniques, you'll need different skills. If you have a highly polarized and vocal public you'll need even more kinds of skills. Think of all skills needed, not just the job descriptions of certain people--if you have a great negotiator who's a timber resource clerk, give him/her some career development and let him/her be on the public meeting support team. Other skills to consider: writing, public speaking, facilitating meetings, organizing and scheduling, clerical support, team-building.

Skills Needed Developing wilderness management direction, particularly if citizens are intensively involved, will require contributions from many people to succeed. The skills needed and the roles of those people who most need to be involved must be made clear at the onset. Some of the roles described here can be filled by the same person. Planner Consultant on process, plan amendment, consistency with existing direction and laws, NEPA adequacy. Wilderness coordinator A wilderness coordinator is helpful for planning efforts that involve multiple administrative units and jurisdictions. This person often assumes the role of newsletter writer, plan writer, and other tasks. Often develops public involvement strategy and sets up public meetings. Develops agenda and handles logistics, usually with help of IDT leader and facilitator. Consults with line officers and resource specialists for review of all documents, insures that everyone is kept informed and involved throughout the process. After the new plan direction is complete, this person has a leadership role in preparing yearly monitoring reports, tracking implementation progress and continuing to communicate with public groups. IDT team leader Serves as contact for information from the public, schedules and leads IDT meetings, attends all public meetings and often serves as technical expert regarding wilderness policy and specific area conditions. The IDT leader is responsible for content of the plan. He or she develops or reviews all documents and helps determine sideboards and framework for the plan. Serves as internal district contact for other employees.

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IDT members

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Provide expertise and analysis, representing subject areas and wilderness resource as a whole, assuring interdisciplinary work. The IDT provides input to develop proposed management direction and complete the NEPA analysis. They also help develop the public involvement plan and provide ideas on how public meetings will be structured. The IDT does the grunt work for public meetings: develops the need for change; finalizes issues; develops preliminary desired conditions, indicators, and standards; develops proposed map of zones; identifies preliminary issues; develops alternatives; analyzes effects; prepares information about affected environment; and prepares NEPA document. Facilitator Facilitates public meetings and meetings of the IDT if necessary. Another person needs to act as meeting recorder--don't expect facilitator to do both. Specific tasks for the facilitator: Develops strategy for each meeting with project leader. Determines how to handle discussions, conflicts. Develops and presents team-building activities. Is responsible for group process. Ensures all participants are heard. Helps develop ideas for public involvement. Timekeeper at meetings. Keeps discussions focused and on track. Handles meeting logistics. Summarizes progress during meeting - identifies decision points. Makes sure recorder has time to get all important ideas written down. Public affairs officer Develops public involvement plan with wilderness coordinator or IDT leader. Prepares news releases and serves as the main contact for news media. Clerical assistant Meeting notes and mailings, photocopying, maintains mailing lists and project record, sometimes serves as meeting recorder. Writer Edits or writes the newsletters to keep public informed and edits all documents. This person needs to be someone with deep involvement in the process who has been to the public meetings. Whoever has the writing skills is best person for the job. Line officer Provides essential support to the planning effort and agency employees involved. Approves the new plan direction. Answers questions at meetings, keeps team on track. Alerts citizens to forest and agency direction as a whole, helps them put their project into context. Can help keep team from wasting time by giving feedback on what is acceptable to decision-makers. Specialists Provide expertise on specific topics, makes presentations at meetings. These people may be on the IDT or they may be called in occasionally during the process to provide expertise and information on specific topics. Wilderness rangers Provide on-ground knowledge of wilderness conditions, conduct part or all of

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inventory, gather information about visitor use and comments, provide suggestions for desired conditions, indicators and standards.

Filling roles

Obviously, the skills needed to conduct successful planning are demanding. The following list may be useful to help identify those individuals--within the agency or as detailers, consultants, or contractors--who have the knowledge and skills you need for a few key roles. IDT leader 1. Thorough understanding of wilderness policy, legislation and management 2. Knowledge of particular wilderness conditions 3. Thorough knowledge of planning process and NEPA 4. Good listener 5. Good communicator 6. Recognizes latitude in handling wilderness management problems 7. Willing to work weekends or evenings to attend public meetings

Facilitator 1. Neutral 2. Is credible and trusted by public 3. Thorough understanding of group process techniques, informed consent, and conflict resolution 4. Some understanding of wilderness policy and LAC/VERP concepts 5. Good listener and communicator 6. Good interpersonal skills 7. Willing to work weekends or evenings to attend public meetings

Line officer 1. Willingness to work collaboratively with citizens 2. Willingness to take risks and accept conflict 3. Willingness to be visible and involved throughout the process 4. Willingness to free up specialists' time to work on planning effort

Costs

Develop a cost estimate--skills and personnel time needed is a big start; then include mailing, printing, other direct costs. Refer to example at the end of this unit.

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Getting Started Checkpoints

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There are a number of points throughout the planning process where it is critical to ensure that the responsible decision-maker (line officer) agrees with what has been developed and gives the go ahead to proceed to the next steps. As part of the project record, get line officer buy-off in writing at the following points: Time Line to Complete Process and Needed Staff Make sure you have line officer support to proceed with developing wilderness management direction. Need for Change and Issues to be Addressed Make sure the line officer agrees with the reasons for changing management direction and agrees with the issues that will be addressed. Make sure he/she supports amending current management direction. Public Involvement and Issues to be Addressed Make sure the line officer supports your public involvement plan and agrees with the list of potentially affected publics. Proposed Management Direction Make sure the line officer agrees that the proposed management direction (zone map, desired conditions, standards, and monitoring indicators) is adequate enough to proceed into the NEPA analysis phase. Issues Make sure the line officer agrees that the issues relative to the proposed management direction are the significant ones that should drive alternative development. Alternatives Make sure the line officer agrees that the alternatives identified represent a full range of reasonable alternatives to fulfill the purpose and need, and respond to the significant issues. Decision Obviously, the line officer must make the decision on which alternative to select and will need to write the Decision Notice and Finding of No Significant Impact (where an Environmental Assessment is appropriate level of analysis) to adopt the new management direction.

Wilderness ranger role

The people in the field are the ones who best know existing conditions, where the problems are, and what visitors think. They also can provide the best information on what standards might be realistically attainable. However, many wilderness rangers are discouraged about planning due to a lack of involvement and training. As a result, a message can be conveyed to the public that agency planning is useless. This section is included to present ideas on how wilderness rangers can be effectively involved in the planning process. A "testimonial" from two wilderness rangers is also provided.

Ideas for Wilderness Ranger Development Have Wilderness rangers:

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1. Talk with citizens and encourage their involvement. Ask rangers to identify citizens who might be interested in helping develop wilderness management direction. 2. Collect and analyze information about existing resource conditions as well as visitor comments. It is very useful to hold an end of the season meeting where wilderness rangers can discuss their observations with line officers and the planning coordinator. 3. Attend public meetings and give a presentation about a specific issue from a field perspective. Wilderness rangers should also be encouraged to talk one-on-one with citizens attending the meeting. 4. Provide input during each step of the process and review all drafts. 5. Help generate ideas on how to inform interested citizens about wilderness management issues. 6. Participate on the wilderness planning ID team to provide a field perspective. 7. Give presentations to various organizational groups about the planning process and solicit comments and further involvement. Keys for Success To effectively involve wilderness rangers in the planning process, a few key things need to occur. Wilderness rangers must: 1. Understand the basics of the planning process, why it is important, what it will accomplish, and what the time line is. 2. Know what their role in the process will be and feel like they are important to its success. 3. Understand what their specific responsibilities will be and feel like they have adequate training to carry out their responsibilities. 4. Be given opportunities to participate in all public meetings and ID team meetings even if this means inviting attendance during the winter months on a volunteer basis.

Suggested activity

Goal: To point out how important it is for wilderness rangers to understand the planning process and to convey the proper message to the public. To understand how miscommunicating this process cheats the public out of their resource and conveys poor management of Wilderness. Two brief skits: the first skit portrays a situation in which a wilderness ranger lacks knowledge about and involvement in the planning process. The second portrays a scenario in which a wilderness ranger effectively communicates the planning process. Skit settings: outdoors, preferably in a wooded/forest area Players: For skit #1, a wilderness visitor and one wilderness ranger are needed. For skit #2, a different visitor and a wilderness ranger. All actors need to know the skit contents (i.e. volunteers will not be sufficient). Scenario: In each skit, the wilderness visitor meets up with the wilderness ranger. Each visitor voices a concern about their perception of a problem (that is a planning

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issue) and how the agency is failing to manage it properly.

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Discuss each skit at end--what lessons can be learned--what communication tips can be used.

Wilderness Planning Involvement--A Wilderness Ranger Perspective In 1992, the Bridger-Teton National Forest (Wyoming) began their wilderness management planning which included forming a citizen's task force for the Gros Ventre Wilderness. The task force and the Forest Service worked cooperatively to identify specific questions and concerns to address during the planning process. Common goals and priority issues were identified and a plan to inventory existing conditions was developed. The Forest had four wilderness rangers who were involved in the process; these rangers were able to attend the initial public meetings, thereby gaining insight into the direction of the planning process that would take place over the next 2 years. Prior to the field season, the Gros Ventre wilderness rangers began the training necessary for their role in the planning process. A primary element of their involvement was to collect data on existing wilderness conditions pertaining to the issued identified by the task force. During the summer and fall field season, the rangers spent numerous hours documenting their observations and conducting surveys. Information was collected on grazing impacts, stream water/riparian quality, and campsite conditions to name a few. A large part of their work consisted of visitor contacts and explaining the planning process. The rangers were surprised to speak with so many interested parties and to hear extensive public feedback. Initially, the wilderness rangers found the planning process overly cumbersome and bureaucratic. At the beginning, the task force meetings felt tense and it seemed like little would be accomplished. As the year progressed, however, the wilderness rangers continued to attend monthly task force meetings. With time and involvement, the feeling was that the task force was developing into an effective working group. The meetings gave the rangers and task force members many opportunities to meet and listen to each others' concerns. These events facilitated an increased sense of understanding and broke down many of the barriers. An important concern that the task force voiced was having an increased presence of agency personnel on the ground. Wilderness rangers also heard the repeated need for accurate data collection and documentation. There was a great deal of emphasis put on the important role that the data collected by the rangers would play in regard to determining management actions. The wilderness rangers began to feel a great sense of worth and realized how important their role was in the process. They were responsible for the majority of data collection and documentation of existing conditions, and they reviewed public comments and available data to pick up trends and patterns. As the wilderness field personnel, their intimate knowledge of the resource and their extensive public contacts placed them in the critical position of being the "eyes and ears of the Forest Service." At the end of the fall season, two of the wilderness rangers had the opportunity to continue their involvement by compiling and analyzing the data they collected to develop baseline trends. This information was used extensively by the managers and task force members. For the rangers, it was a great sense of accomplishment to

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interpret the data and produce a final product that would be used to direct management actions to protect the wilderness. For the wilderness rangers, what started out as a questionable endeavor developed into something very worthwhile and meaningful. The first few task force meetings seemed hopelessly polarized with each participants' self-interest dominating. It didn't seem like there would be cooperation between the task force and the Forest Service. The rangers observed over the year that the whole group came together, joked, learned from each other, and most importantly, focused on what was best for the wilderness. The rangers realized how critical their involvement was in developing protective management actions for the Gros Ventre Wilderness. The rangers are now looking forward to the procurement of funds and to implementation of the identified actions.

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GETTING STARTED

* Identify assessment area. * What is a available? Institutional memory. * Limit scope. * Build support. * Develop a schedule for completing the plan. * Identify skills and roles. * Project/estimate costs?

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LINE OFFICERS CHECKPOINTS

Need for change and issues to be addressed Timeline and staff needed to complete process Public involvement strategy Proposed management direction Issues Alternatives Decision

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Example Sawtooth Wilderness Management Plan Revision

Planning Goals The goal of updating the Sawtooth Wilderness Management Plan is to meet the intent of the 1964 Wilderness Act which provides "for the use and enjoyment of the American people in such a manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness, and so as to provide for the protection of these areas, the preservation of their wilderness character...." Specific objectives include: 1. Involving the public in management decisions to develop public ownership and support wilderness management program and to improve wilderness management decisions by utilizing the public's expertise and personal experiences. 2. Incorporating new research findings on the effects of human activities in the wilderness. 3. Addressing new issues and new wilderness uses. 4. Developing an action plan that outlines how wilderness management direction will be carried out, and the costs associated with that action. 5. Integrating non-recreation wilderness values. 6. Complying with new wilderness and fire planning direction. 7. Developing a monitoring plan to guide and evaluate management actions on important wilderness resources such as air and water quality, vegetation condition, and wildlife habitat.

Public Involvement Goals 1. Increase manager understanding of public desires and to increase public understanding of complexity of issues. 2. Create a relationship with citizens based on cooperation rather than confrontation. 3. Create an environment for open dialogue and understanding. 4. Involve citizens in developing and recommending management direction and actions. 5. Balance technical information with the personal knowledge and experience of citizens. 6. Develop shared ownership and public support for the implementation of the plan.

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Why Manage Wilderness? Since 1964, when President Johnson signed the Wilderness Act, Congress has allocated lands for "the use and enjoyment of the American people and future generations as Wilderness." In the 27 years since then, attention has been focused on just that, the allocation issue, leaving designated wilderness alone to care for itself. Now we recognize that if we do not manage activities affecting Wilderness, we will ultimately be preserving empty shells. Wilderness management is not management in the traditional sense of the word, not management in the sense of "doing something or manipulating the resource for human benefits." Human activities both in and out of Wilderness should be managed to sustain the highest level of purity within legal constraints.

Why Are We Updating Our Management Plan? · The last plan was written in 1977 and incorporated in the Forest Plan in 1987. · Has not been revised in 15 years. · There are new uses, new issues · New research has been done on the effects of human activities on the wilderness resource. · To meet new Natural Fire Plan Direction · We have made a commitment to Congress to have an action plan by 1993. · We recognize the need to: address people's concerns and to work towards solving problems together. better care for the Wilderness resource involve the public in determining direction for doing so.

· A good plan: - stops "management by reaction," where overall management is shaped by successive minor decisions - provides day-to-day and long-term guidance - is a blueprint that has a stabilizing effect--management remains constant despite change in managers - provides a diversity of opportunities - presents a clear picture of total of wilderness management, increasing our potential for obtaining the personnel and money we need to do the job. · The future of our successful wilderness management is dependent on the quality of our plan. · Everyone has a different view of how wilderness should be managed, and there is no intrinsically "right" way. - Build bridges of understanding among diverse views - Develop shared ownership. - Present a good picture of the current state of the wilderness

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- Think ahead about what conditions are desired and how to achieve them.

3

· We are using a planning process, LAC, that was developed and has been proven successful for wilderness application. is issue driven focuses on "human induced change" and impacts of use manages for conditions vs. user numbers focuses on quality not quantity looks to the future designed to include involvement

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Example Action Plan (Time Line)

October, 1991 1. Obtain Line Officer Agreement for Forest Plan Amendment (Jack Bills) Terry Clark will do this. Dean + ?'s need to "interview" Bills for specific objectives of the Wilderness Management Plan Revision. 2. $ Fund WAE 5/7 Wilderness Technician (13/13). Make 2 year commitment (i.e. funds for 12 months each year need to be available for the project). 3. $ Fund WAE GS-7 Fire Technician (13/13) additional 6 months each year for 2 years. 4. $ Identify time commitment & funding for GS-4 clerk/typist. (approx. 1 week/ month to do note taking at task force meetings (meeting documentation), type the newsletter, handle the mailing list, etc.) Wilderness will have to pay overtime for any evenings or weekend work. Business Mgmt. will cover normal working hours. 5. $ Identify upcoming training opportunities for Dean, Brown, Streit?, etc. Sign up for classes, attend any LAC conferences/workshops, etc. ****See Training schedule attached to this document*****

October - December (Education Period) 1. Research how to put together a Citizen Task Force. Meet with A. Pinkerton 11/5/ 91. Find out all the different alternatives for developing/ putting together Task Forces. Identify Task Force's overall goal. Identify ground rules & sideboards for Task Force. (i.e. Don't discuss proposed wilderness areas, Do attend ALL meetings, etc.) 2. $ Dean/Brown learn about LAC. Attend workshops, read, phone, attend other LAC meetings that are ongoing. Network. Get newsletters from every LAC group out there. **** See attached training schedule**** 3. *Train D4 staff about Wilderness Plan/LAC. (Develop a generic program/slide show that could be given at any meeting to teach folks about LAC, etc.) (L-and-C show) (week of Dec. 10-13) 4. Find or buy tape recorder. 5. Identify SNRA/FS core team for LAC. (Develop vision statement if group desires). Identify roles and titles for all members. Liese - Coordinator Carol-Facilitator KenNEPA specialist/I.D. rep. Terry-Line Officer(for Jack/Carl) Tom-Advisor/budget Mose-technical advisor 6. Identify FS NEPA core team. Internally discuss relationship between task force and Interdisciplinary Team. (let them know) CORE TEAM- Ken, Robin, Wally, Tom, Dave Gilman, Liese, Ecologist??, Carol B., Vicki??. AD HOC TEAM - Seth, Mark, Denise, Gary Gadwa. Jeff Gibardi. Jay Dorr

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7. Research the inventory/monitoring process. 8. Christmas !

3

1992 January - March (Pre Task Force Meeting Work) 1. Write public involvement plan (E.Waldapfel). Ready by January 20, 1992. · Press Releases about Task Force & LAC need to go out according to public involvement plan. $ · Prepare brochures to distribute on what LAC/WIS/Wilderness Plan/Citizen Task Forces are, (within scope of Public Inform & Involve Plan). · Identify & develop (internally) a list of potential task force members and groups that should be represented on the Task Force based on public involvement plan. Have team put together by March 15, 1992. *Start Public Scoping (NEPA). Relate to legislation (why we are amending the Forest Plan). Get external issues & concerns. · Start Internal Scoping. Internally, identify issues & concerns. · Compile responses to Scoping and Issues/Concerns. Have a written product ready for Task Force by March 25, 1992. · Develop mailing list. Try to get national representation. Base on public involvement plan. · Develop newsletter -it will highlight important points of meetings, where the issues & group are heading. Will be sent out to anyone on mailing list. This will be ongoing, and sent out after every meeting. Have format ready (for Task Force Meeting), by March 30, 1992. 2. Identify FS resources available to help core LAC team AND Citizen Task Force Team. (Ongoing process. Type onto DG by issue/resource) 3. Locate all existing research/studies done on any use in Sawtooth Wilderness. (Include both resource and social data.) (This will be ongoing through March '92). Compile existing data base. Have ready for Task Force by March 25, 1992. (GIS, Gap Analysis, GMP info., Trailhead data, Forest plan data--ask Cecil. 4. Identify how many folks will be required to do summer monitoring (1992). Consider if Dean can supervisor, or if a separate supervisor is required. Alternatives: FS summer seasonal employees, Student interns, SCA's, Sierra Club members, Volunteers, Contracts. $ · Hire/recruit employees/volunteers for monitoring and inventorying during June, July, August, September, 1992. 5. $ · Line up locations for Task Force Meeting Sites, alternative sites, resources needed for meetings (i.e. VCR's, doughnuts, etc.). Get Task Force input on times/ formats for meetings. Set general time line for meetings. 6. Develop a "Latitude Chart" that shows what the Task Force can legally do and what

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it cannot legally do. (i.e. it cannot alter the Wilderness Act.) Include: sideboards, definitions, etc. 7. $ · Develop response form for trailhead boxes. (they will measure social & resource data). Place at trailheads for summer 1992. (Liese will do). 8. Write WIS. (Liese to Humbolt for WIS-writing). 9. *Prepare for first Task Force Meeting, April 4. 1992.*

April-May 1992 1. Develop potential Opportunity Classes Apr-May. Have written product ready for Task Force for 3rd Task Force Meeting. 2. Put together list developed by LAC core team of Social Resource Condition Indicators. Have a written product ready for Task Force by 4th Task Force Meeting. 3. First Task Force Meeting--April 4, 1992. Introductions; Housekeeping; planning process; wilderness management; LAC; develop common goals; consensus process, etc. Identify issues/concerns. 4. Second Task Force Meeting--May 2, 1992. Task Force will develop opportunity classes. Introduce latitude chart.

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Getting Started

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Annual Costs

Wilderness Management Plan Revision Staffing Project Leader Facilitator Overtime Costs Administrative Support Specialist Support (as needed) Inventory/Monitoring Staff Costs 75% of GS-5/7 50% of GS-7 ??? 3 PP of GS-4 ???? ?? ($20,000 for contract) options available ??

Task Force Meeting Travel (for LAC meetings) Facilities Printing/photocopying/Mailing/Brochure

Costs $150 $350 $1500

Maps/GIS (Talk with M.Moulton re. GIS) ???? Supplies (flip charts, tape recorder, file box, day planners, books, etc.) $200

Getting Started s 3-23

THE NEED

FOR CHANGE

"There is a limit to the number of lands of shoreline on the lakes; there is a limit to the number of lakes in existence; there is a limit to the mountainous areas of the world; and...there are portions of natural scenic beauty which are God-made, and ...which of a right should be the property of all people. Arthur Carhart

Need for Change

4

Need For Change

You cannot tackle the world. The purpose of this unit is to present ideas on how to focus your effort on fixing inadequacies in your current management direction and addressing the significant issues. Good problem statements make it clear why you are proposing different management direction.

Objectives

1. Participants can write a clear statement describing why their current wilderness management direction needs to be changed and what issues will be addressed.

Key points

· · ·

Identify critical resource stewardship issue to focus effort. Strive to improve current conditions, not for perfection. Use criteria for effective plans to assess adequacy of current management direction.

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Need for Change

The Need For Change

Existing direction

Depending on the agency that employs you, programmatic wilderness management direction will be found either in the Resource Management Plan (Bureau of Land Management), Comprehensive Management Plan (Fish and Wildlife Service), Forest Plan (Forest Service), or General Management Plan (Park Service). Wilderness management direction has often focused on outputs rather than desired future conditions or has contained vague goals and objectives that did not provide a "yardstick" to measure progress. Outputs include such things as recreation visitor days or acres of wilderness. Such outputs provide no information about the condition of the wilderness and whether the intent of Congress is being met. To determine if wilderness management direction is adequate, the following criteria should be used. 1. The intent of the Wilderness Act, enabling legislation, and agency national wilderness policy is met. 2. Desired future conditions are clearly defined so that there is a "target" to shoot for. 3. Measurable objectives are set for acceptable conditions so explicit rationale can be developed to determine when management action is needed. 4. Important elements of the wilderness setting are identified to focus monitoring efforts so that progress towards desired future conditions can be tracked. 5. Comprehensive, integrated direction for all wilderness resources and activities is provided. 6. Consistency in management direction is provided when an individual wilderness crosses administrative boundaries. Where gaps exist between current direction and what is needed to address the criteria listed above, the need for change can be demonstrated. The next job is to articulate and prioritize problem areas. One way to do this is to measure the relative gaps between what you have and what you need for each of the criteria. For example, if your existing direction fails miserably at meeting the intent of the Wilderness Act but contains some well-defined standards, it should be obvious where your efforts need to be spent. Further refinement of the need for change can be accomplished by focusing on the most significant issues and concerns expressed by the public or agency managers. Well-developed and prioritized issues provide a clear focus for wilderness planning efforts.

Identify key issues

An issue is a point, matter, or question of public interest that should be addressed through the planning process. Identifying issues, then focusing on the most significant ones, will help reduce a potentially overwhelming planning effort to a manageable level. Describing the most significant issues is also important to convince your line officers that wilderness planning is a necessary task. To get started identifying issues, consider these sources: · Issues that have already come up through existing documentation such as wilderness

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Need for Change

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ranger reports and annual reports to Congress, trailhead registers, letters, or comments received by visitor center staff. · Unique features and values of the wilderness. · Outside influences (new roads or timber sales near the wilderness, what's happening on adjacent or nearby private land, influences on air and water quality, overflights). · Threatened and endangered species. · Resource degradation (unacceptable existing conditions). What do we already know is a problem? After preliminary issues are listed, pick the ones that really matter, i.e., what topic will do the most to improve conditions on-the-ground? These will drive the rest of the planning process. By identifying key issues you can focus your planning effort on what really matters. A major challenge is getting agreement that something IS a problem--e.g. conditions are not what we want them to be, we aren't meeting the intent of the law, or we aren't meeting public needs and they are complaining. The plan becomes our vehicle to solve the problem. Once you've decided on a few key issues, describe them in clear detail. Writing an issue statement takes some thought. The more specific it is, the more likely it will be useful for stating a need. Sometimes you have to go back and ask the person who brought up an issue these things: What is the concern? Where it is happening? What's causing it? What observable or potential effects are of concern? Examples of how to write an issue statement, based on key human-induced change to natural systems: Vague: Loss of open meadows. Better: Meadows in the lower Limestone Breaks have been encroached upon by Douglas fir due to fire suppression for the past 50 years. This has resulted in a reduction of over 1000 acres of critical bighorn sheep habitat. Natural fire would have kept these meadows open. Vague: Effects on fish. Better: Past stocking of brook trout in Rainbow Lake has reduced the size and population of native Colorado cutthroat trout, a sensitive fish species. Key issues can be determined by grouping a longer list of issues into categories for disposition. Here are some suggestions on how to focus in on the most significant issues. 1. An issue may be dismissed if it is beyond the scope or otherwise irrelevant to the wilderness planning process. For instance, if someone says "the Horse Puckey Wilderness should be declassified so I can ride my snowmobile through it" they are raising an issue that is beyond wilderness management sideboards. 2. An issue may be relevant, but it won't drive the development of different alternatives. An example may be air quality--managers have an "affirmative responsibility" to set standards for acceptable conditions to protect air quality but the same desired condition and standards would probably apply to the entire wilderness, thus different alternative "zone" maps would not be needed.

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Need for Change

3. Some issues may be laid to rest if a mitigation measure is included in all alternatives to address the concern. For instance, if a summer home owner is concerned that natural fire in the adjacent wilderness will burn up his cabin, a mitigation measure to reduce fuel buildup along the wilderness boundary could be part of all alternatives. 4. Finally, there will be key issues that must be addressed in the wilderness planning effort through the development of alternatives. Remember to call your issues "preliminary." After getting line officer support for going ahead with the wilderness planning effort, one of the first tasks will be to verify what issues should be addressed with the public. Citizens may have a different idea of what is most important. A caution: If your plan is driven by very specific issues, and those issues go away, then your plan direction will become obsolete. Focus instead on topic areas that will do the most to provide for long-term stewardship (e.g. fire direction, air quality, outfitted use).

Need for change

Describe the need, its significance, and the consequences of doing nothing. Part of your job of describing the need for change is to give management and line officers a compelling reason to care. Not only must you demonstrate the gap between existing direction and what is needed, you must show its significance and the consequences of failing to act. One example of a Need for Change statement is included in Unit #10--scoping document for the High Unita Wilderness.

