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saxelmZRvanelo gamoicema euTos erovnul umciresobaTa umaRlesi komisris ofisis mxardaWeriT proeqtis `multilingvuri ganaTlebis reformis mxardaWera saqarTveloSi~ farglebSi. saxelmZRvaneloSi wamodgenili mosazrebebi ekuTvnis `samoqalaqo integraciisa da erovnebaTSorisi urTierTobebis centrs~ da SesaZloa ar emTxveodes euTos euuk-is Tvalsazriss.

The textbook is published in the framework of the project `Supporting Multilingual Educational Reform in Georgia`. The project is funded by the office of OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities. The contents of this publication are the sole responsibility of Center for Civil Integration and inter-Ethnic Relations (CCIIR) and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities.

redaqtori: Salva tabataZe

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ISBN 978-9941-0-3086-4

Tamila CubiniZe maia inasariZe nino SaraSeniZe kaxa gabunia

enisa da sagnis integrirebuli swavleba zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolebis sabazo da saSualo safexurebze

UDC(uak)37.016+37.016:81-02831 e-688

Tbilisi 2010 weli

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Sinaarsi

Sesavali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tavi I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. enis swavlebis roli da mniSvneloba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. mSobelTa CarTuloba bilingvuri swavlebis procesSi . . . . . . . 3. ra midgomebi arsebobs enis swavlebaSi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. meore enis swavleba sagnobriv Sinaarsze dafuZnebiT . . . . . . . . 5. moswavleTaTvis enis aTvisebis procesSi gamosayenebeli ZiriTadi principebi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. enis aTvisebis xelSemwyobi da xelis SemSleli aqtorebi . . . . . 7. pedagogTa TanamSromloba bilingvuri swavlebis procesSi . . . . 8. mSobliuri enis roli bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi . . . . . . Tavi 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. teqstebze muSaoba bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi . . . . . . . . . 2. grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Secdomebze muSaoba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. bilingvuri gakveTilis Sefaseba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tavi 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. bilingvuri gakveTilis dagegmva . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. bilingvuri gakveTilis dagegmvis etapebi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tavi 4 qarTuli enisa da geografiis integrirebuli swavlebis sanimuSo gakveTilebi da Tematika. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . danarTi (rekomendebuli funqciuri frazebi sagnis maswavleblebisTvis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 81 27 29 31 34 39 39 44 52 62 67 67 69 5 11 11 14 17 20

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Sesavali

winamdebare leblebisTvisaa gauwios klasebSi sabazo wigni da bilingvuri misi mizania skolis ganaTlebis meToduri pedagogebs dagegmvaSi, maswavdaxmareba bilingvur

gankuTvnili. masalis

saSualo

saswavlo

Tematur

gakveTilebis

dagegmvasa da SefasebaSi. gzamkvlevis am nawilSi mimoxilulia is sakiTxebi, romlebic maswavlebelma saswavlo masalis dagegmvisa da swavlebis procesSi unda gaiTvaliswinos. es aris

moswavlis

swavlis

stili

da da da

inteleqtis saxeebi, aseve motivaciis xelSemwyobi faqtorebi. aqve

maswavleblebi da gaecnobian Tematur dagegmvis komponentebsa saxeebsa gakveTilis dagegmvis zogad principebs; aqve iqneba rekomendaciebi axsna-ganmartebebi saxelmZRvanelos Sefasebis meore miznebze, nawilSi tipebze, Cven meTodebze. maswavleblebs SevTavazebT bilingvuri gakveTilebis scenarebs. * * * ganaTlebis enobrivi codnis sistemam erTad, aucileblad moicavs unda gaiTvaliswinos romelic, da kulturuli politikis SeZenasTan sakiTxebi. ganaTlebis procesi,

socialuri

faseulobebis dauflebas, xorcieldeba enis saSualebiT. enis matarebelTa transnacionaluri ganlagebis gamo, erTi da igive ena erT qveyanaSi SeiZleba warmoadgendes saxelmwifo enas, meoreSi ki _ erovnul umciresobaTa enas (magaliTad, somxuri da azerbaijanuli enebi, romlebic saqarTvelos teritoriaze

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umciresobaTa enebia, somxeTsa da azerbaijanSi ki - saxelmwifo enebi). garda amisa, arsebobs adgilobriv eTnikur umciresobaTa garkveuli raodenoba, romlebic sakmaod mcirericxovanni arian da saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi cxovroben SezRudul teritoriaze (magaliTad, afxazebi, bacbebi). xsenebuli jgufebis warmomavloba da enebi gansxvavdeba umravlesobis eTnikuri warmomavlobisa da enisagan. udidesi mniSvneloba eniWeba qveynis moqalaqeTa cxovrebaSi saxelmwifo enis flobas: urTierToba saxelmwifo instituciebTan, oficialuri enaze dokumentebis Sedgena, diskusiebi da debatebi karieris parlamentsa Tu sxva saxelmwifo dawesebulebebSi - saxelmwifo mimdinareobs; Tu, Sesabamisad, sazogadod, umciresobaTa qveynis piradi ganviTarebisa cxovrebaSi CarTulobis

uzrunvelyofis TvalsazrisiT, qarTuli enis daufleba uaRresad saWiro da aucilebelia. Tumca, faqtia, rom dResdReobiT, kvlav problemaa umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebul regionebSi saxelmwifo enis swavla-swavlebis sakiTxi. saxelmwifo doneze seriozulad dgeba erovnul umciresobaTa warmomadgenelTa mozardebisTvis Tanamedrove ganaTlebis sistemis farglebSi saxelmwifo enis iseT doneze swavlebis sakiTxi, rom

maT SeZlon Sromis bazarze arsebul konkurenciaSi mSobliuri enis matareblebTan Tanabar pirobebSi miiRon monawileoba.

Tumca, saxelmwifo prioritetebi ar SeiZleba iyos wminda ekonomikuri. maT unda hqondeT socialuri mimarTuleba im mizniT, rom mosaxleobas ar gauadvildes is adaptacia garemoeba, socialur-ekonomikuri rom mosaxleobis did monawileobis gavlenas miReba reorganizaciis jgufebs adasturebs periodSi. SeuZliaT enobrivi

srulfasovani kompetenciebis

ekonomikur an socialur cxovrebaSi enobrivi problemebis gamo, saxelmwifos socialur erTianobaze. erTi mxriv, socialuri da politikuri

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xasiaTis problemebs SeuZliaT daayenon dRis wesrigSi saxelmwifo enis igive Seswavla im doneze, axdens rom mosaxleobam da ar igrZnos Tavi mxriv, ganaTlebasa da profesiul karieraSi daCagrulad. meore problemebi regionul erovnul enebis Seswavlis stimulirebas. bevri mSobeli da Temi miiCnevs, rom Tu bavSvis ganaTlebis procesSi didi dro eTmoba meore da mesame enas, aman SeiZleba iqonios uaryofiTi gavlena bavSvis pirvel enaze da mis zogad ganviTarebaze. mSobliuri enis mniSvnelobis SegrZneba exmareba adamians imis gansazRvraSi, Tu ra adgili ukavia mas sazogadoebaSi. ena eTnikuri kuTvnilebis TvalsaCino niSania, amitomac is yvelaze advilad iqceva xolme ama Tu im eTnikuri jgufis simbolod da ZiriTad Taviseburebad konfliqtur situaciaSi. gamokvlevebi aCvenebs, rom konfliqturi situaciis warmoqmnis mizezi xdeba ara ena, aramed sul sxva problemebi. im dros, rodesac socialuri, da politikuri faqtorebi SeiZleba gaxdes konfliqtis mizezi, enebi warmoadgenen saSualebasac. unda ganvasxvavoT erTmaneTisagan is programebi, romlebic Seqmnilia umciresobaTaTvis im qveynis saxelmwifo enis swavlebisTvis, sadac isini cxovroben da, meore mizania, umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebma sazogadoebaSi mieces mxriv, ucxo enebis monawileoba unda iyos araTu problemas, aramed misi gadawyvetis

umciresobaTa

swavlebis programebi. meore enis swavleba / Seswavlis saboloo aqtiuri wevri qveynis sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi. multikulturul enobrivi sxvaobisa) yvela Tanasworuflebiani - yvelas (miuxedavad eTnikuri, religiuri Tu unda konkurentunarian, Tanaswor garemoSi arsebobis ufleba.

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* * * dResdReobiT swavlebis swavleba, erTaderT rogorc aseve, monolingvuria saqarTvelos formad dominant saganmanaTleblo monolingvuri (saxelmwifo) enaze sivrceSi rCeba: enebze mimdinare modeli

eTnikur umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebis

mimdinare swavlebis forma: qarTul skolebSi swavlebis ena erTia (qarTuli); ucxo ena iswavleba, rogorc sagani; aseve, mxolod erT enaze mimdinareobs swavleba rusul, somxur, azerbaijanul, osur skolebSi saxelmwifo ena iswavleba, rogorc sagani, iseve, rogorc sxva (ucxo) enebi. es iyo (da dRemde rCeba) sabWouri modeli. ra Tqma unda, saTanado moswavlem pirobebis garkveul SeqmniT doneze (garemo, pedagogebi aiTvisos ojaxSi da esa Tu salaparako is ena, ena, meTodikurad momzadebuli sxva) SesaZlebelia magram,

samwuxarod, arc aseTi pirobebi gvaqvs (gansakuTrebiT, eTnikuri umciresobebiT kompaqturad dasaxlebul regionebSi) da amocanac (igulisxmeba konkurenciis gaweva erTian erovnul gamocdebSi qarTul enaSi) araadekvaturia. maSin, rodesac ganaTlebis sistemis reforma instituti, (metic mowodebulia, am problemis erTaderT saerTod arseboba aRmofxvras Zalauneburad tovebs) repetitorobis xels uwyobs socialuri

SesaZleblobad

TvalsazrisiT gaumarTlebel movlenas. Sesabamisad, unda vifiqroT institucionalur cvlilebebze modelze, romelic principulad Secvlis midgomas saskolo sivrceSi enobrivi ganaTlebis TvalsazrisiT.

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* * * saskolo momzadebis mravalenovani ganaTleba nebismieri bavSvis amasTan, elementia multikulturul sazogadoebaSi,

bavSvis mSobliuri kulturuli garemo ki ar iTrguneba, aramed viTardeba da ukeT warmoCindeba meore enis garemosTan Sedarebis fonze. mravalenovani ganaTlebis (bilingvuri ganaTleba mravalenovani ganaTlebis konkretuli saxea) ZiriTadi gansxvaveba monolingvurisgan is aris, rom swavlebis ena mxolod saSualeba ki ar aris, aramed da mizanic. aqedan da sagnobriv enobrivi gamomdinare, Sinaarsze orive miznis saWiroa gakveTils (pirobiTad gamudmebuli gakveTilsa Soris. dasavleTis wamyvan qveynebSi miRebuli forma xdeba meore enis swavleba Sinaarsze dafuZnebiT (content-based second language teaching), anu sagnobrivi Sinaarsisa da meTodika, romelic sagnebis konkretuli enis integrirebuli enobriv swavleba _ swavlebis iseTi esTetikuri) swavlebis konkretuli gaRrmavebaSic afarToebs kompetencias enis sagnobrivi balansireba specifikuri enobrivi) misaRwevad

fokusirebul

mimarTulebis

(sabunebismetyvelo, romelic gakveTils. erTad, romel im

sazogadoebrivi, scildeba enis maswavlebeli, codnis xorcieldeba swavlebis da

Sinaarsze Cveulebriv, sagnis exmareba

dayrdnobiT, tradiciul moswavles, da swavlebasTan

enazec

sagnis swavleba. sagnobrivi meore mxriv ki Sinaarsisa enis integrirebuli enebis mizani, erTi mxriv, saxelmwifo enis saTanado doneze aTviseba, umciresobaTa SenarCunebasa ganviTarebaze zrunvaa. aseTi konceptualuri midgoma umciresobaTa warmomadgenlebs uxsnis enobrivi da masze, ase vTqvaT, `gadabmuli~

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erovnuli TviTidentifikaciis dakargvis safrTxis SegrZnebas da motivacias umaRlebs Semswavlelebsa da maT mSoblebs, Seiswavlon saxelmwifo ena: maTTvis cxadi xdeba, rom saskolo bilingvuri ganaTleba winsvlisa warmatebis mozardis da misaRwevad, momzadebis amasTan, instrumentia Tu bavSvis misi karieruli sferoebSi kulturuli socialur-ekonomikur politikur mSobliuri

garemo ki ar iTrguneba, aramed viTardeba da ukeT warmoCindeba meore enis garemosTan Sedarebis fonze. ganaTlebis tradiciuli sistema umciresobis warmomadgenel bavSvebs bavSvebs sTavazobs ar aZlevs an arCevans: an ganaTlebas enis mSobliur enaze, romelsac Tan axlavs saxelmwifo enis formaluri swavleba, rac saxelmwifo ganaTlebas srulyofilad enaze, Seswavlis rac iwvevs SesaZleblobas, saxelmwifo

umciresobis mSobliuri enis codnis simwires. bilingvuri ganaTleba umciresobaTa warmomadgenel bavSvebs sTavazobs orive enis myari codnis SeZenis SesaZleblobas ise, rom maT es enebi yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi gamoiyenon.

