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LIU Ruomei JIANG Jingtong

National Geomatics Center of China No.1 Baishengcun, Zi Zhu Yuan, Beijing 100044, China E-mail: [email protected] [email protected] Abstract Many international organizations and countries are paying more and more attention and efforts to the geographic information (GI) sharing. It is exigent to develop a series of policies, laws, standards and technologies, so called the environment related to GI sharing, for improving analysis, decision-making, and delivery of services. Such environment could be separated into three layers: abstract, semantic and technical. The construction of this environment is urgent affairs to ensure Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) implementation and development successfully. China attaches great importance to the construction of the NSDI in order to make the overall arrangement of the acquisition, management and application of geospatial data.

Approximately 80% of business and government information has some reference to location directly or indirectly, but until recently the power of geographic or geospatial information (GI) has been underutilized as a vital resource for improving economic productivity, decision-making and delivery of services. These problems are not always merely technical, but are often policies and institutions. There are so many international organizations and countries are paying more and more attention and efforts to the GI sharing. It is exigent to develop a series of policies, laws, standards and technologies, so called the environment related to GI sharing, for this kind of purposes. Sharing geospatial data in improving internal working processes and services, governments all over the world have come into action. Many countries around the world are developing SDI to allow access to spatial data to improve decision-making for different levels of government, commercial and non-profits sectors, academia and individual citizens. Although a great deal of geospatial data is scattered across a diversity of public and private agencies, with the development of today's communication technology, it became possible for data handler and every user to collect and distribute datasets via the Internet from a variety of sources and different types of application. It is, however, very often seen that different agencies or organizations (public as well as private) exchange or share the data difficultly bring on using inauthoritative data or collecting data repeatedly, etc. The data sets may be incomplete share data with others [1]. Data common sharing is a sensitive issue and a key element for the construction and efficient and incompatible and data may be insufficiently documented. Sometime the proper authorities are not always willing to use of the national, regional and even global SDI. These problems are not always merely technical, but are often institutions. A few of countries have published the laws, policies and technical standards, and implemented effective techniques. Government faces the challenges of next-generation data sharing and collaboration among themselves and with other information communities. Nowadays, there are many countries and international organizations to be cognizant of these importance and problems. A great deal of the financings and manpower resources has been dived into for researching, developing and outreaching geospatial data sharing. The Chinese government agencies and Chinese research institutions have been cognizant of the importance of GIS and geospatial data sharing. To further promote information sharing within the country, Chinese government has launched

financing to build fundamental and thematic databases and organized priority projects and formal activities on information sharing. Government agencies and Chinese research institutions brought together to discuss what kinds of mechanisms would be best for sharing information within China. Scientists made suggestions for legislation and policy for sharing information. Some government agencies worked out stipulations for ensuring the utilization of geospatial data within their authority. The GIS benefits are increased by data sharing among government agencies and organizations. Chinese people are following closely the latest advance of the SDI, GI standards and technology in the world.


Computerized geographic information, that is created, collected, processed, disseminated, and stored by public agencies, should be shared in a consistent and appropriate manner among agencies. Scientists, business people, researchers and others who make decisions related to location have access to geospatial data suitable for use in their geographic information system (GIS) or management information system (MIS). The public agencies provide the geospatial data to share in the creation, use, and maintenance of GIS datasets at lowest possible cost, while provide means to citizens, the media, and other data users for easy accessing to this resource. Everyone benefits from geographic information and services made available across any network, application, or platform for the future. However, this dose not means that such data are totally free or inexpensive. The application of geospatial data increases and extends with the advancement of the era. GIS also are advancing rapidly to meet these needs, radically extending ability to produce, acquire, store, analyze, compare, overlay, integrate, transform, communicate, format, and display geospatial data. People present more requirements for data sharing. The requirements include reducing costs and duplication of effort for producing and acquiring geospatial data, increasing awareness of the availability of existing datasets, updating data frequently as could as possible, ensuring the completeness and accuracy of metadata, encouraging adherence to data standards, improving the quality of data, providing steady-going laws or regulations for using data, and ensuring access to data, etc. Provide public access to information in accordance with laws or regulations; Facilitate coordination of GIS data gathering, maintenance and sharing among people from different Regions, Countries, Provinces/States, Counties, and Agencies.