Example

The Wonder Wilderness was designated in 1984 to recognize its outstanding wilderness character, particularly primitive recreation opportunities, crucial habitat for wildlife, and watershed values. In the last ten years, the population of communities within the region have increased from 1.3 million people to two million. This population is projected to grow to 2.5 million people in the next five years. Many people are drawn to the area for outdoor recreation opportunities, scenic beauty, quietness, and a clean environment. As development pressure has increased, monitoring data and public input have noted a decline in wilderness conditions. In particular: 1. It is becoming harder to find solitude in Mosquito Basin and Roaring Fork areas. The number of encounters between groups has increased from six per day to 15 per day in the last ten years. 2. Fifty miles of user-created trails have been inventoried in areas where there are no maintained system trails. This trail development has resulted in watershed damage (increased sedimentation in creeks that supply water to the community of Rosebud) and less opportunity for people who wish to use their own navigational skills. 3. Fire has not been allowed to play its natural role in the Wilderness. Fires within the Wilderness have been suppressed for the past 50 years. Fire suppression combined with increased recreation pressure has altered the distribution of bighorn sheep,

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especially within historic lambing areas. Development of homes adjacent to the eastern boundary of the Wilderness increases the risk of property loss due to fire. Fire suppression has also reduced the scientific values associated with learning how natural disturbances work. This is especially critical in the northern half of the wilderness which contains vegetation communities very similar to the communities under intensive management in the Milky Way watershed. Existing direction for this area was approved in 1981. When the Wilderness was designated in 1984, the Plan was amended to reflect this change; however, the management direction was not changed. Thus, the current management direction does not reflect the Wilderness Act or the legislation which designated the area in 1984. In particular, the current management direction does not provide a description of desired wilderness experiences, nor does it define objectives to measure the quality of the experience. Desired watershed conditions and objectives have not been defined. Updated direction regarding fire management is also needed to allow fire to play a more natural role and reduce the potential for property loss. Monitoring elements to track progress toward achievement of desired conditions have not been identified. New direction regarding wilderness experience, watershed condition, and fire are essential to the long-term stewardship of the Wilderness resource so that future generations can obtain the benefits designation of this area intended to provide.

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THE NEED FOR CHANGE

Identify Key Issues Assesing the adequacy of existing wilderness management direction Describe the consequences of doing nothing Criteria: * Meets the intent of the Wilderness Act, enabling legislation, and agency National Wilderness policy. * Clearly defines what is to be achieved. * Sets measurable objectives for acceptable conditions. * Provides comprehensive, integrated direction for all wilderness resources. * Provides consistency in management direction when a wilderness crosses administrative boundries.

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WORKSHEET NEED FOR CHANGE

1. Identify key stewardship issue. Be specific. ________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. What does Wilderness Act enabling legislation and policy say? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Evaluate how well your programmatic plan meets the following criteria for wilderness management direction. Write out specifically why it does or does not meet each criterion. 3. Criteria a. The intent of the Wilderness Act, enabling legislation, and agency National Wilderness policy is met. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ b. Desired future conditions are clearly defined so that there is a "target"to shoot for. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ c. Measurable standards are set for acceptable conditions so explicit rationale can be developed to determine when management action is needed. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ d. Important elements of the wilderness setting are identified to focus monitoring efforts so that progress towards desired future conditions can be tracked. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________

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______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ e.. Comprehensive, integrated direction for all wilderness resources and activities is provided. Hint: is the role of natural fire discussed? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ f. Consistency in management direction is provided when an individual wilderness crosses administrative boundaries. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Consequences of doing nothing ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________

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PUBLIC

INVOLVEMENT

"We who gathered here may represent a particular elite, not of money and power, but of concern for the earth for the earth's sake." Ansel Adams

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Meaningful Public Involvement

Effective plans require public acceptance. Increasingly, managers are discovering that as much or more effort needs to be put into public involvement as into technical analysis. Citizens want to be involved in shaping the decisions that affect them and are becoming disenchanted with traditional scoping and review of draft plans. What is needed is an environment for continuous public involvement which promotes face-toface dialogue among various interests and addresses values up front. This unit will focus on the role of public involvement in developing implementable wilderness management direction. It will cover the basics of transactive planning, explore the reasons why people consent, help you assess your public involvement needs, and identify a variety of techniques to involve citizens. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) is also discussed. Please note that this unit cannot begin to cover public involvement in any detail nor is there any discussion on how to effectively use the various public involvement techniques (e.g. running effective public meetings). Take advantage of the numerous training sessions available on public involvement before you dive into wilderness planning. Attending public forums for other efforts and networking with other managers can also give you lots of ideas.

Objectives

1. Participants can develop a public involvement plan for their wilderness planning effort that includes who the potentially affected interests are, what will be accomplished through public involvement, what information is needed from the public, how information will be used, and what techniques will be used.

Key points Activities

See overhead slide.

Worksheet View from a Mousehole

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Public Involvement

Meaningful Public Involvement

Purposes

Major public involvement goals are: · To help the agency make better decisions. · To inform people of agency plans and decisions. · To encourage public understanding of, and participation in, agency planning. · To increase agency's awareness of, and responsiveness to, the values and opinions expressed by citizens. · To increase collective knowledge and understanding among the citizenry and agency about issues. · To develop collaborative solutions. · To develop trust and ownership in decisions. · To establish management partnerships. What information is needed from the public to develop wilderness management direction? Citizen input is needed for the following tasks: · Identify, clarify, and prioritize issues. What needs to be fixed relative to current management direction? What do people value about this particular Wilderness? · Provide information on current conditions based on personal experience in the wilderness. Citizen information can help fill information gaps. · Express values/desires that need to be incorporated into descriptions of desired conditions. · Help identify what are the important elements of the wilderness setting that can be used to measure progress (i.e. identify possible indicators). · Develop realistic, attainable, measurable standards defining how much change in conditions is acceptable. · Develop map showing how proposed zones would be allocated on-the-ground. · Identify, clarify, and prioritize issues associated with proposed management direction. · Help identify alternative ways to map zones that would address the significant issues. · Suggest possible management actions to maintain or improve conditions and identify the relative desirability of each action.

Why people consent

Why do people go along with a particular course of action? Hans and Anne Marie Bleiker (Institute for Participatory Management and Planning) have found that there are common ingredients for projects that get implemented. Their studies reveal the following keys for success: · You must convince people that there is a problem that needs to be addressed (i.e. it would be irresponsible for you, given your agency's mission, not to address the problem). People must agree that doing something is better than doing nothing at all.

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Public Involvement

Don't try to sell a solution, sell the problem.

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· You must convince people that the process you are using is reasonable and fair (i.e. go beyond likes and dislikes to appeal to people's higher values of fairness and responsibility). · You must demonstrate that you are listening to people's concerns, you have heard what they are saying, you care about the hardships your proposed action might create, and you are doing everything possible to find a solution that minimizes the negative effects but still resolves the problem. The Bleikers have also discovered that people who can nurture public willingness to go along with a proposal share common traits. These people are: · Determined and persistent. · Consider everything negotiable, but NOT their mission. · Not chicken--they don't seek or shun controversy. · Honest--they generally provide the public with more honesty than the agency had in mind. · Empathetic--they can empathize with people who have values or interests that are very different from their own. · Generally leaders. They are NOT yes-people. All are positive thinkers. · Respected, even by their opponents.

Elements

Transactive public involvement

Dialogue and communication. The major difference between public involvement techniques that are often considered traditional or standard, and transactive public involvement is the opportunity for two-way communication within a group setting in the latter. Although public input can be gathered successfully by mail or over the telephone, many wilderness planners have found that the questions they need to resolve are best answered in a discussion among various interests. Within the constraints of law, policy, and wilderness management principles, there is room for considerable judgement in deciding how best to resolve issues. The collective judgement of a group of people working together can result in better, more acceptable decisions than the individual judgement of an agency wilderness planner. Common ground, shared values. One of the benefits of dialogue is the establishment of commonly held values within a group. As diverse as the public is, when asked what wilderness meant to them, individuals usually answer with a high degree of consistency. Learning that others share wilderness values and seeing how much common ground there is within diverse groups helps the public gain trust and respect for those who may have formerly been considered adversaries. Mutual learning, increased understanding, and ownership. Citizens and agency employees alike have information to share and to learn from each other. A setting in which discussion and dialogue takes place allows information to flow in both directions. Agencies may learn more about citizen values and expectations, as well as specific information about the wilderness they are planning for. Citizens become more

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informed about the complexities of wilderness management, and may gain knowledge about specific resources that will help them contribute to better management decisions (Krumpe and Stokes 1993). Collaborative solutions. Even among people where trust is difficult to build, the interaction often leads to brainstorming and synergy as one person's idea builds on another. The result is heightened creativity and development of management solutions that come from several minds at work.

Basics

Public involvement plan

A well-stocked toolbox of public involvement techniques, along with the wisdom to understand which will work best for you, is essential. Most basic of all, keep asking WHY? Why do you need public involvement? What planning questions are you trying to resolve? What information do you want from people and how will you use it? Which of many public involvement tools will work best for your situation? Strategy Develop a timeline with major checkpoints identified. Identify appropriate tools to meet your goals for public involvement at each step in the process. Include conduits for dispersing information (news media, mailing list, visitor comment cards, meeting announcements). Early in the process ask interested citizens how THEY want to participate. Citizens will not get involved in a planning effort unless you give them a reason to participate or they perceive that your proposal will negatively affect them. You can give citizens a reason to participate by offering the following motivators. A chance to contribute and be heard. People are motivated to participate in public involvement efforts if they believe their contributions are valued and their input will be heard. To maximize the likelihood that this will happen, public involvement should focus on the questions that citizens are best able to help answer. Public comment can't help agencies answer every planning question--cost estimating and budget development, for example. A chance to share one's knowledge. Nothing is so flattering as being asked to help. Managers who reach out to interested citizens and ask for information about a wilderness, as well as the professional skills or talents citizens may have, provide a great motivation for citizens to participate. No wilderness planner has all the information about a wilderness--we need the knowledge of places, conditions, and history that citizens can provide. Implicit in sharing knowledge as a motivator is the assumption that we will value the knowledge gained and use it to make better management decisions. Vested interest in the resource and outcomes of plans. Perhaps the greatest motivator to participate in public involvement is one's personal interest in the wilderness. This interest can be one's livelihood, a favorite fishing hole, or concern about an eagle nest. Those who believe they have a stake in the outcome of a wilderness plan are those who find the time to participate. They want to have a say in the decisions to be made. Although a single interest may be their initial motivating force, nearly everyone who has participated with others in a wilderness planning effort has found they also gained a greater understanding of values and perspectives held by other citizens and the agency and developed a little more trust.

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Public Involvement

Keys for successful public involvement and possible tools.

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1. Make public involvement an integral part of the process.

Tools: Use a combination of tools so that all interested citizens have the opportunity to be heard. You can reach people by mail, at meetings, by phone, through news media, at trailheads, in the field, or at visitor centers. · News releases--explain what you are hearing and how you are addressing concerns · Meetings, public workshops, open houses · Newsletters or progress reports · "In my point of view" response sheets · Comment cards · Delphi questionnaires · Phone trees or key contact list · Field trips · Kiosks displaying latest progress-- placed in key locations · Listening posts--set up in key locations in towns · Target key opinion leaders · Talk with shop owners where potentially affected citizens frequent · Attend organizational group meetings · Work projects · Focus groups to address particular issues

2. Identify individuals, groups and other parties that may be effected by the proposed management direction and facilitate their participation in the process.

Tools: Hold a brainstorm session with many staff representatives to determine what potentially affected interests need to be contacted. Some general categories: · Anyone holding a special use permit, easement, existing right, or other authorized commercial use. · Individuals that have expressed interest in wilderness and wilderness management. · Landowners with property adjacent to the wilderness; owners of any inholdings within the wilderness boundaries. · Key local community leaders who can in turn spread the word about the process and public input being sought. · Organizations known to have an interest: recreation clubs, advocacy groups, local, regional, and national interests. · Community organizations whose members would have interest such as clubs and

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schools. · Businesses that may be affected by wilderness management: tack shops, outdoor equipment stores, etc. · Editors of publications--magazines, newspapers, radio, television stations, for getting information to larger public and for those with target audiences that may have an interest. · People whose special interests reflect use of wilderness and issues. Wildlife advocacy, outfitter-guides, grazing permittees, general recreation users, wilderness advocates, etc.

3. Begin participation early in the process.

Tools: · News releases · Letters of invitation to mailing list. Often a "citizen action guide" or similar brochure format will get people's attention. · Phone calls to key individuals · Focus group meetings--for specific issues · Open house for initial information meeting--to explain what you are doing and why you are looking for public involvement. Good place to find out how people want to participate. · Attend organizational group meetings to explain what you want to do. · Sponsor well-known wilderness speaker (a good choice might be someone who was involved in designation of the Wilderness). Use forum as way to generate interest in your project.

4. Provide full and timely information and give opportunities for the public to be involved before decisions are made.

Tools: · News releases describing progress and explaining how you are addressing concerns · Regular progress reports identifying questions that you need public input on · Public workshops, small group sessions · Fishbowl planning sessions with interdisciplinary team · Workshops to develop alternatives--design sessions · See tools identified in #1

5. Respond to public input in a documented and visible manner.

Tools: · After any public meeting, send follow-up letters or minutes to confirm meeting content and the agency's understanding of discussions.

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· Keep meeting notes and make available to wider public. · Display issues disposition process; make entire process visible.

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6. Document all public participation and describe how the public's input was used.

Tools: Project file--should contain minutes of meetings, notes on phone contacts or important conversations, decisions made, line officer approvals, summaries of steps completed. Notify people who write comments, actively participate in meetings, or otherwise indicate strong interest, regarding how their input was used. The response should be commensurate with their level of input, i.e. if someone writes a letter, you should respond in writing. Phone input would warrant a phone response. Follow-up meetings with interested parties could be used to notify participants of how input has been used.

7. Inform people about wilderness values and what you are trying to achieve in your planning efforts.

Tools: Meetings and other contacts are opportunities to provide information. Presentation by specialists who can communicate technical information to citizens helps citizens provide more constructive input. Wilderness philosophy, the natural role of fire, and potential effects of implementing the proposed management direction are just some of the topics where presentations would help inform people.

Informed consent. In collaborative work with citizens, managers often think they have to come up with one solution that is the consensus of all present at a meeting. It is unfair to ask people to compromise their deeply held values in order to agree. Rather than seeking "compromise" (i.e. some middle point), provide an environment where people hear different perspectives, learn from each other, and a reasonable course of action emerges to make progress on an issue. Remember that you are working with citizens to develop PROPOSED management direction which will then go through NEPA analysis. While you want to develop proposed direction that best addresses the issues, there will be opportunities to consider alternative proposals, so it isn't worth pushing consensus to the point where it prevents constructive group dialogue. Consider these alternatives that allow everyone to be heard and keep their opinions intact: Try to develop informed consent, or grudging willingness to give it a try. Not the same as agreement, it means "I may not like this, but it's better than the existing situation. I won't actively work against it." Informed consent is possible if everyone present believes that there is a problem worth doing something about. Never ask people to vote. You might as well just send out questionnaires and count responses, rather than use transactive public involvement. Voting requires that minority opinions lose, and it reduces complex problems and judgements based on personal values to a simplified "yes" or "no." Minority opinion holders may come to feel they are wasting their time and thus stop participating.

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Start this unit with a 15-minute creative exercise such as View from a Mousehole to demonstrate the value of collaborative solutions coming from many points of view. Exercise at end of topic presentation: Use worksheet to develop the outline of a public involvement plan. Use the issues identified at "need for change" stage to develop this skeleton plan. View from a Mousehole Divide people into small groups (six per group). Give each person a piece of paper that he/she must keep to him/herself. Tell each person to act like a mouse living in a hole in a wall. Each person has a hole in a different part of the room. The group's goal is to determine the "truth"--what is the object in the middle of the room. 1. Long snout with two nostrils, black shiny fur, furry head with two small ears, two furry paws with long claws, and a big belly. (Black bear)\ 2. Four long legs (don't see a body), dark brown short fur, large antler, long snout, swoop body, and small tail. (Moose) 3. Big eyes that blink, round head with no eyes, scaly feet, feathery tufts, splotty gray-brown color, and head attached to body with no neck. (Great horned owl)

Exercises

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Public Involvement

5

Working With Citizen Groups

Developing Wilderness management direction has often been accomplished through the use of citizen work groups. While this form of intensive public involvement has never been a requirement, it has often been chosen for two primary reasons: 1. Interest in building agreement among diverse interests so that plans can be implemented more effectively. 2. Recognition that determining desired conditions is a value-based decision requiring in-depth discussion among diverse interests. For the most part, this type of public involvement has been successful in generating constructive dialogue among people with different perspectives. However, it is now becoming apparent that the way in which citizen groups have been used may have violated the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA). Just like planning processes, public involvement methods will continue to evolve. The new challenge is to develop public involvement methods that achieve the goals of open dialogue, mutual learning, and building agreement among diverse interests while still complying with the law. There is considerable "gray" area within the Federal Advisory Committee Act. FACA should not be used as an excuse for not intensively involving the public; however, it is essential that you work with your public involvement specialists and office of general counsel early in the process to develop public involvement strategies that accomplish your goals and meet the law. So what is FACA and how can you reduce the risk of violating it?

FACA

The Federal Advisory Committee Act of 1972 (PL 92-463) The Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) applies any time the federal government asks a group of nonfederal employees to meet more than once. The intent of the Act is to "level the playing field" so that decision-makers are not unduly influenced by one group. FACA has three broad goals: 1. Reduce the influence of special interest groups in the decision-making process. 2. Provide the public equal access to the decision-making process. 3. Prevent the establishment of unnecessary committees and control the costs associated with such committees. FACA does not apply to: 1. Meetings with pre-existing external groups. A group may request to meet with a manager to present their views about an issue. 2. Meetings with individuals. 3. Meetings with groups of individuals are not covered by FACA if the purpose is to obtain INDIVIDUAL opinions. However, if the agency asks the group to prepare advice or recommendations, then it is covered by FACA. 4. Public meetings which are open to all interested parties for the purpose of exchanging views and information. The major risk associated with violating FACA is that, if someone does not like the final decision, he/she may appeal on the grounds that the proposal was developed in

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violation of FACA. This could result in years of work being thrown out. The scope of FACA is broad, thus just looking at one factor such as membership, frequency of meetings, or group composition may not tell you if there will be a problem. Some "red flags" to watch out for are: a. Who formed the group and why? If the group was formed without federal participation then it is less likely to be a FACA Advisory Committee (however, it could become a FACA Advisory Committee if it is utilized as such by a federal agency). b. Does anybody other than regular full-time federal employees participate in the group? If a non-federal employee "participates" with the group but is not a "member" then the difference between "participant" and "member" status may be scrutinized to ensure it is not a mere subterfuge. c. Does the group give advice or recommendations about specific federal decisions? If the group is only collecting data, then it is less likely to be a FACA Advisory Committee. d. Can the group be considered to be exerting "undue influence" on a specific federal decision? If a group appears to have an unfair or unequal influence on federal decisions, then it is more likely to be a FACA Advisory Committee. e. Do the group members work to reach consensus or do they work independently? If the group attempts to present a consensus recommendation, it is more likely to be a FACA Advisory Committee. (Excerpted from July 12, 1994, letter from Forest Service Washington Office).

Successful meeting guidelines

1. Do everything possible to encourage the attendance of a wide diversity of interests, then structure the meetings to facilitate dialogue and mutual learning among those who show up. Don't do anything that gives the impression that only selected people can participate (i.e. don't have any "membership"). 2. Ensure that all meetings are advertised and open to the public. 3. Use group meetings as part of a larger public involvement effort, not as the only source of input. 4. Make sure citizens understand how their input will be used and how input gathered from other forums will be incorporated. Make sure people don't confuse the right to be heard with the right to prevail. 5. Keep meeting notes and make notes available to the general public. 6. Make sure the general public has the opportunity to comment on all proposals developed by citizen groups. 7. Be flexible in methods for finding areas of agreement and building informed consent. Don't force consensus. 8. Find common ground by building on shared values, rather than focusing on issues which divide people. Focus on what is shared in common before tackling the differences. 9. Structure meetings so that people can work in small groups. This generally

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Public Involvement

5

provides a more constructive forum for everyone to provide input and prevents dominance by only a few people. 10. Break problems down into manageable parts. This gives people something concrete to work on, and allows those with interest in particular topics to participate in more depth. Build on small successes. 11. Meetings must be facilitated by someone who knows agency policy and procedures and wilderness management principles. The facilitator must be viewed as impartial. Strong facilitation skills are necessary, especially the ability to keep the group on track. A weak or ineffective facilitator can lead to group frustration; one seen as biased will destroy trust. 12. The line officer's participation is essential if citizens are to feel their input is really valued. 13. Make the sideboards very clear at the onset. 14. Beware of old baggage from past confrontations over public land issues. The people who participate are often the same people who have been active in other issues. It will take a while for people to adjust from the polarized atmosphere of public hearings to a collaborative effort in which everyone is expected to respect and listen to other viewpoints. 15. Don't expect people to provide input on topics for which very little information exists. Be prepared to provide clear, understandable summaries of resource conditions --people will want to see all the data we have. 16. Recognize that people feel strongly about Wilderness. The values they bring to the table are often expressed in emotional terms, and an atmosphere of acceptance must be created. 17. Plan field trips. Not only do they allow citizens to discuss issues and conditions while observing them, time spent in the wilderness binds people together and helps increase trust. 18. Make sure everyone is being heard. Summarize what you are hearing from people at various points throughout the process. 19. Ask for continued citizen involvement in implementing projects and monitoring.

Citizens role

To work collaboratively, citizens need to: · Agree to work within applicable legislation and sideboards. · Approach the process with an open mind and willingness to consider a diversity of viewpoints. · Listen and give everyone a chance to speak. · Focus on issues, not personalities. · Recognize that debate is necessary to explore ideas. · Work toward finding areas of mutual agreement.

Public Involvement s 5-11

05

Public Involvement

To ensure success, managers need to: · Conduct an open and fair process. Explain what products will be produced, what process will be used, and where citizen input is needed. · Make any information we have available to all. · Provide rationale for decisions made. · Encourage citizen participation by listening and fully considering input that is within scope of this effort. Show how citizen input was used. · Be flexible. Seek options for achieving goals. · Devote time and people toward the effort. · Within sideboards such as the Wilderness Act and regulations, recognize latitude in handling wilderness management issues. · Use time wisely, making meetings effective and worthwhile. · Demonstrate care about the place or resource in question.

Agency roles

References: Ashor 1986; Ashor, McCool, and Stokes 1986; Center for conflict resolution 1981; Force and McLaughlin 1981; Krumpe and Stokes 1993; Krumpe and McCoy 1993; Magill 1991; Stokes 1982; Stokes 1988; Stokes 1990; USDA 1992; Cortner and Shannon 1993; Fisher and Ury 1981; Center for conflict resolution 1978; Bleiker and Bleiker 1990.

5-12 s Public Involvement

Public Involvement

5

MEANINGFUL PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT

Public Involvement Plan * Who needs to be involved? * What do you want to accomplish? * What informtion do you need from people? * What will you do with the information people give you? * Which tools will work best to accomplish what you want? Informed Consent * Grudging willingness to give it a try. Why do People Consent? * They agree there is a problem. * They believe the process is reasonable and fair. * They believe you are listening and care about their concerns.

Public Involvement s 5-13

Public Involvement

5

Public Involvement: Keys for Success

* Facilitate involvement by all affected interests. * Begin participation early and make it an integral part of the process. * Sell the problem, not the solution. * Clearly define the scope of the project and sideboards. * Clearly define the process to be followed. * Demonstrate that you value people's input and care about their concerns. * Demonstrate that you share their love for the Wilderness and are committed to it stewardship. * Let people know how thier input was used; communicate using thier words. * Build on common ground and shared values. Create opportunities for mini-successes. * Provide numerous opportunities for learning about Wilderness; natural, cultural history, and values from a variety of perspectives. * Demonstrate follow-through on plans. involve people in monitoring and implementation.

Public Involvement s 5-15

Public Involvement

5

Public Involvement s 5-17

Public Involvement

5

WORKSHEET PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT

1. Identify key groups, agencies, or individuals who may be affected or interested ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2. For each person, agency, or group listed, how will you facilitate their involvement? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. How will you get agreement that there is a problem worth doing something about? ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4. How will you communicate the scope of the project, sideboards (what people can really influence? Process to be followed. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5. How will you show you are listening and care about people's concerns? __________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________

Public Involvement s 5-19

05

6.

Public Involvement

How will you document and use people's input?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

7. What will you do to draw out common ground and shared values?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

8. What will you do to provide opportunities for people to learn about Wilderness from different perspectives and to show you care about the area?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

9. How will you demonstrate follow-through on plans?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

5-20 s Public Involvement

Public Involvement

5

Example Public Involvement and Information Plan

Sawtooth Wilderness Management Plan Revision Goals: -Identify all potentially affected publics and their interest levels -nave our in a timely manner and understood -Explain the LAC process and public task force involvement -Collect issues and concerns -Improve quality of overall project through public involvement -Build consensus and gain support through public involvement -Meet the legal requirements for notification -Deliver adequate and timely information to interested publics about the decision and remaining process

MATERIALS AVAILABLE FOR BRIEFINGS/REVIEWS Briefing fact/discussion paper; brochure; Citizen Involvement Guide; scoping document; news releases; copies of existing Wilderness Management Plan; and following the review period for the EA, a Printed Record of Decision. PURPOSE OF THIS STRATEGY: To identify necessary actions in a logical sequence and assign target dates and responsibilities for accomplishing those actions. In addition, this strategy will serve as a documentation of actions taken for the release of the EA (Wilderness Management Plan Revision) and Record of Decision.

Phase 1 - PRE-PUBLIC TASK FORCE MEETINGS

STEP

ACTION/PURPOSE

RESPONSIBILITY

DATE

1. 2.

Identify list of individuals and organizations/agencies to receive notification of WMPR and copies of what documents. Develop data table for tracking and distribution of materials and receipt of written input. Purpose: Will serve as system for sorting/printing mailing labels and documentation. Build mailing lists -those to be notified of initial action Harper -those keep informed of progress -input into data table (step 2) Use trailhead registration sheets Use outfitter mailing lists Use current lists from Ed/Ken

Dean Dean Waldapfel

3/92 3/5/92

3.

Dean

3/92

4.

Contact libraries in Burley, Twin Falls, Ketchum, Fairfield, Stanley, Sun Valley, Boise for permission to place copies of WMP for public review and checkout. Two copies per library--one to check out, one for review--with exception of Stanley and Ketchum--4 copies. Purpose: Provide a convenient location outside of FS

Todd

4/ 92

Public Involvement s 5-21

05

5. 6.

Public Involvement

STEP ACTION/PURPOSE offices for people to review copies of scoping document, and current WMP. Identify list of individuals that will receive personal briefing regarding revision of Wilderness Management Plan Draft cover letter that will transmit information/documents to individuals identified in Steps #5 & 19. Signed by Pence. Purpose: Letter can be personalized for various groups to offer informational presentation. Develop fact/discussion sheet. Sheet to contain information about the background of this project, key points next step in process, who is the key contact on the SNRA, etc. Purpose: To be used as a quick reference in the development of materials for this project; news release, cover memo, briefing outline, etc. Develop brochure Purpose: Widely distribute general information on the process and to generate input on issues. Scoping document. Develop outline and slide show for presentations. Purpose: Provide for consistency in the information provided in the various, personal briefings. Avoid overlooking key information. Strategy meetings with core team for arrangements of briefings, release of information. Purpose: Tie up loose ends, firm up individual responsibilities. Waldapfel Dean Waldapfel Dean 3/5/92 3/5/92 RESPONSIBILITY DATE

7.

Waldapfel Dean

3/5/92

8.

Dean Streit Waldapfel Dean

3/5/92

9.

3/92

10.

Dean Clark Streit Shrum Dorr Curry Waldapfel Dean Clark Brown Dean

11.

Draft news release. Purpose: Provide information regarding revision of WMP, process for review/comment, decision process, etc. Develop Citizen Involvement Guide to be sent out on request for further information about the WMPR. Purpose: Generate issues, determine interest in task force, describe process, describe current conditions. Give presentation for SNRA staff at staff meeting. Purpose: Use to begin scoping and to identify potential questions. Bring employees up to speed with process, decision so they can accurately respond to general inquiries. Develop strategy for receiving, analyzing, summarizing written input.

12.

13.

14.