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Tavi I

1. enis swavlebis roli da mniSvneloba

enis roli adamianis cxovrebaSi ganusazRvrelia: ena ganasxvavebs mas cxovelisgan, qmnis adamianad. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom enam Seqmna adamiani. adamians sxva cocxal arsebaTagan ganasxvavebs, upirveles yovlisa, is, rom mas SeuZlia gamoiyenos sxvaTa mier mopovebuli (warsulSi dagrovebuli) codna. es ki enis gareSe warmoudgenelia. ena xalxis, eris arsebobis upirvelesi niSania. ena ar aris erTi adamianis, konkretuli piris kuTvnileba - igi sazogadoebrivi movlenaa. metic - ena erovnuli msoflxedvaa, samyaros Taviseburi aRqma-Secnoba. enas ori ZiriTadi funqcia (daniSnuleba) aqvs: upirveles yovlisa, igi azrovnebis iaraRia (enis eqspresiuli funqcia); magram azrovneba warmoudgenelia sazogadoebasTan, xalxTan urTierTobis gareSe. ase rom, enis meore funqcia uSualod ukavSirdeba pirvels - igi imavdroulad urTierTobis saSualebaa (enis komunikaciuri funqcia). rogorc zemoT iTqva, yoveli ena samyaros Tavisebur xedvas gvTavazobs da sxvadasxvagvarad aSuqebs cnebebs. erTi da imave cnebis or sxvadasxva enaze Seswavla mis sxvadasxva kuTxiT ganxilvas gulisxmobs. `ramdenic meti ena ici, miT meti kaci xaro~... gadmogvcems Zveli qarTuli sibrZne.

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saxelmwifo enis dauflebis saSualebebis SeTavazebiT, saxelmwifo Tavis moqalaqeebs codnasa da CarTulobas sTavazobs. amasTanave, gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, rom SeTavazeba moxdes ara mxolod ritorikul doneze, aramed gegmazomieri RonisZiebebis saxiT. zogadsaganmanaTleblo etapze saxelmwifo enis codnis uzrunvelyofa erT-erTi pirveli da realisturi amocanaa; amasTanave, cxadia, rom mizanmimarTuli RonisZiebebi mxolod am etapiT ar unda Semoifarglos. saxelmwifo enis Seswavla yvela asakobrivi jgufisaTvis unda gaxdes SesaZlebeli, rac uwyveti ganaTlebis saerTaSoriso mimarTulebasac Tanxvdeba. Tumca dReisaTvis saxelmwifo enis swavlebis gaZlierebisaTvis yvelaze bunebrivi sivrce, rasakvirvelia, skolaa. aq imTaviTve igulisxmeba, rom im skolebSic, sadac mTeli saswavlo procesi moswavleTa mSobliur, xolo rusulenovani skolebis SemTxvevaSi _ rusul enaze mimdinareobs, qarTuli ena da literatura savaldebulo sagania. Sesabamisad, gansakuTrebuli organizaciuli da finansuri Zalisxmevis gareSe problemis gadaWra swored am etapidan aris SesaZlebeli. Tumca faqtia, rom, iSviaTi gamonaklisebis garda, moswavleebi skolas ver amTavrebdnen enis codniT aRWurvilebi. aq Tavis rols TamaSobda qarTuli enobrivi garemos ararseboba, yofiT situaciebSi enis gavrcelebis simwire. enis Seswavla metad xangrZlivi procesia da did dros moiTxovs. yuradReba unda mivaqcioT erT mniSvnelovan detals: sazogadod, ganasxvaveben enobrivi kompetenciis or sabazo enobriv kompetencias dones. erTi moicavs interpersonaluri komunikaciisaTvis

(siku _ sabazo interpersonaluri sakomunikacio unarebi _ es aris enis Sre, romelsac viyenebT yofiT situaciebSi da yoveldRiur urTierTobaSi. transportiT moswavleebTan enis am Sres bavSvebi iTviseben ezoSi TamaSis, telefonze dros. saubris, skolaSi socialuri urTierTobebi mgzavrobis, urTierTobis

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konteqstSia Casmuli da, rogorc wesi, damxmare saSualebebiTaa ganmtkicebuli _ Jesti, mimika da sxv. isini funqcionaluria da naklebad moiTxovs kognitur rangis daZabulobas. enobriv ena naklebad meore aris ki _ datvirTuli specifikuri leqsikuri erTeulebiT); kompetencias kalu aris

kognitur-akademiuri

(kalu

kognitur-akademiuri

enobrivi

unarebi;

formaluri

akademiuri swavlis ena. is moicavs mosmenas, laparaks, kiTxvas da weras sagnobrivi Sinaarsis garSemo). skola moqmedebs. moswavleebs efeqturad sakomunikacio is adgilia, da sadac enis orive Sre intensiurad viTarebaSi enis sabazo swavlisa orive unarebi cxovrebis sazogadod, sxvadasxva pirvel rac

enobrivi unda

kompetencia ganviTardes,

esaWiroebaT. etapze

aTvisebisaTvis,

aratradiciuli

instruqtaJiT ukeT miiRweva. enebis swavlebis arsebuli, dRes moqmedi saskolo-saswavlo kursiT SesaZlebelia mxolod pirveli donis (siku) kompetenciebis daufleba, meore donis (kalu) enobrivi kompetenciis dasaufleblad ki gacilebiT meti dro da Tvisebrivad sxva tipis

saswavlo strategiis SemuSaveba da damkvidrebaa saWiro; iseTi strategiisa, romelic moswavles daexmareba am enaze saazrovno operaciebis Sesrulebas. swored aseT strategias warmoadgens bilingvuri swavleba. moswavles uwevs meore enaze konkretuli sagnis Seswavla, rac imas niSnavs, rom mas uwevs am enaze azrovneba.

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2. mSobelTa CarTuloba bilingvuri swavlebis procesSi

skola da ojaxi erTmaneTze axdens pirdapir gavlenas da skolisa da ojaxis TanamSromloba qmnis maqsimalurad efeqtur saswavlo orenovneba garemos. da bilingvuri ganaTlebis radgan procesSi skolisa moaxdinon gacilebiT maTi xma viTardeba da ojaxis saskolo iSviaTad uaRresad ormagi wigniereba,

interesi emTxveva erTmaneTs. mSoblebs umciresobis bilingvuri SeuZliaT moswavleTa ganaTlebis zegavlena mSoblebi mxardasaWerad urTierTobebze, raTa skolam upasuxos maT moTxovnebs. samwuxarod, erTiandebian da ayeneben moTxovnebs, realurad ki bilingvizmisa da mniSvnelovania... skola, ojaxi da Temi urTierTdamokidebuli organizmia da erTmaneTTan funqcia `arasruli zrdasruli codnasa aRweven... moicavs da TanamSromlobiT isini arian da ganakveTis funqcionirebs. moxaliseebi, damxmareebi. mSoblebs vTqvaT, mravali skolis saxlSi, SeuZliaT romlis aqvT; ase

TanamSromlebi~,

maswavleblebi ojaxebs

moswavleebi informacias, codna,

uzrunvelyon maswavleblebi `codnis fondiT~, kulturul

rac gulisxmobs

gamocdilebas, skolam

meSveobiTac es ojaxebi Tavs irCenen, winaurdebian da warmatebebs ojaxis romelic SeiZleba xeebis, gamoiyenos, mcenareTa informacias yvavilebis, nargavebis,

Teslebis, soflis meurneobis, wylis ganawilebisa da sanavigacio sistemebis, administrirebisa da marTvis, cxovelebze zrunvis da veterinariis, meurneobebis, medicinis, rewvis, manqanaTmSeneblobis, warmoebis sasoflo xaliCebis eleqtrifikaciis,

xalxuri tradiciebis, simRerebisa da cekvis, saxalxo da bunebrivi saSualebebiT mkurnalobis, arqeologiis, farikaobis, maTematikisa

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da biologiis da agreTve uamravi enisa da damwerlobis Sesaxeb. mSoblebsa da maswavleblebs Soris SesaZlebelia imdenad mWidro urTierTobebi ganviTardes, rom maswavleblebi iqcnen mSobelTa socialuri qselis nawilad, rac kidev metad gazrdis mSobelTa CarTulobas da saswavlo procesis efeqturobas. aRsaniSnavia, rom Zalian xSirad maswavlebelTa da mSobelTa urTierToba problematuria, isini xSirad ar TanamSromloben, ver ugeben erTmaneTs da yalibdeba antagonizmi skolasa da ojaxs Soris. skolisa da ojaxis urTierTobebis gaanalizebiT xSirad SesaZlebeli xdeba umciresobaTa moswavleebis akademiuri CamorCenis mizezebis povna da axsna. mSoblebma aucileblad unda gaacnobieron, rom maT gaaCniaT uflebebi da valdebulebebi da agreTve Zalaufleba, rom gavlena moaxdinon sakuTari Svilis ganaTlebis procesze: yvelaze mTavaria mSoblis dadebiTi damokidebuleba im faqtis mimarT, rom misi Svili swavlobs or an sam enaze. miuxedavad imisa, rom mSoblebma SesaZloa ar icodes regularulad unda romelime ekiTxebodes maTgani, bavSvs, mas ra mainc Tavisuflad Temaze saubroben SeuZlia daexmaros bavSvs, Seiswavlos es enebi. amisaTvis mSobeli skolaSi sxvadasxva gakveTilze, ra iyo misTvis mniSvnelovani, ra ainteresebs da aRelvebs... amiT bavSvi igrZnobs, rom rasac is akeTebs skolaSi, mniSvnelovani da seriozulia, igi dainteresdeba ufro metad. kargi iqneba, mSobelma gamoiyenos SesaZlebloba da iswavlos sakuTari Svilisgan is ena, romelsac ver flobs... es daexmareba bavSvs TviTSefasebaSi, swavlaSi da, rasakvirvelia, ganaviTarebs Tavad mSoblis enobriv SesaZleblobebsac. bevri miiCnevs, rom bavSvs unda elaparakon aramSobliur enaze, Tu is swavlobs mravalenovan klasSi. sinamdvileSi es ase ar aris. Tu mSobeli bavSvTan yovelTvis saubrobda mSobliur enaze da uceb daiwyebs saubars sxva enaze _ warmoiqmneba arabunebrivi

15

situacia, bavSvica da mSobelic igrZnoben Tavs uxerxulad da Sedegi iqneba sawinaaRmdego... amitom aucilebelia, saxlSi gaagrZeloT laparaki im enaze, romelzec saubrobdiT adre. bavSvi sxva enebs mSoblis Carevis gareSec kargad iswavlis mravalenovan jgufSi. mSoblebisTvis saukeTeso rCevaa, daamyaron mWidro kontaqti maswavleblebTan. maswavleblebi iqnebian maTi madlierebi, Tu isini dausvamen kiTxvebs da mouyvebian, Svilis ra problemebi aqvT; erTad aseve, unda mizanSewonilia ganixilebodes saubari warmatebebze.

sirTuleebi saSinao davalebebis Sesrulebisas da,

aseve, erTad gamoinaxos gamosavali. bavSvebi da maswavleblebi iqnebian mSoblebis madlierebi, Tu isini dainteresdebiT, ra xdeba skolaSi. mSoblebma aucileblad unda miiRon monawileoba sxvadasxva saxis RonisZiebebSi da daeswron mSobelTa krebebs.

16

3. ra midgomebi arsebobs enis swavlebaSi

zogadad enis Seswavlis (dauflebis) meTodebi SeiZleba

dayvanil iqnes Semdeg nusxamde: a) ucxo enis originalur wyarosTan Sexeba: enis matarebelTan urTierToba; enis matarebelTa metyvelebis mosmena; radios, magnitofonis, Canawerebis mosmena; televizoris, videos yureba; daumuSavebeli da araadaptirebuli teqstebis kiTxva (Jurnal-gazeTebi, reklamebi, firniSebi da a. S.); kompiuteruli programebis gamoyeneba; kompiuterTan urTierToba interaqtiur da avtonomiur reJimSi; kursis mosmena, sadac swavleba mocemul ucxo enaze mimdinareobs. b) ucxo enaze arsebuli specialurad SerCeuli zepiri gamoTqmebis an werilobiTi teqstebis gamoyeneba (,,xelmisawvdomi informacia" sawyis etapze); g) d) enis ucxo matarebelTan enaze uSualo uSualo dialogi. magaliTad, da Seqmnil kompetentur mosaubresTan dialogSi monawileoba; specialurad monawileoba SemuSavebul (,,gasagebi davalebebSi informacia"

damamTavrebel etapze); e) TviTswavleba (vinmes xelmZRvanelobiT), dasaxuli miznis ganxorcieleba da xelmisawvdom saswavlo saSualebaTa gamoyeneba. kvlevebma gviCvena, rom enebis swavlebis tradiciuli, gramatikisa da leqsikis dazepirebaze dafuZnebuli moZvelebuli oficialuri meTodebi, ar aris sakmarisi da rom bavSvebi ukeTesad swavloben interaqtiuri meTodebiT, roca isini ki ar izepireben,

