Read Contents English B:CXC English B.qxd.qxd text version

CONTENTS

Introduction

To the Student ............................................................. To the Teacher ..............................................................

1 1

Section 1: The CSEC® Syllabus .................................

Demands on the student ..........................................................

3

3 3 4 4 4 5 6

Introduction .................................................................. Skills Tested by the CSEC Examination ..................................

How This Book Will Help You ............................................ Studying for the English B Examination..................................

Literary terms .........................................................................

Skills and Aptitudes Tested in Paper 1 ................................... Skills and Aptitudes Tested in Paper 2 ...................................

Section 2: The Language of Literary Criticism ....

Meaning ....................................................................... Intention ...................................................................... Diction .........................................................................

Understanding Literary Terms ............................................ Meaning and Intention .................................................... Comparing and Contrasting to Heighten Meaning ....................

Figurative Language ........................................................ Similes and Metaphors ...................................................... Personification ................................................................ Irony ............................................................................ Oxymoron ..................................................................... Pun ............................................................................. Metre ........................................................................... Rhythm ........................................................................

Imagery ........................................................................ Using `Sound' to Deepen Meaning .......................................

7 7 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 11 13 15 15 16 20 20 21

7

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Contents

Alliteration, Assonance and Consonance ................................ Sound, Atmosphere, Mood and Tone .....................................

Other Terms ...........................................................................

Section 3: Understanding Poetry ..............................

Symbolism ....................................................................

21 23 24 25

Poetry in a new light ............................................................... Preparing for Paper 1 ...............................................................

31

31 31 33 34 35 35

Removing Your Fears About Poetry ...................................... Meeting the Requirements of the Syllabus .............................

Skills Needed .................................................................

`Unseen Poems' ..............................................................

Section 4: Poetry ............................................................

Preparing for Paper 2 ..............................................................

49 Creative Ways of Studying the Poems ................................... 49 Structure, Form and Meaning ............................................. 50 Sonnets ........................................................................ 50 "God's Grandeur"................................................... 50 "Sonnet Composed Upon Westminster Bridge"...................... 50 "Le Loupgarou" ................................................... 50 Stanzaic Structures ........................................................... 50 "A Contemplation Upon Flowers"................................... 51 "It is the Constant Image of your Face" ............................. 51 "Because I could not stop for Death"................................ 51 "This is the Dark Time, My Love".................................... 51 Key Features Grid ........................................................... 51­52 Identifying the Themes ..................................................... 52 53 Thematic Grid ................................................................ The Child and the World ................................................... 54 People and Desires .......................................................... 55 Religion ........................................................... 56 Conflicts and Complications ............................................... 56 Race and Gender .................................................. 56 War ............................................................... 56

49

iv

Contents

.................................................. From Time to Eternity ....................................................... Death ........................................................... Nostalgia ...........................................................

The supernatural

Discussion Points and Activities: Pairings and Possibilities in Paper 2 .................................. The Poet's Use of Figurative Language/Devices .......................

Personification ............................................................... The Apostrophe .............................................................. Allusion and Symbol ........................................................ Sound Effects .................................................................

Rhyme

57 57 57 57 58 59 59 60 61 62 63 66 67 68 71 72 72 73 74 75 76 76 76 77

............................................................ Repetition in free verse ............................................

Tone ............................................................................

Irony

Repetition of smaller units of sound: assonance and alliteration .......................................

........................................................... Practice for Paper 2 .......................................................... How to Approach a Poem .................................................. Some Useful Hints ........................................................... How to Write an `A' Essay ................................................. Practice Questions for Paper 2 ............................................. Some Final Words ........................................................... Dealing with the Negative Attitude ...................................... Getting Started ............................................................... Experience and Associations ...............................................

Section 5: Drama ...........................................................

Studying extracts from play-texts ..............................................

What the Examiners Say ....................................................

78

78 78 78 78 79 79 81 83 83

What the Syllabus Requires ................................................ What is a Play? ............................................................... Stage Directions ..............................................................

Types of Stage Directions ................................................... Extended Stage Directions .................................................. Plays with Little Stage Direction ..........................................