Waldapfel Dean

3/5/92

5-22 s Public Involvement

Public Involvement

5

DATE 4/ /92

Purpose: Determine prior to receiving input. For expedient treatment of input to aid decisionmakers. STEP 15. ACTION/PURPOSE Personal invitation from Area Ranger to press corps inviting them to a briefing regarding the release of the WMPR scoping document/press release. Purpose: Advance notice. Advance copy of news release to PAO:R04A for transmittal to Secretary of Agriculture. Purpose: Comply with WO direction on advance notice regarding potentially controversial decisions, actions. Conduct personal briefing for those identified in #5 Purpose: Bring the above up to speed about the upcoming WMPR process, etc. prior to news release of that information Develop map showing existing conditions of the wilderness. Purpose: To provide clear information about current conditions of -trailless areas -wildlife habitat -campsites facilities (toilets stock tie) -vegetation -soils -grazing allotments Schedule informational presentations for interested groups: -Public meeting in Ketchum, Boise, -Challis, Twin Falls, Stanley -Idaho Dept. of Fish & Game -Back Country Horsemen -Idaho Conservation League -Outdoor shops -Others? Purpose: Inform affected publics of the process and their opportunities for involvement, generate issues and input. (Press release, calendar of events, flyers, schedule buildings, set up) Develop response form for trailheads and receive approval from R.O. Purpose: To collect wilderness user data. Distribute response form. Interview and select Task Force Members RESPONSIBILITY Pence

16.

Waldapfel

4/ /92

17.

Dean

5/92

18.

Dean

Summer

19.

Dean

5/92

20. 21. 22.

Dean Waldapfel Dean Dean Britton Clark Dean 5/92

23.

Develop information pre-meeting packet for Task Force members. Purpose: To provide T.F.members with background information about wilderness and the LAC process.

Public Involvement s 5-23

CURRENT

"As we traversed the seemingly endless jumble, we became aware of a sensation new to us: at a time and in a part of the world where opportunity to do so was rapidly vanishing, we knew that this was the way it felt to be pioneers, bound for a land so little visited that it was as if no man had come this way before." Phoebe Anne Sumner

CONDITIONS

Current Conditions

6

Current Conditions

This unit focuses on gathering the information that is needed to develop desired conditions, standards, and indicators based on the significant issues. It will address how to get started with collecting needed information and how to avoid getting caught up in too much detail. This information will provide the basis for writing the "affected environment" section of the NEPA document that accompanies proposed Wilderness management direction.

Objectives

1. Participants can identify what information they need about current conditions to address the issues, where they can go to get the information, and how to obtain information that is not available. 2. Participants can describe how they will analyze, store, and display information about current conditions.

Key points

· Avoid the "paralysis of analysis." Gather information only related to the issues and only to the level of detail needed to be able to describe desired conditions and identify objectives.

Current Conditions s 6-1

06

Current Conditions

Current Conditions

Purposes

To describe the affected environment. One of the primary purposes for gathering information is to help describe the affected environment. However, general descriptions of every Wilderness component just adds bulk (i.e. it doesn't provide information that really helps make the decisions). Information should focus on describing current conditions for the significant issues identified by both managers and citizens. Information should also be summarized regarding outstanding features, values, or special attributes of the particular Wilderness. Place the Wilderness in a regional context to identify attributes that are not duplicated elsewhere. Examples might include: key habitat or corridors for wildlife species that are of concern, rare plant communities, outstanding examples of prehistoric or historic uses, unique experiences (e.g. opportunities for long horsepack trips, subalpine areas accessible in day trips). As a baseline to develop desired conditions. Information about current conditions in the wilderness is necessary to further demonstrate the need for change and to give a realistic baseline from which to develop desired conditions. Information about current conditions will help identify the spectrum of future conditions that are possible. This information will also be useful after programmatic direction is developed and you are ready to identify the gap between existing conditions and desired conditions and develop possible management actions to improve conditions. To set realistic, attainable standards that move conditions in the direction of desired condition. To set realistic standards for the significant issues, it is essential to have good information about current conditions. If this information is lacking, there is a chance of setting a standard too high to be achievable. This leads to frustration and a sense that progress can't be made. Where current conditions are unacceptable, standards must be set so that conditions will be improved, even if just an incremental progress will be made toward the desired condition. As a baseline for future monitoring. Information collected about current conditions to develop programmatic direction will help establish a baseline so that monitoring efforts can begin to show trends over time.

Inventory information

Often there will be considerable information already available about wilderness conditions: use it. Wilderness ranger reports, annual reports to Congress, old management plans, environmental documents for projects in the Wilderness, office files, and scientific/technical literature are all good places to look. You can also get considerable detailed information by asking resource specialists, external experts (e.g. citizens, university professors), and specialists in other agencies (e.g. State Wildlife agencies). Often, the major task is to concisely summarize and display information, not conduct new inventories. Managers usually have some idea of what the major issues will be, but beware of conducting intensive field inventories before you have verified issues with the public. In order to be useful for planning, issues must be very specific so you know what information you need to collect. Sometimes, information about current conditions is primarily qualitative (e.g. description of natural fire regime). For other issues, you will

6-2

s Current Conditions

Current Conditions

6

need to be specific enough so you know what variable you will measure to assess conditions relative to the issue. For example, if you are hearing complaints about crowded conditions in a particular area, it may not be wise to begin a new effort to count encounters between groups. What if you find there are few encounters between groups? Does it mean that the people who complained were wrong? Probably not: they may have used the word "crowding" to represent another problem. With more refinement of the issue, you may discover that it isn't the number of encounters that are causing complaints, but one particular behavior--parties playing loud music or leaving a lot of litter. Or perhaps the few campsites that exist are very close together. Any of these conditions could cause people to complain about crowds. Knowing what the true source of the complaint is will help you decide what information you need to collect.

Gathering Information Already Collected and Use What You Can

Components of information gathering and management

Identify information needs based on the issues. What's in the file in the office--range conditions, campsite inventories, maps of crucial wildlife habitat, wilderness ranger reports, visitor comment cards or surveys, old management plans, environmental documents.... Ask experts (including citizens with personal experience and scientists), resource specialists, other agencies what they have. Research the scientific and technical literature to uncover past studies, theses, dissertations. Identify Gaps in Information Where are the holes in existing information? Design an inventory method: location, frequency, sample size needed. Can you link your efforts to other agency's inventories? Focus on areas where you have the least amount of information. Determine What Methods Will Be Used Adapt the methods successfully used elsewhere. Consult written reports, and others who have applied the methods. Train Field Personnel Data gathering method must be repeatable and accurate. People must be trained so there is consistency in observations. Information Management One person needs to be responsible for collecting, checking quality, and storing information. Develop a system so the information can be easily accessed by those who need it. Use a computer to store and analyze large amounts of data. Analyze and Display Information Analyze and display information in a way that makes it easy for people to see what current conditions are relative to each issue. Include information on trends where

Current Conditions s 6-3

06

Current Conditions

possible. You may want to consider developing a chart for each issue with column headings that read--current condition, desired condition, monitoring indicators, standards. This will ensure that you are developing direction that will truly respond to the issues.

Issue

Example

Recreational stock grazing could change the plant composition in meadows near popular campsites causing unacceptable impacts to natural meadow conditions. This may reduce future productivity of the meadows for other visitors and may reduce aesthetic and scientific values. A decline in meadow condition may also reduce the amount and quality of forage available for wild ungulates. Existing Condition Recreational stock (primarily horses and mules, but also llamas and goats) graze throughout the Wilderness. In addition to stock brought in by private parties, there are about 35 summer outfitters and 26 fall hunting outfitters who use stock in the Wilderness. Each group is currently permitted up to 35 head of stock, with some exceptions during the fall. Current regulations limit groups to 35 head of stock. The condition of the forage in meadows associated with campsites was recorded over the past three summers. The table below displays these condition (it does not include camps used by outfitted groups in the fall). Short term trends, in the form of utilization, were also measured. Condition Class of Meadows Associated with Campsites *Unranked 6 One 120 Two 78 Three Four 42 3 Five 1 Total 250

(*Unranked meadows were generally in excellent condition.) Definitions Condition Class 1: Decreasers (plants which are known to decrease in abundance with heavy grazing pressure) predominate. No visible impact on vegetation and no beaten out barren areas. Vegetation is very close to the potential natural community. Condition Class 2: Increasers (plants which are known to increase in abundance with heavy grazing pressure) predominate. Some annuals are present, especially if gopher activity is high. Small barren areas are present such as salt grounds, roll areas, or fly grounds. Condition Class 3: Obvious vegetation changes are present. More than 25% of the existing vegetation is annual grasses and annual forbs. Climax species are rare. More than 100 sq.ft. of barren ground is present. Condition Class 4: Over 50% of the meadow is covered with annual grasses and annual forbs. Several large barren areas exist. Only remnant perennial grasses and forbs are present. Condition Class 5: Over 75% annual grasses and annual forbs are present. A significant amount of barren ground is present.

6-4 s Current Conditions

Current Conditions

6

CURRENT CONDITIONS

PURPOSES FOR GATHERING INFORMATION * To describe the affected environment. Relevant to significant issues. Outstanding features, values, attributes in regional context. * As a baseline to develop desired conditions. * To set realistic, attainable objectives. * As a baseline for future monitoring. COMPONENTS of INFORMATION GATHERING & MANAGEMENT * Identify information needs. * Find out what is already available. * Identify information gaps. * Determine how to get needed information. * Determine how needed field information will be collected. * Train field personnel. * Determine how information will be stored, analyzed, and displayed.

Current Conditions s 6-5

Current Conditions

6

WORKSHEET CURRENT CONDITIONS

Select an issue from the ones identified in the "Need for Change" unit. Complete the following information. Issue:

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

What information is already available?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Where is the information located, who has it, how do we get it?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

What information do we need that we don't have?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Where might we obtain needed information?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Are there information needs which will require a field inventory?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

How will field information be collected--where, what methods?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

How will field personnel be trained?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

How will information be stored, analyzed, and displayed?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Current Conditions s 6-7

DESIRED

CONDITIONS

"The great thing in the world is not so much where we stand, as in what direction we are moving." Oliver Wendell Holmes

Desired Conditions

7

Goals and Desired Conditions

This unit will focus on writing goal statements that describe the conditions to be achieved. Concepts inherent in applying an ecosystem approach will be incorporated. The importance of maintaining a diversity of Wilderness settings through zoning will also be discussed. Ideas will be presented for blending citizens' values, scientific information and manager expertise so that conflicts are worked out up front. In the past, there has been a tendency to write management direction that prescribed management actions without adequately describing what these actions were trying to achieve. Other management direction has suffered from being too general--describing "motherhood" goals which are just restatements of national policy applicable to any Wilderness. Still other management direction has presented desired conditions for individual resources which conflict with each other so that issue resolution is pushed down to the implementation level.

Objectives

1. Participants can define the term "desired conditions" and understand that "condition" statements must reflect the dynamic character of natural systems. 2. Participants can explain why it is important to develop desired condition descriptions. 3. Participants can explain why it is important to describe a spectrum of desired conditions within the Wilderness and can identify how many different "zones" might be appropriate in their Wilderness. 4. Participants can write a description of desired conditions for one issue that specifically describes what is to be achieved. The description must meet the intent of the Wilderness Act, enabling legislation, agency national policy, and reflect what is known about citizen desires, resource stewardship, and managerial experience.

Key points

· Desired conditions are statements of conditions to be achieved in the future. They provide a target to shoot for. · Desired conditions need to be specific enough so people can visualize a picture of the particular wilderness (provides a "sense of place," and thus couldn't be applied to any wilderness). · Desired conditions need to be written to reflect the dynamic nature of ecosystems, not a static picture, · Desired conditions can be written at varying scales, e.g., desired conditions for campsites can be more site-specific than desired conditions for fire (landscape level). · · Reflect future conditions, not existing conditions. Use pictures and language citizens use. Can be spiritual.

Desired Conditions s 7-1

07

Desired Conditions

Desired Conditions

Purpose

Desired conditions help managers envision what the state of the Wilderness should be in the future. It helps paint a clear picture of what is to be achieved so managers can focus their management effort toward a specific goal (i.e. it defines what to shoot for). As the saying goes--"If you don't know where you are going, then it doesn't matter which road you take." Desired conditions are based on outcomes, not outputs. Put another way, they describe how the land will function and appear, and what experiences will be provided, rather than what will be produced. The following excerpt articulates the need for land-based desired conditions: "It has been very difficult to implement many [programmatic] plans, because they are frequently the object of appeals and lawsuits from public interests. The issues vary, but a common theme prevails. . . . The plans, and the public involvement process used to develop them, related primarily to the kinds and amounts of things to be yielded from the land. . . . For many people, projections of what can be removed from an area are no more important, or even less important, than what will be left on the land. People are very concerned about the condition of the land that will result from planned activities" (Kessler 1993).

Definition

Desired conditions are timeless, potentially measurable descriptions of Wilderness conditions to be achieved in the future (in terms of physical/biological conditions, natural processes, and wilderness experiences). Basically, the descriptions should paint a picture of what conditions will result from effective management and proper human use. Desired conditions are expressed in terms that describe intent, thus they are not necessarily attainable in the foreseeable future. Goals reflect broad intent and are more general than desired conditions. Desired conditions blend citizen values, scientific information about land capability/ stewardship requirements, and managerial expertise to develop direction for a particular Wilderness within the context of the Wilderness Act. Depending on the issues, desired conditions might include descriptions of: · Potential natural condition for rangelands · Natural fire regime · Water quality · Air quality · Riparian conditions · Diversity of wildlife · Cultural resources · A spectrum of wilderness experiences · A spectrum of campsite conditions · A spectrum of trail conditions

7-2

s Desired Conditions

Desired Conditions

7

The term "desired conditions" is subject to much interpretation, thus a few notes of caution are in order..

Social desires

As a society, we have placed value on the existence of Wilderness to provide benefits both to humans and to the other living creatures that inhabit the area. In practice, desired conditions are developed by integrating citizen's desires, scientific information on resource stewardship, and managerial expertise. This balancing act is all done within the parameters of the Wilderness Act and national Wilderness policy. In doing this, we also must incorporate the potential desire of future generations to have the opportunity to obtain benefits from Wilderness. The word "condition" implies one static picture. However, we know that ecosystems are dynamic. There are two problems with defining a static picture for topics such as fire, landscape vegetation, and wildlife/fish populations. First, we know very little about how natural systems function, thus to assume that we can describe precisely what conditions will result from minimum interference with natural processes is arrogant and probably impossible. Secondly, what happens if we find that current conditions do not meet our picture of "desired conditions"? Are we implying that we will actively interfere to "manipulate" conditions? Clearly, such a course of action would not meet the intent of the Wilderness Act. Thus, rather than define a desired "condition" for topics involving natural processes, it is better to describe how much human interference is acceptable to achieve other goals (e.g. minimize risk to property outside the Wilderness). If an issue relates to localized site conditions, then the desired condition description should be written at the site scale. Examples of this would include descriptions for campsites or trails. However, if an issue relates to landscape conditions or processes, then the desired condition description should be written at the landscape level. Examples of this would include descriptions for fire management.

Dynamic "conditions"

Future conditions

The word "desired" implies that the condition will exist sometime in the future. Guard against the tendency to write descriptions that just reflect current conditions. Desired condition descriptions should reflect current conditions only where there is agreement that there are no problems with current conditions and these conditions are desired in the future. There is not just one desired condition for Wilderness. As discussed in the introduction to planning and evolution of planning concepts, a diversity of conditions and experiences should be provided within Wilderness. Defining 3-4 different zones within Wilderness and writing desired condition descriptions for each zone is often done for campsite conditions, trail conditions, wilderness experiences, and structures, however the concept could be applied to other issues such as defining different fish zones (e.g. fishless, wild (self-sustaining populations of native fish), and stockable (suitable habitat for stocking native species)). By planning for a diversity of settings, managers can meet the needs of a variety of visitors as well as provide additional protection for especially sensitive areas. One desired condition statement covering all of the issues and attributes/values will end up being very long and hard to track. Most managers find it easier to write a description for each topic of concern (e.g. fire, air, campsites). In taking this approach, managers must make sure that the descriptions for individual topics are compatible (i.e. direction is integrated).

Zoning concept

Desired Conditions s 7-3

07

Desired Conditions

To begin describing desired conditions in an ecosystem context, develop an overview of the region and its overriding values. This will help identify specific values or attributes that the Wilderness contributes to the larger landscape. Each Wilderness has its own unique range of settings, depending on its location, specific attributes, land capability, and relationship to nearby lands. For example, a readily accessible Wilderness within an hour of Los Angeles will probably offer a different range of settings compared with a very remote Wilderness in Alaska, even though both Wildernesses are managed to meet the intent of the Wilderness Act. Each must strive to minimize human influence and provide opportunities for solitude or "primitive," unconfined types of recreation to the maximum extent possible. By considering the Wilderness as part of a region with certain attributes, values, and capabilities, we can better define the range of desired conditions in terms of what the Wilderness is best able to offer. Reviewing the history of designation for the particular Wilderness will often yield this type of information. Example The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem is known for its geothermal features, abundant wildlife and native fish, the headwaters of several rivers of national importance, a destination for international visitors, and large, remote wildlands. A review of the history of designation for the Gros Ventre Wilderness (which lies within the Greater Yellowstone) revealed the following attributes: · abundant wildlife habitat including winter range for bighorn sheep, elk, and deer. The Gros Ventre is a summer concentration area for elk before they disperse in the fall to the adjacent Elk Refuge and feed grounds. · spectacular geological features have inspired numerous studies and lead to locating a permanent University summer field geology camp adjacent to the Wilderness. · sagebrush and spruce/fir/Douglas fir plant communities which are not typically found in Wilderness within the Greater Yellowstone. · providing primitive settings in contrast with more developed land to the west (Jackson) and to the east (upper Green River/Union pass). This undeveloped setting provides a link between the Wind River range and the Wilderness lands to the north (Teton, Washakie, Absaroka) important for "primitive" types of recreation as well as wildlife movement. · proximity to Jackson--the Wilderness is within a 1/2 mile of a major destination for both national and international visitors, which creates opportunities to educate many people about the Wilderness System. Consider the regional supply of wilderness, park, and backcountry settings and opportunities provided by other federal and state agencies and private lands, to determine how they fit together and enhance one another. For example, maybe your Wilderness provides the only opportunity for horse riders to go on long trips without running into motorcycles or mountain bikes. Or maybe it is the only place people can travel on trails without getting a permit or asking for permission from private landowners. A few questions to ask to view Wilderness in an ecosystem context: · What questions about natural conditions and processes are we trying to answer at the landscape scale? What can this particular Wilderness contribute to this effort? (e.g.

Ecosystem context

7-4

s Desired Conditions

Desired Conditions

7

can the Wilderness provide clues to understanding the range of natural variation in patterns and distribution of particular vegetation communities? Can the Wilderness help understand disturbance regimes--floods, fires). · Are there specific areas within the Wilderness that could provide relatively undisturbed "benchmarks" to compare conditions in more managed areas? (e.g. are there streams that offer relatively undisturbed fish habitat that might be useful to understand how to restore fish habitat in areas outside Wilderness? Are there meadows which offer clues into what constitutes potential natural plant communities?) · Does this Wilderness provide particular habitats (both terrestrial and aquatic) that help maintain the diversity of species and the viability of populations, especially those with large home ranges? · Does this Wilderness provide relatively undisturbed corridors for wildlife movement that might reduce the effects of fragmentation between isolated habitats? · What does this Wilderness contribute to people's quality of life in the region? What benefits do the air and water contribute to local communities? · Does this Wilderness help contribute to the diversity and sustainability of local economies? References: Evenden, Landres, and Watson 1993, Sprugel 1991, Landres 1994, Landres 1992.

Getting started

Developing meaningful desired condition descriptions is difficult. Here are a few ideas that might help you get started. · Identify shared values or attributes. One way to do this is to ask--imagine it is the year 2050. You are visiting the Wilderness with your children or a friend. What are three things you want to find or experience? · Make a list of the key values/attributes and significant issues. For each item, ask people to help you paint a picture of what they would like to see in the future. You might ask people to brainstorm things that occur in the Wilderness which serve to define the Wilderness resource and the experience. Just have people use single words or phrases. You might even get people to draw pictures. · Write out the key phrases from the Wilderness Act (including enabling legislation) and ask a diversity of people--citizens, scientists, resource managers--to write up their individual vision for Wilderness conditions. · Beware of the tendency for people to identify management actions instead of desired conditions. If this happens, ask people to describe what the action would achieve. For example, someone might say that their desired condition is to have toilets in the Wilderness. Ask--what would putting in toilets achieve? One would hope the response would be--I wouldn't see human waste under the rocks and toilet paper everywhere. Ask--what would not seeing human waste and toilet paper achieve? The response might be something like--I'd have a much better experience and feel better about the water quality. From this, you can identify that the goal is to protect drinking water quality plus prevent littering and improper sanitation that reduces the quality of the experience.

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· For each significant issue and attribute/value, describe the "ideal" "unconstrained" desired condition from a variety of perspectives. (Note: this is probably impossible to do for natural processes, due to the "chaotic" nature of ecological systems which defy attempts to define one ideal condition). Identify the potential conflicts that exist between goals (e.g. desire for completely undisturbed meadow conditions and desire to graze cows or between desire to let fire burn completely unhindered and desire to protect adjacent property). Begin negotiation process to find "optimum" balance between conflicting goals within interpretation of Wilderness Act.

Wildlife

Desired condition description examples

Goal: Maintain the natural abundance and diversity of wildlife indigenous to the area. Genetically diverse populations of native wildlife species are maintained, with special emphasis on the protection of Federally listed threatened and endangered species and their habitats. Animal populations and distribution are affected by natural processes, thus numbers and distribution may fluctuate from year to year. Human disturbance does not displace wildlife from crucial areas such as wintering and calving areas. Hunting is allowed under State Game and Fish regulations and has temporary effects on population abundance and distribution that are within the range of natural variability. The remoteness means that hunters have to work harder to get an animal but there is a sense of adventure and hunters pursue game much as a predator might. For an issue regarding human disturbance in bighorn sheep lambing areas, a desired condition description might read: Bighorn sheep are not disturbed by humans entering the historic lambing areas during the lambing season so that they reproduce at a rate that allows the population to regain and maintain its historic numbers. Fire Goal: Allow lightening-caused fires to play a natural role. The fire regime (number, size, and intensity) is similar to what would be expected if the natural process operated freely (i.e. no suppression activities). Frequent (5-15 years between fires), light intensity fires, ranging in size from 50 to 100 acres dominate the fire regime. Occasionally (50-100 years between fires), high intensity, stand-replacing fires (averaging 500 acres) occur. Less than 5% of natural ignitions are suppressed. Fires that are suppressed are these likely to threaten property or resource values outside Wilderness. Human-caused fires are suppressed. The effects of suppression activities are not noticeable within one year of the fire. Managementignited fires may occur along the northern boundary to reduce fuels and increase the ability to allow fire to burn within the Wilderness without threatening property north of the Wilderness. Air Goal: Maintain clean air. The air contains only the scents of nature, free from the odors and airborne contaminants of human activity. The night sky is free of artificial light and provides outstanding opportunities to view the heavens. The Wilderness is protected from air pollution effects to the full extent possible given its status as a Class I Area under the Clean Air Act. Natural visibility conditions prevail, with occasional smoke or haze from natural fires. Standard visual range is

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typically 100 miles when no natural fires are present in the area, as it was at the time of baseline measurements. Ecological processes such as nutrient cycling and population dynamics are unaffected by air pollution. The sensitive receptors for each air quality related value indicator are well within the limits of acceptable change. In particular, very sensitive receptors such as lichen species affected by sulfur deposition and acid neutralizing capacity of surface waters, show no effects of air pollution. Cultural Resources Goal: Protect cultural resource values. The educational, scientific, and cultural values associated with Shoshone Indian use, fur trapping, sheep herding, and fire detection are protected (although not necessarily the site itself). Visitors leave the area with a greater appreciation of the cultural history. Wilderness Recreation Experience Goal: Provide a diversity of wilderness recreation experiences to provide opportunities for solitude, self-reliance, discovery, and reconnection with nature. Zone A Solitude is not an essential part of most visitors' experience but visitors feel like they are in an unconfined, natural area where the risk and challenge associated with adverse weather, physical hazards, "primitive" travel methods and lack of rapid communication may be present. Visitors leave with a greater appreciation of wilderness including a sense of renewal and connection to the land. Visitors are courteous to each other and take personal responsibility to reduce their impact on other visitor's experience. Zone B Visitors are able to find solitude with few encounters with groups. Visitors feel like they are in a remote, relatively undisturbed area where they must rely on their own skills. Resourcefulness is required for stream crossings. Competence in map reading is important. Visitors leave with a greater appreciation of wilderness including a sense of renewal and connection to natural landscapes. Visitors are courteous to each other and take personal responsibility to reduce their impact on other visitor's experience. Zone C Visitors find superb opportunities for solitude free from signs of human use. A high degree of wilderness travel competence is needed due to the remoteness and terrain. Visitors leave with a greater appreciation for wilderness including a sense of renewal and connection to wildness. Campsite Conditions Goal: Minimize the impact associated with campsites. Zone A Campsites show some evidence of concentrated human use. Vegetation may be lost but mineral soil and tree roots are not exposed. The number and distribution of sites is such that campers can hear other groups but cannot see them. Zone B Campsites show little perceptible evidence of past human use. Vegetation is lost only around the fire ring or center of activity. The number and distribution of sites is such that campers may only occasionally hear another group in the distance. Zone C Campsites show no perceptible evidence of human use. Vegetation may be temporarily flattened but is not lost. There are no fire rings or other structures. Campers cannot see or hear other groups.

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DESIRED FUTURE CONDITIONS

DFCs tell you "where you want to end up." Without clear and specific DFCs, how will you know when you've arrived?

"Well, this is just going from bad to worse."

Cartoon Source: The Far Side by Gary Larson

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DESIRED CONDITIONS

Definition

Timeless, yet potentially measurable descriptions of conditions to be achieved in the future (physical/biological conditions, natural processes, wilderness experiences). What will result from effective management fand proper human use? They are developed by blending citizen values, land stewardship requirements, and managerial expertise to develop specific goals for a particular Wilderness within context of the Wilderness Act.

Purpose

Paint a clear picture so managers know what they are shooting for. "If you don't know where you are going, then it doesn't matter which road you take."

Clarifications * Desired by whom?

* Dynamic nature * Scale * Reflect future

Zoning

Diversity is important to maintain

Ecosystem Context

* What are the unique attributes of this Wilderness within regional Context? * What can this Wilderness contribute to larger landscape? Knowledge of landscape patterns and processes Ecological benchmark Valuable habitats or corridors Quality of life Sustainable economics

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RANGE OF DESIRED CONDITIONS IN WILDERNESS

Wilderness Act

Most remote and undisturbed Primitive, relatively natural

Ecosystem or Regional Context

Overriding values, features, attributes What is offered elsewhere in the region Contribution to larger landscape Land capability Public desires

Narrower Range of Potential Desired Conditions

Based on key values/attributes and significant issues

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WORKSHEET GOALS & DESIRED CONDITIONS

1. Select a key Wilderness stewardship issue from your Need for Change worksheet, and write it below.

______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________

2. Review the history of designation and existing condition information. Identify key values for this Wilderness, especially its significance in a regional context. (Consider the ecoregion and what this wilderness contributes to the larger landscape--ecologically and socially, quality of life, sustainable economies.)

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________

3. Write a goal to describe in general terms what you want to achieve relative to your issue. Draw on the key values of the area.

______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________

4. Does it make sense to provide a diversity of settings relative to this issue? If so, decide how many zones you want to write and write a couple of words to state the theme of each zone.

________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________

5. Given the info on existing conditions, write a description of desired conditions for the issue you selected (either one description or a description for each zone). Refer to notebook for examples.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________________________

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MONITORING

INDICATORS

"When you try to change any single thing, you find it hitched to everything else in the universe." JohnMuir

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Monitoring Indicators

This unit will focus on the selection of variables to track trends in conditions. Examples of wilderness indicators will be provided. Ideas for development of a monitoring program will be discussed.