17

uSualod iyeneben enas. mravalenovani ganaTlebis kidev erTi win gadadgmuli nabijia, roca igi sxvadasxva enas iyenebs saswavlo kursis sxvadasxva nawilis Sesaswavlad. amis meSveobiT moswavleebs aqvT imis SesaZlebloba da stimuli, rom Tavisuflad flobdnen enebs. mravalenovan swavlebas safuZvlad udevs Zalian moqnili koncefcia, romelic sxvadasxva modelis gamoyenebas uSvebs, magaliTad, imis dadgenaSi, Tu saswavlo kursis ra moculoba unda iswavlebodes TiToeul enaze. gansxvavebuli SeiZleba iyos agreTve klasebis gakveTilebze jgufebis Semadgenlobac, SeiZleba iyvnen magaliTad, umciresobisa am klasSi da garkveul umravlesobis uSualod

warmomadgeneli bavSvebi. amas didi upiratesoba aqvs sxvadasxva bavSvebis dasaaxloeblad: gziT stimulirdeba integrireba, Semcirdeba erTmaneTis mimarT mtrobis riski da dasustdeba uaryofiTi stereotipebi, romlebsac zogjer sxvadasxva warmomadgenel saskolo bavSvebs sistema amiT warmoSobs. umciresobis umravlesobis warmomadgenel gaRvivdeba sxva gaizrdebian gaigeben

klaselebTan daaxloebisa da maTi enisa Tu kulturis gacnobis SesaZleblobac eZlevaT. aqedan gamomdinare, maTSi bavSvebi ara mxolod mimarT, romeli es is ufro kulturisa da enis pativiscema iseve, rogorc sakuTarisa. aseTi tolerantulebi isini mravalferovnebis asakis SerCevas aramed ukeTesad

mravalferovani sazogadoebis upiratesobas. Semdegi sakiTxi exeba asakidan sakiTxia, SeiZleba romelTan mravalenovani dakavSirebiTac ganaTlebis dawyeba.

mTeli rigi qveynebis gamocdilebam gviCvena amgvari ganaTlebis adreul asakSi dawyebis upiratesoba. am dros ZiriTadi aqcenti gadatanilia unarze. Zalian efeqturad miiCneven mkvlevrebi transenobriv meTods. transenobrivi meore enaze meTodi da gulisxmobs, procesSi rom kiTxva da mosmena xSirad xorcieldeba erT enaze, xolo producireba (laparaki da wera) swavlebis enebis funqciebi patara bavSvebis mier enebis advilad Seswavlis

18

icvleba. xolo

magaliTad,

gakveTilze diskusiis bolos meore

moswavleebi akeTebs enebis

kiTxuloben dazustebebs weriT daniSnuleba

inglisurad, xolo diskusia am sakiTxze mimdinareobs espanurad, maswavlebeli espanurad. procesSi gakveTilze inglisurad. davalebas gakveTi-lis moswavleebi asruleben

icvleba, inglisuri gamoiyeneba producirebisTvis, xolo espanuri _ mosmenisa da kiTxvis unarebis gansaviTareblad...

19

4. meore enis swavleba sagnobriv Sinaarsze dafuZnebiT

saswavlo sagnis Sinaarsisa da enis aTvisebis integrireba bilingvuri romelic rTuli saswavlo procesis unda erT-erTi mTavari raTa amocanaa, sagnis maswavlebelma problemaa, Seasrulos, gadaWrac Tavisi

qarTulad swavlebaze warmatebulad gadasvla SeZlos. es marTlac romlis mxolod aq, maswavlebelTa upirvelesad, TanamSromlobis Sedegad aris SesaZlebeli.

igulisxmeba qarTulis, rogorc meore enis, maswavleblebsa da sxva saswavlo sagnebis maswavleblebs Soris aqtiuri da regularuli TanamSromloba. bilingvuri ganaTlebis winaaRmdeg erT-erTi mTavari argumenti is mosazrebaa, TiTqos moswavleebi saswavlo sagans ver iTviseben meore enis SezRuduli codnis gamo _ maT saswavlo sagani unda aiTvison enaze, romelic jer rom kidev aTvisebis da stadiaSia. marTlac, kvlevebi adasturebs, akademiuri

rTuli enis gamoyeneba saswavlo sagnis aTvisebis dros gadaulaxav sirTuleebs uqmnis im moswavleebs, romelTac swavlebis enis mwiri codna aqvT. aseve, ar SeiZleba saswavlo sagnis Sinaarsis Seswavlis gadadeba _ es iwvevs CamorCenas swavlaSi tolebTan SedarebiT da swavlis survils ukargavs moswavles (ievina, 2009, gv.79). amas garda, sagnobrivi pedagogebi SiSoben, integrirebul gakveTilze saganSi enobrivi kompetenciebis fizikaSi, da amaRlebisTvis da garkveuli romlis Sinaarsis drois daTmoba daazaralebs erovnul saswavlo gegmas mocemul (maTematikaSi, enisa geografiaSi a.S.), dafarvac savaldebuloa... swavlebis saswavlo sagnobrivi integrireba niSnavs enobrivi komponentebis sagnobriv gakveTilebSi CarTvas. integrirebuli midgoma agebs xids meore enis gakveTilebsa

20

da sagnobriv gakveTilebs Soris. am midgomis gamoyenebis Sedegad ori dadebiTi Sedegi miiRweva: meore enisa da sxva saswavlo sagnis masalis (sagnobrivi Sinaarsis) aTviseba. saswavlo sagnis gakveTilze maswavlebeli saswavlo masalas moswavlis Semecnebis donis Sesabamisad aswavlis, xolo moswavlis enis codnis donis Sesabamisad irCevs sakomunikacio aqtivobebs; ase rom, ena iqceva masalis aTvisebis saSualebad, instrumentad da ara swavlebis sagnad. enisa ramdenime da sagnobrivi Sinaarsis unaris integrirebuli ganviTarebas swavleba moiTxovs umniSvnelovanesi

pedagogisgan: es erTnairad exeba rogorc meore enis pedagogs, aseve sxva sagnebis maswavleblebsac: mravalferovani raTa meore enis informaciis matareblebis gamoyeneba _

masala

SeZlebisdagvarad

martivad

aRsaqmeli

gaxdes,

maswavlebelma

informacia

Semecnebis aseve

mravalferovani demonstrirebis,

masalis gamoyenebiT unda miawodos moswavleebs: realuri sagnebis, cxrilebis, gamosaxulebebis, diagramebis, winaswar wakiTxvisa da weris strategiebis gamoyenebiT. moswavleebze organizeba interesebi _ da orientirebuli centrSi unda moswavle swavlebis iyos aris aqtiuri procesis misi da rom obieqti,

swavlebis funqciaa,

moswavle,

saWiroebebi.

maswavleblis Seuwyos xeli.

moswavleebis samuSao ise

TanamSromlobasa unda dagegmos,

TiToeuli moswavlis codnis miRebis procesSi aqtiur CarTvas maswavlebelma moswav-les analizis unari ganuviTaros, rac asaTvisebeli masalis SemdgomSi gamoyenebisTvis aris aucilebeli (ievina, 2010, gv. 82). integrirebuli gakveTilis Catarebas seriozuli momzadeba esaWiroeba: upirvelesad, gansasazRvria rogorc sagnobrivi, aseve enobrivi miznebi. gasaazrebeli da dasagegmia TiToeuli aqtivoba _ dasazustebelia SerCeul aqtivobaSi TiToeuli enis _

21

mSobliurisa vaZlevT

Tu

meore

enis

_

funqcia `upasuxe~,

(magaliTad, `moyevi

terminebs, gakveTili~,

sqemebs, TvalsaCinoebas vadgenT qarTul enaze, aseve, qarTulad martiv instruqciebs: `Seasrule davaleba~ da sxva); rac Seexeba narativs (magaliTad, moswavlis mier davalebis moyola), am etapze ar unda vaiZuloT moswavle, meore enaze daZlios es rTuli davaleba. integrirebuli midgomis dagegmvisTvis upriania momzadebis Semdegi xerxi: sanam integrirebuli meTodis gamoyenebas daiwyebdes, sagnis maswavlebelma unda icodes, Tu ra xerxebs iyenebs meore enis pedagogi Tavis gakveTilebze. am informaciis misaRebad maswavleb-lebi erTmaneTis gakveTilebs unda daeswron da klasSi muSaobis process daakvirdnen. rasakvirvelia, kargia, Tuki sagnisa da enis maswavleblebi winaswar iqnebian momzadebulebi trenirebis gziT. enisa muSaobis da dros, aris sxva saswavlo sagnis maswavleblebma, erTad da unda daadginon enobrivi sirTuleebi

moswavlisTvis saWiro unarebi, romlebic Sesabamisi sagnis masalis aTvisebisTvis aucilebeli (magaliTad, saxelmZRvanelos wakiTxvis unari; savarjiSoebis rveulSi davalebis Sesrulebis unari; sxvadasxva terminis mniSvnelobis garkvevis unari; sakuTari azris gamoTqmisa da dasabuTebis unari da sxva). Semdegi nabiji sagnobrivi da enis maswavleblis erToblivi muSaobis procesSi im problemebis dadgenaa, romlebic SesaZloa SeeqmnaT moswavleebs ama Tu im masalis (igulisxmeba sagnobrivi masala) aTvisebisas. aseTi saxis problemebi SeiZleba warmoiSvas, magaliTad, imis gamo, rom saxelmZRvaneloebis an sxva, damxmare teqstebis leqsika zedmetad rTulia. aseT SemTxvevebSi meore enis maswavlebeli aucilebeli exmareba terminebi sagnobriv da is pedagogs TvalsaCinoebebis konstruqciebi, SedgenaSi, sadac maqsimalurad gamartivebuli iqneba Sesaswavli martivi enobrivi

22

romelTa gamoyenebiTac moswavle SeZlebs codnis gamovlenas meore enaze, ZiriTadi saTqmelis gadmocemas qarTulad. sagnobrivma swavlebis CamonaT-vali. maswavlebelma yvelaze unda daadginos Tavisi sagnis unda procesSi meore xSirad gamosayenebeli sityvebis

enis maswavlebelTan TanamSromlobiT

uzrunvelyos am sityvebis sworad gamoyenebis unari. SesaZloa, Zalian gamoadgeT ZiriTadi sityvebis moswavleebisaTvis winaswar gacnoba. maswavlebels SeuZlia, gakveTilis ganmavlobaSi gansakuTrebuli yuradReba gaamaxvilos iseT sityvebze, romelTac SeuZliaT moswavleTa azrovneba swori mimarTulebiT waiyvanon, daexmaron moZiebaSi. integrirebuli gakveTilis axsnisas aucilebelia mravalferovani vizualuri masalis gamoyeneba; magaliTad, SeiZleba qaRaldze amowerili da amoWrili, qarTul enaze Sesrulebuli saWiro terminebis mikroba. es damatebiTi informacia garkveuli periodis ganmavlobaSi roca SeiZleba darCes rom vizualur masalaze axali ganTavsebuli. darwmundebiT, moswavleebma mizezSedegobrivi kavSiris povnasa da pasuxebis

terminebi aiTvises, mikrobili furclebis moxsna SegiZliaT. aseve, maswavlebelma unda Seqmnas situaciebi, romlebSic mas SeuZlia darwmundes, rom moswavleebi axal terminebs srulad daeuflnen. gakveTilis raTa dagegmvisas maswavlebelma da an unda daisaxos swavlebas moZebnos romelTa umniSvnelovanesi miznebi da swored maT moargos Sesabamisi masala, gamousadegari Tavi. wvrilmanebisa wignebi detalebis SeuZlia masala, sxva aaridos sagnis saswavlo maswavlebels

alternatiuli

ganmartebebic ufro Seesabameba meore enis aTvisebis procesSi myof moswavleebs. maswavlebels, aseve, SeuZlia ukve arsebuli teqstebis moswavlis enis codnis donis Sesabamisad adaptireba; ar unda dagvaviwydes, rom saWiroa pirvel rigSi Zalian martivad aRsaqmeli

23

masalis

momzadeba

axali

Temis

saswavleblad,

xolo

Semdeg zrda,

gakveTilebze

enobrivi

mraval-ferovnebis

TandaTanobiTi

sanam Tema srulad iqneba aTvisebuli. Zalian mniSvnelovania, gakveTilis dasawyisSi miznebi dafaze daiweros da qarTul enaze xmamaRla davasaxeloT (SesaZlebelia, moswavleebsac gavameorebinoT es miznebi). sasargeblo iqneba aseve imis ganmarteba, rom es gakveTili wina da Semdeg gakveTilebTan mWidro kavSirSia. sanam moswavleebi raime samuSaos Sesrulebas Seudgebodnen, maswavlebelma Tumca, maT savarjiSos rom sruli pirobis enis es aRwera gageba unda gaacnos: sasurvelia, pedagogma SeZlos am aRweris qarTul enaze wardgena, gaviTvaliswinoT, da umniSvnelovanesi SezRudva am komponentia moswavleebs mSobliuri ufleba, gamoyenebis

komponentSi mizanSeuwonelia. amis Semdeg maswavlebels SeuZlia misces davaleba safexurebad Tavad Seasrulon. es xerxi gansakuTrebiT maTematikisa da sxva zusti mecnierebebis savarjiSoebis SesrulebisTvisaa xelsayreli. saWiroa, samuSaod gamoiyenos pasiurebi dauSvebelia, _ rom rom moswavleebs maswavlebelma ilaparakos moswavleebis TanamSromlobisa winapiroba mxolod bevri, da klasSi yovlad formati an urTierTkavSirisTvis TviTon SevuqmnaT. leqciis xolo

moswavleebi

iyvnen;

damoukidebel,

wyvilebSi

jgufebSi muSaoba saukeTeso formaa integrirebuli swavlebisaTvis. isini aqtiurad unda iyvnen CarTulni gakveTilis yvela monakveTSi. am SemTxvevaSi moswavleebi kargad aiTviseben rogorc sagnobriv masalas, aseve, unda gaiumjobeseben Seqmnas enis codnas. maswavlebelma moswavleebs aseve, xelovnurad sagnobrivi situaciebi, romlebSic

SesaZlebloba miecemaT, sagnis Sesabamisi leqsika gamoiyenon da Sinaarsis Sesaxeb sakiTxebze isaubron, werilobiT gamoTqvan azri qarTul enaze.