Authorial Commentary .....................................................

v

Contents

85 85 85 87 88 90 Preparing for Paper 1 ............................................................... 94 The Drama Extract .......................................................... 94 95 Characters (Questions to ask) .............................................. Relationships (Questions to ask) ........................................... 95 102 Setting (Questions to ask) ................................................... Language (Questions to ask) ............................................... 104 104 General (Questions to ask) .................................................. Practice Exercises ......................................................... 104­128

Section 6: Drama ...........................................................

The Reality of Play Production ............................................ The Willing Suspension of Disbelief ..................................... Costuming .................................................................... Spectacle ...................................................................... The Unities ................................................................... Technical Terms .............................................................

Studying a play-text ................................................................

129

129 129 129 129 130 131 132 132 135 136 136 137 138 138 138 139 139 140 141 141 141 142

Introduction .................................................................. Peculiarities of Plays ........................................................

The Visual Element .......................................................... Characterization ............................................................. The Plot ........................................................................ Conflict ........................................................................ Suspense ....................................................................... Language in a Play ..........................................................

Types of Plays ................................................................

Comedy ........................................................................ Tragedy ........................................................................

Studying a Play ..............................................................

The design

........................................................ The blocking ...................................................... Discussing the Writer's Craft .............................................. Studying the set texts ............................................................. Old Story Time .............................................................. The Plot ....................................................................... Scene 1 ........................................................................

vi

Activities Before .............................................................. The Practical Approach .....................................................

Contents

Setting ........................................................................ The `Storytelling' Device ....................................................

143 143 Africa and Obeah ............................................................ 144 The Characters ............................................................. 145­147 Topics for discussion or essay writing .................................... 148 Julius Caesar ................................................................. 149 A General Introduction ..................................................... 149 The Plot ........................................................................ 149 The Structure of the Play ................................................... 150 Act 1, Scene 1 .................................................... 150 152 Interesting Features ......................................................... Anachronisms ..................................................... 152 The Use of the Apostrophe ........................................ 152 A `True Story'...................................................... 152 Performances ..................................................... 153 The Characters ............................................................. 153­158 Topics for discussion or essay writing ...................................159­161 The Lion and the Jewel ..................................................... 162 162 The Play ............................ .......................................... The Plot ....................................................................... 162 The First Scene ............................................................... 163 The Structure of the Play ................................................... 165 Themes ........................................................................ 165 The gender issue .................................................. 165 Race and culture .................................................. 166 The Characters ............................................................. 166­167 Topics for discussion or essay writing ...................................167­168 A Midsummer Night's Dream ............................................ 169 A General Introduction ..................................................... 169 The Plot ....................................................................... 169 170 Act 1, Scene 1 ................................................................ The Setting ................................................................... 172 Other Significant Features ................................................. 172 Sub-plots .......................................................... 172 The Mechanicals' play ............................................. 172 Themes ........................................................................ 172 Love .............................................................. 172

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Contents

................................................ 173 Daylight and moonlight ............................................ 173 The Denouement ............................................................ 173 The Characters .............................................................. 173­174 175 Topics for discussion or essay writing ...................................

Dreams and magic

Section 7: Prose ..............................................................

Studying prose fiction ..............................................................

176

176 176 176 176 177 177 178 178 179 179 182 182 184 184 192 195

To Help You Prepare ........................................................ What is Prose Fiction? ....................................................... How to Read and Study Prose Fiction ...................................

Narrative Technique .........................................................

Point of view ....................................................... Setting ............................................................. Mood

Descriptive Technique ......................................................

Persons.............................................................

............................................................. Literary Devices .............................................................. Choice of Language ......................................................... Preparing for Paper 1 ............................................................... Analysing Prose Extracts ................................................... Descriptions ­ Persons ...................................................... Narrative writing ......................................................................

Section 8: Prose Fiction ...............................................

Studying set texts ...................................................................