Objectives

1. Participants can define the term "indicator" and can explain why monitoring is important. 2. Participants can identify three potential indicators to monitor progress toward desired conditions for their Wilderness. 3. Participants can give an example of a good indicator and a poor indicator and explain what makes them good or poor. 4. Participants can outline how to establish and implement a monitoring program.

Key points

· ·

Indicators translate desired conditions into something measurable. Indicators help you track changes in wilderness conditions.

· In selecting indicators, run each indicator through the screening questions. Think through how you will measure the indicator, what information it provides and how you will use the information.

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Monitoring Indicators

Definition

Variables which can be measured to track change in conditions caused by human activity so that progress toward desired conditions can be assessed. Indicators can be viewed as a means to reduce a large amount of information down to its simplest form while still retaining the essential information needed to answer questions (Ott 1978). Indicators have been used in pollution assessment, range, economics (e.g. the gross national product), and social sciences (e.g. average life expectancy, crime rate, unemployment rate).

Purpose

· Indicators help focus your data collection efforts on what is most important. · Indicators are the elements for which objectives will be set. (They translate the description of desired conditions into something that can be measured.) · The monitoring of indicators tracks whether or not you are making progress towards desired conditions. · Interpretation of monitoring information helps assess the effectiveness of particular management strategies. The importance of well-designed, long-term monitoring in Wilderness cannot be overemphasized. Typically, there is very little information available about conditions within Wilderness, especially with respect to ecological systems. We should draw upon already existing information collected elsewhere but we must recognize the limitations of such information. There is no substitute for information gathered from the area and the only way to obtain it is through the establishment of a long-term monitoring program. One of the decisions made at the program level is monitoring and evaluation requirements. This requirement is met by identifying the elements to be monitored (indicators), monitoring techniques, expected precision and reliability, measurement frequency, and acceptable variation. In the National Park Service, backcountry management planning and monitoring direction can be found in NPS-77 and NPS-75.

requirements Monitoring

Monitoring levels

Monitoring progress towards achievement of desired conditions occurs at three levels. The focus of all monitoring is to answer--So What? Are trends in conditions moving toward desired conditions. Implementation (Compliance) Monitoring: purpose is to determine if programs, projects and activities are implemented as they were designed. Did we do what we said we would? Effectiveness Monitoring: purpose is to determine if what we are doing is effective in making progress toward desired conditions. Are our actions accomplishing what we intended? The point here is to assess whether resource conditions are improving, staying the same, or getting worse.

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Validation Monitoring: purpose is to determine if awe are monitoring the right thing. This includes testing and evaluating predictive models such as wildlife habitat relationships or water quality models. Process: 1. Review desired conditions and ask--what can we measure to track whether or not we are making progress toward these conditions? 2. Look at what has been measured in similar geographic areas and ask how it works and whether it applies. 3. Ask citizens, managers, scientists to suggest indicators (e.g. ask citizens what factors most influence their assessment of whether they had a quality experience or not; ask scientists what factors are most important in determining the health of riparian areas). Talk with resource specialists and review existing plans to find out what is already suggested to monitor such things as air quality, rangeland conditions. Review the literature. 4. Screen potential indicators to determine how useful they might be . Questions to ask.... · What does this indicator indicate? Does it really provide the information we want to know? What question are we trying to answer? · Does this indicator directly relate to the condition of an important resource (i.e. the effect of human activities and management actions, not the activities or actions themselves)? · Does the indicator measure conditions which are resilient (i.e., conditions improve under proper management)? · Does the indicator measure conditions with minimal variability (so that observed changes can be related to management changes/visitor behavior rather than natural variability)? · Can the indicator be measured using field methods and sampling techniques (is it doable based on available expertise and technology)? · Can the indicator be measured accurately and reliably (with some training)? · Does the indicator act as an early warning, alerting managers to deteriorating conditions before unacceptable changes have occurred? · Can the indicator be measured without significantly detracting from the visitors' experience? · Can the indicator provide information which is worth the time and cost required? It is unlikely that any one indicator will meet all of the criteria listed above. However, the bundle of indicators selected must give managers a clear picture of whether the overall trend in conditions is toward the desired condition. Generally, the indicator must provide information relative to questions you are trying to answer, it must be doable, and it must be able to be measured reliably. 5. In attempting to monitor the quality of a particular resource attribute, we ideally would like to find a simple, easy to measure element that is indicative of overall

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quality. We can do this when we have good information about the correlation between the element we are measuring and what we are really trying to measure. For example, Salmonella is of concern in water quality but rather than measure Salmonella counts directly, we measure E. coli which is highly correlated with Salmonella counts and is easier and safer to measure. In wilderness, one attribute we try to measure is the quality of the experience. We know that the number of groups one encounters affects the experience. Ideally, it would be much easier to just count the number of cars at the trailhead, rather than try to count encounters. However, there doesn't appear to be a good correlation between car numbers and number of encounters and overall experience quality, thus we end up having to measure encounters directly. 6. Whether you choose to use an index rating or "lump" indicator versus a very specific indicator depends on how detailed you need your information to be. An example of lumping is "range conditions." This indicator can be split into many more specific indicators, one of which may be the one you're looking for. Example of splitting: Range condition = · Percent utilization of forage plants · Amount of trampling · Change in species mix · Introduction of non-native plants · Elimination of some native plants · Loss of ground vegetation (percent soil exposed) · Evidence of streambank erosion from livestock · Loss of riparian shrubs · Disturbance to aquatic environment, which can be split further: Change in water temperature Change in water chemistry Increase in siltation Change in aquatic vegetation Change in fish/insect populations Change in stream bottom conditions So.... "range condition" may be too vague; In conjunction with your range specialists, you may want to select a few of the more specific ones to get at the key issues in your particular area. 7. Consider indicators to monitor the socio-political environment related to your Wilderness (e.g., trends in support of the concept of wilderness). Examples Goal: Improve your physical health.... Good Indicators: Pulse rate recovery, body fat, HDL/LDL cholesterol level.... Poor Indicators: # of doctor visits, caloric intake Explain why indicators on the first list are good and the indicators on the second list are poor using screening questions.

Indicators

Another useful analogy is a car. How do you assess the quality of your car--you could focus on assessing how well it runs, how good it looks.... Specific indicators could be chosen depending on what question you are trying to answer.

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Monitoring Indicators Wilderness monitoring programs

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Overall goal is to track change in natural conditions and processes caused by human activities and assess whether opportunities for solitude, self-reliance, challenge and inspiration are being provided. Reasonably good indicators (assuming you are asking the questions these indicators can answer): Frissell Condition Class, # of campsites per drainage or area or river mile, time spent waiting at launch sites, # of other groups seen from campsite, forage utilization, lake alkalinity.... Poor indicators: number of trailheads, number of regulations, number of trails, total coliform, number of fish, number of law enforcement officers, Explain why indicators on the first list are potentially good indicators and indicators on the second list are poor using screening questions. Examples based on desired condition descriptions in unit #7 Question Is the threatened bald eagle recovering? Is fire suppression altering natural fire frequency in particular vegetation types? Is air quality meeting Class I standards? Indicator Number of nesting pairs Number of young fledged Predicted vs. actual fire fire frequency for each vegetation type Visual range--extinction coefficient, lake alkalinity Presence/absence of foliose-fruticose lichens Evidence of human activity-- camping, trails, graffiti.. at known sites--impact rating Number of occupied camps within sight or sound of each other Cole campsite assessment rating Number of sites per drainage

Are known cultural resource sites being affected by human activities? Are visitors able to obtain campsite privacy and solitude? Are campsite conditions meeting standards? Are site closures causing the total number of campsites to change?

Designing guidelines

Four factors which contribute to the failure of a monitoring program are: 1. Abandonment of system--initial measurements are never repeated due to inconsistent funding or poor documentation of sample site locations (inconsistent field techniques, frequent staff turnover). 2. Sloppy techniques--poor measurement reliability. 3. Data pileup--collected information is never analyzed or stored in a usable form. 4. No manager action--information is never used in decision-making (Moir 1980). 5. Poorly selected indicators that are unreliable, not doable, or don't provide

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information to answer questions. 1. Institutionalize the monitoring plan; don't do it ad hoc--dedicate the necessary funding. Tie in with monitoring programs with other government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other resource areas. For example, inventory and monitoring for wildlife species often covers large areas. Work with others to make sure Wilderness is included. Include accountability for monitoring in performance elements. 2. Clarify the purposes and levels of monitoring. State the questions you are trying to answer. 3. Gather available data. Review what has already been done. 4. Select monitoring indicators. Determine priorities for where to monitor. Identify when monitoring will be done--remember that time of year can affect measurements such as those for water quality and vegetation. 5. Describe the measurement methods to use for each selected indicator. 6. Develop sampling scheme unless all sites will be monitored. 7. Set up data storage and management system. 8. Develop monitoring field sheets. 9. Train field personnel. Training guides with photos of different conditions are very helpful. Coordinate data collection with other agencies and programs where possible. 10. Analyze collected data. 11. Report results in a way that clearly illustrates trends and is easy for people to understand. Make presentations to decision-makers. Show how trends in conditions compared with standards and use information to adjust management actions. 12. Evaluate and refine indicators, measurement methods and standards.

Implementing

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MONITORING INDICATORS

Definition: Variables which can be measured to track change in conditons caused by human activity. Purpose: * Focus data collection efforts on what is most important. * Track progress toward achieving desired conditions. * Evaluate effectiveness of management. Process: * Review desired conditions and ask; what can we measure? * Look at usefulness of indicators being used in similar areas. * Review research and ask people what variables would be most meaningful. * Screen potential indicators to determine usefulness.

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SCREENING QUESTIONS FOR INDICATORS

* Does the indicator tell you what you want to know? What question are you trying to answer? * Does the indicator directly relate to condition of an important resource? * Can the indicator be measured? * Can the indicator be measured using simple equipment? Is it feasible. * Can the indicator be measured reliably? * Does the indicator alert managers to declining conditions before unacceptable changes have occurred? * Can the indicator be measured without detracting from the visitors experience? * Does the indicator provide information which is worth the time and cost required to get it? * Does the indicator measure conditions which are resilient? * Does the indicator measure conditions with minimal natural variablility?

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MONITORING PROGRAMS

MONITORING LEVELS Implementation Did we do what we said we would? Effectiveness Did our actions accomplish what we intended? Validation Are we monitoring the right thing? WHY DO MONITORING PROGRAMS FAIL? * Meaningless data * Abandonment * Sloppy techniques of poor reliability * Data pileup * No manager action * Poorly selected indicators WHERE TO FOCUS EFFORTS * Where standards are close to being exceeded. * Where there has been a recent or expected change in human uses. * Where ther have been recent significant ecological or physical changes(fire, avalanche,ect.) * Rate of change is rapid. * Quality of existing data is poor.

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WORKSHEET WRITING INDICATORS

Select one of your desired condition statements from previous worksheet. Then ask yourself--what should we measure to assess whether we are making progress toward these conditions? What problems are we most concerned about? For example, if you have a desired condition statement about campsites, what is it about them that is the problem--their location? Density or number? Amount of bare ground around them? These are the parameters which need to be considered in order to write useful indicators. Try some below. Select one of your desired condition statements and write it below:

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

What can we measure? What aspect of the desired condition are we concerned about?

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Indicator to measure:

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

For each indicator identified, test its usefulness. Answer YES, NO, or MAYBE What does this indicator indicate? Does it really provide the information we want to know? What question are we trying to answer? · Does this indicator directly relate to the condition of an important resource (i.e. the effect of human activities and management actions, not the activities or actions themselves)? · Can the indicator be measured? · Can the indicator be measured using field methods and sampling techniques (is it doable based on available expertise and technology)? · Can the indicator be measured accurately and reliably (with some training)? · Does the indicator act as an early warning, alerting managers to deteriorating conditions before unacceptable changes have occurred? · Can the indicator be measured without significantly detracting from the visitors' experience? · Can the indicator provide information which is worth the time and cost required? · Does the indicator measure conditions which are resilient (will respond to changes in management action)? · Does the indicator measure conditions with minimal natural variability?

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STANDARDS

"Wilderness, then assumes unexpected importance as a laboratory for the study of land-health." Aldo Leopold

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Objectives and Standards

Objectives describe acceptable resource and experience conditions in measurable terms that are considered realistic and attainable so it is clear when corrective management action is needed. Standards describe the requirements that limit managers' discretion on how the desired condition might be achieved (procedures and actions that must be adhered to which are not already covered by national or regional policy directives). This unit will give examples of well-written objectives and standards, present ideas on how they are established and discuss how they are used in management.

Objectives

1. Participants can explain the difference between objectives and standards. 2. Participants can explain how objectives and standards are used. 3. Participants can write at least three objectives and standards that might be applied to their Wilderness.

Key points

· Objectives form the "heart" of the plan. They are the yardsticks for measuring success. · · Trend in conditions is more important than one snapshot in time. Concept of green light, yellow light, red light.

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Standards

Objectives and Standards

Objectives

Measurable statements that describe the resource and experience conditions that are considered realistic, attainable in the foreseeable future, and acceptable. They are expressed in specific, measurable terms so that they can be used to clearly trigger the need for corrective management action. Objectives are statements against which existing conditions can be measured. They are established to promote achievement of desired conditions. Objectives relate to what the land and the experience is minimally expected to be like. For further discussion regarding the concept of "acceptability," refer to Brunson 1993.

Standards

A statement of management requirements that limit the discretion of managers. Adherence is mandatory and within the control of the agency. Standards are the bounds on the methods which could possibly be used to achieve desired conditions. Standards relate to how management actions are carried out. Standards should only be imposed where there is a clear need to limit the discretion of managers to choose what they think might be the best path to achieve desired conditions. Standards should be limited to those things which are mandatory no matter what the conditions are on-theground. Often,standards are found in policy directives and do not need to be repeated. Objectives may be quantitative or qualitative. Since objectives represent what is considered acceptable within the Wilderness, they are value judgements based on human values, beliefs, and desires. Scientific information regarding land capability and long-term stewardship is essential to make an informed judgment but the decision about what is acceptable is still subjective. The most effective objectives are developed through extensive dialogue among citizens, managers, and scientists. Many program plans contain only standards. While standards are necessary, they do not help define exactly what conditions should be achieved (i.e. measures of success). Objectives are very difficult to develop but they form the "heart" of the plan and will do the most to provide management guidance. Ironically, in 1922, Aldo Leopold clearly articulated the difference between what he called machinery standards and standards of conservation (Flader and Callicott 1991): If standards of conservation were developed, "local administrative effort could be intelligently directed for years to come. And what is more, such effort, having a definite goal, would not need nearly so much prodding in the form of machinery standards. And the time that now goes into establishing and maintaining machinery standards, could be diverted into the technical education of field men to make their efforts constantly more intelligent. `We don't know where we are going, but we're on our way' is a laudable sentiment only up to the point where it becomes scientifically possible to state where we ought to go."

Purpose

The difference between current conditions and objectives is what generates the need for project-level management action (i.e. are the triggers for action). Objectives should clearly define at what point there is a problem so everyone knows when corrective action will be needed. The trend in conditions is more important than one "snapshot in time." Objectives should be used in the following way:

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Green light................ Conditions meet the objective and the trend is stable or improving. Response: continue monitoring. Yellow flashing light...... Conditions meet the objective but the trend is declining. Response: explore why conditions are declining and initiate nonrestrictive management actions to turn the situation around before the objective is violated and more restrictive actions might be needed. Increase monitoring frequency. Red light.................. Conditions do not meet the objective. Response: determine why the objective is not being met and initiate management actions that will effectively improve conditions. Increase monitoring frequency.

Considerations

· Objectives must be attainable and realistic but they also must be set to move conditions toward the desired conditions. Do not set objectives to justify existing conditions unless current conditions = desired conditions (i.e., there is no need for improvement in conditions). · Objectives are set for the selected monitoring indicators. Some objectives will apply wilderness-wide (e.g. objectives for air quality). Other objectives will vary by zone. For example, objectives would not allow much change in conditions in a zone where the desired conditions are for very little human influence. Objectives would allow more change in a zone where it was desirable to have more human influence (e.g. accepting more bare ground on campsites so that human impact can be concentrated preventing the spread of impacts). Setting objectives by zone gives managers the ability to ensure that conditions in the most undisturbed areas don't slowly erode. · Objectives must be developed through dialogue among citizens, managers, and scientists. Use an interdisciplinary approach. Make sure you are not setting objectives that would permit more human impact than is accepted in non-wilderness areas. · If some flexibility in conditions is desirable before management action is triggered, then the amount of acceptable deviation should be defined. This can be done by assigning a probability factor to the objective or by clearly defining the criteria to be used in allowing exceptions. For example, a objective for the number of encounters between groups might be written as: "90% probability of 3 or fewer encounters per day." This allows some days where more than 3 groups can be encountered without triggering management action (e.g. opening week of hunting season, holiday weekend). If you use a probability factor, you need to define the season of use (i.e. 90% of how many days) and you may want to define what is the maximum number of encounters on the "exception" days. · Monitoring information must be able to be analyzed using the objective as a "yardstick." It helps to run a set of "test" data to work out any bugs before adopting the objective. · Consider using a photo index to depict objectives.

· A dilemma: Setting objectives assumes you can define the "zero-point" (what would conditions be like with no human influence). This is easy to do for campsite conditions (e.g. ideal is no vegetation loss) or encounters between groups (e.g. ideal is no encounters between groups). Since we want to provide for some human use, we can begin to discuss how many encounters between groups is acceptable or how much vegetation loss on campsites is acceptable. But now we are trying to develop

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objectives for identifying specifically what is acceptable in terms of human interference with natural processes. Because of the dynamic nature of these processes, there is no zero point. Rather, there is a range of variation and even the range will change over time. We want conditions to be within this range of natural variation but how do we aim for a moving target when we know so little about the range of natural variation? See overhead from Landres 1994-- "When is change beyond the range of natural variation." Ask people to identify what assumption we are making? What happens to our assessment of whether conditions are green light, yellow light, or red light if the natural range of variation isn't what we thought? Given this dilemma, the best course of action is to focus on minimizing human interference with the natural process as much as possible (e.g. define how much fire suppression is acceptable, given need to protect property, adjacent land, etc.) and establish long-term monitoring programs so that knowledge of natural variation is improved.

Filters

1. Do the objectives promote conditions that meet the intent of the Wilderness Act or enabling legislation? 2. Do the objectives meet agency policy and regulations? 3. Will the objectives promote achievement of desired conditions? 4. Are objectives attainable? 5. Does the objective allow for a certain amount of deviation where some flexibility in conditions is desirable? 6. Would meeting one objective result in the inability to meet another objective? 7. Does the objective reflect what citizens, managers, and scientists consider acceptable? Is there support for the objective? 8. Can monitoring information be analyzed successfully using this objective as the "yardstick" to measure against? 9. Is the objective understandable?

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Standards

9

Examples of Objectives and Standards

Wilderness-wide

Objectives

Priority species listed by the county weed department are not present. Canada thistle and other non-native plants occupy no more than 5% of the Wilderness. No more than a 10% decline in lake alkalinity from baseline measurements. Riparian conditions meet 85% of potential natural condition for the specific lake or stream type. Picketing or tethering of recreational stock must be at least 200 feet from lakes, streams, and trails. Party size is limited to 15 people and 25 stock. Larger groups may be allowed under permit when the following conditions are met: 1. Demonstrated low-impact skills-- applicant states in writing how he/she will handle large group to minimize impact. 2. Larger group size will not violate camp, encounter, or forage utilization objectives in area requested for use. 3. The group activity is dependent upon being in a Wilderness setting. 4. The requested area is not a trailless zone.

Zones Zone I No more than 20% forage utilization Zone II No more than 40% forage utilization Zone III same as zone II same as zone II

No campsites or corral/ 25% puddling class I, hitch areas with puddling 15% puddling class II class I, II, or III 0% puddling class III No more than 2 groups encountered per day No more than 5 groups encountered per day

No more than 12 groups encountered per day Vegetation may be lost on no more than 500 sq. ft. Tree roots are not exposed. No more than 10 campsites per drainage

Vegetation maybe Vegetation is lost only flattened but is not lost. around the fire ring or No fire rings or structures. center of activity. No more than 2 campsites No more than 5 campsites per drainage per drainage

Standards

· Pack-in feed will be certified weed-free. · Trail bridges will be built using natural materials and primitive skills. · Salt for livestock will be placed in leach-proof containers. · Fire suppression will employ minimum impact suppression techniques. · Waters that is fishless will not be stocked.

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Standards

· Human activity will be restricted in bighorn sheep winter range from December 15 to April 30. · Trailhead facilities will be designed to help meet condition objectives (i.e. facilities, road access, and parking lots will be developed to meet objectives for the zone which the trailhead accesses). · All outfitters comply with the Majestic Mountain outfitter policy.

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OBJECTIVES & STANDARDS

Objectives Realistic, attainable measure of resouce and experience conditions that must be achieved. Relates to what conditions are minimally expected to be like. Purpose: * Form basis to compare conditions against * Trigger the need for management action * Promote achievement of desired conditions Example: Canada thistle and other non-native plants occupy no more than 5% of the Wilderness. Priority species listed by the County Weed Dept. are not present. Vegetation on campsites is lost only around the fire ring or center of activity (i.e. Campsites must meet Frissell Condi tion Class 2). Standards Requirements that limit the discretion of managers. Relates to how management actions are carried out. Example: Pack-in feed will consist of weed-free pellets and cubes and rolled grain. Trail bridges will be built using natural materials and primi tive skills.

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HOW OBJECTIVES ARE USED

Response Green Light

Conditions meet the objective Trend--Stable or improving · Continue monitoring

Yellow Light

Conditions meet the objective Trend--Downward

· Explore why conditions are declining · Initiate non-restricted management actions · Increase monitoring · Determine why objective isn't being met · Initiate management actions to improve conditions · Increase monitoring

Red Light

Conditions do not meet the objective Trend--Stable or downward

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SCREENING QUESTIONS FOR OBJECTIVES & STANDARDS

Does the objective meet the intent of the Wilderness Act? Is the objective and standard consistent with agency

policy and regulations?

Does the objective promote achievement of the desired

condition?

Is the objective attainable? Would attainment of this objective preclude the ability to

meet other objectives?

Is the objective supported by specialists, managers, and

citizens?

Can the objective be measured and analyzed

successfully?

Is the objective understanable?

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WHEN IS "CHANGE" BEYOND THE RANGE OF NATURAL VARIATION?

Red Light Warning! Red Light Major Change Yellow Light Warning! Potential cause for concern

Ecological Conditions

Natural Range of Variation

v

Time

Standards

Landres 1994

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Standards

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WORKSHEET WRITING OBJECTIVES & STANDARDS

From indicators listed on previous worksheet, try to develop some objectives and standards. Develop at least one objective and standard that would apply Wilderness-wide and one objective standard that would vary by zone. Example Issue: multiple trails to same destination results in soil erosion and unsightly cuts in a bare hillside. Indicator: Number of trails in addition to the established "system" trail. Zone 1: Objective is for no trails. Zone 2: System trail only. Zone 3: No more than three side trails to any lake shore from system trail. Indicator: (indicator from previous worksheet)

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

Objective and Standard: Zone 1:

_____________________________________________________________________

Zone 2:

______________________________________________________________________

Zone 3:

_____________________________________________________________________

Indicator:

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

Objective and Standard: Zone 1:

_____________________________________________________________________

Zone 2:

______________________________________________________________________

Zone 3:

_____________________________________________________________________

Indicator:

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

Objective and Standard: Zone 1:

_____________________________________________________________________

Zone 2:

______________________________________________________________________

Zone 3:

_____________________________________________________________________

Indicator:

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

Objective and Standard: Zone 1:

_____________________________________________________________________

Zone 2:

______________________________________________________________________

Zone 3:

_____________________________________________________________________

Standards s 9-15

SCOPING

"How often we speak of the great silences of the wilderness and of the importance of preserving them and the wonder and peace to be found there. When I think of them, I see the lakes and rivers of the North, the muskegs and expanses of tundra, the barren lands beyond all roads. I see the mountain ranges of the West and the high, rolling ridges of the Appalachians. I picture the deserts of the Southwest and their brilliant panoramas of color, the impenetrable swamplands of the South. They will always be there and their beauty may not change, but should their silences be broken, they will never be the same." Sigurd F. Olson

Scoping

10

Scoping the Proposed Management Direction

This unit focuses on identifying issues associated with the proposed management direction so that alternatives can be developed.

Objectives

1. Participants can develop a preliminary map displaying how zones are proposed to be allocated on-the-ground. 2. Participants can identify the preliminary issues that might arise from their proposed management direction. 3. Participants can identify the contents of a scoping statement and can develop a preliminary scoping statement for their proposed Wilderness management direction.

Key points

· Scoping is the start of the NEPA process but is just another point along the continuum of public participation. · The purpose of scoping is to invite the public to comment on the proposed management direction and identify issues.

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Scoping

Scoping the Proposed Management Direction

Description

At this stage, you should have a description of desired conditions for a few zones, monitoring indicators that will be used to track trends, and objectives that define acceptable conditions (and help promote achievement of the desired conditions). Now you need to determine how you propose to allocate the zones across the Wilderness. The end product will be a map showing which areas are proposed to be managed under the desired conditions, indicators, and objectives specified for zone I, which areas are to be managed under the direction for zone II, and which areas are to be managed under the direction for zone III. · Remember that the desired condition descriptions reflect what should be, not what currently exists. If an area currently meets zone III standards but there is a desire to improve conditions, then it should be mapped as a proposed zone II. · The principle of non-degradation applies here. This principle seeks to prevent the decline of current conditions. Management should always strive for maintenance or improvement. Thus, allocating an area that is currently relatively undisturbed to a zone which would allow a higher degree of human disturbance than currently exists, would violate this principle. · Typically, travel corridors are mapped as "strings" with the surrounding area mapped as a big "blob." · Wherever possible, zone boundaries should be mapped using topographic features. Coordinate zone mapping with management objectives for adjacent lands. · Review the issues as you map. If the issues revealed that conditions were unacceptable in a particular area, make sure the area is allocated to a zone with standards that will promote improvement in conditions. As you map, keep track of why you allocated a particular area to a particular zone. This will help you explain what the proposed management direction is intended to do. · Make sure areas that are especially sensitive (e.g. crucial winter range, rare plant communities) are allocated to zones that will afford the protection they need.

Considerations

Scoping

Congratulations! You have now completed the assessment phase and have developed the best possible proposed direction to meet the intent of the Wilderness Act and respond to the significant issues. You are now ready to begin the NEPA process to analyze your proposed direction. The purpose of scoping is to: · Invite the public to comment on the proposed management direction · Identify significant issues relative to the proposed direction · Guide the analysis and documentation The scoping statement should clearly describe the proposed management direction so the public can identify specific issues. Well-described, specific proposed management direction will help the public focus their issues which then can be used to drive development of alternatives.