24

enis aTvisebis procesSi moswavleebi saubrisas Secdomebs uSveben. unda forma es bunebrivi movlenaa. didi bilingvali yuradReba misgan maswavlebeli da darwmunebuli unda iyos, rom moswavleebs esmiT informacia da ar miaqcios unda gadaWarbebiT orTografiisa stilistikis aspeqtebs. ra Tqma unda, maswavlebelma Tavad swori SesTavazos, magram gamarTuli metyvelebis moTxovna gaumarTlebelia. mTavari roli enis sworad gamoyenebis aTvisebaSi enis maswavlebels uWiravs da ara ama Tu im sagnis pedagogs. integrirebuli gakveTilis warmatebuli SedegisaTvis didi mniSvneloba eniWeba sworad da gemovnebiT SerCeul aqtivobebs. airCieT aqtivobebi, romlebic da moswavleebs daexmareba, Tavad aRmoaCinon axali informacia; maswavlebeli exmareba moswavleebs informaciis Tanmimdevrobas xerxebis organizebaSi ugegmavs. Sesasrulebeli moqmedebebis an sabunebismetyvelo moswavleebi mimarTulebis proeqtis

socialur mecnierebaTa gakveTilebze didi warmatebiT SeiZleba im gamoyeneba, _ romlebSic meTodiT eZebs mis ikvleven Tavisive arCeul Temas. maswavlebeli moqmedebs rogorc koordinatori mizezebs, gadawyvetis gageba iZens moswavle kvlevebs eZebs. enis gansazRvravs an codnis problemas, da azris done, atarebs gzebs eqsperiments problemis gasagebad am dros

gamoTqmis unari da proeqtis SemuSavebis procesSi sxvebis azris konkretul praqtikul mniSvnelobas. SesaZlebelia qarTuli enis _ rogorc informaciis mogrovebis, monacemTa damuSavebis, argumentirebis saSualebad gamoyeneba. rekomendebulia, saWiro: TiToeul am tipis maswavlebelma gamoiyenos roluri aqvs erTi aqtivobebi, TamaSebi, an ori romlebSic moswavleebisTvis nakluli informaciis moZieba iqneba aqtivobebs (klasSi miekuTvneba an jgufSi) situaciuri, kiTxva-pasuxebis savarjiSoebi, problemebis gadawyveta. moswavles

25

informaciis fragmenti, romlebic savarjiSos Sesasruleblad aris aucilebeli, magram ar aris saWiro informaciis srulad miwodeba. moswavleebma erTad unda imuSaon, unda gacvalon informacia. donis gaumjobeseba SeiZleba. am xerxiT maTi metyvelebis da azrovnebis unaris gavarjiSeba da enis

26

5. moswavleTaTvis enis aTvisebis procesSi gamosayenebeli ZiriTadi principebi

gakveTilze frazebi gamoyenebuli terminebi, axali sityvebi da

gaxadeT moswavleTaTvis gasagebi: moaxdineT

maTi peri-

frazireba, gaamartiveT isini, realizmi da a.S.

gamoiyeneT Jestikulacia, konteqsti, warmoTqma (gadmoce-

gaxsovdeT, rom gageba (gacnobiereba) da ma) biT

ar aris erTi da igive. ar DdaaZaloT moswavleebs, gansakuTresawyiss etapze, kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema da sityvebis axsna. maT imis saSualeba, rom qceviT da moqmedebebiT moaxdinon

mieciT

reagireba Tqvens naTqvamze. praqtikuloba gadaamowmeT gakveTilze winadadebebi, romelTa warmoTqmasac apirebT SekiTxvas) Cems sakuTari TavisaTvis ori SekiTxvis dasmis gziT: viwarmoTqmuli azri/SekiTxva dakavSire-

tyodi Tu ara rodesme (davsvamdi Tu ara aseT mSobliur enaze? Cem mier pirebT programis mixedviT? interesunarianoba

bulia Tu ara im codnasTan da unarebTan, romelTa aTvisebasac va-

moerideT iseTi kiTxvebis dasmas, romelTa pasuxebi winaswar aris nagulisxmevi.

27

mimzidveloba airCieT mimzidveli gasarTobi forma. primitiuli moswavleebs swavlis ufro met Sinaarsis masala da aseve muSaobis moswavlisaTvis gareSe. moiTxovs rodesac maswavleblis mizania inteleqtualuri axali, iseTi ucnobi davaleba,

enis ganviTareba, xSirad kiTxvebi da davalebebi warmodgenelia saxiT, datvirTvis masalebi, romelic esaWiroebaT Secdomebze

SesaZlebloba. stimuls

problemis gadaWras, sadac aris moulodnelobebi, saubrisaTvis warmoadgens, gramatikul savarjiSoebTan SedarebiT. mieciT moswavleebs sakmarisad bevri Ria tipis davaleba, raTa aman gamoiwvios axali daugegmavi gadmocemis aucilebloba. SearCieT iseTi davaleba, romelic moiTxovs erTdroulad ramdenime unaris CarTvas, gaaerTianeT enobrivi Semoqmedeba da informatiuli elementebi. Tanmimdevruloba gakveTilis axlad SeZenili dagegmvis codnisa maTi da procesSi, unarebis orientireba gamoyeneba, da moaxdineT ramdenad axali moswavleTa gamocdilebaze, aRwereT, Tu rogor SeuZlia moswavles sasargeblo iqneba gamoyeneba momdevno gakveTilze sityvebi da struqturis

masalisa da unarebis

aTvisebis

procesSi.

28

6. swavla-swavlebis principebi zogadsaganmanaTleblo skolebis sabazo da saSualo safexurebze

bilingvuri swavlebis warmatebiT warmarTvisaTvis aucilebelia swavla/swavlebis principebis gaTvaliswineba skolaSi. sabazo da saSualo

principi 1. moswavle swavlobs ukeT, roca

dividualur Taviseburebebs. amisaTvis maswavlebelma unda:

iTvaliswineben mis in-

SearCios swavlebis iseTi meTodebi, romlebic Seesatyviseba moswavlis asakobriv Taviseburebebs; SesTavazos moswavleebs mravalferovani aqtivobebi, sa-

varjiSoebi, davalebebi maTi individualur TaviseburebaTa gaTvaliswinebiT (xasiaTi, swavlis stili, inteleqtualuri unarebi, Zlieri da susti mxareebi). aRWurvos moswavle saswavlo strategiebiT, romlebic mas swavlas gauadvilebs da ufro damoukidebels gaxdis.

principi 2. moswavle ukeT iswavlis, Tu mas miecema pirovnuli potencialis ganviTarebis saSualeba. amisaTvis maswavlebelma unda: gamoumuSavos moswavleebs dadebiTi damokidebuleba sakuTari Tavis, sxvebis, swavlis, garemomcveli samyaros, saxelmwifo enis mimarT; Camouyalibos moswavleebs konstruqciuli damokidebuleba Secdomis mimarT da gaacnobierebinos mas, rom Secdoma

29

swavlis procesis ganuyofeli nawilia (Secdomebis gamovlena da gaanalizeba ganapirobebs winsvlas); mkafiod ganusazRvros moswavles, Tu ras elian misgan; Seqmnas ndobis atmosfero, sadac iqneba TanamSromloba da ara konkurencia, Sejibri.

principi 3. moswavle ukeT swavlobs enas, rodesac igi motivirebulia. amisaTvis maswavlebelma unda: misces moswavles saSualeba daakvirdes asaTvisebel masalas damoukideblad, gamoTqvas varaudebi, aRmoaCinos, mixvdes, amoicnos, Seadaros, rasac Tanamedrove pedagogika codnis konstruirebas, agebas uwodebs; swavlebis Sinaarsi miusadagos moswavleTa interesebs; Seqmnas iseTi sakomunikacio, realuri situaciebi, romlebic mimzidveli iqneba moswavleebisaTvis; dausaxos moswavleebs gemo; waaxalisos warmateba, daafasos da Seafasos winsvla. realisturi, daZlevadi amoca-

nebi da miznebi, raTa moswavleebma igrZnon warmatebis

mniSvnelovania im asakobrivi Taviseburebebis gaTvaliswinebac, romlebic mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs warmatebas swavlebasa da swavlaSi. am etapze gasaTvaliswinebeli asakobrivi Taviseburebebia: fizikuri da fsiqikuri puberteti (momwifeba). 11-12 wlidan

individis sulieri organizaciis iseTi cvlileba iCens Tavs, romelic, pirvel rigSi, mis moqmedebaTa Tu gancdaTa stiqiurad aRkveTaSi vlindeba. mozardis damokidebuleba movlenebTan da

30

sagnebTan, iseve rogorc socialur sinamdvilesTan, sxvagvaria, vidre bavSvobis xanaSi. igi SemecnebiTia da ara gulubryvilo. mozardi cdilobs gaiazros movlenebi, swored amitom am asakSi iwyeba da Semdeg Zlierdeba mozardis fsiqologiuri cxadi da da filosofiuri azrovneba. ganviTarebis am safexurze "mes" manamde ramdenadme gamokveTili Tavis, aramed gaurkveveli cnobiereba masSi icvleba iRviZebs amitom TviTcnobierebiT. sxvebis mis kritikuli uxeSi SeiZleba da

damokidebuleba sakuTari Tavis mimarT da ara marto sakuTari mimarTac. mZafri am iqceva. miayenos masTan damokidebuleba, warmoSobis gamousworebebli kritikaze reagireba konfliqtma mas konfliqtis yvelaze

pirobad ziani

mozards.

yvelaferze sakuTari Sexeduleba gaaCnia da es maswavlebelma unda gamoiyenos swavlebisa da swavlis procesSi. misces mas azris Tavisuflad gamoxatvis saSualeba, maT Soris meore enazec, ar miaqcios yuradReba aseT dros enobriv Secdomebs. am periodSi aRmocendeba Zlieri sakuTari pirovnebis socialuri Zlieri

aRiarebisadmi

miswrafeba.

mozards

uCndeba

moTxovnileba, hqondes wona socialur garemoSi. amitom am dros gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba waxalisebas, sxvebis TvalSi misi avtoritetis amaRlebas, misi SesaZleblobebis maqsimalur warmoCenas. am etapze kvlav aqtualuria roluri TamaSebisa da situaciuri amocanebis gamoyeneba saswavlo procesSi, magram ise, rom moswavlem ar igrZnos sakuTari ususuroba enaSi. amisaTvis maswavlebelma winaswar unda moamzados moswavleebi, miawodos mas is enobrivi konstruqciebi da Sesabamisi leqsika, romlebic moswavles am amocanebis daZlevaSi daexmareba. gardamavali SeimCneva asakis erT-erT magram amis damaxasiaTebel gadalaxvac movlenas Tu

warmoadgens SromiTi unarianobis daqveiTeba. gansakuTrebiT es vaJebTan. SeiZleba,

31

maswavlebeli

gamonaxavs

swor

gzas.

erT-erTi

piroba,

davaZlevinoT mozards es sirTule, aris is, rom moswavlis Sroma, Tundac minimaluri SedegiT, dafasebuli da mowonebuli iqneba. mozardebisaTvis aucilebelia ufrosebis aRiareba, maSin maT xalisi uCndebaT sakmarisia gaamarTlon mozards maswavlebelTa pozitiuri funqcia Sexeduleba. daakisron daxmaros ufrosis

umcrosebis mimarT, rom maT Secvalon swavlisadmi (Sromisadmi) damokidebuleba. saswavlo proeqtis Tundac waukiTxos qarTul enaze. kidev erTi damaxasiaTebeli Tavisebureba am asakisaTvis aris ara ubralod urTierTobis moTxovnileba, aramed Zlieri survili _ ipovos gageba sxvebSi. yovel mozardSi Zlieria tendencia iyos aRiarebuli, gaugon da ar datovon gverdze. gardamavali asakis, gansakuTrebiT ki misi bolo fazisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia interesTa sruliad axali wris aRmoceneba. saxeldobr, mozards uCndeba interesi cxovrebis sxvadasxva sferos mimarT, gansakuTrebiT ekonomikuri sferos mimarT. man kargad icis qonebis an karieris mniSvneloba. aqedan gamomdinare, imis gacnobireba, rom keTildReobis da es unda miRweva iyos da cxovrebaSi adgilis damkvidreba saxelmwifo enis dauflebiT SeiZleba, mas uRvivebs motivacias mxardaWerili maswavleblebis mier. magaliTad, maT umcrosklaselebs dadgmaSi an / zRaprebi ganxorcielebaSi, saintereso speqtaklis moTxrobebi

32

7. enis aTvisebis xelSemwyobi da xelis SemSleli faqtorebi

xelSemwyobi faqtorebi:

Tavisufali garemo moswavleebs SeuZliaT icinon, isxdnen TavianT sayvarel po-

zaSi, gadaadgildnen klasSi, saswavlo procesidan miiRon siamovneba. gariskvis survili adamianebs, romlebsac uyvarT gariskva, aseve uyvarT gamocnoba. isini ar eridebian sasacilo mdgomareobaSi Cavardnas da Tvlian., rom ,, vinc ar riskavs, is ver imarjvebs. warmatebaSi darwmunebuli. 1. moswavleebi, romlebic darwmunebulni arian TavianT warmatebaSi, advilad moiZieben sxva gzas, im SemTxevevaSi, Tu pirveli cda ar gaamarTlebs. 2. moTmineba da gacnobiereba imisa, rom erTbaSad

yvelafris gageba SeuZlebelia. 3. moswavle, romelic martivad miiRebs im faqts, yvelafris gageba erTbaSad SeuZlebelia, SemTxvevaSic aqtiurad iTanamSromlebs, rom im

Tu davalebis

Sinaarsi Tavidan ar iqneba misTvis srulebiT naTeli.

