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Module 3c

Transportation fuels and biorefineries

Outline

1. Resources 2. Biomass based industries 3. Biorefinery definition 4. Biorefinery opportunities 5. From biomass sugars to residues 6. Fast pyrolysis' possible role 8. Conclusions

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1

Resources

Origin: forestry, energy crops, agriculture, plantations Availability: about the current crude oil production (100 EJ) Use: 12 % of the world energy consumption (but mainly traditional!) Barriers: transport, bio-diversity / landscape, food competition, minerals and water, political issues, public acceptance, costs

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Biomass-based industries

Timber / Pulp and paper Food / Pharmaceutics Heat and power (4 % of the world energy consumption) Sugar based bio-chemicals (corn, potato, soybean, wheat) Bio-ethanol from sugar and starch Bio-diesel from plant oils (pressing)

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2

Biomass-refinery definition

First Google hits Cluster of biobased industries producing chemicals, fuels, power, products, and materials (Iowa State University) A biorefinery is a facility that integrates biomass conversion processes and equipment to produce fuels, power, and value added chemicals from biomass. The biorefinery concept is analogous to today's petroleum refinery, which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum. (Wikipedia)

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Biomass-refinery opportunities

Timber / pulp and paper:

­ residue combustion and gasification, already implemented

Food / Pharmaceutics:

­ fully developed bio-refineries; residues maybe available

Sugar / starch chemicals:

­ fully developed bio-refineries; residues maybe available

Bio-ethanol / Bio-diesel:

­ lignin residues / glycerol

Classic crude oil refinery:

­ co-feeding opportunity for bio-liquids

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3

Current bio-ethanol process

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Fuel from food crops?

Drawbacks:

­ ­ ­ ­ ethical (competition with food) economical (food part of the plant has the highest value CO2 reduction effect from the entire energy Balance is limited huge quantities of food crops required

Second generation bio-fuels must be derived from biomass residues instead of food crops

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US view of the bio-ethanol refinery

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From biomass sugars to biomass residues

Challenge: produce energy and chemicals from biomass residues (lignocellulosic materials) Difficulty: residues cannot be de-polymerized to a single monomer building block for chemicals and fuels Solution 1: complete thermal cracking to bio-syngas as a basis for fuels and chemicals production Solution 2: partial thermal decomposition to "fast pyrolysis oil" and by-products

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5

The potential role of fast pyrolysis

Part of a sugars-based bio-refinery based on residue pyrolysis for fuel and, perhaps, products Incorporation into a gasification and chemical/fuel synthesis plant Stand-alone facilities with distributed production and centralized processing and refining, or true stand-alone with or without fractionation and product processing Part of a petroleum refinery with distributed production and centralized processing

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Fast pyrolysis in a sugars based refinery

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Fast pyrolysis in a syngas based refinery

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Fast pyrolysis: stand-alone refinery

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Fast pyrolysis: stand-alone refinery

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Fast pyrolysis: simple refinery examples

separate phenolics for resins leaving an aqueous fraction and reform aqueous fraction for hydrogen as product for hydrogenation (NREL) separate liquid smoke and other specialties and burn organic residues as fuel (Red Arrow, Broste, Quest) separate liquid smoke and other specialties and use residual pyrolignitic fraction for wood preservatives byproducts of fast pyrolysis (gas and char) are used for biomass feedstock drying which is essential for the production of a high quality bio-oil

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Fast pyrolysis as part of a petroleum refinery

BIOCOUP - "Co-processing of upgraded bio-liquids in standard refinery units" an EC supported Project The aim is to develop a chain of process steps, allowing liquefied biomass feedstock to be co-fed to a conventional oil refinery

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Another biorefinery appraoch

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Transport fuels from biomass

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Hydrocarbon transport fuels

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R&D needs

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Conclusions

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Conclusions

US have their own biorefinery strategy (bioethanol based) Second generation processes must be developed (non-food Chemicals from biomass can be produced from sugars/starch, bio-syngas or fast-pyrolysis products Biomass based industries often are fully developed bio refineries (AVEBE, Unilever, etc. ) Numerous opportunities exist for fast pyrolyis-oil chemicals, but they all still need to be developed

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Conclusions

Two decades of science and technology development have shown fast pyrolysis oil to be an attractive intermediate bio-fuel and source of chemicals The production technology is mature. BTG and Genting are demonstrating EFB pyrolysis at a scale of 10 MWth (2 tons/hr). Gasification of 8 tons bio-oil and co-combustion of 15 tons bio-oil has been demonstrated. The investment costs are estimated at 2.5 million . Bio-oil production costs are approximately 100 /ton or 6 /GJ.

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Conclusions

Pyrolysis and gasification plants are limited in size by local biomass availability Gasification with transport fuel synthesis is costly due to small plants sizes Bio-oil gasification for transport fuel synthesis has a lower cost than biomass gasification and gives a cleaner syngas product because much larger plant sizes are possible Bio-oil has been successfully used in diesel engines and gas turbines and there are a variety of opportunities for direct upgrading to transport fuel

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THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION TERIMAH KASIH

13

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Microsoft PowerPoint - Transportation fuels and biorefinery.ppt

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Microsoft PowerPoint - Transportation fuels and biorefinery.ppt