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Scoping Scoping statement content

10

1. Description of the proposed management direction Include who is proposing this action (the agency), specifically what is proposed (map of zones with desired conditions, objectives, and monitoring indicators), and where the new direction will apply (location map of the Wilderness). 2. Purpose and Need Explain why new management direction is being considered. Refer to your "Need for Change" to develop this information. 3. Decision to be made Describe the nature and the character of the decision. This will usually read something like: "The decision to be made is whether or not to adopt new management direction for the Blankity-blank Wilderness and, if so, which alternative should be selected. Adoption of new management direction will also include the decision to amend the ------ Plan to incorporate new direction for management area --." 4. Issues Identify the preliminary issues associated with the proposed management direction. Some issues probably came up as you were mapping zones. It is highly unlikely that your proposed management direction resolved all the issues. The issues at this point are focused on the concerns with the specific proposed management direction--this should be a smaller, more focused set of issues than what you identified at the beginning of the assessment phase (during "Need for Change" step). 5. Name and Address Identify where people should send their comments. Identify planned public meetings, open houses, etc. 6. Deadline for comments Identify the deadline by which comments must be submitted. 7. Contact person for further information

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SCOPING THE PROPOSED MANAGEMENT DIRECTION

Crossing from Assessment to NEPA

A Process Used To: · Invite the public to comment · Guide analysis and documentation · Identify significant issues Contents of Scoping Statement: · Proposed Management Direction

Who is proposing direction What is proposed--map of zones with desired conditions, objective and monitoring indicators Where will direction apply--map

·

Purpose and Need Why is this proposed management direction being considered (refer to "Need for Change")

·

Decision to be Made Nature and character of decision

·

Issues Points of disagreement or concern regarding proposed management direction

·

Name and Address Where to send comments:

· ·

Deadline for Comments

Contact Person for Further Information

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WORKSHEET SCOPING PROPOSED MANAGEMENT DIRECTION

Review your desired conditions, monitoring indicators, objectives and standards. On your Wilderness map, begin to draw out how you propose to allocate zones on-the-ground. Map a proposal for at least 1/3 of your Wilderness. Describe your proposed management direction--who, what, where.

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Briefly recap the purpose and need for new management direction.

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Describe the decision to be made.

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Identify some preliminary issues associated with the proposed management direction.

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Scoping s 10-7

DEVELOPING AND EVALUATING

ALTERNATIVES

"Whatever befalls the earth befalls the sons of the earth. Man did not weave the web of life; he is merely a strand of it. Whatever he does to the web, he does to himself." Chief Seattle

Developing and Evaluating Alternatives

11

Developing and Evaluating Alternatives

This unit will focus on developing alternatives to fulfill NEPA requirements to consider the full range of reasonable alternatives. Determining the environmental consequences associated with each alternative will also be discussed.

Objectives

1. Participants can define what makes up an alternative for program level wilderness management direction. 2. Participants can describe the "no action" alternative. 3. Participants can describe at least one alternative to the proposed management direction that will respond to the significant issues. 4. Participants can identify at least three potential effects each alternative may have on the resource, the visitors' experience, or on management.

Key points

· Alternatives are developed to the proposed management direction in a manner that responds to issues and meets the purpose and need. · Alternatives represent different visions for the Wilderness.

· Develop a full range of reasonable alternatives. Don't fall into the Goldilocks Syndrome. · If the effects of alternatives are the same, then the alternatives are not different enough to analyze separately. · The purpose of evaluating alternatives is to disclose effects relative to the significant issues--no surprises.

Activity

What can it be used for? The possible uses for a strange looking object (refer to pp. 11-13).

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Developing and Evaluating Alternatives

Developing Alternatives

Alternative contents

The proposed management direction contains one way that zones would be allocated across the Wilderness along with the description of desired conditions, standards, and monitoring indicators for each zone. Alternatives to the proposed management direction need to display different ways that zones would be allocated to respond to the significant issues and fulfill the purpose and need. Alternatives can also be viewed as different "visions" for the future of the Wilderness. The no action alternative needs to be displayed. For developing program level wilderness management direction, the no action alternative is defined as continuing current management direction (i.e. not adopting new management direction). It does not mean "doing nothing in the Wilderness." For example, the proposed management direction may identify a portion of the Wilderness to be managed as a zone I area with a objective of no system trails. An issue may be raised that there is currently a system trail within the proposed zone and eliminating maintenance would result in greater resource damage. Thus, one of the alternatives might map this area as zone II with a objective of maintaining system trails to some desired condition.

Purpose

The alternatives section of a NEPA document is considered the "heart of the document." There is rarely only one way to meet the purpose and need for change. Developing and evaluating alternatives allows you to show that you have heard issues associated with the proposed management direction and have seriously considered various ways to respond to the issues. The "no action" alternative serves as a baseline for comparing the effects of alternative management direction. It allows readers to clearly understand the effects of new management direction.

NEPA requirements

1. Describe and evaluate all reasonable alternatives and explain the reasons for eliminating some alternatives from detailed study. 2. Give substantial treatment to all alternatives considered in detail. 3. Include the no-action alternative. 4. Include mitigation.

Key points

· Before alternatives are developed, you must have well-defined proposed management direction. In the past, there has been a tendency to skip over the analysis phase to develop proposed management direction. Instead, managers have jumped right into the NEPA phase stating that the proposed action is to "develop new management direction for the Blankity-blank Wilderness" with no information on what the new management direction would contain. This creates immediate problems in developing alternatives and begs the question--alternatives to what? Alternatives are developed to the proposed action, thus you must have some kind of detailed proposed management direction to develop any kind of meaningful alternatives.

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· The goal is to develop a range of reasonable alternatives, NOT to produce a reasonable range of alternatives--e.g. one maximum development, one minimum development, one moderate. Don't fall into the Goldilocks syndrome--one hot, one cold, one just right. For an alternative to be considered reasonable, it must meet the purpose and need (i.e. need for change) and address significant issues. · Alternatives may be eliminated from detailed study because they are illegal, technologically infeasible, clearly unreasonable, or fall outside legal mandates (e.g. doesn't meet sideboards set by the Wilderness Act). · The line officer's role in alternative development is critical. Alternatives should be reviewed to ensure they meet the purpose and need, and address issues. The line officer should approve alternatives before the analysis of effects begins. · If you can't really distinguish among alternatives in terms of effects, then you have too many alternatives. · It is critical to analyze each alternative thoroughly and give substantial treatment to each alternative. This means describing each alternative with equal depth. · Mitigation is included as part of each alternative. Mitigation is what you would do above and beyond normal operating procedures. For example, one alternative may include managing an area as a trailless zone. Mitigation may require education of visitors in this area to insure minimum impact use. There may also be mitigation that is common to all alternatives. Instead of identifying trailheads to sign, a mitigation may be to sign all trailheads advising users they may encounter a variety of wilderness uses including livestock grazing, packstock and llamas. · Don't label alternatives (e.g. the maximum recreation alternative, the wildlife protection alternative). The alternatives should all represent different ways of responding to significant issues. · The public can participate in developing alternatives. You could hold a workshop where you explain the proposed management direction, present the purpose and need and significant issues relative to this direction, then break people into small groups with a map and markers at each group and let each group develop a way to respond to the issues.

Suggested activity

Perhaps the best way to begin work on the Alternatives section of the analysis is to do some creativity exercises. This may encourage the interdisciplinary team to expand their ideas which could lead to more successful creation of alternatives. Two publications that may offer some ideas for expanding creative thinking are A Whack On The Side Of The Head and A Kick In The Seat Of The Pants, both by Roger von Oeck. Place an easily seen strange-looking object on a table at the front of the training room. Have half of the participants work in small groups. The other half of the participants work individually. Give folks about 3 minutes to write down all the possible uses for the object. Compare number of items that people working in groups came up with versus number of items that people working individually developed. Lesson is power of group thinking to develop alternatives.

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Developing and Evaluating Alternatives

Evaluating Alternatives

Purpose

The purpose of the "environmental consequences" section of a NEPA document is to disclose the effects that each alternative may have so that the decision-maker can make an informed choice. This section forms the scientific and analytic basis for comparing alternatives. This section also serves to inform people about the possible effects from a decision so there are no surprises.

Key points

· The document must disclose the environmental effects of alternatives including the proposed action considering direct, indirect, and cumulative effects. Brainstorm a flow chart--what will be the immediate effects from implementing an alternative for new management direction? What will be the effects "down the road" from each of the immediate effects? · When interpreting effects, identify the direction of the effect (e.g. will campsite conditions improve or get worse), the magnitude of the effect (e.g. how much will campsite conditions improve or get worse), and the duration of the effect (i.e. how long will campsites be in an improved condition or in a worse condition). Interpretation doesn't mean opinions (e.g. this effect will be good). · Use the significant issues identified during scoping of the proposed management direction as the basis for evaluating alternatives. Describe exactly how each alternative will respond to the issues. Consider effects on resource conditions, the visitors' experience, and management (cost, work load, etc.). · When evaluating alternatives, define the "zone of influence" for each issue you are analyzing. The zone of influence may go beyond the planning boundaries and will be different for each issue. It is helpful to use maps to show the "zone of influence" for each issue analyzed. · Tables that succinctly display the effects of different alternatives are useful but don't use a numbering system or +/- system to compare effects from alternatives. Just display the effects of each alternative in qualitative or quantitative terms. Avoid relying on numbers exclusively. · The no action alternative should be used as a baseline to show how the effects of the other alternatives compare. · Display your finding on effects in a clear, understandable format. Avoid technical jargon. Use graphic displays where possible (e.g. maybe pictures can convey what the Wilderness might be like under different alternatives). · Don't get paralyzed by playing the "what if" game. Analyze the reasonable foreseeable effects. If the effects will be analyzed in a project level analysis, then don't do a lot of analysis in the program level NEPA analysis. If effect won't be analyzed in the future analysis, then go ahead and do it.

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Developing and Evaluating Alternatives

DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVES

What Do Alternatives Consist of?

11

Each alternative displays a particular way that zones would be allocated across the Wilderness to address the significant issues and fulfill the purpose and need. Example: No action Alternative No change in current management Alternative A Intent is to manage the Wilderness to accommodate a slight increase inhuman activity without degrading the overall condition of the Wilderness Alternative B Intent is to strongly emphasize the trail corridor concept and allow only minimum human activity in grizzly bear habitat Alternative C Intent is to reduce human influence to maximize extent possible by restoring conditions in areas which currently have high human activity

Alternative Comparison

Alternatives Class I No Action Alt A Alt B Alt C 58% 63% 73% 85% Class II 7% 26% 17% 15% Class III 35% 11% 10% --

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ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT

Alternatives are developed to the proposed management

direction. Different visions for the Wilderness

Alternatives must fulfill purpose and need and respond to

significant issues

Include the no-action alternative Develop a full range of reasonable alternatives.

The Goldilock Syndrome

Describe alternatives eliminated from detailed study and

explain why

Describe action alternatives in equal depth ("substantial

treatment")

If the effects are the same, then combine the alternatives

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EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES

Purpose is to disclose effects No surprises

· Describe how each alternative responds to significant issues · Disclose effects of: Resource conditions Visitor's experience Management--needs and costs · Address direct, indirect and cumulative effects

Display results in clear, understandable form

· Differences among alternatives must be apparent

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WORKSHEET DEVELOPING AND EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES

List three significant issues (from previous worksheet):

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Identify two different ways you could meet the proposed need and respond to at least 2 of the significant issues. Briefly describe each or draw them on your wilderness maps.

Alt. C: ___________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ Alt. D:___________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

Briefly describe what the potential effects of implementing each alternative might be.

No Action Alt Issue 1

Proposed Action

Alt C

Alt D

Issue 2

Developing and Evaluating Alternatives s 11-11

DOCUMENTING

"When the bird and the book disagree, always believe the bird." Birdwatcher's Proverb

THE DECISION

Documenting The Decision

12

Documenting the Decision

This unit will focus on determining the significance of your proposed change in Wilderness management direction in terms of environmental effects and programmatic plan amendments. It will also discuss how to decide where to document your decision in a categorical exclusion, environmental assessment, or environmental impact statement. Each agency has different regulations for complying with NEPA, so check with your specialists. This unit contains interpretations used by the Forest Service.

Objectives

1. Participants can define what it meant by "significance" both in terms of environmental effects and program level plan amendments. 2. Participants can identify the probable document needed for their Wilderness management direction and can explain the rationale behind choosing an Environmental Assessment or an Environmental Impact Statement.

Key points

· ·

Determine significance in terms of environmental effects. Determine significance in terms of changes to the current plan direction.

· The choice between an EA and an EIS is the degree of uncertainty over the effects of the action. · Determine the consistency of your new management direction with applicable laws (e.g., the Wilderness Act).

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Documenting The Decision

Documenting the Decision

This section will only provide a brief overview of NEPA requirements relative to determining significance and documenting the decision. Public notification and documentation requirements vary by agency. Thus, it is essential that you consult with NEPA specialists who can give you the specific details during this phase.

Determining significance

When doing program level plan amendments to adopt new management direction, there are two significance hoops to jump through. The first is to determine significance in terms of the environmental impact of a proposed action. Significance requires considering the context and the intensity of the impact. To test the degree of significance, refer to the 10 criteria established under 40 CFR 1508.27 (Council of Environmental Quality regulations for implementing NEPA). The second significance hoop is to determine how much the proposed management direction will change current Plan direction. Plan amendments may or may not be significant, depending on your answer to the following questions: · Does it change the overall goals or objectives identified in the program level Plan? · Would implementing new Wilderness management direction change the level of goods and services provided by the Forest?

Nonsignificant

Within the Forest Service, nonsignificant amendments to Forest Plans are considered to be: 1. Actions that do not significantly alter the multiple-use goals and objectives for long-term land and resource management. 2. Adjustments of management area boundaries or management prescriptions resulting from further on-site analysis when the adjustments do not cause significant changes in the multiple-use goals and objectives for long-term land and resource management. 3. Minor changes in standards and guidelines. 4. Opportunities for additional management practices that will contribute to achievement of the management prescription.

Significant

Significant amendments are considered to be: 1. Changes that would significantly alter the long-term relationship between levels of multiple-use goods and services originally projected. 2. Changes that may have an important effect on the entire forest plan or affect land and resources throughout a large portion of the planning area during the planning period. Typically, overall goals and objectives contained in program level plans are general. Thus, adopting new management direction that just provides more specific direction in terms of desired conditions, objectives, and monitoring indicators for an already established Wilderness usually does not constitute a "significant" change to overall goals and objectives. Exceptions to this might be situations such as adopting direction that would eliminate outfitted use where this use was allowed under current direction

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or major reductions in grazing use where this use could not be transferred to other areas of the Forest.

Documentation

After scoping is completed, the degree of significance determines the appropriate document. There are three choices: Categorical Exclusion This document is used when the proposed action will clearly not have a significant effect on the human environment. To use a categorical exclusion, the proposed action must fit one of the categories established by the agency and there must not be any extraordinary circumstances. There are two types of categorical exclusions--some require a project file and decision memo, others do not require a project file or decision memo. Check your specific agency categories to determine the level of documentation if a categorical exclusion appears to be the appropriate document. Forest Service Note The fact that the proposed action is within Wilderness, does not automatically eliminate the use of a categorical exclusion. However, Forest Plan amendments to adopt new Wilderness management direction, require at least an environmental assessment (i.e. a categorical exclusion cannot be used). This is because there is no category established by the Forest Service to cover Forest Plan amendments with a categorical exclusion. Environmental Assessment This document is used when the significance of the proposed action is unknown. An environmental assessment is completed and the findings of the analysis are used to determine the degree of significance. If it is determined that the effects are not significant, then a Finding of No Significant Impact is prepared along with a Decision Notice. If it is determined that the effects may be significant, then an Environmental Impact Statement must be prepared. The degree of controversy does not determine whether the effects are significant. Rather, it is based on whether or not there is dispute over the potential effects of the proposed action (i.e. the degree of certainty or uncertainty over effects). Environmental Impact Statement This document is used when there may be or will be a significant effect on the human environment. A Notice of Intent must be filed in the Federal Register to notify the public that an environmental impact statement will be prepared. A Draft Environmental Impact Statement is then prepared and sent out for public review. A Final Environmental Impact Statement is then prepared along with a Record of Decision.

Notification

Each agency has specific requirements for public comment periods during preparation of environmental assessments and environmental impact statements. Make sure you budget enough time for public comment and notification when you prepare your time line (refer to "getting started" unit). After the decision is approved, you need to notify the public. The agency usually requires publishing a legal notice in a local or regional newspaper. Finally, make sure the new direction is physically incorporated into all of the existing Plans.

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DOCUMENTING THE DECISION

Significance

· In terms of environmental effects · In terms of proposed change to current program level Plan

Two criteria for determining significance of a proposed plan amendment: · Does it change the overall goals or objectives in the existing Plan? · Would implementing the new Wilderness management direction change the level of goods and services provided by the entire Forest, Park, Resource Area or Refuge?

Documentation

Categorical Exclusion with decision memo Environmental Assessment with Finding of No Significant Impact and Decision Notice Environmental Impact Statement with Record of Decision Program level Plan amendments require Environmental Assessments or Environmental Impact Statements

Notification

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WORKSHEET DOCUMENTING THE DECISION

Pick one of your alternatives from the previous work sheets. Refer to CEQ regulations to determine whether adopting this alternative would be significant in terms of environmental effects. 1. Will there be severe beneficial and adverse impacts? Yes____ No_____ 2. Will public health or safety be greatly affected? Yes____ No_____ 3. Will unique characteristics of the geographic area be greatly affected (e.g. cultural resources, wetlands, prime farmlands, ecologically critical areas)? Yes_____ No_____ 4. Are the effects on the quality of the human environment highly controversial? Yes_____ No_____ 5. Are the possible effects highly uncertain or involve unknown risks? Yes____ No____ 6. Will this new management direction set a precedent for future actions that may have significant effects? Yes____ No____ 7. Is this proposed action related to other actions with cumulatively significant impacts? Yes____ No____ 8. Will significant scientific, cultural, or historical resources be adversely affected? Yes____ No____ 9. Will endangered or threatened species or their critical habitat be adversely affected? Yes____ No____ 10. Would Federal, State, or local laws to protect the environment possibly be violated? Yes____ No____ Determine whether adopting new Wilderness management direction would constitute a significant change to the current Plan. 1. Will adopting new direction change the overall goals or objectives in the program level plan? Yes____ No____ 2. Will adopting new direction alter the level of goods and services provided by the Resource Area, Wildlife Refuge, Forest, or Park? Yes____ No____ What kind of documentation is appropriate? Why? Categorical exclusion and decision memo_____ Environmental Assessment, FONSI, and Decision Notice _____ Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision _____

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Example: Decision Notice and Finding of No Significant Impact

Cherokee National Forest Amendment No. 23 to the Forest Land and Rsource Management Plan The Environmental Assessment for Standards and Guides in Wilderness documents the analysis of two alternatives for implementing the "Limits of Acceptable Change" process for managing recreational use on four wildernesses on the Cherokee National Forest. The four wildernesses are: Little Frog on the Ocoee Ranger District, Bald River Gorge on the Tellico Ranger District, Unaka Mountain on the Unaka Ranger District, and Sampson Mountain on the Nolichucky and Unaka Ranger Districts. The environmental assessment is enclosed. Based on the analysis documented in the environmental assessment, it is my decision to adopt Alternative 2, which will amend the current Cherokee National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan by incorporating the recommendations developed by the "Limits of Acceptable Change" (LAC) process for recreational use in Little Frog, Bald River Gorge, Unaka Mountain, and Sampson Mountain wildernesses. Public participation has been encouraged throughout the LAC process. Letters were sent to the general public to solicit their view on recreational use of the wilderness resource and to identify issues relating to this use. News articles about the LAC process as well as news articles about public meetings for issue identification were released. Public meetings for each wilderness were held for issue identification as well as extending the invitation to become a member of a task group for the LAC process. Task groups were formed to work through the LAC process and consisted of individuals, representatives from organizations, and agency officials. Letters were sent to those interested in the LAC process informing them of dates, times, and locations of the task group meetings and to inform them of what occurred at each meeting on a continuing basis. Issues raised through the process were primarily related to campsite conditions, visitor use, and wilderness and trail facilities.

Alternative 1

No Action. Current implementation of the Forest Land and Resource Management Plan would continue for managing the wilderness resource. Recreational use parameters developed by the LAC process would become recommendations rather than Standards and Guidelines. Issue a Forest Land and Resource Plan Amendment. This alternative would amend the Forest Land and Resource Management Plan by incorporating the recreational use parameters developed by the LAC process into Standards and Guidelines for wilderness. It will also add the definition of Opportunity Classes to Management Area 8 under the "Description heading found in Chapter IV of the Cherokee Forest Land and Resource Management" Plan. (See "Section II. Alternatives," in the environmental assessment for detail). I have chosen Alternative 2 because it provides for: 1. Wilderness management in conformance with the 1964 Wilderness Act, 1984 and

Alternative 2

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1986 Tennessee Wilderness Acts, Forest Service Manual Direction for wilderness (FSM 2320) and the Cherokee Forest Land and Resource Management Plan. 2. Provides protection of wilderness resources from recreation use. I have determined through the environmental assessment that this is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment, individually or cumulative with other actions in the area; therefore, an environmental impact statement is not needed. This determination is based on the following factors: · There are no known effects to human health and safety, critical habitat for proposed endangered, threatened, or sensitive species, or cultural and historic values. This decision complies with the National Historic Preservation Act and with the Memorandum of Agreement with the Tennessee State Historic Preservation Office. · The physical and biological effects are listed to these immediate geographic areas, any unique and unusual features will not be affected, and the action does not set a precedent for other projects that may have significant effects. · There are no known effects on the human environment that are highly uncertain or involve unique or unknown risks, and based on scoping, the effects of this action are not likely to be controversial. · There are no known significant irretrievable or irreversible commitments of resources and the action does not threaten violation of federal, state, or local law. · This decision complies with the Forest Land and Resource Management Plan as amended . This decision will be implemented no sooner than seven (7) days after publication of this decision. This decision is subject to appeal, pursuant to 36 CFR 217 and 36 CFR 251. A notice of appeal must be filed with the Regional Forest, USDA Forest Service, 1720 Peachtree Road, NW, Atlanta, GA 30367 within 45 days after the publication of this date of decision. For additional information concerning this decision, contact John Romanowski, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 2010, Cleveland, TN 37320, Telephone (615) 476-9758. John Ramey Forest Supervisor

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Environmental Assessment for Standards and Guidelines in Wilderness (Management Area 8)

Cherokee National Forest Little Frog, Bald River Gorge, Unaka Mountain, and Sampson Mountain Wildernesses

October 1993 Proposed Action

Purpose and need

The Forest Service proposes to amend the Cherokee National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan by incorporating Standards and Guidelines developed by the "Limits of Acceptable Change" (LAC) process for recreational use in wilderness where currently there are none. The proposed action would incorporate direction into the Cherokee National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan (FLRMP) for wilderness (Management Area 8) under "Use Administration (A08), Trail Construction and Reconstruction {A10, All), and Use Management (B03). " It will also add the definition of Opportunity Classes to the "Description" heading of Management Area 8 to the FLRMP. Need for the Proposed Action In accordance with the Cherokee FLRMP, the Forest Service is to determine the maximum number of commercial outfitter guide permits suitable for the wilderness and establish the total number of service days allowable for the area (page IV-113). Other requirements include: for organized groups (institutional, semi-public), determine the maximum number of groups allowable at any one time (page IV-118); and visitor use impacts will be monitored and managed based on the "Limits of Acceptable Change" (LAC) system. The LAC system developed for each wilderness will identify impact parameters, measurement procedures, and evaluation/rating criteria (page IV-119). The proposed action is to fulfill these requirements for Little Frog, Bald River Gorge, Unaka Mountain, and Sampson Mountain wildernesses. Subsequent actions may include FLRMP amendments for the remaining wildernesses on the Forest as LAC processes are completed for each wilderness. In addition, revisions to the standards and guidelines may occur as the Forest Service uses the LAC process to review and monitor initial LAC decisions. This may require additional FLRMP amendments in the future.

Location

All four wildernesses addressed in the proposed action are administered by the Cherokee National Forest. Little Frog wilderness is a 4,666 acre area located in the southern section of the Cherokee National Forest in Polk County, Tennessee on the Ocoee Ranger District. Bald River Gorge wilderness is a 3,721 acre area located in the southern section of the Cherokee National Forest in Monroe County, Tennessee on the Tellico Ranger District.

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Unaka Mountain wilderness is a 4,700 acre area located in the northern section of the Cherokee National Forest in Unicoi County, Tennessee on the Unaka Ranger-District. Sampson Mountain wilderness is a 7,991 acre area located in the northern section of the Cherokee National Forest in Greene, Unicoi, and Washington Counties. Tennessee on the Nolichucky and Unaka Ranger Districts.

Issues

Scoping of significant issues was conducted during the LAC process with concerned organizations, agencies, and individuals. The major issues developed were those associated with campsite conditions, trail needs, visitor use, and wilderness facilities. These major issues were composed of smaller issues that incorporated what the public wrote and said about the topic. This is was accomplished by the LAC task group made up of interested individuals, representatives from organizations, and agency officials for each wilderness. The LAC task groups were opened to anyone at any time while the process was conducted The Forest Service has encouraged public participation throughout the LAC process. Steps taken to keep the public involved include: Letters to the Public--The public was asked to identify issues through the use of a letter with accompanying comment sheet. The initial mailing list was composed of those individuals and organizations on the Cherokee National Forest LMRP list. Subsequent mailings to the public were made to individuals and organizations that expressed an interest in the LAC process and wilderness management. The current wilderness mailing list is composed of 272 persons and organizations (Appendix B). In addition to this master wilderness mailing list, individual Ranger Districts made mailings to those parties that participated or expressed an interest about the process. These mailings were made to inform the public of the time and location of the LAC meetings as well as to distribute information on what occurred at the previous LAC meeting for that wilderness. Media--Several press releases were distributed to local media by the Cherokee National Forest Public Affairs Office for each wilderness. These media releases were requests for help in identifying issues and to announce the dates, times, and locations of public meetings for each wilderness. Public Meetings - A series of public meetings were held for each wilderness to clarify issues that were received from the comment sheets and to generate any additional issues by the public. At the conclusion of these public meetings the formation of task groups were made for each wilderness so that the affected publics could participate in the LAC planning process.

Alternatives

There are two alternatives that are considered in detail that respond to the issues that were surfaced during scoping. Alternative 1 represents the No Action alternative while Alternative 2 would permit the Cherokee FLRMP to be amended. The alternatives are: Alternative 1 No Action. This alternative would continue the implementation of the current Cherokee National Forest FLRMP for managing wilderness. There will be no net change in the flow of goods and services provided by the Cherokee National Forest. The maximum number of commercial outfitter/guide permits as well as the total number of service days allowable for the area; maximum number of organized groups

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(institutional, semi-public) allowed in an area; and recreational use parameters developed by the LAC process will become Forest recommendations rather than Standards and Guidelines in the FLRMP. Alternative 2 Issue a Cherokee FLRNP amendment (see Appendix A). This alternative would continue the implementation of the current National Forest FLRMP for managing wilderness. There will be no net change in the flow of goods and services provided by the Cherokee National Forest. The maximum number of commercial outfitter/guide permits as well as the total number of service days allowable for the area; maximum number of organized groups (institutional, semi-public) allowed in an area; and recreational use parameters developed by the LAC process will become Standards and Guidelines-in the FLRMP. The Definition of Opportunity Classes will be added to Chapter IV in Management Area 8 under the heading "Description."