With the extensive requirement from social and economic progress, and also with the high-speed development of information techniques, the need to geospatial data is increased in many branches of the government and economic fields in China. China attaches great importance to the construction of the NSDI in order to make the overall arrangement of the acquisition, management and application of geospatial data. The concept of NSDI has been acquired a common understanding. Typical SDI components are accepted in China, that is institutional framework, legislation and standardization, fundamental datasets and data exchange network (clearinghouse). It is commonly recognized in China that the substance of SDI construction is to design and construct a sort of infrastructure through which whole society is able to realize full utilization and sufficient sharing to all existing and potential geospatial data.


In order to promote and harmonize the activities of SDI, the State Council approved the National Geo-Spatial Information Coordination Committee (NGICC) in 1999. NGICC is chaired by the State Development and Reform Commission and composed of 11 main members that represent respective central governmental departments. Now there are 21 members to join NGICC. The main responsibilities of NGICC are as follows: Working out strategies and plans for the development of geographic information industry in China; Formulating regulations and policies for geographic information sharing; Taking the role of coordination in carrying out related regulations and policies, and supervision in implementing key geographic information engineering projects; Harmonizing the activities about international cooperation and safety.

NGICC drafted out the Development Strategy and Plan of National Spatial Information Infrastructure. The National Spatial Information Network System supported by NGICC is being developed by National Information Center of China. Through the System, all kinds of information sharing such as spatial information query, spatial data transfer

and spatial decision support can be implemented. NGICC is putting effort to force another key project, that is Establishment of Database for Natural Resources and Geospatial Information. Five fundamental databases are included in this project: Fundamental Geographic Information Database, including basic map data and remote sensing data; Natural Resources Information Database, including land, mineral, water and irrigation, forestry, marine, meteorology resources; Integration Database, integrating national level data of fundamental information, natural resources, disasters, environment, sustainable development information and others; Clearinghouse of Natural Resources and Geospatial Information; Construction of Strategy and Legislation. In addition, the National Technical Committee of Standardization for Geographic Information, Standard Administrative Committee of China (SAC/TC230) has been founded on Dec. 19, 1997. The scope of the SAC/TC230 is standardization on the field of geographic information at the national level. It is responsible for researching and making suggestions of guiding principles and policies, drawing up and revising national standards, implementing issued national standards, studying issues related to standardization, and exchanging experiences of standardization with foreign countries. The members of SAC/TC230 are more than 20 organizations concerning the production and application of geographic information. Before SAC/TC230 founded, the Chinese standard of geographic information was almost guided by applications. Now it is being replaced by developing structured set of standards and consistent with international standards, especially ISO 19100 series standards.


China is committed to the implementation of Chinese NSDI, which provides a strategy framework for China to share geospatial data and achieve more and more value-added applications. The strategy framework is being launched into researching. There are several stipulations to relate to geospatial data: a. The Surveying and Mapping Law of the People's Republic of China was promulgated by the National People's Congress in December 1992. It was revised and promulgated in August 2002. New stipulation are put forward in the new law on strengthening unified management and supervision of surveying and mapping, defining the legal status of basic surveying and mapping, and enhancing the management of surveying and mapping market. The law have had great influence on the legal system construction and provided legal basis for the development of China's surveying and mapping. Related regulations are under drafting or revision such as Regulation on the administration of Surveying and Mapping Results, Regulation on Basic Surveying and Mapping and Regulation on Basic Marine Surveying and Mapping. Besides the law and regulations by the Congress and Central Government agencies, many provinces promulgated their local regulations of measures on the administration of surveying and mapping, which contribute the improvement of surveying and mapping legal system. b. SBSM paid great attention to complementing the license system for application of national fundamental geographic data. In order to promote the applications of geographic data and establish data-sharing mechanism, SBSM offered free of charge a group of geographic data, including data of the 1:1M-scale and 1:25K-scale Topographic Databases cover the whole country, to more than 20 central government departments and nearly every provincial governments. It is the first time to stipulate the regulation for sharing fundamental data in China, and also SBSM is the first government sector making this decision. After this, there are many government sectors to work out similar regulations such as the State Bureau of Meteorology, State Bureau of Forestry and Ministry of Land and Resources, etc.