33

xelisSemSleli

faqtorebi:

aRelveba, nerviuloba yvelaze wrialebs, Zlieri filtri aris nerviuloba. Tu bavSvi nerviulobs, oflianobs, fexebs iqnevs, es niSnavs, rom enobrivi

informaciis miRebas xvdeba ,,filtri''. gariskvis survilis arqona. adamianebi, romlebsac ar uyvarT riski, advilad ikargebian. maT eSiniaT Secdomebis daSvebis sxvebis TvalSi sasacilod gamoCenis. warmatebaSi daeWveba. moswavleebi, romlebsac sakuTari yovel Secdomas aRiqvamen rogorc ara Tavis rwmena ar gaaCniaT, axlis rom swavlis maT ar arc cdiloben, da amas imiT xsnian, rom mainc ar gamouvaT. isini rogorc SesaZleblobas, aramed sakuTar nakls,

SeuZliaT swavla. didi

moculobis

informaciasTan

Tavis

garTmevis

SeuZlebloba. moswavle romelsac ar SeuZlia imasTan Segueba, rom yvelafris erTad gageba SeuZlebelia, maswavleblis mxridan moiTxovs gamudmebiT axsnas da amJRavnebs mouTmenlobas, Tu maswavlebeli myisierad ar uxsnis yvela sityvis mniSvnelobas.

34

8. pedagogTa TanamSromloba bilingvuri swavlebis procesSi

bilingvuri swavlebis procesis warmatebuli realizebisTvis aucilebelia TanamSromloba moswavleebs Soris, aseve, maswavleblebs Soris da moswavleTa da maswavleblebs Soris. aucilebelia, rom am TanamSromlobis mniSvneloba bilingvuri ganaTlebis mTavarma realizatorebma gaiazron: ara mxolod qarTulis, rogorc meore enis, maswavleblebma, aramed sxva sagnebis maswavleblebmac swavlebis erovnul umciresobaTa skolebSi. bilingvuri procesis warmatebuli realizeba SeuZlebelia manam,

sanam TiToeuli maswavlebeli mxolod Tavis sagans uRrmavdeba da imis Semdeg, roca igi gadis klasidan, ar interesdeba romelime konkretuli klasis mdgomareobiT, ar iqneba informirebuli imis Sesaxeb, Tu ras da rogor swavloben moswavleebi meore sxva enis, gakveTilebze, Semdeg gansakuTrebiT moswavlis qarTulis, datvirTva. rogorc

gakveTilebze. ramdenime sagnis qarTul enaze swavlis dawyebis izrdeba maswavleblebisTvis sasargeblo iqneboda, xSirad Seikribon da isaubron imaze, Tu ras swavloben konkretuli klasis moswavleebi TiToeul saganSi. aseTi saxis informaciis gacvla aucileblad da Seuqmnis maT samuSaos aseve, erTmaneTSi SeTanxmebisa gaiolebis safuZvels.

maswavleblebs SeuZliaT erTmaneTis gakveTilebs daeswron, raTa moswavleebis enis codnis doneSi darwmundnen. es TanamSromloba momgebiani iqneba maswavleblisTvisac, radganac kolegebs Soris TanamSromloba axali codnis SeZenas uwyobs xels da afarToebs TiToeuli maswavleblis warmodgenas Teoriisa da praqtikis gakveTilebze Sefardebis Sesaxeb.

35

Cveulebrivi daxmareba ar niSnavs TanamSromlobas (rac, ra Tqma unda aseve aucilebelia), da es aris samuSao saswavlo procesis gegmis urTierTSeTanxmeba kolegisTvis

daregulirebaSi daxmareba. Tu moswavleebi ver xedaven, rom maswavleblebi gundurad muSaoben, verc TviTon moaxerxeben amas. TanamSromloba unda ganixilebodes rogorc saSualeba, romelic moswavleTa urTierTkontaqts uzrunvelyofs, igi swavlebis socialuri mxarea. moswavle swavlebis procesSi erTveba, matulobs misi TviTSegneba da Tavdajereba, igi mzad aris riskisTvis, radganac klasSi dadebiTi socialur emociuri atmosfero sufevs. aseTi midgomisTvis Sesabamisi garemos Seqmnas, romlis centrSic moswavlea moqceuli, upirveles yovlisa, gaazreba sWirdeba, Tu ra unda gakeTdes imisaTvis, rom miRweul iqnes TanamSromloba viwro gagebiT. es ara mxolod saubars iTvaliswinebs, aramed kompleqsur midgomas yvela unaris asaTviseblad. magaliTad, SesaZlebelia, teqsti TiToeulma moswavlem damoukideblad waikiTxos, xolo Semdgom wyvilebSi ganixilon igi da mxolod amis Semdeg daiwyon imaves ufro did jgufebSi keTeba da, sabolood, mTelma klasma erTad ganixilos... aseve, weriTi savarjiSoebis Sesruleba nebismier safexurze SeiZleba. wakiTxvis an mosmenis win SesaZlebelia Temis zogadad ganxilva, raTa moswavleebs gavacnoT da gavuRvivoT interesi.

jgufebSi da wyvilebSi muSaoba moswavleebs Soris TanamSromlobas zrdis da maswavleblis mTel klasTan saubris aucileblobis dros amcirebs. TanamSromlobis gamoyenebiT swavleba moswavles ayenebs yuradRebis centrSi da radikalurad cvlis klasikuri swavlebis models, roca maswavlebeli iwyebs saubars, moswavle mas pasuxobs, Sedegad maswavlebeli mis pasuxs mcirericxovan jgufebSi muSaoba enis Sesaswavlad afasebs. uaRresad

mniSvnelovania. gasaTvaliswinebelia komunikaciuri swavlebis far-

36

To SesaZleblobebi: uSualo garemo, Tavisufleba da moswavleTa CarTuloba, aseve, davalebebis diferenciaciis SesaZlebloba. mcirericxovan jgufSi iqmneba bunebrivi dialogisTvis ukeTesi pirobebi, vidre klasis organizebis nebismieri sxva xerxis gamoyenebis dros - moswavleebis organizebis es modeli, maswavleblisTvis misawvdomi meTodebidan, erT-erTi yvelaze moqnili da pozitiuri, amasTan, integrirebis SesaZleblobis momcemia: jgufSi samuSao SeiZleba savarjiSoebze iyos koncentrirebuli, rac aviTarebs rogorc sworad, aseve Tavisuflad metyvelebis unars. mas SeuZlia sworad metyvelebis unaris ganviTarebis swavlebis efeqturobis gazrdac da moswavleebs jgufurad organizebuli samuSaos SeguebaSic daexmareba im donemde, rom maT SeZlon Tavisufali metyvelebis savarjiSoebis Sesruleba erToblivad. pozitiur Sedegs aZlierebs maswavlebeli `CareviT~ (araformaluri swavlebiT), TiToeul jgufTan misvliT, rac moswavleebs enis codnis faseul informacias aZlevs.

37

9. mSobliuri enis roli bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi

bilingvurad muSaobis dros ori ena gamoiyeneba, rogorc swavlebis saSualeba anu instrumenti: moswavlis mSobliuri (umciresobis) ena da oficialuri (saxelmwifo) ena; an oficialuri ena da romelime ucxo ena. es ki imas niSnavs, rom maswavleblebi, romlebic TavianT sagans moswavleebs bilingvurad aswavlian, muSaoben erT gundSi: gegmaven saswavlo masalas ara mxolod romelime konkretuli klasisTvis, aramed TiToeuli konkretuli TemisTvis, SesaZlebelia raime konkretuli sakiTxisTvisac. am gziT saswavlo masalis zedmet gameorebas aridebs Tavs, SeTanxmebulia masalis Tanmimdevroba, aseve saswavlo masalis Seswavlis procesSi gamoyenebadi ori enis urTierTTanamSromloba. gaazreba. im aseve, mniSvnelovania swavlebis meTodebis SemTxvevaSi, Tuki pedagogebi

namdvilad profesionalurad zrunaven TavianTi moswavleebis codnasa da unarebze, yvela maswavleblis samuSao urTierTSeTanxmebulia. amis Sedegad gakveTilisTvis gamoyofili dro efeqturad aris gamoyenebuli. swavlebis procesSi, ori enis gamoyenebis dros, ZiriTadi yuradReba unda mieqces konkretuli sagnis masalis aTvisebis process. enebi mxolod instrumentebia. mxolod dargis specialists SeuZlia Tavisi dargis Sesabamisi leqsikis swavleba. enis pedagogs - arc mSobliuri enis, arc meore enisas - ar SeuZlia iwinaswarmetyvelos, SesTavazos da aswavlos yvelaferi romelime konkretuli enis farglebSi sxvadasxva mecnierebis sferoSi. amitom saswavlo sagnis maswavlebeli iyenebs, iribad amdidrebs moswavlis leqsikas da nawilobriv enasac aswavlis maT, imisda miuxedavad, es aris moswavleebis mSobliuri ena Tu swavlebis procesSi gamoyenebuli sxva ena.

38

ar aris SemTxveviTi, rom bilingvuri swavlebis meTodologiis sakiTxebis Seswavlisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba swavlebis procesSi, gakveTilis msvlelobis dros, enis gamoyenebas eqceva. enis arCevis ramdenime midgoma arsebobs. maswavlebels gaazrebuli unda hqondes, anu winaswar unda dagegmos enis gamoyenebis gegma gakveTilzec, moswavlis damoukidebeli muSaobis drosac, magaliTad, saxlSi. enebis dagegmarebis meTods bevri aspeqti ganapirobebs. moswavlis asaki, zogadi ganviTareba, mSobliuri enis flobisa da meore enis aTvisebis done, socialuri gamocdileba, enis praqtikuli gamoyenebis gamocdileba, SesaZleblobebi, arsebuli codna da unarebi ganapirobebs imas, Tu ra raodenobiT unda gamoviyenoT erTi an meore ena. saswavlo miznebi, davalebebi ganapirobebs, Tu romel enaze unda tardebodes esa Tu is mecadineoba Tu samuSao. dabalansebuli saswavlo masalis aTvisebisTvis gamoyofili drois monakveTis dagegmva ganapirobebs imas, Tu rodis da romeli ena unda gamoviyenoT axali Temis swavlis, gameorebis, ukve naswavli masalis ganmtkicebis an saSinao davalebis Sesrulebisa Tu Semowmebis dros. swavlebis meTodebis arCevani ganapirobebs, Tu ras da ra enaze aswavlis maswavlebeli, Tu rogor da ra enaze muSaoben moswavleebi. mniSvnelovania, Tu ramdenad kargad icnobs maswavlebeli enis swavlebis meTodebs da ramdenad Seswevs maTi gamoyenebis unari. saswavlo sagnis Sinaarsi, misi sirTulis safexuri (Teoriulica da yoveldRiur praqtikaSi gamoyenebis SesaZlebloba), sxva saswavlo sagnebTan kavSirSi, SesaZlebelia saswavlo masalis nawilis yofaSi aTviseba, aseve, meore enaSi, ganapirobebs, Tu rodis unda gamoviyenoT erTi an meore ena.

39

gamoyenebuli saswavlo literatura, masala, masSi gamoyenebuli enis specifika (bavSvebis asakisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebisa da enis ganviTarebis donis Sesabamisi - rogorc mSobliur enaSi, aseve meore enaSi) gansazRvravs, Tu rogor da rodis unda daexmaroT moswavleebs ara mxolod saswavlo masalis aTvisebaSi, aramed, aseve, mis gagebaSi meore enaze. sxva sagnebSi enis gamoyenebis gamocdileba (maswavleblis dagegmili) gansazRvravs, Tu ra ician ukve da ra SeuZliaT moswavleebs meore enis gamoyenebis dros. moswavlis saWiroebani ganaTlebis miRebis Semdgom procesSi. aq naxsenebia enebis (mSobliuri Tu meore) gamoyenebis (dagegmarebis) mxolod zogierTi aspeqti, romelTa gaTvaliswineba mniSvnelovania bilingvuri swavlebisa da swavlis dros. Tumca, kidev arsebobs TiToeuli saswavlo sagnis aTvisebis pirobebi. mudmivad unda vadevnoT Tvalyuri imas, Tu ramdenad iTviseben moswavleebi swavlebis sagans, izrdeba Tu ara meore enis gamoyeneba, umjobesdeba Tu ara maTi mSobliuri enis codna. aqsiomaturia, rom yvelaze kargia swavlebis enad mSobliuri enis gamoyeneba. bavSvi fsiqologiuri roca TvalsazrisiT, da unari misTvis procesi mniSvnelovania, aqvs, gamoxatos enaze TemTan. moswavle nacnob radgan avtomaturad socialurad iazrebs

sakuTari sakuTari

mosazrebebi, Tavis

mimdinareobs.

mniSvnelovania, axdens

radgan sakuTar

identificirebas

saganmanaTleblo kuTxiT, is swavlobs ufro swrafad da kargad mSobliur enaze, vidre misTvis ucxo enaze. mniSvnelovania, rom sruli Zalisxmeva mivmarToT, raTa bavSvebma SeZlon mSobliur enaze ganaTlebis miReba... ganaTlebis kuTxiT, mniSvnelovania, rom rac SeiZleba met xans gagrZeldes swavlebis procesSi mSobliuri enis gamoyeneba. swavlis dawyebis pirvel etapze ki umniSvnelovanesia, moswavle mSobliur enaze swavlobdes,