Environmental consequences

Both alternatives are similar in nature in that they address the major issues that surfaced during scoping. Neither alternative will result in the net change of the flow of goods and services provided by the Cherokee National Forest. There are no irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources under either alternative. Short term use of the wilderness resource under these alternatives will not affect the maintenance of the long term productivity of the resource. The only difference among the alternatives is whether the direction developed by the LAC process should become Forest recommendations or be incorporated into the Cherokee FLRMP . Alternative 1 {the no action alternative) will have no direct effect. Indirect effects will be those associated with continuing visitor use impacts. Impacts will continue to occur to the wilderness resource (which will include total campsite area; barren core area; campsite density per mile of trail; number of social trails at campsites; number of fire rings at campsites; number of additional tree stumps, damaged trees, and trees with exposed roots at campsites; number of campsites within sight of each other; group size; occurrence of human waste and litter; and areas of trail damage). No limitation on the number of organized groups in a wilderness would be made nor would the determination of the need for outfitter/guide permits and accompanying service days be made. Indirect effects would be manifested by increased soil compaction and soil erosion at campsites, campsites devoid of vegetation, trampling and damage to vegetation at the campsite and to the immediate surrounding area (as campsites enlarge over time as well as the development of social trails at these campsites from human use). Litter and the evidence of human waste at these campsites would tend to become more prevalent at these sites. There would also be a tendency for additional campsite areas to become established as no limitation on the density of campsites per mile of trail would be enforced. The number of areas on the trail system that show soil erosion, trampling of vegetation, exposure of tree roots and other signs of impact from human use will tend to increase as no limitations on the group size, number of groups or use by outfitter guides would be enforced. Campsite impacts (as described above) would also increase from large group use as well as outfitter guide use. The opportunity for solitude would also tend to lessen as the possibility of encounters with large groups and large numbers of groups to be in the wilderness would be permitted. Solitude would also be lessened by the number of campsites permitted within sight of each other as no restrictions to limit these sites would be in place. Cumulative impacts would be associated with the continuance of the indirect impacts over time. The wilderness resource would continue

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to degrade and be impaired by human use (as described above) as related to soils, vegetation, and wilderness solitude. The overall wilderness experience by wilderness users would be lowered from these impacts. Alternative 2 (issue a Cherokee FLRMP amendment) will have the direct costs associated with issuing a plan amendment in both time and money spent on the project. Indirect effects will be the establishment of parameters to allow the maximum allowable change to the wilderness resource to occur from continuing visitor use (items outlined in Alternative 1). These effects will be the same to the wilderness resource as in Alternative 1 until the parameters established are reached. Although these are-the maximum-changes allowed, management actions will be implemented to try to prevent these parameters from being reached. The major management action will be to implement wilderness education programs with emphasis on the "Leave No Trace" program. The maximum number of organized groups permitted in each wilderness at one time will be established as well as the need for outfitter guide services and accompanying service days as required by the Cherokee FLRMP. This alternative will also require monitoring by the Forest Service of the LAC parameters to ensure that the Standards and Guidelines are not exceeded. Cumulative effects will be similar to Alternative 1 until the LAC parameters are reached. Management actions will be undertaken to insure that the wilderness resource does not exceed the allowance of acceptable change. This action will depend on the type of impacts occurring and what method will be most effective in accomplishing wilderness goals and will be site specific.

Amendment #23 OCTOBER, 1993

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Cherokee National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan

Amendment #23 October 1993

Chapter IV. Forest Management Direction. Management Area 8, Wilderness. Page IV-113. Add, under Use Administration (A08), the following: Little Frog Wilderness--No commercial outfitter/guide permits will be allowed in this wilderness Bald River Gorge Wilderness--No commercial outfitter/guide permits will be allowed in this wilderness. Unaka Mountain Wilderness--Maximum number of commercial outfitter/guide permits is established at one, with a total of 210 service days. Sampson Mountain Wilderness--No commercial outfitter/guide permits will be allowed in this wilderness. Page IV-114. Add, under Trail Construction/Reconstruction (Al0, All), the following: Little Frog, Bald River Gorge, Unaka Mountain, and Sampson Mountain Wilderness--Trail improvements may be present but natural materials dominate all improvement. Page IV-119. Add, under Wilderness Use Management (B03), the following: Little Frog Wilderness--Maximum number of organized groups (institutional, semi-public) at any one time is 3. Bald River Gorge Wilderness--Maximum number of organized groups (institutional, semi-public) at any one time is 2. Unaka Mountain Wilderness--Maximum number of organized groups (institutional, semi-public) at any one time is 4. Sampson Mountain Wilderness--Maximum number of organized groups (institutional, semi-public) at any one time is 3. Page IV-ll9. Add, under Wilderness Use Management (B03), the following: Little Frog Wilderness--Visitor use impact parameters as determined by the "Limits of Acceptable Change" (LAC) system for each Opportunity Class (OC) are as follows: Campsite Conditions Size of campsite area (square feet). Size of barren/core area (square feet).

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OC 1 0 0

OC 2 300 100

OC 3 800 200

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Campsite density per each mile of trail. Number of social trails leading from campsite. Number of fire rings/campsite. Number of new tree stumps/campsite. Number of newly damaged trees/ campsite. Number of trees with newly exposed roots/campsite. Number of campsites within sight of each other. N/A 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 1

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3 2 1 0 0 0 1

Group Conditions Group size (heartbeats).

OC 1 4

OC 2 8

OC 3 12

Human Waste Conditions Occurrence of litter. Evidence of human fecal matter campsites. 0 0 0 0 0 0

Trail Conditions Number of areas per trail that show trail damage from recreation use. N/A 0 0

Bald River Gorge Wilderness--Visitor use impact parameters as determined by the "Limits of Acceptable Change" (LAC) system for each Opportunity Class (OC) are as follows: Campsite Conditions OC 1 OC 2 300 75 3 2 1 0 0 0 1 OC 3 1200 125 5 4 1 0 0 0 2

Size of campsite area (square feet). 0 Size of barren/core area (square feet). 0 Campsite density per each mile of trail. N/A Number of social trails leading 0 from campsite. Number of fire rings/campsite. 0 Number of new tree stumps/campsite. 0 Number of newly damaged trees/ 0 campsite. Number of trees with newly exposed 0 roots/campsite. Number of campsites within 0 sight of each other.

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Group Conditions Group size (heartbeats). OC 1 4 OC 2 8 OC 3 12

Human Waste Conditions Occurrence of litter. Evidence of human fecal matter campsites. 0 0 0 0 0 0

Trail Conditions Number of areas per trail that N/A show trail damage from recreation use. 0 0

Unaka Mountain Wilderness--Visitor use impact parameters as determined by the "Limits of Acceptable Change" (LAC) system for each Opportunity Class (OC) are as follows: Campsite Conditions Size of campsite area (square feet). Size of barren/core area (sq. ft.). Campsite density per each mile of trail. Number of social trails leading from campsite. Number of fire rings/campsite. Number of new tree stumps/ campsite. Number of newly damaged trees/campsite. Number of trees with newly exposed roots/campsite. Number of campsites within sight of each other. OC 1 0 0 N/A 0 0 0 0 0 0 OC 2 200 25 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 OC 3 500 50 3 1 1 0 0 0 1

Group Conditions Group size (heartbeats). 4 8 14

Human Waste Conditions Occurrence of litter. Evidence of human fecal matter campsites.

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0 0

0 0

0 0

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Trail Conditions OC 1 OC 2 0 Number of areas per trail that N/A show trail damage from recreation use. 0

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OC 3

Sampson Mountain Wilderness--Visitor use impact parameters as determined by the "Limits of Acceptable Change" (LAC) system for each Opportunity Class (OC) are as follows: Campsite Conditions Size of campsite area (square feet). Size of barren/core area (square feet). Campsite density per each mile of trail. Number of social trails leading from campsite. Number of fire rings/campsite. Number of new tree stumps/campsite. Number of newly damaged trees/ campsite. Number of trees with newly exposed roots/campsite. Number of campsites within sight of each other. 0 0 N/A 0 0 0 0 0 0 200 25 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 500 50 3 1 1 0 0 0 1

Group Conditions Group size (heartbeats). 4 8 14

Human Waste Conditions Occurrence of litter. Evidence of human fecal matter campsites. 0 0 0 0 0 0

Trail Conditions Number of areas per trail that show trail damage from recreation use. (N/A - Not Applicable). N/A 0 0

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Page IV-112. Add, under DESCRIPTION, the following: OPPORTUNITY CLASS DESCRIPTIONS OPPORTUNITY CLASS I Resource Conditions: Area is characterized as having no defined trails or previous campsites. There are no obvious exotic plant species evident. Past impacts of human use and vegetation management are not evident. Vegetation consisting of mature forest may be found in this area. Fish and wildlife populations are managed in their most natural state. There is minimal impact on fish and wildlife populations. Social Conditions: There is little or no chance of human contact in this area. There is an outstanding opportunity for solitude. Human activity tends more toward observation than recreation. Activities are usually out of sight and sound from other users. People's thoughts tend to be primarily focused on appreciation of the attributes of their physical location, i.e., being only one of a few to find this spot. There is essentially no evidence of past use of the area. Management Setting: Likelihood of contact between public and Forest Service personnel is low. Maintenance and compliance activities are scheduled on an "as needed" basis. Signing will conform to the Standards and Guidelines as found in the Cherokee Forest Land and Resource Management Plan under "Wilderness." OPPORTUNITY CLASS II Resource Conditions: Area is characterized by a limited number of low standard trails. Area tends to be a destination location. There are no obvious exotic plant species evident. Past impacts of human use and vegetation management are minimal. Fish and wildlife populations are managed in their most natural state. Social Conditions: The frequency of human contact is low. Encounters may occur on a trail but probably do not happen while off the trail or camped. There is a good chance for solitude for an extended period of time. There may be minimal evidence of previous camping activity with little or no evidence of large group camping. Management Setting: Likelihood of contact between the public and Forest Service personnel is low. Maintenance and compliance activities are scheduled on an "as needed" basis. Signing will conform to the Standards and Guidelines as found in the Cherokee Forest Land and Resource Management Plan under "Wilderness." OPPORTUNITY CLASS III Resource Conditions: Area is characterized by a defined trail system that is developed to accommodate a variety of users at a fairly high use rate. Trails are on stable ground, with visible improvements evident and intended to provide visitors with access to destination area. Past impacts of human use and vegetation management are evident. The opportunity to view wildlife in a undisturbed condition is low. Horse use if permitted, may be evident on certain trail segments. Social Conditions: This Opportunity Class is characterized as a place for entry into the wilderness with a portion of it within sight and sound of trailheads and parking lots. The frequency of human contact decreases the further users travel from the main trailheads or dispersion points. Those frequencies vary from a situation where encounters are common to a situation where encounters are quite infrequent. Well used

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campsites are spread out at key convenient locations. A variety of users and length of stay will take place, including day hikers, children, the elderly, the physically challenged and possible large groups. Prolonged solitude of more than one day or two may not be possible in this area. Management Setting: Likelihood of contact between the public and Forest Service personnel is moderate. Maintenance and compliance activities are regularly scheduled in these areas, resulting in little or no opportunity for litter accumulation and associated impacts. Signing will conform to the Standards and Guidelines as found in the Cherokee Forest Land and Resource Management Plan under "Wilderness." OPPORTUNITY CLASS - AT Resource Conditions: Area is a defined trail system that is limited to foot travel only, at a moderate use rate. Improvements may be evident along the trail. There are no obvious exotic plant species. Past impacts of human use and vegetation management are minimal. Fish and wildlife populations are managed in their most natural state. Social Conditions: With the exception of the Appalachian Trail shelter the frequency of human contact is low. Encounters may occur on a trail but probably do not happen while off the trail or camped. There is a good chance for solitude for an extended period of time. There may be minimal evidence of previous camping activity with little or no evidence of large group camping. Management Setting: Likelihood of contact between the public and Forest Service personnel is low. Maintenance and compliance activities are scheduled on an "as needed" basis. Signing will conform to the Standards and Guidelines as found in the Cherokee Forest Land and Resource Management Plan under "Wilderness."

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United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service CNF

Reply To: 2670 Date: September 20, 1993 Subject: Biological Evaluation for the Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) within the Little Frog, Bald River Gorge, Unaka Mountain, and Sampson Mountain Wildernesses --Amendment #23 to the Cherokee National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan To: Forest Supervisor In compliance with Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, I have conducted the following biological evaluation. Habitat for the following Endangered, Threatened , or Sensitive species exists in the project area, or past occurrence of one of these species in the project area has been documented: 1. Species Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), Common Raven (Corvus corax), Starnosed Mole (Condylura cristata parva), Ocoee Covert Snail (Mesodon archeri), White Heath Aster (Aster ericoides), White-leaved Sunflower (Helianthus glaucophyllus), Roan Mountain Rattlesnake Root (Prenanthes roanensis), Round-leaved Water Cress (Cardamine rotundifolia), Southern Lobelia (Lobelia amoena), Nevius' Stonecrop (Sedum nevii), Fraser's Sedge (Cymophyllus fraseri), Appalachian Gentian (Gentiana austromontana), Blue Ridge St. John's Wort (Hypericum mitchellianum), Fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium), Large Round-leaved Orchid (Platanthera orbiculata), and Goldeneye Saxifrage (Saxifraga careyana). 2. Program Establishing limits of acceptable change within wildernesses 3. Location The LAC standards and guidelines would be implemented for the following wildernesses: Little Frog, Bald River Gorge, Unaka Mountain, and Sampson Mountain. 4. Status of Species and Habitat in Project Area CLASS/FAMILY |Bird |Bird |Mammal ||Snail |Asteraceae |Asteraceae |Asteraceae |Brassicaceae |Campanulaceae| |Crassulaceae |Cyperaceae

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| SCIENTIFIC NAME | COMMON NAME |Falco peregrinus |Peregrine Falcon |Corvus corax |Common Raven |Condylura cristata parva |Starnosed Mole |Mesodon archeri |Ocoee Covert Snail |Aster ericoides |White Heath Aster |Helianthus glaucophyllus |White-leaved Sunflow |Prenanthes roanensis |Roan M.Rattlesnake-r |Cardamine rotundifolia |Round-leaved Water C Lobelia amoena |Southern Lobelia |Sedum nevii |Nevius' Stonecrop |Cymophyllus fraseri |Fraser's Sedge

|FED|ST| G | S | |E |E | 3 | H | | - |E | 5 | 2 | |C3C|S | 5 | 3 |C3C| | ? | 2 | | ~ |T | 5 | 1 | |C3C|E | 3 | 1 | |C3C|T | 3 | 2 | | - |T I 4 1 1 1 | ~ |S | ? | 1 | |C2 |E | 2 | l | |C3C|T | 4 | 3 |

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|Gentianaceae |Hypericaceae |Onagraceae |Orchidaceae |Saxifraqaceae

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|Gentiana austromontana |Appalachian Gentian |C3C|T | 3Q| 2| |Hypericum mitchellianum |Blue R. St. John's W |- |T | 3 | 3 | |Epilobium angustifolium |Fireweed | - |S | 5 | l | |Platanthera orbiculata |L. Round-leaved Orch | E | 5?| 2 | |Saxifraqa careyana |Goldeneye Saxifrage |C3C|S | 3 | 3 |

FED = Federal status, ST = State status, G = Heritage Program global ranking, S = Heritage Program state ranking 5. Proposed Action Incorporate recreational use parameters developed by the LAC process into the wilderness Standards and Guidelines of the Forest Land and Resource Management Plan. 6. Other Activities Normal recreational use of the wildernesses will continue. 7. Effect on Species and Habitat No direct impacts will occur to the TES species in these wildernesses. By limiting the size of groups and the amount of area that one group can occupy, there will be less disturbance to the habitats for these species. 8. Consultation with Others and References U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Handbook, "Endangered and Threatened Species of the Southeastern United States." Cherokee National Forest Sensitive Species List. 1993. Maps of locations of Endangered, Threatened, or Sensitive species in Tennessee. Tennessee Department of Conservation and Environment, Tennessee Heritage Program. Updated Oct. 1992. 9. Determination of Effect This proposed project will have no impact on the any of the Sensitive species that occur within the area of consideration. There will be no effect on any species federally listed as Threatened or Endangered and no effect on any species currently Proposed for federal listing. No other Threatened, Endangered, Proposed or Sensitive species or their habitats are known to be found within the project area. Formal consultation with the USDI, Fish and Wildlife Service is not required.

Jim Herrig Forest Biologist

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IMPLEMENTING MANAGEMENT

DIRECTION

"There is just one hope of repulsing the tyrannical ambition of civilization to conquer every inch of the whole earth. That hope is the organization of spirited people who will fight for the freedom and preservation of wilderness." Bob Marshall

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Implementing Management Direction

This unit will focus on the process each agency uses to get from program level direction to specific projects. It will focus on the analysis done to identify the difference between existing conditions and desired conditions, identify management actions needed to achieve desired conditions, set priorities and estimate budget and staff needs. It will also briefly describe NEPA requirements for project-level decisions.

Objectives

1. Participants can identify possible management actions that will help achieve desired conditions. 2. Participants can develop an implementation schedule identifying actions, priorities, responsibilities, and budget/staff needs. 3. Participants can identify the appropriate level of NEPA analysis needed for five selected management actions.

Key points

· Project level analysis provides the link between what we want to achieve and onthe-ground activities. · Project level analysis done in an integrated manner provides a blueprint for what needs to be done in the Wilderness to maintain or improve conditions. · To ensure implementation, there must be a link between management direction in plans and budgeting, performance appraisals, and annual work plans.

Activity

Creativity exercise (refer to pp. 13-15) to identify possible management actions.

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To ensure implementation, there must be a link between management direction in plans and budgeting, performance appraisals, and annual work plans. Planning generates a high expectation on the part of citizens that actions will occur on-theground in accordance with the new management direction. Wilderness stewardship entails commitment to the total job from planning to implementation to monitoring and evaluation. Planning is, in and of itself, an academic pursuit of little direct use unless the plan is implemented. The aim of planning is to develop a better road map to guide management. The acid test for any planning process is the degree to which it guides the behavior of the agency. Thus, the need for ownership is paramount for implementation. If a planning team wants its plan implemented, it should make sure that the people who are expected to implement it have a real sense of ownership before the implementation phase begins. All parts of the organization should feel that they have a role in ensuring the successful completion of the plan. A key challenge during implementation is keeping the planning team involved, yet not allowing them to take over the managing function. The planning team cannot and should not replace the decision-making structure of the agency. A key ingredient is the degree to which the agency integrates the plan into its everyday management decisions. A plan is being implemented when the initial response of a manager confronted by a problem is to look for guidance in the plan. Once wilderness management direction is in place, it needs to become the template against which wilderness decisions are made. Functional Aspects of Implementation Throughout the planning process, the planning team should be making periodic reports to employees. The completion of the plan should be highlighted with a ceremony that signals an important event in the management of your wilderness. Personnel meetings, special issues of newsletters, videotape presentations, and press conferences are just a few ways to alert and involve all employees. The idea is to celebrate the creation of a plan with broad ownership -- it must be viewed as the organization's plan, not the planning team's plan. Wilderness planning is an on-going process, thus every time a decision about your wilderness is made, the basis for the decision needs to be fully communicated to those invoved. In particular, managers need to discuss how the plan guided their decision. Role of the Line Officer The role of the line officer in plan implementation cannot be over-emphasized. The line officer must lead the implementation effort and must be totallycommitted to it. His or her actions have to indicate that there is a strong belief in what he/she is doing, based on the plan. This behavior aligns others behind the plan. Role of the Budget The most obvious way of identifying the degree to which your plan is being implemented is to look at the budget. Your plan should guide the development of outyear budgets and the distribution of current year budgets. In this way, the budget operationalizes the plan. The budget review process can be used as a constant measure of your unit's success in implementing the plan. If funding is allocated to the

Making the Link

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programs identified in the wilderness plan, you're well on your way to implementation. Accountability

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Wilderness management direction also needs to be embedded in the performancemanagement and performance-appraisal systems of your organization. People and units must be held accountable for the degree to which their efforts enhance or inhibit implementation of the plan. While there are various approaches that can be used to do this, each must reflect elements of the plan itself. Acknowledgements Each time a significant milestone is reached in implementation, a celebration is needed. Organizations that regularly attend to such accomplishments with verbal praise, pins, pot lucks, and bonuses are clearly demonstrating two things to their employees: 1. commitment to accomplishment of the plan, and 2. awareness that accomplishment requires everyone's involvement and hard work. Successful implementation of any plan is no small accomplishment. It requires the initial creativity and energy to develop the plan, courage and commitment to introduce it, and persistance and thoroughness to implement. Monitoring Once the plan has been developed and implementation is underway, you must continually monitor its environments, both internally and externally. The world continues to change and you must be alert to any changes that may threaten successful implementation. This is especially important during the early stages of implementation when people may believe that everything that needs to be done, has been done. Planning decisions are based on assumptions and it is critical to verify that these assumptions are holding true. Always be ready to adjust the plan if the assumptions change. Here are some questions you can ask yourself to see if you have the right environment to ensure implementation of wilderness management direction. * How does the wilderness program rank in terms of leadership's priorities for the unit? * Is the plan being used to develop out-year budgets and distribute current year budgets? * Who is directly responsible for implementing wilderness management direction and do they have the authority to make budget decisions, day-to-day resource decisions, and supervise field personnel? * Is accomplishment of management actions including monitoring built into performance appraisals? Are rewards and consequences in place for accomplishing wilderness actions including monitoring elements? * Do interested citizens and partner agencies know what the objectives are for wilderness conditions and do they have the opportunity to independently review how we are doing?

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* Is the plan being used to develop annual work plans and set job responsibilities for field personnel? * What are the perceptions/attitudes of field personnel who directly implement wilderness management actions? Do they understand and support what is to be achieved, how success is measured, and the actions to help make progress toward desired conditions? Do they have the training and tools needed to do the job? * Is monitoring information being used to refine and adjust the plan? * Do interested citizens and partner agencies know what is happening on-the-ground to implement wilderness management direction? Are opportunities for continued involvement available? * Does the organization regularly celebrate accomplishments in the wilderness management program and recognize people's efforts toward implementation of the plan?

Adapted from information provided by: Connie Myers - Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center Jeff Shryer - BLM Kemmerer, Wyoming

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Fish and Wildlife Service Process

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Fish and Wildlife Service Wilderness Plan Implementation Process

Objective

To explain principles and guidelines used to ensure appropriate active implementation of wilderness management plans (WMPs) for those areas administered by the Fish Wildlife Service (FWS).

Overview

(1) Management planning for FWS Wilderness areas is part of the Comprehensive Management Planning process for field stations as required by the Service Manual. In Alaska this chapter applies only to Congressionally designated Wilderness areas per Section 1317 (c) of the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA). Under this Act Comprehensive Conservation Plans were prepared which included wilderness management. FWS Wilderness areas may be unique from other areas in the National Wilderness Preservation System because they are usually part of another system--the National Wildlife Refuge System--and are thus managed within certain restraints of that system. (2) Responsibilities for developing and implementing WMPs lie primarily with the project leader having immediate supervision of the field station of which the designated Wilderness is a part. (3) At this time FWS has no mechanism for obtaining special funding for developing or implementing WMPs other than through regular operation/maintenance (O&M) budget processes for the field station. (4) WMP implementation priorities for FWS include top priority for those few Wilderness areas without approved WMPs of any kind followed closely by those areas having significant public use.

Instructional materials and activities

I. Mechanisms/Responsibilities for WMPs and Implementation FWS Wilderness area management guidance is formally contained in the Refuge Manual (6 RM8) and will soon be expanded/clarified in the Service Manual (610 FW 1-5), currently in the "late draft" stage. Specific wilderness management direction is developed as part of the Comprehensive Management Planning (CMP) process required by 602 FW 1, also currently being drafted. Management direction for each designated Wilderness must be stated in a WMP, either as an independent operational plan or as part of a more comprehensive planning document (as per 602 FW 2, Management Planning). In Alaska this discussion applies only to Congressionally designated Wilderness per Section 13117 (c) of ANILCA. Under this act Comprehensive Conservation Plans have been prepared and several differences in wilderness management do exist because of public safety considerations as well as other provisions of ANILCA. Ultimate responsibility for preparing WMPs and implementing provisions therein rests with the field project leader having immediate supervision of the Wilderness. The project leader may be assisted by a designated Regional Wilderness Coordinator who serves as a liaison between the Washington Office and the field regarding policy questions/clarifications.

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Presently the FWS has no mechanism established for obtaining special funding for developing or implementing WMPs other than through regular O&M funding for the field station of which the designated wilderness area is a part. Indeed every Wilderness established within a FWS land system is managed supplemental to the purposes of the field station. All laws/directives governing the administration of FWS land remain intact; additionally, Congress has superimposed constraints on the manner those lands designated as Wilderness can be managed to meet field station objectives. II. WMP Implementation Priorities Top priority will be for those few Wilderness areas without approved WMPs of any kind. Closely following are those Wilderness areas which receive significant public use, especially if the type and amount of public use has an obvious potential to degrade habitat and wilderness characteristics. Priority will also be given to those areas currently having WMPs which were developed without proper public participation and/or other National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) considerations. III. WMP Implementation Implementation involves actualizations of the management actions identified in the WMP. It should follow an environmental analysis, formal decision notice, and signature by the Regional Director (or authorized delegated representative). When the completed WMP is approved (signed) at the Regional level, the project leader should immediately and fully integrate plan implementation steps into annual station action/operational plans including incorporation of funding/staffing needs in the Refuge Operation Needs System (RONS). Emphasis should be on action items such as research and system monitoring components--without monitoring of wilderness conditions the WMP represents only a PC/paperwork "time eater." Project leaders should be innovative in seeking resources for on-the-ground implementation including selective use of volunteers, cost sharing, partnerships, etc.

References

Refuge Manual: 6 RM 8 Service Manual (in draft): 602 FW 1, 602 FW 2, 602 FW 1-5 Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, especially Sections 1316 (a) and (b) and 1317 (c) Stankey, George H.; Cole, David N.; Lucas, Robert C.; Petersen, Margaret E.; Frissel, Sidney S. 1985. The Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) system for wilderness planning. Gen.Tech. Rep. INT-176. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 37 p.

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Forest Service Process

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Forest Service Process for Implementing Wilderness Management Direction

Planning triangle

The Forest Service offers the Forest Plan Implementation course (1900-01) which teaches the process used to identify possible management actions and complete the appropriate level of NEPA analysis. This course is widely available, thus this unit will only provide an overview. Like the triangle used to develop programmatic management direction and amend the Forest Plan, implementing Forest Plan direction uses a similar triangle. The left leg of the triangle is the analysis phase used to identify possible management actions and the right leg is the NEPA documentation for specific actions. The more thought put into the analysis side, the more likely the possible management actions will be effective at moving conditions toward desired conditions.

Analysis documents

The purpose of the analysis is to identify possible actions to achieve desired conditions for Wilderness. By doing this, managers are able to display a logical sequence of actions to make progress toward achieving desired conditions and can present a comprehensive, integrated picture of the total management job within Wilderness. The analysis also helps identify priorities so work can be focused on actions that will help achieve desired conditions. The list of actions is very valuable to track and report accomplishments. The Implementation Schedule that accompanies the analysis identifies budget and staff needs and can be an effective tool for program planning and developing out-year budgets to obtain the funds necessary to implement actions. The results of the analysis are documented in Operational Plans (refer to 5/27/92 letter from Overbay) with an accompanying Wilderness Implementation Schedule. (Note: currently, you may find Operational Plans called Implementation Plans or Action Plans). These documents are signed by line officers but they are NOT NEPA documents since they only identify POSSIBLE management actions and they are NOT part of Forest Plans. These documents contain the NEPA analysis to make project-level decisions about how a particular management action will be done.

Project documents

Analysis side of the triangle (NFMA)

Implementation

Begin with the Forest Plan. The purpose of the analysis is to develop projects (management actions) that will help achieve desired conditions for Wilderness identified in the Forest Plan. Unlike developing programmatic direction, the analysis at the project level is driven by the desired conditions in the Forest Plan, not issues. The analysis to develop possible management actions must be interdisciplinary in scope. Some regions use an Integrated Resource Analysis framework to accomplish the analysis to implement Forest Plan direction. The public should be involved throughout the analysis. If citizens understand where the "problems" are (i.e. gaps between existing and desired conditions) and can help brainstorm possible management actions, they will be more likely to support projects on-the-ground. Citizens can provide valuable information about existing conditions, help identify why problems are occurring, suggest possible management actions, identify priorities, and offer ideas for project implementation.