In China, it is researching on and drafting some regulations about geospatial data sharing such as Regulation on the Administration of Sharing Information for Sustainable Development, Regulation on the Administration of Geospatial Data Price and Regulation on the Administration of Geospatial Data Safety, etc. It was early 1980s in China to start developing geographic information system. Since then, the GIS standardization is a very important part of the national key program of the 7th~10 th Five-Year Plans (19862005 ). Geographic information standardization and normalization has been recognized as a very important component at

the GIS developing and NSDI establishing in China. During the period, geographic information standardization as one of key projects was placed on the national research plan, and an expert group for researching on and working out national standards for geographic information has worked on many aspects such as unified national geographic coordinate system for GIS, unified data classification and codes of resources and environment information at the national level and unified format for spatial data transfer. Based on researches mentioned above, some results, suggestions and schemes had been reached. Some national standards including the Geographic Grids, the Data Classification and Codes for the National Fundamental Information, the Codes of River Names, the Data Transfer Format for Geographic Information, the Specification for Digital Products of the National Fundamental Information, Geographic Information: Metadata, Geographic Information: Data Quality Control, etc., have been worked out or are being developed. Some books related to geographic information standardization have been published, such as the guideline for Urban GIS Standardization, Research on Metadata of Geographic Information in China, the Guideline for National Standards for Geographic Information, and so on. The Chinese experts pay more strength to attend development of international standards, especially activities in ISO/TC 211, learn experiences from foreign countries and making contributions to them. Some other important standards are being developed as well. The Metadata for Geographic Information, Data Quality Control, GML and standards related to network and data sharing, etc. 19 international standards, from ISO 19101 to ISO 19120, were translated into Chinese and issued in March 2004. Among them, 5 standards were or are being adapted or adopted as Chinese national standards. All these efforts will enable the acceleration of China's geographic information standards to comply with international standards, and benefit to geospatial data sharing.


In China, GIS has come into the stage of available, integration and network distributed from the initial study. There were many professional databases to establish in the past two decades such as the databases of the NFGIS, the National Natural Resources and Environment Databases, the agriculture, forestry, land, geology, seismology, oceanography, meteorology, and water resources professional databases, etc. Each ministry has reasonably well established information networking systems and their databases. However, there was very poor connectivity between government sectors about 10 years ago. It is very difficult to straightaway fetch data from distributed databases because of various technical problems (like lack of uniform format of data and metadata) and policy problems (like how to share data). Why is this? For many reasons, one is security of information. Another is that the information is perceived as being of commercial value, but the government sectors cannot sell this information, so they would rather not share it as they view that as "losing" their property. Universities and research institutions are more willing to share information for research purposes. They are not particularly concerned with security, but they would prefer to put a commercial value on the data, and use it as a source for further research funding. The traditional institutional and social structures in China have not been conducive to open participation. However, things are changing, especially with economic liberalization and ongoing economic and social reform. Opening information channels within China not only requires the participation of various sectors, but also further fosters a participatory atmosphere. Moreover, some key national projects remodeled this situation to openness and participation.


Chinese government put effort to establish the geospatial data exchange network (clearinghouse). The meanings of the geospatial data exchange network are: Reduce the duplicate production of the spatial data, and strengthen the communication and cooperation among the data managers, producers and users. Satisfy the needs of the branches of the government and economic fields to access and obtain the certain spatial information conveniently. Implement the transfer, information extraction, amalgamation and integration of the heterogeneity and isomerous data from different sources so that the governmental decision-making can be supported.

Advance the information sharing and satisfy the needs of national information development as the key component of NSDI.

There are several geospatial data exchange websites to show these harvests such as Network of NFGIS (, Sustainable Development Information Network (, China Spatial Information Network (, National Spatial Information Network System ( and so on. The question is these websites brought a little new conflicting problem, for example non standard and inconsistent structure of databases. National Geomatics Center of China, SBSM participated to develop former 3 websites, so they are consistent, but last one was developed by another organization, they used different terms and specifications. This situation should be changed under the harmonization and guidance of NGICC and make convenient to sharing data.

2.5 ANALYSIS AND COMPARISON BETWEEN CHINA AND ADVANCED COUNTRIES Compared with developed countries, there are some critical issues in China, such as:

Lacking laws or stipulations to ensure the implementation of data sharing at the national level. Lacking forceful guidance and management to harmonize data held by different government agencies. It is a long way to go through all steps for working out a structured set of standards for GI community and spent much money. People are always felt standards are not enough. Lacking the technical innovation and application, for example, the majority research of geoprocessing interoperability is theoretic and few in practices. Lacking continual financing support to launch for updating databases and systems. Lacking quality evaluation for various professional data. The majority of geospatial data is not open to the public.

The issues mentioned above show the differences between China and advanced countries. Though NSDI has its own culture, legacy data, academic resources, professional organizations, governmental agencies, and legal and regulation structures, the coherence exists among various countries. The consistent aspect is that China has paid more attention to the construction of NSDI and geospatial data sharing, and the goal is implementation of the spatial information sharing farthest in the whole GI community.