40

radgan, erTi mxriv, kargad gebulobs am enaze da, meore mxriv, mSobliur enaze swavleba amcirebs im stress, rac moswavleSi Cndeba ojaxidan skolaSi Sesvlis dros. roca swavlebis procesSi ar xdeba mSobliuri enis gamoyeneba, moswavleebi sakuTar Tavs aRiqvamen CamorCenilebad, arasrulfasovnebad da sulelebad. maTi kultura Seuracxyofili, xolo moswavleebi SeSinebulebi, dabneulebi da travmirebulni xdebian. am yovelives SeiZleba hqondes grZelvadiani efeqtic. mSobliuri enis codna xels uwyobs meore enis aTvisebas. kvlevebma daadastures, rom moswavleebs, romlebic flobdnen mSobliur enas, ufro kargad hqondaT ganviTarebuli werisa da zepirmetyvelebis unarebi meore enaSi mSobliuri enis armcodne moswavleebTan enobrivi SedarebiT. kodebis mSobliuri Secvla enis codna xels uwyobs enis unarebis transfers meore enis Seswavlisas. (gadasvla mSobliuri gamoyenebidan - meore enis gamoyenebaze da piriqiT) farTod aris gavrcelebuli bilingvur klasSi. enobrivi kodebis Secvla ara mxolod aramed gavrcelebulia bunebrivi umravles saganmanaTleblo warmoadgens situaciaSi, Seqmnili procesicaa, radgan

siZnelisadmi pragmatul pasuxs, radganac aseTi siZneleebi xSirad gvxvdeba, roca moswavleebi sagnobriv Sinaars swavloben im enaze, romelsac srulyofilad ver floben. swavleba moiTxovs Zalian did yuradRebas, xolo yuradRebis misapyrobad enis Secvla xSirad gauTviTcnobiereblad Tu ara ena klasSi. enebis Secvlas klasSi moepoveba pedagogiuri da socialuri funqciebi mkvlevarTa dakvirvebiT, bilingvur klasSi mimdinare saubrebi da enebis cvlilebebi kargad asaxavs skolaSi arsebul konteqstsa da tradiciebs. magaliTad, maswavleblis mier enobrivi xdeba. maswavleblebi xSirad verc acnobiereben, rodis moaxdines enis Secvla, an saerTod Secvales

41

kodebis

gamocvla an

SeiZleba

niSnavdes Sinaarsidan

gakveTilis saklaso 3 3)

dawyebas, specifikur menejmentze

gakveTilis interaqcias gadasvlas. klasSi kompetenciiTa

sakiTxze

gadasvlas,

moswavlesTan

gakveTilis gamoyeneba enisadmi

enis da

ganpirobebulia

faqtoriT: moswavlesa enebis

1) da

maswavleblis enisadmi damokidebulebiT; maswavlebels Soris SeTanxmebiT. sawyis

2) moswavlis etapze

enobrivi arCevani

damokidebulebiT;

ganpirobebulia moswavleTa saWiroebebiT. maswavleblebi xSirad mimarTaven moswavlisaTvis nacnob enas masalis miwodebisas, Tumca am SemTxvevebSic did rols TamaSobs ganaTlebis sistemisa Tu skolis politika, romelic SeiZleba krZalavdes romelime enis gamoyenebas an piriqiT _ axalisebdes moswavlisaTvis gasageb enaze masalis miwodebas. saklaso oTaxSi enis gamoyeneba kidev ramdenime faqtoriTaa ganpirobebuli, kerZod, enebs Soris arsebuli statusiT, ori enis TanmimdevrobiTa da sinqronizaciiT, moswavlisa da maswavleblis SeTanxmebiT da a. S. saklaso oTaxSi mimdinare orenovani procesis gaazreba da axsna SesaZlebeli xdeba mxolod Temis, ekonomikuri, istoriuli, socialuri da politikuri konteqstis gaTvaliswinebiT.

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Tavi II

1. teqstebze muSaoba bilingvuri ganaTlebis procesSi

bilingvuri swavlebis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani sakiTxia

teqstze muSaoba. ramdenadac bilingvuri klasebisaTvis specialuri saxelmZRvaneloebi ar arsebobs, amdenad ZiriTad saswavlo saSualebad erTenovani saxelmZRvaneloebi gamoiyeneba. am saxelmZRvaneloebis moxmareba bilingvuri klasebisaTvis garkveuli meTodikis gaTva;liswinebas moiTxovs, rac teqstze muSaobis principebs gulisxmobs. teqstze muSaoba ramdenime etapad unda daiyos. pirveli etapi gulisxmobs maswavleblis muSaobas teqstze. maswavlebeli winaswar amzadebs teqsts klasisaTvis. amisaTvis igi iTvaliwinebs klasis enobriv dones, winaswar aanalizebs im problemebs, romlebic klasSi SeiZleba gaCndes teqstis damuSavebis procesSi. pirvel rigSi, unda moxdes teqstis enobrivi damuSaveba. amisaTvis maswavlebelma sasurvelia gamoyos ramdenime mimarTuleba:

terminebi da cnebebi

zogadi leqsika

frazebi

konstruqciebi

funqciuri frazebi

gakveTilis enac yoveli etapisaTvis winaswar unda daigegmos. maswavlebelma winaswar unda gaiazros, Tu romeli sakiTxis Sesax-

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eb romel enaze isaubrebs an rogor miawodebs dasamuSavebel masalas _ TargmaniT, sqemiT, zepiri ganmartebiT Tu sxva saSualebiT. ganvixiloT TiToeuli mimarTuleba: terminebi da cnebebi rogorc aRiniSna, maswavlebelma teqsti winaswar unda daamuSaos. teqstis damuSavebisas calke unda gamoiyos is terminebi da cnebebi, romlebic mniSvnelovania axali sakiTxisaTvis. misi miwodeba klasisaTvis SeiZleba saTanado ganmartebebiT moswavlis mSobliur enazec, magram umjobesia terminebisa da cnebebisaTvis grafikuli organizatorebis, sqemebis an cxrilebis gamoyeneba. es efeqturi saSualeba moswavles daexmareba ara marto terminebisa da cnebebis aTvisebaSi, aramed masalis kargad gaanalizebasac Seuwyobs xels, radgan sagakveTilo procesis dasrulebis Semdeg an momdevno gakveTilze es masala saSualebas miscems moswavles, imsjelos ganxilul sakiTxze sayrdeni sityvebis, gaanalizebuli cnebebisa da terminebi gamoiyenebiT. calke Tu arsebobs specialuri raTa, TvalsaCinoeba mocemul sakiTxze, sasurvelia maswavlebelma misi terminebi da cnebebi aseve daamuSavebinos klass, TvalsaCinoebaze dayrdnobiT, moswavlem advilad SeZlos terminebis aTviseba da maTi msjelobaSi gamoyeneba. zogadi leqsika calke unda imuSaos maswavlebelma im sityvebze, romlebic uSualodaa dakavSirebuli sakiTxTan, magram warmoadgens zogad leqsikas, anu isini sxva sakiTxebze an sagnebSi msjelobisasac dasWirdeba moswavles. maTi aTviseba aamaRlebs moswavleTa enobriv kompetencias. amgvari leqsika sasurvelia klass miewodos rogorc TargmaniT, ise ganmartebiTi axsniT, sinonimiTa da antonimiT. leqsikis aTvisebisaTvis amgvari sqema SeiZleba gamoviyenoT.

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sinonimi sityva sityva

ganmarteba

gavrcelebuli sityvaTSexameba

antonimi

teqstis winadadeba

axali winadadeba

frazebi aseve, calke dasamuSavebelia frazebi, anu is Sesityvebebi, romlebic Temis analizisas da msjelobisas gamoadgeba moswavles. isini sayrdeni frazebis rols Seasruleben, amitom sasurvelia teqstidan calke amoviRoT isini da mivawodoT moswavles saTanado ganmartebiT (aq SesaZlebelia misi mSobliuri enac davixmaroT). unda gvaxsovdes, rom teqstis Targmna araefeqturi gzaa; amdenad, rac ufro metad damuSavdeba teqsti frazebis TvalsazrisiT da gamoiyofa calkeuli elementebi sagakveTilo procesSi, miT ufro

45

gauadvildebaT maT SemdgomSi rogorc konkretul, mocemul masalaze, ise sxva sakiTxebze msjeloba. calkeuli frazebi safuZvlianad unda damuSavdes, radgan isini im enobriv saSualebaTa ricxvs ganekuTvnebian, romlebic zrdis moswavlis mier enis akademiuri flobis dones da zogadad amaRlebs mis enobriv kompetencias. sasurvelia garkveuli frazebis gamoyenebiT Seiqmnas axali teqsti, rogorc werilobiT, ise zepirad, daisvas SekiTxvebi da ase Semdeg. konstruqciebi calkea dasamuSavebeli enobrivi konstruqciebi. maTSi igulisxmeba is gramatikuli sakiTxebi, romlebic metad mniSvnelovania gamarTuli msjelobisaTvis. mSobliuri enis matareblisaTvis es sruliad arasaWiro sferoa, magram enis SemswavlelisaTvis ki metad mniSvnelovani, radgan man momavalSi SeZlos ara marto sakiTxis Sesaxeb azris gamoxatva, aramed SeZlos gamarTuli, saliteraturo enis normebis dacviT agebuli msjeloba, sworad gamoiyenos saxelis brunvis, zmnis, Tandebulis, ricxvis formebi... yovelive es sakiTxebze msjelobisas unda miewodos enis Semswavlels, radgan calkeul gramatikul sakiTxebze msjeloba misi gamoyenebis praqtikul mxares ar gulisxmobs. aseTi konstruqciebi calke unda damuSavdes, raTa moswavlem kargad gaacnobieros romeli enobrivi forma (brunva, ricxvi, Tandebuli, zmnis dro, sxva gramatikuli kategoria) unda gamoiyenos konkretul SemTxvevaSi. aseTi konstruqciebis miwodebisas, ra Tqma unda, gramatikul sakiTxebze ki ar gamaxvildeba yuradReba, aramed enobriv formebze, rogorc azris gamoxatvis saSualebaze. konstruqciebSi maswavlebelma yuradReba unda gaamaxvilos imaze, rom es konkretuli konstruqcia moiTxovs konkretul brunvas, mocemul Tandebuls, Sesabamis ricxvis formas da ase Semdeg, Tumca sruliadac araa saWiro gramatikuli terminis gamoyeneba. aseTi konstruqciebi calke unda amoiweros da moswavles unda ganemartos, rom swori da gamarTuli msjelobisaTvis

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saWiroa maTi Seucvlelad gamoyeneba, radgan winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi azri damaxinjdeba an Seicvleba. magaliTisaTvis: am garemoebam

gamoiwvia, sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT mniSvnelovania, am problemis Taobaze, am movlenebma gamoiwvia saTanado Sedegi... calke gamotanili aseTi konstruqciebi xels Seuwyobs moswavleTa gamarTuli metyvelebis unar-Cvevebis gamomuSavebas. funqciuri frazebi aseve calke unda damuSavdes da moswavleebs miewodoT is funqciuri frazebi, romlebic maswavlebels dasWirdeba sakiTxis axsnisas. magaliTad: vnaxoT cxrilze, daxazeT cxrili, SeavseT

cxrili, SeusabameT swori forma, daakavSireT, daajgufeT, moaxdineT klasifikacia, miuwereT qarTuli Sesatyvisebi, sqemis / cxrilis mixedviT imsjeleT... da ase Semdeg. maTi ganmartebis gareSe moswavle ver SeZlebs davalebis sworad Sesrulebas. amdenad, maswavlebelma winaswar unda gaTvalos, rogor warimarTeba teqstze muSaoba da moswavleebs specialurad, axsna-ganmartebiT unda miawodos is funqciuri frazebi, romlebic sagakveTilo procesSi dasWirdebaT, raTa aman SemdgomSi ar gamoiwvios Seferxeba. bilingvuri swavlebis erT-erTi umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxia teqstze muSaoba, radgan swored teqstia moswavlisaTvis sagnobrivi codnis mimcemi da amave dros igi aris misi enobrivi kompetenciis amaRlebis umTavresi saSualeba, radgan enis akademiuri flobis dones mxolod am gziT vaRwevT. sxva SemTxvevaSi ena mxolod komunikaciis saSualebad darCeba enis SemswavlelisaTvis. amdenad, Tu teqstze muSaoba sworad ar warimarTa mizani verc erT sferoSi ver Sesruldeba da Tavad bilingvuri swavlebis formac safrTxis qveS dadgeba. es kargad unda axsovdes maswavlebels.