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1. Identify Area of Interest. The analysis can be done for the entire Wilderness, a portion of the Wilderness, or on a watershed basis. A particular area may be chosen because monitoring information reveals that desired conditions are not being met or it is an area citizens are especially concerned about. 2. Determine desired conditions (including objectives) for each zone within the area of interest. This information is obtained from the Forest Plan (programmatic direction developed for Wilderness). The analysis to implement Forest Plan direction provides an opportunity to validate and refine programmatic direction if necessary. Any identified changes in programmatic direction would then be worked back into the Forest Plan through the amendment process. 3. Describe existing conditions. Existing conditions should be described so they can be easily compared to desired conditions and standards. Review the "affected environment" section of the NEPA document that accompanied development of programmatic direction to find information that is already summarized. 4. Identify gaps between existing and desired conditions. These gaps are called "Opportunities" or objectives. Examples might be: Desired Condition: Campsites show little perceptible evidence of past human use. Vegetation is lost only around the fire ring or center of activity (Frissell Condition Class 2). Existing Condition: 75 campsites were inventoried. Of these, 30 were in condition class 1, 30 were in condition class 2, 10 were in condition class 3, and 5 were in condition class 4. Opportunity/Objective: Improve campsite conditions at 15 sites. Desired Condition: The fire regime (number, size, and intensity) is similar to what would be expected if the natural process operated freely. Less than 5% of natural ignitions are suppressed. Existing Condition: Currently, all fires are being suppressed. While the number of fires is similar to what would be expected under a natural fire regime, the size and intensity of fires is less than what would be expected. Opportunity/Objective: Allow 5% of the natural ignitions to burn that are not likely to threaten property or resource values outside Wilderness. 5. Identify possible management actions to improve conditions where there is a "gap," and to maintain conditions where there is not a "gap". To develop the most effective management actions, it is important to identify why desired conditions are not being met (i.e. cause of the problem). Are campsite problems due primarily to visitor behavior (e.g. improper recreational stock practices), site location, type of use, timing of use, or use levels? Are all fires being suppressed due to the lack of an approved fire plan, line officer discomfort with risk, lack of qualified fire personnel to manage prescribed fire, or lack of public acceptance/understanding of natural fire? A valuable reference to help identify possible actions to improve conditions related to recreational impacts is "Managing Wilderness recreation use: Common problems and potential solutions" (Cole, Petersen, Lucas 1987). 6. Check Forest Plan consistency. Make sure your possible actions will not violate standards in the Forest Plan and policy directives in the Forest Service Manual (National Wilderness Policy--section 2320). 7. Prepare the Wilderness Implementation Schedule. List the possible actions along with priorities for the next 5 years, responsibilities, and budget/staff needs.

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NEPA Side of Triangle

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This is similar to the NEPA analysis described in units 10-12, however the analysis is conducted at the site-specific level (answering the question of HOW a particular action will be implemented to help achieve desired conditions). 1. Identify the proposed action and purpose and need. The proposed action is one of the possible actions identified during the analysis that you want to implement. The purpose and need (why is the action needed) comes from the gap between existing and desired conditions. 2. Scope the proposed action. Notify the public what the proposed actions are and ask them to identify the site-specific issues associated with these actions. 3. Develop alternatives. Identify other possible ways to meet the purpose and need that would respond to the issues raised during scoping. 4. Describe the environmental effects of implementing the various alternatives. 5. Check consistency with NFMA requirements. 6. Determine significance and document the decision. Significance is determined in terms of environmental effects. The decision is documented in a categorical exclusion, environmental assessment, or environmental impact statements. 7. Notify the public of the decision and implement. Continue monitoring and evaluation to assess whether management actions are making progress toward desired conditions. Scoping is required on all proposed actions, however some types of actions may not require any NEPA documentation. Actions that typically do not require documentation include: out-year budgeting, monitoring/inventory activities, educational programs, trailhead signing, law enforcement activities, routine trail maintenance, approving incidental outfitted use. Actions that typically require a project file and decision memo (categorical exclusion) include reconstructing a trail or approving a one-time group event. Actions such as issuing a special use permit for outfitting, instituting a permit system, restoring a historic site, or updating an allotment usually require documentation in an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement.

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Pro jec t

Proposed Action/ Purpose & Need Scoping Issue Identification Alternatives

ect rot P to Forest Plan lan P Consistency

Possible Management Practices Opportunities

Desired Conditions/

Public Participation

Effects NFMA Findings Significance Decision

Existing Conditions

Location Adjustment Evaluation Notification Monitoring Implementation

FOREST PLAN IMPLEMENTATION

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Feedback

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Exercise...

CREATIVITY

Your Name_________________________________________________________ Problem ___________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Most outrageous solution _____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Most practical solution _______________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Most economical solution _____________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Most acceptable solution for all involved _________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________

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Plan to Project Steps

Analysis driven by desired conditions in Plan, not issues

· Begin with your Forest Plan--the purpose is to implement the Plan in an identified area · Locate an area · Determine desired conditions based on Forest Plan management direction · Describe existing conditions on the ground · Identify gaps between existing conditions and desired conditions · Identify possible management actions to improve conditions where there is a "gap," and to maintain conditions where there isnot a "gap"

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Wilderness Implementation Schedule

Definition · Schedule of possible actions (what needs to be done) to meet direction in the Forest Plan · 3-5 year time frame but is dynamic document that can be updated as needed · Includes possible actions, costs, timing, priorities, and responsibilities · Is part of the Plan to Project analysis · Is not a NEPA document, nor is it part of the Forest Plan · It is signed by the appropriate line officer · It is developed using an interdisciplinary approach and public involvement Purpose: · Present a comprehensive, integrated picture of the total management job within Wilderness · Display a logical sequence of actions to make progress toward achieving desired conditions · Identify budget and staff needs that can be used in out-year budget

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Example of Plan to Project Analysis Teton Wilderness

Concerns

Fisheries

1. There are few natural fisheries in the Teton Wilderness. 2. Stocking should be encouraged where needed to maintain a quality fishing experience. 3. People have become accustomed to having fish in most lakes and like it. Fishing is a main reason many people visit the Teton Wilderness (especially, Yellowstone Meadows). 4. Helicopters are the most efficient way to plant fish but they are an impact on Wilderness users. 5. Appropriateness of stocking fish in Wilderness. If we stop stocking, use will increase where fish are present. Stocking is needed to disperse use. 6. Management options include restricting all fishing. Don't keep putting off hard decisions by stocking to maintain the status quo. 7. Focus on desired future conditions and management strategies. For "wild" management in most pristine areas, only restock rarely. Change fish management concepts to fit with DFC's (i.e. Wild in DFC 6A, Unique Species in 6B, Basic Yield in 6C, etc.) 8. Need to work with Cody and Jackson WGFD fisheries biologists to revise the fish stocking plan for the Teton Wilderness. 9. Education is the key: let people know about non-wilderness fishing areas; many Wilderness lakes didn't have fish historically; fish less-pristine areas of the Wilderness 10. Look for opportunities to reduce stocking, i.e. achieve desired stocking levels by reducing fishing pressure. 11. Fishing is an important part of the experience. Don't want to lose fishing opportunities. 12. Fishing is causing the overuse of Yellowstone Meadows campsites and impacts on the trail systems, especially as people try to get in early each summer before the trails have dried out. A later opening date for fishing season would help reduce impacts, and would encourage more grizzly bear use of spawning creeks. 13. Designating an area as catch-and-release might just attract more people.

Desired Future Condition Native fish are maintained, with special emphasis on protection of the sensitive finespotted Snake River cutthroat and its habitat. Species which were introduced due to stocking programs prior to designation and have become established (i.e. reproducing and surviving) may be considered "naturalized." Fish population numbers and

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distribution may fluctuate from year to year due to natural variability. Fishing is allowed under Wyoming Game and Fish regulations. Visitors find that they have to work harder to access areas but are rewarded by being able to catch wild fish in a remote setting with few people around.

Management Standards Management of fish habitat is not permitted. Reintroduction of native fish is permitted if the species was eliminated due to past human influence. Habitat occupied by existing and reintroduced populations of Snake River cutthroat trout and the Yellowstone cutthroat trout will be managed to protect species purity. Management activities will be guided by: Interagency Policy and Guidelines for Fish and Wildlife Management in National Forest and BLM Wilderness. Condition Standard: Fish habitat conditions reflect the diversity that results from natural disturbances; human activities such as recreation, livestock grazing, and fire suppression interfere with natural conditions and processes only to the extent necessary to meet legal requirements. At least 90% of the natural stream bank stability of streams (particularly streams supporting sensitive or trout species) is maintained. Stream bank vegetation is maintained to 90% of its potential natural condition. Stream bank stability, vegetation, and fish numbers and biomass is managed by stream type.

Existing Condition Fishing is one of the most popular activities within the Teton Wilderness. Historically, there were not many fish within the Wilderness, but many lakes were stocked as early as the mid 1930s by outfitters and other users of the Primitive Area. Since 1954, the Wyoming Game and Fish Department has been stocking Wilderness lakes by helicopter. WGFD currently stocks 20 lakes in odd-numbered years. All of these lakes are in zone 6A or 6B. Thirteen lakes have been stocked in the recent past but are not currently stocked. Sixteen lakes have fisheries but have not been stocked within recent memory. Thirteen lakes are considered `fishless' and there are no records of stocking for them. The lakes are stocked to meet various management goals: Basic Yield (objective is to provide exploitable fisheries); Wild (objective is self-sustaining fishery); Unique Species (objective is to maintain or expand unique species such as the Snake River Cutthroat Trout); and Trophy (objective is to provide exceptionally large fish). Nonnative species (Golden Trout and Brook Trout) are stocked to provide more variety for anglers. There is a two-fish limit within the Teton Wilderness (applies to any Wilderness within the Snake River Watershed).

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Management Objectives

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1. Fishing opportunities remain available to visitors to the Teton Wilderness where possible without damaging Wilderness values. 2. Impacts to riparian habitat, trails, campsites, and upland meadows during earlyseason fishing trips, are reduced or remain at an acceptable level. 3. Indigenous cutthroat trout populations are managed to protect species purity. 4. Fish stocking is minimized.

Actions A. Revise fish management plan for the Teton Wilderness, in conjunction with the Wyoming Game and Fish Department. · Develop fish management strategies which are consistent with the Wilderness Act and which reflect the management emphasis for 6A, 6B, 6C and 6D zones. · No lakes will be stocked which are not currently being stocked, or which are fishless. · Determine if stocked fish are surviving and reproducing; determine the effects of fish stocking on aquatic habitat conditions. · Emphasize stocking native species. · Use fishing seasons and stocking levels to reduce human impacts on other resources, as a last resort. B. Learn more about indigenous cutthroat trout populations and how to protect their habitat (potential joint study with Yellowstone National Park). WGFD strongly supports this proposal and would like to be involved in future studies. · Where introduced trout species are present along with native trout, management decisions will benefit native cutthroat even if this is to the detriment of the introduced species. C. Provide information and education about fisheries, including an historical perspective, and promote user responsibility. · Educate wilderness users to not expect fish in every lake. Provide them fishing opportunities in less-pristine or non-Wilderness regions. · Develop appreciation for native fish species, and an understanding that many Wilderness lakes were not good fisheries historically. D. Develop plan to deal with early-season impacts on Yellowstone Meadows and Atlantic Creek associated with fishing. · Pursue solutions to protect trails, campsites and forage from heavy early season use. · Have a Wilderness Ranger at Yellowstone Meadows early each summer to attempt to reduce impacts through personal contacts with visitors. · Encourage biologists from the Cody WGFD to visit Yellowstone Meadows early

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each summer to observe resource impacts. · Work with WGFD to build support for a later fishing season (July 1 or 15) so that trails and campsites are dried out and forage is ready. · Allow grizzly bears uninterrupted feeding on fish during the early summer.

Concerns

Grazing

1. Utilization standards should apply only during the growing season (summer). Fall grazing is different because you aren't concerned about utilization but about resource damage (trampling of root crowns). 2. Effects of grazing and human activities (trails, campsites, hitch areas) on native vegetation. People are causing overgrazing and tree damage or death by poor stockhandling techniques. 3. How do you know what is impacting meadow condition? Are impacts caused by humans or cattle, or is the condition naturally poor? 4. Need to establish more baseline information about meadow condition, particularly the ones that are in condition class 4 or 5. 5. What is acceptable condition? Is class 3? class 2? 6. If you start closing meadows in condition class 3 or 4, you will push more use in meadows which are in good condition and worsen them. 7. Is it better to concentrate impacts or to spread them out? 8. Don't get into complicated rehabilitation, just close meadows and let nature take her course. 9. Need to resolve conflicts in favor of grizzly bears. Don't reissue Lava Creek allotment because of potential conflicts with bears. 10. Need to recognize and manage use in the Teton Wilderness as a horse's wilderness.

Desired Future Condition In 6A areas, cattle and domestic sheep grazing is not permitted. Pack and saddle stock grazing is permitted to the extent that it does not impact the composition of the native plant community. The vegetation is in or trending towards natural potential condition except where natural disturbances result in lower seral stages.

Objectives Grazing of recreational stock will be at least 100 feet from lakes. The picketing and tethering of recreational stock overnight must be at least 200 feet from lakes, streams, and other occupied camps. The maximum utilization level of total forage is 28% during the growing season

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(equals maximum of 50% utilization on key forage species). (Note: growing season ends when predominant vegetation has cured or dried out). In 6B-6D areas, range is managed to maintain and enhance existing range and watershed conditions while providing forage for cattle or sheep, recreational stock and wildlife. A mosaic of different seral stages exist due to differences in the natural potential of sites, natural disturbances and livestock grazing. Visitors understand why grazing is permitted and know where and when to expect encountering livestock. Wildlife movement is not impeded by range structures and no wildlife displacement occurs in crucial areas.

Standards All livestock grazing will be managed under the direction of an allotment management plan. Allotment management plans will include site-specific proper use standards (considering forage utilization, ground cover, plant vigor, soil disturbance, stream bank stability, and overall ecological status), findings from big game winter range evaluations, and the amount and kind of streamside vegetation needed to maintain or improve riparian areas.

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Example: Wilderness Implementation Schedule

RUBY MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS EAST HUMBOLDT WILDERNESS

Prepared by Amy K. Ballard

6/12/92

Recommended by Mort E. Lewis 6/16/92 District Ranger Ruby Mountains Ranger District Approved by John Inman 6/29/92 Forest Supervisor Humboldt National Forest

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Table of Contents

Ruby Mountains Wilderness East Humboldt Wilderness

1 2 3 4-5 6 7-8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Management Objectives Summary of Costs Planning Range Education, Information Recreation Cultural Resources Soil, Watershed, Air Quality Wildlife and Fisheries Special Uses Minerals Fire Law Enforcement, Public Safety, Search and Rescue Attachment #1 Wilderness Planning Revision

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Wilderness Implementation Schedule

Humboldt National Forest Management Objectives Protection of the wilderness resource. Provide the public with 454,000 acres of high-quality wilderness recreation opportunities. Revise the wilderness portions of the Forest Plan using the LAC process and public involvement in conjunction with the revision of the Forest Plan Specialists from all disciplines will take an active role in wilderness management. Provide wilderness education, awareness and information internally and to the public. Manage wilderness users and resources within wilderness to retain the wilderness character. Coordinate with and involve other agencies in management of wilderness.

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Wilderness Implementation Schedule Summary of Costs 1992-1996

Ruby Mountains Ranger District (4/92)

Resource Planning NFWM Range NFWM Education, $4,000Information NFWM Recreation NFWM

1992 $11,000 $ 4,100 (9,800) $5,200 ($1,600) $10,900

1993 $12,100 $ 4,700 (10,000) $4,700 ($1,600) $12,400

1994 $12,100 $ 4,500 (10,000) $3,600 ($800) $10,300

1995 $12,200 $ 4,800 (10,400) $3,800 ($1,400) $3,800

1996 $12,300 $5,000 (10,400) ($1,400) $4,000

Cultural Resources NFCR Soil, Watershed, Air Quality Wildlife and Fisheries NFWL/NFAF Special Uses NF Generals NFMG NFFP

$1,700 ($4,100) $3,000 ($2,000) $3,700 ($900)

$3,200 ($4,100) $4,000 ($2,200) $3,000 ($900)

$2,400 ($4,100) $4,300 ($2,200) $3,200 ($1,000)

$2,500 ($3,700) $3,500 ($2,200) $3,200 ($1,000)

$3,600 ($3,700) $3,300 ($2,200) $3,200 ($1,000)

$2,300 $0 $600 ($1,800)

$2,000 $0 $600 ($1,800) $5,000 $0

$1,900 $0 $700 ($2,000) $6,300 ($1,200)

$2,000 $0 $700 ($2,100) $5,200 $0

$2,00 $0Fire $800 ($2,100) $6,100 ($1,200)

Law Enforcement Public Safety, Search and Rescue

$5,500 ($1,200)

TOTAL1 TOTAL2

$48,000 ($21,400)

$51,700 ($20,600)

$49,500 ($21,300)

$48,800 ($20,800)

$51,900 ($22,000)

Total 1 = District wilderness resource costs Total2 = Other District and S.O. support

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WORKSHEET IMPLEMENTING PLAN DIRECTION

Select one of your desired conditions (including objectives) that you know is not currently being met. Identify what the existing condition is. Identify the "gap" between existing and desired conditions. Then, try to list several possible projects that might fix the problem. List one of your desired conditions along with its objectives.

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What is the existing condition?

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What is the gap between the existing and desired conditions?

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List at least 5 projects you could do to close the gap.

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For each project listed, what level of NEPA documentation is probably needed? Categorical exclusion without documentation; Categorical exclusion with project file and decision memo; Environmental Assessment with Decision Notice; Environmental Impact Statement with Record of Decision

_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________

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National Park Service Process

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Wilderness Management Plan Implementation­National Park Service

Objectives

The students will understand that the National Park Service has no formalized process for Wilderness Management Plan implementation. The students will understand that Olympic National Park utilizes an annual Wilderness Management Plan implementation cycle that includes four steps. The students will have a basic understanding of each of the four implementation steps.

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Implementing Management Direction

Implementing steps 1- 8 of the Limits of Acceptable Change process produces the basic elements necessary for development of a National Park Service Wilderness Management Plan. These steps establish the desired conditions for the wilderness. The final step of the Limits of Acceptable Change process, Step 9, moves on from development of the Plan to its implementation. The purpose of this step is to implement the Wilderness Management Plan so that the desired conditions can be achieved. Implementation involves an on-going comparison of desired conditions with present conditions through monitoring, and development and implementation of proposed actions to bring conditions back to acceptable levels. The National Park Service has no formalized process for implementation of Wilderness Management Plans. What follows is an example of a process for Plan implementation that was developed for Olympic National Park, utilizing elements of the processes developed for North Cascades National Park Service Complex's and Mount Rainier National Park.

Overview

Case Example

Wilderness plan implementation cycle

Olympic National Park has developed a four stage annual cycle to implement the Wilderness Management Plan: 1) Monitoring of wilderness resource and visitor experience conditions, 2) Production of a State of the Wilderness Report, 3) Development of a Wilderness Action Plan, and 4) Implementation of the Wilderness Action Plan. Descriptions of each of the components of these steps and how each fits into the Wilderness Management Plan implementation cycle are stated below. The enclosed diagram outlines the Implementation Cycle. Step 1--Monitor Wilderness Conditions: The wilderness monitoring program is the method by which human-induced change affecting natural resources, cultural resources, or the visitor's wilderness experience is documented. Monitoring of wilderness conditions is the basis for both development and implementation of the Wilderness Management Plan. In Step 3 of the Limits of Acceptable Change process, indicators were selected that would most accurately measure resource and visitor experience conditions. Indicators were monitored to assess the condition of wilderness resources, and facilities inventoried. From this data, the Plan's standards and guidelines were derived. Examination of the existing conditions were used to help determine desired conditions for alternative Opportunity Class and Trail Class allocations. An on-going part of Plan implementation is monitoring of resource, visitor experience and managerial conditions to determine if acceptable limits of desired resource and visitor experience conditions have been exceeded. If established standards have been exceeded, management actions are taken to bring conditions back within the acceptable levels. The selection of management actions is based in large part on what monitoring has revealed to be the extent and nature of the impacts. Monitoring is continued to determine if the selected management actions have been effective. In addition, the results of monitoring may reveal where modifications in Wilderness Management Plan standards are necessary. Monitoring is also be carried out to determine the nature, magnitude and sources of any impacts to wilderness from activities conducted outside wilderness, as per the National Park Service Management Policies' direction.

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A Wilderness Handbook which serves as an Appendix to the Plan will include a description of the methodology for the monitoring program and will list assignments of monitoring responsibilities. Step 2--Compile State of the Wilderness Report: A State of the Wilderness Report (SOWR) will be compiled annually summarizing: 1) Significant activities, 2) Status of resource and visitor experience conditions and 3) An updated inventory of wilderness facilities. Significant activities for listing will include such items as location, level and type of wilderness use; trail crew and ranger work accomplished; management actions taken; revegetation/restoration projects; wilderness-related interpretation and education; research and monitoring completed; aircraft use and overflight summary; minimum tool use summary; and concession activities. Wilderness staffing levels and locations, volunteer hours and the type of work done will be listed; all wilderness management related costs will be reported. A summary of any work goals that were not achieved and the reasons for incompletion will also be given. An analysis of wilderness monitoring data will summarize the status of resource and visitor experience conditions. Present conditions, as ascertained from monitoring data, will be compared to the standards. The resource and visitor experience conditions that have been exceeded and their locations will be listed along with the probable causes of the discrepancies. Employee summaries of new impacts observed and areas of concern for potential impacts will also be included. Visitor issues and concerns for the year will be compiled. The master wilderness facility inventory will be updated indicating any changes to signs, toilets, ranger stations, cache boxes, shelters, historic structures, trails and trail facilities, campsites and related facilities, radio repeaters, etc. A Park Seasonal Wilderness Seminar will be scheduled at the end of the summer season to provide the opportunity for seasonal employees to present and discuss wilderness issues, provide verbal summaries of significant activities and work accomplished, and to propose wilderness management changes. Wilderness rangers, trail crew, resource management crew and interpreters will submit summaries of their activities to their supervisors using the standardized report format that will be laid out in the Wilderness Handbook. Concessionaires operating in wilderness will provide a summary of activities. Supervisors including District Rangers, Trails Foremen, District Naturalists, Natural and Cultural Resource Specialists, Aviation Manager and Concession Specialist will review, compile and submit the summaries to the Park's Wilderness Coordinator for preparation of the State of the Wilderness Report, that will then be submitted to the Superintendent and Management Team. Step 3--Develop Annual Wilderness Action Plan: The Wilderness Action Plan (WAP) is a blueprint for Wilderness Management Plan implementation over a 1­3 year period. Each year the wilderness management goals for the next three years are defined, updated and actions which are necessary for meeting the Wilderness Management Plan objectives are selected and included in the Action Plan. Components of the Action Plan are 1) Annual goals, 2) Actions to be taken, 3) Priority level for each action, 4) Responsible parties, and 5) Estimated labor and costs required to carry out each action item. The Wilderness Action Plan is dated annually with input from all Park divisions.

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Information in the State of the Wilderness Report reveals where conditions have exceeded the acceptable standards. The minimum action which will successfully bring these conditions back to acceptable levels is selected from the Wilderness Management Plan's list of approved Management Actions. Comprehensive actions which address the array of unacceptable conditions in an area are developed, rather than each exceeded standard being addressed in isolation. The tasks and projects are then prioritized. Staffing and funding requirements to accomplish the actions are determined. The personnel responsible for carrying out the actions are identified and their training needs determined. Changes proposed for the Wilderness Management Plan are also included, such as modification or additions to standards and guidelines, new management actions or changes in Opportunity Class allocations. The type and extent of compliance, public notification/involvement and interagency coordination is determined and the necessary Compendium changes are identified. Subdistrict Rangers, Trail Crew Leaders, District Naturalists and Natural and Cultural Resource Specialists solicit input from their staffs and prepare proposals to be included in the annual WAP. Proposals are reviewed by supervisors, then presented at an annual wilderness meeting where 1-3 year wilderness management goals to meet Wilderness Management Plan objectives are developed. Proposed action items to achieve those goals, priorities and compliance considerations are discussed. A draft Wilderness Action Plan is then prepared based on information from this meeting. The draft Wilderness Action Plan is then brought before the Park's Compliance Committee and Management Team for review. Components of the draft Wilderness Action Plan are identified for inclusion in the appropriate Division's annual goals. Division/Branch Chiefs then determine which wilderness actions will be included in their Division goals. Wilderness actions are prioritized with other Park goals providing the mechanism for wilderness actions to be included in park wide priority setting. Final prioritization and approval of wilderness actions is made by the Superintendent. Those actions selected as Park priorities for the year are listed in the Park's annual work plan and budget, in the annual Division goals and in individual work plans. Performance standards are updated to reflect the employee's ability to meet current Wilderness Action Plan goals. The Wilderness Action Plan is revised to reflect those wilderness management action items that have been selected as Park goals for the year. Step 4--Implement Wilderness Action Plan. The Wilderness Action Plan is implemented following guidelines and standards found in the Wilderness Management Plan and in the Wilderness Handbook, an Appendix to the Plan. The Handbook includes more specific management facility standards and techniques than are appropriate for placement in the Plan. Standards and techniques such as toilet designs, sign standards, trail maintenance techniques, monitoring protocols are included in the Wilderness Handbook.

Conclusion

The four stage implementation cycle begins again with Step 1, monitoring. Monitoring following implementation of the Wilderness Action Plan determines if the selected management actions were effective in restoring unacceptable conditions. Implementing the four stage cycle (monitoring of wilderness conditions, compilation of a State of the Wilderness Report, development of an annual Wilderness Action Plan

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and implementation of the Wilderness Action Plan) ensures that the Wilderness Management Plan's goals and objectives continue to be met.

Suggested activities

1. Have the students divide into groups and outline what an effective monitoring program would include. 2. Have the students prepare a short State of the Wilderness Report for "Big Mountains and Little Lake National Park." 3. Have the students prepare a "Wilderness Action Plan" for "Big Mountains and Little Lake National Park."

Visual Aids Develop an overhead from the enclosed diagram and use it to explain each of the four steps of the implementation cycle.

Discussion Questions What are the obstacles in carrying out the Implementation Cycle? What improvements could be made to the Implementation Cycle? How can the park's State of the Wilderness Report be modified so that it may be integrated into the Annual Wilderness Report to Congress? What are alternative processes for the integration of Wilderness Management Plan implementation and park goal setting?

References Mount Rainier National Park Wilderness Management Plan North Cascades National Park Service Complex Wilderness Management Plan, Olympic National Park Wilderness Management Plan, Visitor Experience and Resource Protection Process (VERP).

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APPENDICIES

"Simplicity in all things is the secret of the wilderness and one of its most valuable lessons. It is what we leave behind that is important. I think the matter of simplicity goes further than just food, equipment, and unnecessary gadgets; it goes into the matter of thoughts and objectives as well. When in the wilds, we must not carry our problems with us or the joy is lost." Sigurd Olson

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APPENDIX A References

Anderson, JE. 1991. A conceptual framework for evaluating and quantifying naturalness. Conservation Biology 5(3):347-352. Ashor, JL. 1986. Criteria and guidelines for using the transactive planning approach in wilderness management planning. pp 550-552 IN Proceedings--National Wilderness Research Conference: Current research. USDA For. Ser. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-212. Ashor, JL, SF McCool, and GL Stokes. 1986. Improving Wilderness planning efforts: application of the transactive planning approach. pp 424-431 IN Proceedings-- National Wilderness Research Conference: Current Research. USDA For. Ser. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-212 Bleiker, H. and A. Bleiker. 1990. Citizen participation handbook. Sixth edition. Institute for Participatory Management and Planning. Monterey, CA Brunson, MW. 1993. Socially acceptable forestry: what does it imply for ecosystem management? Western Journal of Applied Forestry 8(4): 116-119. Center for Conflict Resolution. 1978. A manual for group facilitators. Madison, WI Center for Conflict Resolution. 1981. A Handbook for Consensus Decision Making: Building United Judgment. Madison, WI. CEQ. 1981. Forty most asked questions concerning CEQ's national environmental policy act regulations. Federal Register 46(55):18026-18038. Cole, DN, ME Peterson, and RC Lucas. 1987. Managing wilderness recreation use: common problems and potential solutions. USDA For. Ser. Gen Tech Rep. INT-230. Cortner, HJ. and MA Shannon. 1993. Embedding public participation in its political context. Jour. For. 91(7):14-16. Davis, G.D. 1989. Preservation of Natural Diversity: The role of ecosystem representation within Wilderness. pp 76-82. IN Wilderness Benchmark 1988: Proceedings of the National Wilderness Colloquium. USDA For. Ser. Gen. Tech. Rep. SE-51. Donnelly, MP, JJ Vaske, and B. Shelby. 1992. Measuring backcountry standards in visitor surveys. pp 38-51. IN Defining Wilderness Quality: the role of standards in Wilderness management - a workshop proceedings. USDA For. Ser. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-305 Evenden, A., P. Landres, and A. Watson. 1993. The role of wilderness/natural areas in ecosystem management. Unpublished paper. Fisher, R. and W. Ury. 1981. Getting to Yes. Penguin Books. New York. Flader, SL and JB Callicott (eds). 1991. Standards of Conservation. pp 82-86 IN The River of the Mother of God and other essays by Aldo Leopold. University of Wisconsin Press. Madison, WI. Force, JE and WJ McLaughlin. 1981. Alternate processes for public input. American Planning Association Journal.