206 What the CSEC Syllabus Requires ........................................ 206 Characteristics of the Short Story.......................................... 206 206 General Characteristics ..................................................... The Literary Short Story .................................................... 207 The realistic story................................................... 207 The impressionist story.............................................. 207 Main features of a short story .............................................. 207 Analysing a Short Story ..................................................... 208 208 Method of study ............................................................. The Set Texts ­ Analysing the Short Stories ................................ 209

206

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Contents

`The Day the World Almost Came to an End' .......................... 210 210 Plot & Setting ................................................................ Characters ..................................................................... 211 211 Themes ........................................................................ Author's Technique ......................................................... 211 `To Da-Duh in Memoriam' ................................................ 212 Plot & Setting ................................................................ 212 Characters ..................................................................... 213 213 Themes ........................................................................ 214 Author's Technique ......................................................... `The Man of the House' .................................................... 216 216 Plot ............................................................................. 216 Characters ..................................................................... Setting ......................................................................... 216 Themes ........................................................................ 216 Author's Technique ......................................................... 216 `Raymond's Run'............................................................. 218 Plot ........................................................................... 218 218 Characters ..................................................................... 218 Themes ........................................................................ 218 Author's Technique ......................................................... `The Two Grandmothers' .................................................. 219 219 Plot ............................................................................. Characters ..................................................................... 220 Themes ........................................................................ 220 Author's Technique ......................................................... 220 Theme Web ................................................................... 222 Examination Practice ....................................................... 222 The Set Texts ­ Studying Novels .......................................... 224 Characteristics of the Novel ............................................... 224 How to Study a Novel ...................................................... 225 225 Plot ............................................................................. Setting ......................................................................... 226 Finding Themes ............................................................. 226 227 Understanding Themes ....................................................

ix

Contents

Relating theme to text .......................................................

Theme: Love

Theme: Heroism ...................................................

................................................... Theme: Hardships and struggles to survive ......................... Checklist for Analysing the Novel......................................... Items for your checklist ..................................................... The Set Texts ­ Analysing the Novels .................................... Songs of Silence .............................................................. Introduction to the Text .................................................... Silence in the `Idiot' ......................................................... Silence in the `Effita' ......................................................... Silence in the `A Story with No Name' ................................... Conclusion ................................................................... Study Guide .................................................................. Narrative technique ................................................ Narrator's style .................................................... Humour ........................................................... Mood Matrix .................................................................. The Wine of Astonishment ................................................. Introduction to the Text .................................................... Setting ......................................................................... Plot ............................................................................. Author's Technique ......................................................... Study Guide .................................................................. Activities: Narrative technique and characters ....................... Themes ........................................................................ Things Fall Apart ........................................................... Introduction to the Text .................................................... Irony ........................................................................... Themes ........................................................................ Study Guide .................................................................. Narrative technique ................................................ Characters ........................................................ Character Matrix ................................................... Themes ........................................................... Themes Matrix .................................................... Frangipani House ...........................................................

x

228 228 229 230 231 231 233 233 233 234 235 235 235 236 236 237 237 238 240 240 241 241 242 242 242 245 246 246 247 247 248 248 250 250 251 251 253

Introduction to the Text .................................................... Themes ........................................................................... Study Guide ..................................................................

................................................ Characters ........................................................ Setting ............................................................ Themes ........................................................... Themes Matrix ....................................................

Narrative technique

253 253 254 254 255 257 259 260

Section 9: Answering Literature Questions ...........

Preparing for the English B examination ......................................

261

261 261 261 262 262 263 263 265 265 266

What the Examination Requires ........................................... The Examination Paper ..................................................... What Does Paper 1 Really Test? ........................................... How to Excel in Paper 1 .................................................... What Does Paper 2 Really Test? ........................................... How to Excel in Paper 2 .................................................... Terms Frequently Used in Literature Examinations ...................

Key Exam Terms ............................................................. Key Phrases ...................................................................

Section 10: Practice Examinations .......................... 2012_2014 Syllabus: 2015_2017 Syllabus:

267

Practice Examination 1 .................................................. 267­275 Practice Examination 2 ................................................. 276­284 Practice Examination 1 .................................................. 285­293 Practice Examination 2 ................................................. 294­303

Index ................................................................................ Acknowledgements ......................................................

304 308

xi

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