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2. grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba

ian amos komenskim Tavis naSromSi `didi didaqtika~ didaqtikis erT-erT umTavresad TvalsaCinoebis principi miiCnia: `oqros kanonad unda iqces piroba: moswavleebs unda meceT ufleba, SeigrZnon yvelaferi, rac ki SesaZlebelia SeigrZnon SegrZnebebis doneze: xilvadi - mxedvelobiT, xma - smeniT, suni - ynosviT, gemo - gemoTi, Sesaxebi - SexebiT.~ ratom aris xilvadoba ase mniSvnelovani? komenskis azriT, ra enasac ar unda vaswavlideT _ mSobliur enasac ki _ unda vaCvenoT nivTebi, romelTa ganmartebac sityvebia da unda vaswavloT sityvebiT gamoTqma yvelafrisa, rasac vxedavT, rasac vexebiT, rasac vWamT, raTa metyvelebis procesi da azri yovelTvis paralelurad mimdinareobdes da orive viTardebodes erTad. aravis ar SeiZleba wavakiTxoT is, rac mas ar esmis, an movTxovoT imis ganxilva, ris gamoTqmac mas sityvebiT ar SeuZlia. vizualuri saSualebebi damxmare saswavlo saSualebebia, romelTac aCveneben, demonstrirebas ukeTeben gakveTilze, raTa ufro gasagebi da advilad aRsaqmeli gaxdes saswavlo masala, miwodebuli informacia, Teoriuli azri da ase Semdeg. vizualur saSualebebs, Cveulebriv, saswavlo procesis garkveuli safexuris saWiroebebisa da moTxovnebis, aseve moswavleebis asakidan gamomdinare Tvisebebis Sesabamisad amzadeben. maT ajgufeben bunebriv, xelovnur da simbolur vizualur masalad. vizualuri masala SeiZleba iyos: a) bunebis obieqtebi (demonstrirebis dros, eqskursiebze da gaseirnebis dros),

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b) specialurad Seqmnili saSualebebi (plakatebi, sqemebi, gamosaxulebebi, foto suraTebi, naxatebi, geometriuli figurebi, muliaJebi, grafikuli cxrilebi, tabulebi), g) simboluri saSualebebi (rukebi, globusebi), d) modelebi (aparatebi, xelsawyoebi), e) saekrano saSualebebi (kino filmebi, diafilmebi, diapozitivebi da sxva), v) audiovizualuri saSualebebi (video Canawerebi, audio Canawerebi). tradiciulad gamoiyeneba vizualuri swavlebis meTodis ori jgufi: ilustrirebis meTodi (saswavlo masalis amsaxvel saSualebebTan dakavSirebuli - plakatebis, rukebis, naxazebis, sqemebis, gamosaxulebebis, fotosuraTebis, grafikebis, diagramebis, tabulebis - gamoyenebasTan); demonstrirebis meTodi (raTa naCvenebi iyos sivrciTi saswavlo saSualebebi); ilustrireba procesia, romlis mizania Teoriis garkveuli kanoni an movlena ukeT gasagebi gaxados magaliTis, vizualuri saSualebebis, sityvieri ganmartebebis, moZraobis da ase Semdeg daxmarebiT. demonstrireba SesaZlebelia vizualuri masalis damzadebis dros, saswavlo eqsperimentebis dros maT Sesaxeb Sefasebebis da ganmartebebis gziT, anu maswavleblis, moswavlis an sxva pirovnebis mier naTqvamis gamoyenebiT. demonstrireba Sesaswavli nivTis, obieqtis, movlenis cocxlad dakvirvebis SesaZleblobas uzrunvelyofs, amgvarad, Sesabamisi saswavlo masalis Sinaarsis ukeTesad gaazrebas da aTvisebas uwyobs xels.

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vizualuri

saswavlo

masalis

gamoyeneba

rom

efeqturi

gaxdes, mniSvnelovania gvaxsovdes da gaviTvaliswinoT ramdenime piroba da moTxovna. saswavlo procesSi vizualuri meTodebis gamoyeneba moswavleebis vizualur mxatvruli azrovnebis ganviTarebas uwyobs xels; aaqtiurebs yuradRebas da Semecnebis unars; konkretizacias ukeTebs saswavlo an gamosakvlev Teoriul sakiTxebs; nanax movlenebs ukeTebs sistematizebasa da klasificirebas; swavlisadmi interess ukeTebs stimulirebas (Sesabamisad, pozitiuri motivaciis Camoyalibebas uwyobs xels); procesis da movlenebis modelirebis SesaZleblobas iZleva, romelTa realur droSi dakvirveba SeuZlebelia; saswavlo masalis aTvisebis donis Sesaxeb konkretuli informaciis miRebis SesaZleblobas iZleva; ar SeiZleba xilvadoba TviTmiznad iqces. vizualuri masalis optimalurad gamoyeneba niSnavs amis mizandasaxulad keTebas, saswavlo gakveTilis mizanTan da ZiriTad davalebasTan kavSiris gaTvaliswinebiT. xilvadobis meTodi unda dabalansdes sxva meTodebis gamoyenebiT. xilvadoba SeiZleba axali saswavlo masalis axsnis dros iyos gamoyenebuli, aseve ukve naswavlis ganmtkicebisTvis da Sefasebis dros. mniSvnelovania gvaxsovdes rom vizualuri masalis gamoyeneba gakveTilisTvis gamoyofili dros sagrZnoblad dazogvaSi gvexmareba. vizualuri masalis damzadeba SeuZlia maswavlebels (gamoyenebis win an gamoyenebis dros) da aseve moswavleebs (individualurad an jgufebSi, wyvilebSi muSaobaSi). damzadebul masalaSi maswavlebels Tavisufali adgilebis datoveba SeuZlia, romelic Semdgom moswavles SeeZleba Seavsos (miaxatos, miaweros rame, an raimes saxeli daarqvas).

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vizualuri masalis gamoyenebis dros unda darwmundeT, rom mas yvela moswavle kargad xedavs. mniSvnelovania moswavleebis asakobrivi jgufisTvis damaxasiaTebeli Tvisebebis gaTvaliswineba, mexsierebis dominanti saxeobebi. bilingvuri swavlisa da swavlebis dros gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba. es xerxi kargad Seesabameba ori saswavlo sagnis swavlebis miznebs (meore enisa da raime sxva sagnisa). grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyenebiT, maswavlebeli uzrunvelyofs rogorc sagnis masalis, aseve enis aTvisebis warmatebulobas.

grafikuli organizatorebi da maTi funqciebi:

grafikuli organizatorebi informaciis struqturirebis

xerxia _ mowesrigebis (dajgufebis) uniSvnelovanesi xerxi. grafikuli organizatorebi informacias vizualurad gvaCveneben. grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba aqtiur swavlas

uwyobs xels. magaliTad: saSinao davalebis (savarjiSoebis) Sesrulebis dros, moswavleebi im enas iyeneben, romelzec laparakoben, kiTxuloben, weren, ismenen, fiqroben, xolo informaciis grafikulad ganlagebis dros isini iyeneben rogorc nacnob, aseve ucnob informacias. grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba maswavlebels da

moswavles Soris TanamSromlobas, anu kooperatiul swavlebas, uwyobs xels,. grafikuli organizatorebi gvexmareba teqstis vizualurad mowesrigebaSi (mis gagebaSi). maTi gamoyeneba SeiZleba: 1) teqstis an axali masalis wakiTxvis win,

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2) wakiTxvis Semdeg, 3) weris an davalebis werilobiT Sesrulebis win, 4) teqstis an davalebis ganxilvis dros, 5) diskusiis dros, 6) daskvnebis gakeTebis procesSi da a.S. grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba moswavlis saswavlo Temis Sesaxeb arsebuli codnis dadgenaSi (gaazrebaSi) gvexmareba, aseve _ axali codnis aTvisebisTvis moswavleebis momzadebaSi. grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyenebis dros, moswavle da maswavlebeli erTmaneTisgan swavloben (masalasac, erTmaneTis gagebas da erTmaneTTan urTierTobas). bilingvuri swavlis procesSi aseT TanamSromlobas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs. moswavleebi sakuTari codnis struqturirebas swavloben da aqedan gamomdinare swavlis sakuTar strategias irCeven. grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba rogorc vizualuri, aseve sityvieri (verbaluri) informaciis gamoyenebas ganapirobebs. es moswavleebs SesaZleblobas aZlevs airCion, varireba gaukeTon swavlis stils, sakuTari SesaZleblobebis gaTvaliswinebiT.

grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyenebis upiratesobebi:

SegviZlia gamoviyenoT SegviZlia gamoviyenoT SegviZlia maragi. iseT auditoriaSi, romelSic

moswavleebis enis codnis done sxvadasxvaa. iseT auditoriaSi, romelSic

moswavleebis aTvisebis unaris done sxvadasxvaa. ganvaviTaroT da gavafarTooT leqsikuri

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moswavlis codnas awesrigebs, xels uwyobs misi diskusiis unarisa da SesaZleblobis ganviTarebas, aseve sakuTari azris da mis xelT arsebuli informaciis gamoTqmis. im moswavleTa azrisa da enis integrirebas uwyobs xels, ufro gans). romelTac gansxvavebuli (sxvadasxva) swavlis stili aqvT. xelmisawvdoms xdis nebismieri saxis (esoden

rTul, specifikur da ucxo) informacias (saswavlo sa-

ras unda mivaqcioT yuradReba grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyenebis dros?

yuradReba unda mieqces mTavar informacias, cnebebs, azrebs: mTavari unda gamoikveTos (ufro didi asoebi an naxatebi, ufro mkveTri feriT gaxazuli an gaferadebuli), naklebad mniSvnelovani ufro patara asoebiT, an sxvanairad unda daiweros (weris mimarTulebis Secvla SeiZleba). grafikuli organizatorebi sxvadasxva moswavlis individualuri gamocdilebisa da codnis dadgenis SesaZleblobas gvaZlevs, Semdgom am informaciaze dayrdnobiT axali codnis miRebis SesaZleblobas. es swavlis process realurad amartivebs da aadvilebs. xeli SeuwyveT cnebebis da zogadi saxelebis ganviTarebas! grafikuli organizatorebi gviCveneben mTavar azrs, Sesabamisi leqsikis daxmarebiT. daexmareT moswavleebs cnebebis Semadgeneli nawilebis (atributebis) danaxvaSi. mizani aris gageba da swavla, amitom gamoiyeneT iseTi sityvebis maragi,

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romlebic ganmartavs, azustebs, ilustrirebas ukeTebs informacias. xSirad gamoiyeneT wera, kiTxva, azrovneba! moswavleebs rom grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba an Sedgena SeeZloT, maT bevri unda ikiTxon, ifiqron da weron. roca moswavleebi grafikulad asaxaven informacias an kamaToben mis Sesaxeb, maT uwevT masalis gadakiTxva, erTmaneTSi molaparakeba, saubari, damtkiceba, Sesabamisad xedaven movlenaTa urTierT kavSirs, urTierTobas, movlenebis ganviTarebas, mizezebsa da Sedegebs. wera exmareba da xelSemwyobia dagegmarebisa da ganxilvisa! grafikuli organizatorebi efeqturi saSualebaa diskusiis principiT muSaobis, gegmis Sedgenis, weris organizebis dros. yvelafris Caweris Semdeg SegviZlia naSromis Sinaarsis dajgufeba da gadaxarisxeba. ganaviTareT mimdinare diskusia! grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyeneba azrebs mimarTulebas aZlevs. moswavleebi avTentur enas xmaroben - interpretirebis, analizis, problemis gadawyvetis, daTanxmebis, ardaTanxmebis, TanamSromlobis, Secdomebis daSvebis dros - saswavlo masalidan romelime specifikuri Temis Seswavlis procesSi. instruqciebis an grafikuli organizatorebis micemis dros Tqven exmarebiT dagegmvaSi. grafikuli organizatorebis gamoyenebiT maswavlebeli moswavleebs aCvenebs mTavars raime Temis, cnebis Sesaxeb da xerxs, Tu rogor SeiZleba axali informaciis aTviseba. igi faqtobrivad rCevas an instruqcias iZleva, Tu rogor SeiZleba swavlis gagrZeleba (rogor SeiZleba am Temis aTviseba).

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grafikuli organizatorebi Sefasebis instrumentia. grafikuli organizatorebi moswavlis codnis, Segnebis, swavlis, fiqris donis obieqturad Sefasebis SesaZleblobas iZleva.