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Appendices

Fox, DG, JC Bernabo, B. Hood. 1987. Guidelines for measuring the physical, chemical, and biological condition of Wilderness ecosystems. USDA For. Ser. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-146. Franklin, JF and E. Bloedel. 1990. Wilderness Ecosystems. pp 242-261 IN JC Hendee, GH Stankey, and RC Lucas. Wilderness Management. North American Press. Golden, CO GAO 1989. Wilderness preservation: problems in some National Forests should be addressed. GAO/RCED-89-202. Goodstein, L., T. Nolan, and JW Pfeiffer. 1993. Applied strategy planning: how to develop a plan that really works. McGraw-Hill, Inc. N.Y. Graefe, AR, FR Kuss, and L Loomis. 1986. Visitor impact management in wildland settings. pp 432-439. In Proceedings - National Wilderness Research Conference: Current Research. USDA For. Ser. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-212. Hammitt, WE and DN Cole. 1987. Wildland recreation: Ecology and management. John Wiley & Sons. New York. Hendee, JC, GH Stankey, and RC Lucas. 1990. Wilderness management. North American Press. Golden, CO. Hoerr, W. 1993. The concept of naturalness in environmental discourse. Natural Areas Journal 13(1):29-32 Kessler, WB. 1993. What resource inventories don't tell use about biological diversity and what we really need to know. Presented at "Integrated ecological and resource inventories workshop". Phoneix, Arizona April 1993. Kloeper, D. and S. Marsh. 1992. Keeping it Wild: A citizen guide to Wilderness management. The Wilderness Society, Washington, D.C. Knight, RL. and DN Cole. 1991. Effects of recreational activity on wildlife in wildlands. Trans. 56th. N.A. Wildl. & Nat. Res. Conference. Krumpe, EE and L. McCoy. 1992. Techniques to resolve conflict in natural resource management in parks and protected areas. Presented at IV World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas. Caracas, Venezuela. Krumpe, EE and GL Stokes. 1993. Application of the Limits of Acceptable Change planning process in United States Forest Service Wilderness Management. Presented at 4th World Wilderness Congress, Norway. Landres, PB. nd. Ecological indicators: panacea or liability? IN DH McKenzie, DE Hyatt, and VJ McDonald (editors). Ecological Indicators, Volume 2. Elsevier Applied Scientific Publishers, Amsterdam. Landres, PB. 1992. Temporal scale perspectives in managing biological diversity. Trans. 57th N. Am. Wildl. and Nat. Res. Conf. 292-307. Landres, PB. 1994. A framework for assessing the integrity of ecological systems in wilderness. Aldo Leopold Wilderness Research Center. Unpublished paper. Landres, PB. 1994. The role of ecological inventorying and monitoring in managing wilderness. Trends. in press.

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Landres, PB. 1994. When is change beyond the range of natural variation? Presented at National Wilderness Management Training for Line Officers. June 6-10, Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center, Huson, MT. Magill, AW. 1991. Barriers to effective public interaction. Jour. For. 89(10):16-18. Marion, JL. 1991. Developing a natural resource inventory and monitoring program for visitor impacts on recreation sites: a procedural manual. USDI. Natural Resources Report NPS/NRVT/NRR-91/06. McCool, S. 1989. When we should apply use limits. LAC Training Course. Missoula MT McCool, S. 1990. Successful recreation planning on a limited budget. USDA Forest Service Region 8 LAC Workshop. McCool, SF and GH Stankey. 1992. Managing for the sustainable use of protected wildlands: The Limits of Acceptable Change framework. prepared for IV World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela. Merigliano, L. 1990. Indicators to monitor wilderness conditions. pp. 205-209. IN DW Lime (ed) Managing America's Enduring Wilderness Resource. University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN. Moir, WH. 1980. Ground-based vegetation monitoring in the National Parks. pp 340348 IN Proc. 2nd Conf. on Scientific Research in the National Parks. Noss, RF. 1990. Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: a hierarchial approach. Conservation biology 4(4):355-364. O'Brien, M. 1994. Being a scientist means taking sides. Inner Voice. 6(1):12-13. Ott, WR. 1978. Environmental indices: theory and practice. Ann Arbor Science publishers, Inc. MI Peterson, J, D. Schmoldt, D. Peterson, J. Eilers, R. Fisher, and R. Bachman. 1992. Guidelines for evaluating air pollution impacts on Class I Wilderness areas in the pacific northwest. USDA For. Ser. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-299. Roggenbuck, JW, DR Williams, and AE Watson. 1993. Defining acceptable conditions in Wilderness. Environmental management 17(2):187-197. Sater, S. 1992. Selecting and monitoring Wilderness air quality related values for National Forest Wilderness. Presented at 1992 Society of American Foresters Conference. Octo 25-28. Richmond, VA Sater, S. 1993. Wilderness in the landscape: a fire management, air quality case study. Presented at World Wilderness Congress Sept 24-Oct 1. Tromsco, Norway. Shelby, B. and B. Shindler. 1992. Interest group standards for ecological impacts at wilderness campsites. Leisure Sciences 14:17-27. Sprugel, DG. 1991. Disturbance, equilibrium, and environmental variability: what is "natural" vegetation in a changing environment? Biological Conservation 58:1-18. Stokes, GL. 1982. Conservation of the Blackfoot River corridor: an application of transactive planning theory. Fort Collins, CO. CSU. 299 p. Dissertation.

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Appendices

Stokes, GL. 1988. Involving the public in Wilderness management decision making: the Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex -- A case study. pp 157-61 In Economic and social development: a role for forest and forestry professionals. Society of American Foresters, Bethesda, MD. SAF 87.02 Stokes, GL. 1990. The evolution of wilderness management: The Bob Marshall Wilderness Complex. Jour. For. 88(10):15-20. Stokes, GL. 1991. New wildland recreation strategies: The Flathead experience. Western Wildlands. Winter. pp 23-27. Stankey, GH, DN Cole, RC Lucas, ME Petersen, and SS Frissell. 1985. The Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) System for Wilderness Planning. USDA For. Ser. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-176. Stankey, GH and SF McCool. 1984. Carrying capacity in recreational settings: evolution, appraisal and application. Leisure Sciences 6(4):453-472. Stankey, GH, SF McCool, and GL Stokes. 1984. Limits of acceptable change: a new framework for managing the Bob Marshall Wilderness complex. Western Wildlands. Fall. USDA. 1990. Report of the task force on Wilderness implementation needs. April 24. USDA. 1990. Ideas for Wilderness Implementation Schedules. USDA. 1990. Bob Marshall Wilderness Monitoring Guidebook. USDA. 1991. Report from task force on monitoring for Wilderness conditions. Feb 6­ 9. USDA. 1992. Ideas for Limits of Acceptable Change Process. Book One and Two. USDA. 1993. National hierarchical framework of ecological units. ECOMAP. October 29. USDA and USDI. Wilderness Management Planning. Correspondence course available through Colorado State University. USDI. 1993. VERP: a process for addressing visitor carrying capacity in the National Park System. Working draft. Denver Service Center. Whittaker, D. 1992. Selecting indicators: which impacts matter more? pp. 13-22 IN Defining Wilderness Quality: the role of standards in Wilderness management - a workshop proceedings. USDA For. Ser. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-305 Whittaker, D. and B. Shelby. 1992. Developing good standards: criteria, characteristics, and sources. pp. 6-12 Defining Wilderness Quality: the role of standards in Wilderness management - a workshop proceedings. USDA For. Ser. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-305

Audio-Visuals Resources Region 8 LAC Slide Show - John Romanowski, Cherokee Forest , NPS video series on planning - Marilyn Hof, Denver Service Center, Sawtooth wilderness planning: citizens at work - Ed Waldapfel/Liese Dean, Sawtooth National Recreation Area

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APPENDIX B Training Module Writers and Reviewers

Joe Ashor - Bureau of Land Management, Dillon Montana Karen Barnett - former Wilderness Ranger, Bridger-Teton National Forest Frank Beum - Routt National Forest Ken Butts - Fish and Wildlife Service Kevin Elliott - Shoshone National Forest Jim Hammett - John Day Fossil Beds NM Marilyn Hof - National Park Service - Denver Service Center Brian Kenner - Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore Leslie Kerr - US Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska Ed Krumpe - University of Idaho Steve Markason - former Wilderness Ranger, Bridger-Teton National Forest Susan Marsh - Bridger-Teton National Forest Linda Merigliano - Bridger-Teton National Forest Martha Merrill - Targhee National Forest Jerry Reese - Targhee National Forest Bill Reynolds - Ottawa National Forest Dan Ritter - Nez Perce National Forest John Romanowski - Cherokee National Forest Susan Sater - Pacific Northwest Region, Forest Service Ruth Scott - Olympic National Park Jerry Stokes - Forest Service, Washington Office Lisa Therrell - Wenatchee National Forest Clark Tucker - Ashley National Forest Doug Welker - Ottawa National Forest Lois Ziemann - Chugach National Forest

Reviewers Peg Boland - Forest Service, Washington Dan Burgette - Grand Teton National Park Glenn Cassamassa - Intermountain Region, Forest Service Liz Close - Northern Region, Forest Service Keith Corrigall - Bureau of Land Management, Washington Wes Henry - National Park Service, Washington Jeff Jarvis - Bureau of Land Management, Phoenix Ed Loth - Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Ruth Monahan - Intermountain Region Forest Service Steve Morton - Northern Region Forest Service Chris Ryan - Arthur Carhart National Wilderness Training Center Gayne Sears - Ashley National Forest Mike Skinner - Pacific Southwest Region, Forest Service Bryant Smith - Coronado National Forest Curt Spalding - Payette National Forest Anne Zimmerman - Lolo National Forest

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APPENDIX C Wilderness Act

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Wilderness Act

Act of September 3, 1964, (P.L 88-577, 78 Stat. 890; 16 U.S.C. 1 1 21 (note), 1 1 31-1136)

Sec 1. This Act may be cited as the "Wilderness Act" (I 6 U.S.C. 1 1 21 (note)) Sec. 2. (a) In order to assure that an increasing population, accompanied by expanding settlement and growing mechanization, does not occupy and modify, all areas within the United States and its possessions, leaving no lands designated for preservation and protection in their natural condition, it is hereby declared to be the policy of the Congress to secure for the American people of present and future generations the benefits of an enduring resource of wilderness. For this purpose there is hereby established a National Wilderness Preservation System to be composed of federally owned areas designated by Congress as "wilderness areas", and these shall be administered for the use and enjoyment of the American people in such manner as will leave them unimpaired for future use and enjoyment as wilderness, and so so to provide for the protection of these areas, the preservation of their wilderness character, and for the gathering and dissemination of information regarding their use and enjoyment as wilderness; and no Federal lands shall be designated as "wilderness areas" except as provided for in this Act or by a subsequent Act. (b) The inclusion of an area in the National Wilderness Preservation System notwithstanding, the area shall continue to be managed by the Department and agency having jurisdiction thereover immediately before its inclusion in the National Wilderness Preservation System unless otherwise provided by Act of Congress. No appropriation shall be available for the payment of expenses or salaries for the administration of the National Wilderness Preservation System as a separate unit nor shall any appropriations be available for addition personnel stated as being required solely for the purpose of managing or administering areas solely because they are included within the National Wilderness Preservation System. (c) A wilderness, in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape, is hereby recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain. An area of wilderness is further defined to mean in this Act an area of undeveloped Federal land retaining its primeval character and influence, without permanent improvements or human habitation, which is protected and managed so as to preserve its natural conditions and which (1) generally appears to have been affected primarily by the forces of nature, with the imprint of man's work substantially unnoticeable; (2) has outstanding opportunities for solitude or a primitive and unconfined type of recreation; (3) has a least five thousand acres of land or is of sufficient size as to make practicable its preservation and use in an

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unimpaired condition; and (4) may also contain ecological, geological or other features of scientific, educational, scenic, or historical value. (16 U.S.C. 1131) PREVIOUSLY CLASSIFIED AREAS Sec. 3. (a) All areas within the national forests classified at least 30 days before the effective date of the Act by the Secretary of Agriculture or the Chief of the Forest Service as `wilderness', `wild" or "canoe" are hereby designated as wilderness areas. The Secretary of Agriculture shall-(1) Within one year after the effective date of this Act, file a map and legal description of each wilderness area with the Interior and Insular Affairs Committees of the United States Senate and House of Representatives, and such descriptions shall have the same force and effect as if included in this Act: Provided however, That correction of clerical and typographical errors in such legal descriptions and maps may be made. (2) Maintain, available to the public, records pertaining to said wilderness areas, including maps and legal descriptions, copies of regulations governing them, copies of public notices of, and reports submitted to Congress regarding pending additions, eliminations, or modifications. Maps, legal descriptions, and regulations pertaining to wilderness areas within their respective jurisdictions also shall be available to the public in the offices of regional foresters, national forest supervisors, and forest rangers. (b) The Secretary of Agriculture shall, within ten years after the enactment of this Act, review, as to its suitability or nonsuitability for preservation as wilderness, each area in the national forests classified on the effective date of this Act by the Secretary of Agriculture or the Chief of the Forest Service as "primitive" and report his finding to the President. The President shall advise the United States Senate and House of Representatives of his recommendations with respect to the designation as "wilderness" or other reclassification of each area on which review has been completed, together with maps and a definition of boundaries. Such advice shall be given with respect to not less than one-third of all the areas now classified as "primitive" within three years after the enactment of this Act, not less than twothirds within seven years after the enactment of this Act, and the remaining areas within ten years after the enactment of this Act. Each recommendation of the President for designation as "wilderness" shall become effective only if so provided by an Act of Congress. Areas classified as "primitive" on the effective date of this Act shall continue to be administered under the rules and regulations affecting such areas on the effective date of this Act until Congress has determined otherwise. Any such area may be increased in size by the President at the time he submits his recommendations the Congress by not more than five thousand acres with no more than one thousand two hundred and eighty acres of such increase in any one compact unit; if it proposed to increase the size of any area by more than five thousand acres or by more than one thousand two hundred and eighty acres in any one compact unit the increase in size shall not become effective until acted upon by Congress. Nothing herein contained shall limit the President in proposing, as part of his recommendations to Congress, the alteration of existing boundaries of primitive areas or recommending the addition of any contiguous area of national forest lands predominately of wilderness value. Notwithstanding any other

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provisions of this Act, the Secretary of Agriculture may complete his review and delete such area as may be necessary, but not to exceed seven thousand acres, from the southern tip of the Gore Range-Eagles Nest Primitive Area, Colorado, if the Secretary determines that such action is in the public interest. (c) Within ten years after the effective date of this Act the Secretary of the Interior shall review every roadless area of five thousand contiguous acres or more in the national parks, monuments and other units of the national park system and every such areas of, and every roadless island within, the national wildlife refuges and game ranges, under his jurisdiction on the effective date of this Act and shall report to the President his recommendation as to the suitability or nonsuitability of each such area or island for preservation as wilderness. The President shall advise the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives of his recommendation with respect to the designation as wilderness of each such area or island on which review has been completed, together with a map thereof and a definition of its boundaries. Such advice shall be given with respect to not less than one-third of the areas and islands to be reviewed under this subsection within three years after enactment of this Act, not less than two-thirds within seven years of enactment of this Act, and the remainder within ten years of enactment of this Act. A recommendation of the President for designation as wilderness shall become effective only if so provided by an Act of Congress. Nothing contained herein shall, by implication or otherwise, be construed to lessen the present statutory authority of the Secretary of the Interior with respect to the maintenance of roadless areas within the national park system. (d)(1) The Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of the Interior shall, prior to submitting any recommendations to the President with respect to the suitability of any area for preservation as wilderness-(A) give such public notice of the proposed action as they deem appropriate, including publication in the Federal Register and in a newspaper having general circulation in the area or areas in the vicinity of the affected land; (B) hold a public hearing or hearings at a location or locations convenient to the areas affected. The hearings shall be announced through such means as the respective Secretaries involved deem appropriate, including notices in the Federal Register and in newspapers of general circulation in the area: Provided, That if the lands involved are located in more than one State, at least one hearing shall be held in each State in which a portion of the land lies; (C) at least thirty days before the date of a hearing advise the Governor of the State and the governing board of each county, or in Alaska the borough, in which the lands are located, and Federal departments and agencies concerned, and invite such officials and Federal agencies to submits their views on the proposed action at the hearing or by no later than thirty days following the date of the hearing. (2) Any views submitted to the appropriate Secretary under the provisions of (1) of this subsection with respect to any area shall be included with any recommendations to the President and to Congress with respect to such area. (e) Any modification of adjustment of boundaries of any wilderness area shall be recommended by the appropriate Secretary after public notice of such proposal and public hearing or hearings as provided by in subsection (d) of this section. The

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proposed modification or adjustment shall then be recommended with map and description thereof to the President. The President shall advise the United States Senate and the House of Representatives of his recommendations with respect to such modification or adjustment and such recommendation shall become effective only in the same manner as provided for in subsections (b) and (c) of this section. (16 U.S.C. 1132) LIMITATION OF USE AND ACTIVITIES Sec. 4. (a) The purposes of this Act are hereby declared to be within and supplemental to the purposes for which national forests and units of the national park and national wildlife refuge systems are established and administered and-(1) Nothing in this Act shall be deemed to be in interference with the purpose for which national forests are established as set forth in the Act of June 4, 1897 (30 Stat. 1 1), and the Multiple-Use Sustained-Yield Act of June 12, 1960 (74 Stat. 215). (2) Nothing in this Act shall modify the restrictions and provisions of the Shipstead-Nolan Act (Public Law 539, Seventy-first Congress, July 10, 1930; 46 Stat. 1020), the Thye-Blatnick Act (Public Law 733, Eightieth Congress, June 22, 1948; 62 Stat. 568), and the Humphrey-Thye-Blatnik-Andresen Act (Public Law 607, Eighty-fourth congress, June 22, 1956; 70 Stat. 326), as applying to the Superior National Forest or the regulations of the Secretary of Agriculture. (3) Nothing in this Act shall modify the statutory authority under which units of the national park system are created. Further, the designation of any area of any park, monument, or other unit of the national park system as a wilderness area pursuant to this Act shall in no manner lower the standards evolved for the use and preservation of such park, monument, or other unit of the national park system in accordance with the Act of August 25, 1916, the statutory authority under which the area was created, or any other Act of Congress which might pertain to or affect such area, including, but not limited to, the Act of June 8, 1906 (34 Stat. 225; 16 U.S.C. 432 et seq.); section 3(2) of the Federal Power Act (16 U.S.C. 796(2)); and the Act of August 21, 1935 (49 Stat. 666; 16 U.S.C. 461 et seq.). (b) Except as otherwise provided in this Act, each agency administering any area designated as wilderness shall be responsible for preserving the wilderness character of the area and shall so administer such area for such other purposes for which it may have been established as also to preserve its wilderness character. Except as otherwise provided in this Act, wilderness areas shall be devoted to the public purposes of recreational, scenic, scientific, educational, conservation, and historical use. (c) Except as specifically provided for in this Act, and subject to existing private rights, there shall be no commercial enterprise and no permanent road within any wilderness area designated by this Act and, except as necessary to meet minimum requirements for the administration of the area for the purpose of this Act (including measures required in emergencies involving the health and safety of persons within the area), there shall be no temporary road, no use of motor vehicles, motorized equipment or motorboats, no landing of aircraft, no other form of mechanical transport, and no structure or installation within any such area.

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(d) The following special provisions are hereby made: (1) Within wilderness areas designated by this Act the use of aircraft or motorboats, where these uses have already become established, may be permitted to continue subject to such restriction as the Secretary of Agriculture deems desirable. In addition, such measures may be taken as may be necessary in the control of fire, insects, and diseases, subject to such conditions as the Secretary deems desirable. (2) Nothing in this Act shall prevent within national forest wilderness areas any activity, including prospecting, for the purpose of gathering information about mineral or other resources, if such activity is carried on in a manner compatible with the preservation of the wilderness environment. Furthermore, in accordance with such program as the Secretary of the Interior shall develop and conduct in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, such areas shall be surveyed on a planned, recurring basis consistent with the concept of wilderness preservation by the Geological Survey and the Bureau of mines to determine the mineral values, in any, that may be present; and the results of such surveys shall be made available to the public and submitted to the President and Congress. (3) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Act, until midnight December 31, 1983, the United State mining laws and all laws pertaining to mineral leasing shall, to the same extent as applicable prior to the effective date of this Act, extend to those national forest lands designated by this Act as "wilderness area,; subject, however, to such reasonable regulations governing ingress and egress as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture consistent with the use of the land for mineral location and development and exploration, drilling, and production, and use of land for transmission lines, waterlines, telephone lines, or facilities necessary in exploring, drilling, producing, mining, and processing operations, including where essential the use of mechanized ground or air equipment and restoration as near as practicable of the surface of the land disturbed in performing prospecting, location, and in oil and gas leasing, discovery work, exploration, drilling, and production, as soon as they have served their purpose. Mining locations lying within the boundaries of said wilderness areas shall be held and used solely for mining or processing operations and uses reasonable incident thereto; and hereafter, subject to valid existing rights, all patents issued under the mining laws of the United States affecting national forest lands designated by this Act as wilderness areas shall convey title to the mineral deposits within the claim, together with the right to cut and use so much of the mature timber therefrom as may be needed in the extraction, removal, and beneficiation of the mineral deposits, if needed timber is not otherwise reasonable available, and if the timber is not otherwise reasonable available, and if the timber is cut under sound principles of forest management as defined by the national forest rules and regulations, but each such patent shall reserve to the United States all title in or to the surface of the lands and products there of, and no use of the surface of the claim or the resources therefrom not reasonably required for carrying on mining or prospecting shall be allowed except as otherwise expressly provided in the Act: Provided, That unless hereafter specifically authorized, no patent within wilderness areas designated by this Act shall issue after December 31, 1983, except for the valid claims existing on or before December 31, 1983. Mining claims located after the effective date of this

Wilderness Act

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Act within the boundaries of wilderness areas designated by this Act shall create no rights in excess of those rights which may be patented under the provisions of this subsection. Mineral leases, permits, and licenses covering lands within national forest wilderness areas designated by this Act shall contain such reasonable stipulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary of Agriculture for the protection of the wilderness character of the land consistent with the use of the land for the purposes for which they are leased, permitted, or licensed. Subject to valid rights then existing, effective January 1, 1984, the minerals in lands designated by this Act as wilderness areas are withdrawn from all forms of appropriation under the mining laws and from disposition under all laws pertaining to mineral leasing and all amendments thereto. (4) Within wilderness areas in the national forests designated by this Act, (1) the President may, within a specific area and in accordance with such regulations as he may deem desirable, authorize prospecting for water resources, the establishment and maintenance of reservoirs, water-conservation works, power projects, transmission lines, and other facilities needed in the public interest, including the road construction and maintenance essential to development and use thereof, upon his determination that such use or uses in the specific area will better serve the interests of the United States and the people thereof than will its denial; and (2) the grazing of livestock, where established prior to the effective date of this Act, shall be permitted to continue subject to such reasonable regulations as are deemed necessary by the Secretary of Agriculture. (5) Other provisions of this Act to contrary notwithstanding, the management of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, formerly designated as the Superior, Little Indian Sioux and Caribou Roadless Areas, in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, shall be in accordance with regulations established by the Secretary of Agriculture in accordance with the general purpose of maintaining, without unnecessary restrictions on other uses, including that of timber, the primitive character of the area, particularly in the vicinity of the lakes, streams, and portages: Provided, That nothing in this Act shall preclude the continuance within the area of any already established use of motorboats. (6) Commercial services may be performed within the wilderness areas designated by this Act to the extent necessary for activities which are proper for realizing the recreational or other wilderness purposes of the areas. (7) Nothing in this Act shall constitute an express or implied claim or denial on the part of the Federal Government as to exemption from State water laws. (8) Nothing in this Act shall be construed as affecting the jurisdiction or responsibilities of the several States with respect to wildlife and fish in the national forests (16 U.S.C. 1133) RIGHTS OF NON-FOREST LANDS OWNERSHIP Sec. 5. (a) In any case where State-owned or privately owned land is completely surrounded by national forest lands with areas designated by this Act as wilderness, such State or private owner shall be given such rights as may be necessary to assure adequate access to such State-owned or privately owned land by such State or private owner and their successors in interest, or the State-owned land or privately

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owned land shall be exchanged for federally owned land in the same State of approximately equal value under authorities available to the Secretary of Agriculture: Provided, however, That the United States shall not transfer to a State or private owner any mineral interests unless the State or private owner relinquishes or causes to be relinquished to the United States the mineral interest in the surrounded land. (b) In any case where valid mining claims or other valid occupancies are wholly within a designated national forest wilderness area, the Secretary of Agriculture shall, by reasonable regulations consistent with the preservation of the area of wilderness, permit ingress and egress to such surrounded areas by means which have been or are being customarily enjoyed with respect to other such areas similarly situated. (c) Subject to the appropriation of funds by Congress, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to acquire privately owned land within the perimeter of any area designated by this Act as wilderness if (1) the owner concurs in such acquisition or (2) the acquisition is specifically authorized by Congress (16 U.S.C. 1134) GIFTS AND DONATIONS Sec. 6. (a) The Secretary of Agriculture may accept gifts or bequests of land within wilderness areas designated by this Act for preservation as wilderness. The Secretary of Agriculture may also accept gifts or bequests of land adjacent to wilderness areas designated by this Act for preservation as wilderness if he has given sixty days advance notice thereof to the President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives. Land accepted by the Secretary of Agriculture under this section shall become part of the wilderness area involved. Regulations with regard to any such land may be in accordance with such agreements, consistent with the policy of this Act, as are made at the time of such gift, or such conditions, consistent with such policy, as may be included in, and accepted with, such bequest. (b) The Secretary of Agriculture or the Secretary of the Interior is authorized to accept private contributions and gifts to be used to further the purposes of this Act. (16 U.S.C. 1135) REPORT TO CONGRESS Sec. 7. At the opening of each session of Congress, the Secretaries of Agriculture and Interior shall jointly report to the President for transmission to Congress on the status of the wilderness system, including a list and descriptions of the areas in the system, regulations in effect, and other pertinent information, together with any recommendations they may care to make. (16 U.S.C. 11 36) APPROVED SEPTEMBER 3, 1964. Legislative History: House Reports: No 1538 accompanying H.R. 9070 (Committee on Interior & Insular Affairs) and No. 1829 (Committee of Conference).

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Senate report: No. 109 (Committee on Interior & Insular Affairs). Congressional Record: Vol. 109 (1963): April 4, 8, considered in Senate. April 9, considered and passed Senate. Vol. 110 (1964): July 28, considered in House. July 30, considered and passed House, amended, in lieu of H.R. 9070 August 20, House and Senate agreed to conference report.

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