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Spain's colourful traditions have over the centuries yielded many distinguished surnames, which have been carried from the Old World to the New, and to almost every corner of the globe. The name Castaneda has been traced to its source in Castile, in north central Spain. Spanish surnames often conserve ancient spellings with few changes, which distinguishes them from names originating in England, France and Germany. The variations Castaneda, Castanon, Castarede do, however, share the same origin. The first group to populate what are today Spain and Portugal were the Iberians, who traveled north from Africa around tooo B.C., following the rivers inland. Celts from northern Europe began to establish settlements in the peninsula in the 14th century B.C., in the northern and western regions, which today are home to Galicia and Portugal. About zoo years later, the Phoenicians made contact with these peoples, established small coastal trading centres, and built lighthouses and cities that still exist today. The other Mediterranean power to establish a presence in Spain was the Creeks, around 630 B.C. They founded several cities for trading purposes. Over the next 200 years, the Greeks were displaced by the Canhaghiam, who wished to expand their Mediterranean empire. This expansion, however, brought Canhage into conflict with Rome, and led ultimately to war. The 2nd Punic War, 219-201 B.C., determined that Spain would be controlled by Rome. The Romans first subdued the coastal peoples, who had had contact with other cultures, but it would take many years for Rome to control the north and west of the peninsula. Some of the original Celts and Iberians had, meanwhile, formed a mixed culture in the central peninsula, the Celtiberians. Each of the peoples of the peninsula had unique customs, and each had a different language and religion. These cultures interacted with the Romans differently, adapting to the new ways. The Romans were the first newcomers to alter the people's way of life over the entire peninsula, with their accomplishments in law, agriculture, architecture, engimeriing and the sciences. Rome pensioned many soldiers in Hispania, founding cities that still stand today, such as Zaragoza and Mtxida. Maniages between Romans and local women created a blended Hispano-Roman culture. The emperors Hadrian, Trajan and Marcus Aurelius were Spanish by birth, as were many Latin writers, including the two Senecis, Lucan, Martial, Quintilian, Columella and hdentius. Early in the jth century the Viigoths conquered Hispania, but they lived apart from the people and never had the same influence that Rome had exerted. The best-

known Spaniard of this time was St. Isidore, who became Bishop of Seville. In p~ Spain was invaded by Muslims from Africa, who soon conquered the entire peninsula except Asnuias, in the north. Traces of their presence remain today in cities such as Granada and Cordoba, witnesses to the important cultural conmbutions of the Muslims. The Christians of the north, however, began a concerted resistance that would ultimately re-conquer the peninsula, although the struggle would last almost 800 years. During the tenth cennuy Castile became independent and began a series of alliances and banles that would push the frontier southward. Castile's first king, Ferdinand, united his kingdom with b n , and also controlled Galicia. By the end of the ~ r t h cennuy the Christian re-conquest had reached Toledo and Valencia, and it would continue until 1492, when Ferdinand and Isabella took Granada. The Castaneda family originated in Castile, leader of the Christian Reconquest of Spain from the Muslims. From Castile the family branched to other regions of the north, including Lon, Galicia, Navarre and Aragon. As the armies of the Reconquest progressed southwards, led by Castile, families from the north followed after them and settled in the newly recapnued lands. Thus the family branched to southern Spain, b c m n established in Seville and Cordoba among other centres, and eventually eoig Granada. Prominent among members of the family general don Ramen de Castaneda y Rada, who was made the Count of udalla onJune 19, @ I . The fall of Granada on 2 January 1492 meant that the Spanish Crown could nun its attention to empire-building. Ferdinand and Isabella supported Columbus' voyages to the west, which began an era of exploration and conquest that would take Spaniards and their language and culture around the world. The First explorers were soon followed by the conquistadors, and Spanish settlements were founded throughout Central and South America. Among the great conquistadors were Conb, Pizarro, Valdivia and Balboa, who led many others in search of wealth and adventure. The settlers who built upon these foundations of the Spanish Empire included members of the Castaneda family. Early migrants to the New World bearing this surname include: Alonso De Castaneda, who arrived in America in 1512; h b e De Castaneda, who came to New Granada in 1577; Cristobal De Castaneda, who arrived in America in 1528; Juana De Castaneda, who arrived in New Spain in 19;well as Pedro De Castaneda, who came to Peru in 1j6j. as The greatest influx of immigrants to the United States occurred between the I&los

and the 1920s. Between these years, around 3 million immigrants arrived in the 7 United States. Many of these later settlers followed opportunities westward. Some of the more prominent bearers of this family name in recent history include: Carlos Castaneda, American author; Carlos Castaneda (1925-1998) Peruvian author on Mesoamerican shamanism; Maria "Movita" Castaneda (b.19~) American actress, second wife of Marlon Brando; Cacho Castaneda (b.1942) Argentine singer and actor; Juan Castaneda (b.1980) Spanish championship fencer; and Christian Castaiieda (b.1968) Chilean football player. One of the earliest coats of arms granted to this family was: A red shield with three bends of ermine. The coat of arms found for a bearer of the Castaneda surname did not include a motto. Under most heraldic authorities, a motto is an optional component of the coat of arms, and many families have chosen not to display a motto.

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