Geospatial data sharing is taken for self-identify almost by each country's government and whole GI society. With the fast development of information technology (IT), especially network and communication technology, it is necessary to sharing geographical information (GI) through network. There are a lot of GI resources connected by the network, which gives good chance for accessing GI. Due to the shared data coming from the different departments and different organizations, moreover, these different departments and organizations not only have the difference methods to represent, store and operate data, but also they have the different ways to understand and think these GI. In order to make sharing and exchange GI usefully, we need a well environment including policies guarantee, unified and structured standard series and advanced technology, for the development and use of many information-based products. The contents of the environment include policy, legislation, standardization and supporting technology. It could be separated into three layers: abstract, semantic and technical layer (Table 1).

Abstract Layer Semantic Layer Technical Layer Table 1. Mechanism, policies, laws and regulations Standards and specifications Data capture, management, operation, deliver, disseminate, query and so on. A hierarchy of environment of data sharing

Abstract layer includes behavior, legal, policy and economical factors. Chiefly, the data owner should be with pleasure to share their data. Secondly, the laws, stipulations and policy restrict the condition and behavior of data sharing. Thirdly, the additional spending of data sharing effects the implementation. Semantic layer includes criterion that is uniform and acceptant. Using the standards, it is getting easy to solve the semantic mismatch, which existed between resources and receivers.

Technical layer includes the tools of management, capture, operation and service for sharing data. The general information technologies and geographic information technologies are essential.


A widely accepted policy framework of geospatial data sharing could ensure the establishment of NSDI and sharing data stably and long. Usually, the mechanism, security, copyright and price of geospatial data and data sharing should be included the relevant policies and laws. Working out policy and legislation should consider the key points or principals: Cooperative members agree to share geospatial data with other cooperative members; Data sharing cooperative open to government, entities and nonprofit organizations; Within cooperative, all members use same agreement; Data shared within cooperative at cost of duplication or less; Option to charge commercial users up to "Fair Market Value" for datasets; Option to put data into public domain; Data ownership maintained by original producer of dataset; Data owner sole source for particular dataset; Data errors/corrections returned to data owner for dataset revision at owner's discretion; Encourages partnerships with private sector for joint benefits.

3.2 STANDARDIZATION [4] [5] [6]

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) defines standards as "documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, procedures, and services are fit for their purpose." Further, "standards contribute to making life simpler, and to increasing the reliability and effectiveness of the goods and services we use." The purpose of geospatial standards is to facilitate data sharing and increase interoperability among automated geographic information systems. It is estimated that 80% of all data has a location component. Utilizing and linking this data together through relevant geospatial standards should be a priority national goal. The organization of GI standardization should provide minimal guidance on structure of standards and allow for standards to achieve coordination and interoperability status. Generally speaking, there are four basic categories of the information engineering standards; they are data, processes, organizations, and technology. Standardization solves the problems of sharing geospatial data from semantic layer anyway.


Organizations usually store geospatial data in heterogeneous data formats and in various databases and file systems scattered across the enterprise. Accessing relevant data in such a heterogeneous setting can be a daunting task because it requires the user to be familiar with different communication protocols as well as the nuances of various softwares. And the user must then synthesize the data into a coherent whole. Eliminating these inconveniences requires the development of common data representations and the capability to transparently access data in a distributed heterogeneous system. Therefore, the geospatial data sharing will be supported by newly network-based technology. The data management, data distribution or services, communication or connected network, data analysis and applications, and standards implementation, all of these will require technical supports. Future technological advances will make the data sharing more important, more secure and easier, such as the following: It is possible to implement a data management strategy for the myriad spatial databases. As data become easier to access, transport, and interpret, new procedures and techniques will be needed to ensure the security of spatial databases. It is apparent that metadata will play an increasing role in the widespread sharing and integration of geospatial data. Management of data quality and certification of data will increase in importance as the applications of spatial data expand. Technological developments offer the potential to strengthen the NSDI. Mechanisms to keep data current need to be incorporated into partnerships and technology implementation. As the NSDI evolves, our ability to deal with urgent problems such as flooding, storms, and accidents will improve. Data integration and maintenance will be supported and accomplished with continuously changing datasets.

Data distribution and geo-processing services via the Internet will be used for broad community.

Now there are several key techniques to utilize in data sharing such as WebGIS, communication and network, implementation of metadata standards and geoprocessing interoperability, etc.


There are some samples to show the progress about geospatial data sharing in China. Great efforts were made to develop the data sharing network and with the key techniques.


The NFGIS (formerly known as the National Land Information System) is one of the largest nationwide geographic information systems in China. It is being developed by the National Geomatics Center of China (NGCC). It is the main information system of the State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping (SBSM). Actually it is a common fundamental geospatial information system in China, and its databases are the main part of the NSDI in China. The system is divided into two levels: the National Center System in Beijing is at the national level (the first level), and subsystems in each province are at the provincial level (the second level). NFGIS doesn't include the urban level, but this level is an important part of NSDI. More and more cities in China have built or are building their own fundamental databases. As the main fundamental data sets, data bases of the NFGIS consists of several kinds: Topographic Data Base, Geographic Names Data Base, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Orthophoto Image Data Base, Digital Raster Map Data Base, Geodetic Data Base, Gravity Data Base. The NFGIS also has a database with certain thematic data such as land cover and land use. The 1:1,000,000-scale Data Base of the NFGIS has been established in 1994. The 1:250,000-scale Data Base cover the whole China has been established at the end of October 1998. The latter is the largest spatial database covers the whole country in China now. The NFGIS is being developed continuously. It is put in the central and local government infrastructure construction plan. Some in process tasks consist of: Designing and developing the 1:50,000 and 1:10,000-scales Data Bases. Designing and Building the NFGIS Network. Pay more attention to development of national and international standards The application of NFGIS. NFGIS data are basic, consistent digital geospatial datasets. It helps users locate their information in correct position, provides a means of sharing and integrating their data with other kinds of geospatial data, reduces duplication of effort and improves the efficiency and effectiveness for collecting and managing geospatial data.


With the development of computer, communication and network technology, information has become a significant driving factor for the increase of productivity as well as national strategic resource. Aiming at upgrading information sharing and integration with regard to sustainable development, meeting the demand from government agencies, and researching institutions and all sectors in the society, the Administrative Center for China' Agenda 21 (ACCA21) has established the Chinese Sustainable Development Network Center and the Chinese Sustainable Development Information System with the support of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST). This network is established with the support of the National Key Technologies Research and Development Program of China and with the participation of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), the Ministry of Land and Resources (MOLR), the Ministry of Water Resources (MOWR), the Academy of Sciences (CAS), the State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping (SBSM), the State

Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), the State Forestry Administration (SFA), the State Oceanic Administration (SOA), the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), the China Earthquake Administration (CEA), and other relevant agencies. More than first achieving information-sharing in the network, the accomplish of the network has also conducted research made on breakthrough in policies and mechanism, standardization and technology integration in view of "bottleneck-problems " in information sharing. It has become an excellent and influential model of how to realize the sharing of our fundamental information for the public good. Additionally, it provides tremendous social and economic benefits. This network, established under the presiding of MOST, the organizing of the ACCA21, and with the collaboration of the National Geomatics Center of China (NGCC), the Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, CAS, the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science (CAAS), the Chinese Academy of Forestry(CAF), the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), the Research Institute of Macro-economy of the State Development Planning Commission of ChinaSDPC, the State Academy of Geology, the National Marine Data and Information Service(MADIS), the Institute of Geology, CEA(IGCEA), the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Science(CAMS) and other relevant agencies is a all-rounded and comprehensive data resource of Chinese sustainable development. This network is an information management system composed of databases of different types, which are either concentrated or distributed. It mainly contains information on natural resources, eco-environments, environmental protection and natural disasters in china and also provide some information on social and economic issues and some additional information on sustainable development related policies, laws and regulations, knowledge and dictionaries dynamic news as well as relevant international and domestic websites or websites linked to database. There is a great diversity in forms of information such as attribute data, spatial data and multimedia data. The network contains one network center and sixteen distributed sub centers via the Internet. The network center is part of the structure of the ACCA21 as a pool for free-sharing data related to macro aspect of sustainable development. The ACCA21 is responsible for the coordination of the sub-centers and turn them into integral parts of systematic body, which offers various services to the users including consultancy and information download as means to realize information-sharing. It conducts comprehensive management of the attribute data and spatial data in the network center and its sub-centers. It furnishes complex information services composed of pictures and texts along with visual facilities for diversified analysis. The network enjoys good potential for expansion. Fireproofing walls ensure the high security and reliability of the system. Each database can be searched or visited through metadata and other searching tools. The metadata, Chinese national standard, is adopted from the ISO 19115: 2003. NGCC is in charge of developing the software of Metadata Editor, Management and Searching Tools.


Based on the NFGIS database and authoritative data, which can be obtained from the governmental websites via Internet, the National Dynamic Atlas of China (NDA) has been developed by NGCC since 2003. The aim of NDA project is to build a portal for exhibiting the physical physiognomy, social economy, environment, population, history, culture, disaster and other basic situation of China, to publish the geographic fundamental data, professional data and provide services such as searching, browsing, and creating theme maps. There are so many official alone website to distribute the data related location, such as the website of National Bureau of Statistic of China, China Meteorological Administration, the Network of Hydrological Information and so on. By dint of NDA, people could discover, capture and analyze various social, economic, natural and other information online or offline, filter and organize them and integrate with the 1:4M- or 1:1M-scale Topographic Database to make various thematic maps for different goals. All created maps could be updated dynamically. Through the Internet, users could query, synthetically analyze and use the data or maps, even make a new user customized map using the functions the system provided.


Building the SDI is a long-term project, and building the environment of geospatial data sharing is also a hard and long-term project in every country. In the future, it should be met the needs of administration and technology as follows:

Developing technology for the exchange or interoperability of geospatial data between participants. Cooperate in the sharing of geospatial data in order to realize maximum operating efficiency and cost savings. Developing technology for centralized public access to distributed data sets via a seamless Internet interface. Building the citizen-centered delivery channel, integrated information and online tools for ability to best respond to citizen deeds. Coordinating efforts when feasible and practical to avoid duplication of effort in production and collection of geospatial digital data. Coordinating contributions and updates to NSDI framework data made by participating agencies. Developing and implementing the national standards to better support business practices and to assure accuracy and consistency of data. Developing a strategy for long-term retention and archiving of outdated geospatial datasets.


The elements of human society form an integrated system that transcends specialties, trades, jurisdiction and even national boundaries. It is necessary to collect and analyze geospatial data from all parts of the community. Spatial data is essential infrastructure in the sense that it serves many purposes and many people. The research and development efforts for data sharing will bring many benefits for users, including: lower prices, better ability to choose specific functionality, better integration of geospatial data into analyses and reports, better advantage from other's investments in data production, more efficient and profitable sale and distribution of geospatial data, less time spent manipulating data prior to use, highly leveraged metadata efforts, and a means of utilizing the huge volumes of data. The environment of data sharing includes policy, legislation, standardization, technology, implementation and application. It is separated three layers: abstract, semantic and technical. The construction of this environment is urgent affairs to ensure the implementation and development of SDI successfully. We have seen the harvests and efforts from government, organizations, researchers and civilian in China.


[1] Bruce Ralston, GIS and Public Data, Thomson LearningTM, 2004 [2] The website of the Local Authorities System Development Center, URL: [3] The website of the Chinese Sustainable Development Network, URL: [4] The website of FGDC, URL: [5] The website of OGC, URL: [6] The website of ISO/TC211, URL: [7] The website of NFGIS, URL: [8] The website of SBSM, URL: [9] The website of the China National Spatial Information Infrastructure, URL: [10] LIU Ruomei and JIANG Jingtong, Researching and Implementation of Metadata Standard For Geographic Information in China, Proceedings of the International Symposium on Spatial Data Quality, Hong Kong, 1999 [11] LIU Ruomei and JIANG, Development and application of the Common Fundamental Geographic Information Platform for Sustainable Development Information Sharing, Resources Science,China, 2001 [12] JIANG Jingtong and LIU Ruomei, Development of the Spatial Data Framework of NSDI in China, Proceedings of Spatial Data Infrastructure and Digital Earth, SBSM, China, 1999




Employment: National Geomatics Center of China (NGCC), State Bureau of Surveying and Mapping (SBSM) Title / Position: Associate Professor / Director of Dept. of Information Service

Ms. Liu Ruomei was graduated from Wuhan Technical University of Surveying and Mapping in 1984 and got Master degree from Nanjing University in 1993. She started her work at the Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping in 1984 and got Associate Professor title there. Since 1995, she works at the NGCC as the director of Department of GIS Applications. She is making scientific researches on GIS applications and developing Distribution Service System of NFGIS, and also on geographic information standardization since 1990. She is key researcher for projects, such as the National Dynamic Atlas of China(NDA), establishing 1:250,000 scale Topographic Database of National Fundamental Geographic Information System, designing and establishing the Fundamental Geographic Information Sub-Center of China Sustainable Development Information Network for Data Sharing and Service, working out the national standard "Geographic Information - Metadata" and "Geographic Information - Data Quality Control", etc.



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