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3. Secdomebze muSaoba

enis Seswavlis procesSi Secdomebi gardauvalia. igi enis aTvisebis Tanamdevi movlenaa. Sesaswavl enaze metyvelebis unaris ganviTareba aucileblad iwvevs Secdomebs, romlebic sxvadasxva faqtorebiTaa ganpirobebuli: rTulia Sesaswavli enis fonematuri struqturis srulad aTviseba da misi realizeba, sawarmoTqmo aparatis morgeba axali enis monacemebTan, aseve xdeba mSobliuri enis yalibis meqanikuri gadatana axal enobriv sistemaSi, an adgili aqvs konstruqciis arasrulad aTvisebas da miRebuli codnis arasrulfasovnad gadatanas praqtikaSi. es da sxva mravali sakiTxi gansakuTrebulad TvalsaCinoa saklaso muSaobisas. rogor unda moiqces maswavlebeli? reagirebis gareSe datovos Secdomebi Tu meyseulad mianiSnos masze moswavles? mxolod gausworos Secdoma Tu imsjelos TiToeul maTganze? ra dro dauTmos Secdomebis analizs? Semoitanos axali masala Tu isev imuSaos im masalaze, romelic jer kidev ar auTvisebia moswavles ise, rom ar dauSvas Secdoma? yvela Secdomaze hqondes reaqcia maswavlebels Tu mxolod zogierTze an SerCeviT imsjelos TiToeulze? ra dro dauTmos Secdomebis analizs da rogor miawodos is klass? individualurad unda moxdes moswavleTa mier daSvebuli Secdomebis analizi Tu igi saklaso ganxilvis sagani unda gaxdes? _ es kiTxvebi da maTze pasuxis gacema mniSvnelovania saswavlo procesis srulyofilad agebisaTvis da sagakveTilo procesSi maswavleblis qmedebis sworad warmarTvisaTvis. pirveli da mniSvnelovani piroba, romelic unda Sesruldes, aris is, rom moswavle, romelic cdilobs Sesaswavl enaze martivi komunikaciis agebas da axerxebs Tundac elementarul komunikacias,

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ar unda SevaferxoT; anu am SemTxvevaSi uSecdomo metyveleba an Secdomebis analizi ki araa mTavari, aramed is, rom Sesaswavl enaze metyvelebis survili gavuCinoT enis Semswavlels / moswavles. es metad mniSvnelovani fsiqologiuri faqtoria, radgan enis Seswavlisas yvelas uviTardeba kompleqsi imisa, rom igi arasworad an arasrulyofilad gadmoscems azrs. Tu maswavlebeli am SemTxvevaSi yovel Secdomaze reagirebs, sasurveli Sedegis nacvlad, rom moswavlem gamarTulad ilaparakos, SesaZloa sruliad sapirispiro Sedegi miviRoT _ moswavles daekargeba Sesaswavl enaze metyvelebis survili. aRsaniSnavia is, rom Secdomebi mosalodnelia yvela doneze, magram sxvadasxva doneze Secdomebi sxvadasxvagvari iqneba. enis Seswavlis pirvelive safexurze Cndeba sawarmoTqmo problemebi. Sesaswavli enis fonematuri struqtura erTbaSad Zneli aRsaqmeli da warmosaTqmelia. miT ufro, es exeba specifikuri bgerebis sworad gamoTqmas. Semdgom etapze Tavs iCens sxvadasxvagvari gramatikuli sakiTxi. Secdomebi mudmivad vlindeba weraSi. yvela am sakiTxs etapobrivad da mizanmimarTulad unda damuSaveba. Secdomebze muSaoba saswavlo procesis ganuyofel nawilad unda iqces. enis swavlebisas Secdomebi gardauvalia, amdenad saswavlo procesis sworad dagegmva gulisxmobs Secdomebze specialur muSaobas. amgvarad dagegmili saqmianoba ki safuZveli gaxdeba, erTi mxriv, enis komunikaciuri aspeqtis ganviTarebisa, xolo meore mxriv, igi ganaviTarebs da aamaRlebs enis akademiuri flobis dones. Secdomebze muSaoba warmoTqmaSi sawarmoTqmo problemebi Tavs iCens enis swavlebis pirvelive dRidan, magram maTi gamosworeba mcire droSi ar moxdeba, rac ar unda gaZlierebuli da intensiuri muSaoba Catardes am mxriv. enis codnis donis amaRlebasTan erTad sawarmoTqmo problemebic mcir-

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deba, magram igi yovelTvis SeiZleba darCes aqcentis saxiT, anu srulyofilad swori warmoTqmac verasodes ganxorcieldes. ramdenadac es SeiZleba ganvixiloT mkveTrad individualuri Tvisebebisa da unarebis gamovlenad, amdenad misi srulad daZleva mxolod individis SesaZleblobebs SeiZleba mivandoT. zogierTi individi bunebrivi smenisa da sxva unar-Cvevebis Sedegad enis aTvisebis paralelurad axerxebs sawarmoTqmo aparatis srulyofas da uaqcento metyvelebas, zogisaTvis ki es mudmiv maxasiaTeblad rCeba, Tumca SesaZloa, misi enobrivi kompetencia maRalic ki iyos. amdenad, sawarmoTqmo problemebis analizisas unda moxdes mxolod ZiriTad problemebze aqcentireba. rogorc cnobilia, bgeris umTavresi maxasiaTebeli misi sityvaTganmasxvavebeli funqciaa _ bgeraTa CanacvlebiT SeiZleba miviRoT sruliad gansxvavebuli mniSvnelobis sityva. amitom enis SemswavlelTan gansakuTrebulad unda mieqces yuradReba amgvar problemebs enaSi da masze specialurad Seiqmnas savarjiSoebi, raTa sawarmoTqmo problema ar gadaizardos enobriv problemaSi. amisaTvis: specialurad damuSavdes Sesaswavli enis fonematuri struqtura enis Semswavlelis mSobliur enasTan mimarTebiT da gamoiyos gansxvavebuli bgerebi; am bgeraTa gamoyenebiT Seiqmnas winadadebebi da mcire zomis martivi, araavTenturi teqstebi, romlebsac gamoviyenebT rogorc sawarmoTqmo miznebisaTvis, ise karnaxisa da werisaTvis. yoveli nacionaluri jgufisaTvis unda ganisazRvros SecdomaTa mosalodneli tipebi. magaliTad, Turqul da azerbaijanulenovan moswavleebs, agreTve evropuli enebis umravles warmomadgenlebs uZneldebaT qarTuli enis yru mkveTr TanxmovanTa warmoTqma, rogorebicaa: p, t, k; rusulenovan enis Semswavlels gauWirdeba yru fSvinvierebis warmoTqma: f, T, q. aseve rTulia afrikatebis (Z, c, w, j, C, W) warmoTqma zemoTCamoTvlili enebis warmomadgenle-

58

bisTvis, magram somxurenovani moswavlisaTvis es ar warmoadgens gansakuTrebul problemas. qarTulisaTvis specifikuria enisZirismieri y Tanxmovani da misi sworad warmoTqma xangrZliv, SesaZloa dauZlevel problemadac ki darCes qarTuli enis SemswavlelisaTvis. amdenad am problemebze aucileblad unda gamaxvildes yuradReba, magram srulyofili warmoTqmis survilma ar unda Seaferxos enis Seswavlis procesi da arc enis Semswavlels unda gauCndes iseTi ganwyoba, rom es dauZleveli procesia. Tu Secdomebi ar cvlis sityvis mniSvnelobas, maTze specialurad yuradRebis gamaxvileba arcaa saWiro, radgan amgvari problemebi enobrivi kompetenciis amaRlebasTan erTad TandaTan Semcirdeba. gamoiyos iseTi bgerebi, romelTa araswori gamoyeneba gamoiwvevs sityvis mniSvnelobis cvlas. qarTulisaTvis aseTia: p f: papa - fafa, piri _ firi, puri _ furi, poni _ foni, paqti _ faqti... T _ t: Tari _ tari, Taro _ taro, TuSi _ tuSi... k: qudi _ kudi, qari _ kari, qera _ kera, qula _ kula... q _ c _

w: celi _ weli, curavs _ wuravs... C _ W: Ciri _ Wiri, Cala _ Wala... g _ R: gori _ Rori, gvari _ Rvari, gomi _ Romi, gonieri _ Ronieri... R - y: Ria _ yia, Rele _ yeli... da ase Semdeg. sasurvelia, enis Semswavlels sakiTxav da sawarmoTqmo masalad winaswar mivawodoT aseTi sityvebi, raTa man, erTi mxriv, yuradReba gaamaxvilos maT sworad warmoTqmaze da meore mxriv, Tavad icodes mosalodneli Secdomis arseboba. am sityvaTa gamoyenebiT sasurvelia, Seiqmnas winadadebebi an mcire moculobis teqstebi, romelTa gamoyeneba SeiZleba sakiTxavad, smenisa da gagebis unaris gasaumjobeseblad, karnaxiT werisaTvis. aseve mizanSewonili iqneba Casasmeli savarjiSoebis miwodebac, romlebSic Tavad unda gansazRvros sityvis konteqsturi mniSvneloba da Tavad unda SearCios

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mocemul sityvaTagan erT-erTi. aseve mniSvnelovania specialuri mizniT Seqmnili audio masalis miwodeba an maswavleblis mier warmoTqmuli calkeuli sityvebisa da teqstebis demonstrireba. momzaddes specialuri savarjiSoebi sawarmoTqmo aparatis dasaxvewad; amisaTvis SeiZleba misaRebi iyos `enis gasatexebic~, magram aq unda gaviTvaliswinoT is, rom enis gasatexis yvela sityva advilad asaxsneli da gasagebi unda iyos enis SemswavlelisaTvis. swavlebis procesSi sasurvelia maswavlebelma CainiSnos is Secdomebi, romlebsac warmoTqmisas uSveben moswavleebi da Semdgom Seqmnas specialuri savarjiSoebi maTTvis. amgvari savarjiSoebis SesaZlo tipebis: TvalsaCinoeba, romelzedac moxdeba swori da araswori formebis gamijvna (ra aris gamoxatuli suraTze: qari Tu kari?, romelia wigni da romeli ciga?...), demonstrirebaze dayrdnobiT gameoreba, simReris an leqsis audioCanaweris mosmena da Semdgom moswavleebis mier imave teqstis gameoreba... es ukanaskneli SesaZloa xSirad Tavad maswavlebelma Seasrulos: mis mier wakiTxul an warmoTqmul teqsts imeoreben moswavleebi. moiZebnos masala (leqsebi, simRerebi...), romlebic gamosadegi iqneba sawarmoTqmo daniSnulebiT. aseve didi mniSvneloba eqneba multiplikaciuri da mxatvruli filmebis naxvas specialuri davalebebiT (magaliTad,

kiTxva-pasuxi: ra Tqva am gmirma? ra upasuxa meorem?...). Secdomebze muSaoba zepirmetyvelebaSi rogorc ukve iTqva, maswavleblis pirveli rigis amocanaa, rom ar Seawyvetinos moswavles metyveleba daSvebuli Secdomebis gamo. magram amave dros:

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maswavlebelma unda CainiSnos Secdomebi; maswavlebelma unda moaxdinos SecdomaTa klasifikacia; unda ganisazRvros SecdomaTa tipebi enis kompetenciis mixedviT, anu moxdes im sakiTxebis gamoyofa, romelzedac yuradRebis miqceva SesaZlebeli iqneba enis flobis konkretuli donisaTvis; Seiqmnas specialuri savarjiSoebi, testebi mosalodneli

Secdomebis gamosasworeblad; asakisa da enis flobis donis mixedviT daigegmos samuSaoebi klasSi Sesasruleblad (maswavleblis saubari, specialuri ganmarteba, axsna, analizi...). gramatikul Secdomebze muSaoba gramatikuli Secdomebis gamosworeba metad xangrZlivi procesia da igi gansakuTrebul muSaobas moiTxovs rogorc maswavleblis, ise enis Semswavlelis mxridan. maswavlebelma unda CainiSnos yvela is Secdoma, romelsac moswavleebi uSveben zepirmetyvelebisas Tu werisas. magram yvela Secdomis analizi, bunebrivia, ver moxdeba erTbaSad, radgan igi moiTxovs rogorc enobrivi kompetenciis garkveul dones, ise gasaTvaliswinebelia asakobrivi sakiTxic, radgan arsebobs SecdomaTa meqanikuri da gaazrebuli daZlevis gzebi. dawyebiTi klasebis moswavleebs sasurvelia mxolod swori forma mivawodoT xSirad daSvebuli Secdomebis sanacvlod da specialuri analizis gareSe mivaRwioT maT gamosworebas. asakobrivi da enobrivi kompetenciis zrdasTan erTad TandaTanobiT moxdeba enobrivi struqturisa da enobrivi meqanizmebis gaazreba da SecdomaTa safuZvlian analizs mxolod am SemTxvevaSi eqneba azri. gramatikuli Secdomebis analizisas mniSvneloba eniWeba imas, Tu ra iwvevs am tipis Secdomas. am SemTxvevaSi ramdenime aspeqti

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unda gaviTvaliswinoT: Secdoma SeiZleba gamowveuli iyos mSobliuri enis analogiT, radgan enis Semswavlels pirdapir gadmoaqvs Tavisi enisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli konstruqcia Sesaswavl enaSi; gramatikul Secdomebs iwvevs enobrivi kompetenciis dabali done, anu Sesaswavli enis struqturis arcodna da enobrivi meqanizmebis gauTvaliswinebloba. rogor unda vimuSaoT gramatikul Secdomebze? pirvel rigSi unda moxdes SecdomaTa klasifikacia, magaliTad: Secdomebi piris formaTa sworad gamoyenebis sakiTxSi, zmnis droTa formebis warmoebaSi, Secdomebi zmnur konstruqciebSi, anu zmnasTan dakavSirebul saxelTa formebis sworad gamoyeneba, rTuli winadadebebis konstruqciebis Sedgena Tu sxva tipisa... sasurvelia Seiqmnas TvalsaCinoeba _ sqemebi, cxrilebi...

romlebic asaxaven, rogorc Sesaswavli enis Taviseburebebs, aseve moaxdenen mosalodnel SecdomaTa sapirispirod swori formebis gaaqtiurebas; unda Seiqmnas specialuri savarjiSoebi TiToeuli sakiTxisaTvis: Casma, swori formis SerCeva, areuli Tanmimdevrobis dalageba, zmnis, winadadebis, teqstis gadayvana sxva drois / piris formaSi, kiTxva-pasuxi pirTa formebis gaaqtiurebiT, minidialogis Sedgena mocemuli formebis gamoyenebiT, situaciuri TamaSebi Sesaswavli formebis gamoyenebiT, gamonaklisebze specialuri muSaoba da ase Semdeg... mocemuli formebis gamoyenebiT winadadebebi an teqstis Sedgena; informaciis gameoreba da axali winadadebis / informaciis damateba; dialogis Sedgena mocemuli an gansaxilveli formebis gamoyenebiT (wyvilebSi muSaoba)...

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gramatikuli Secdomebze muSaobis erT-erTi efeqturi gzaa funqciuri gramatikis sakiTxebis miwodeba enis SemswavlelTaTvis. igi gansakuTrebulad avlens gramatikis praqtikul daniSnulebas da amave dros aviTarebs enobriv kompetenciebs komunikaciuri situaciebis mixedviT. Secdomebze muSaoba weris mimarTulebiT weriTi davalebebi metad mniSvnelovania rogorc uSualod weris unar-Cvevis, ise zogadad enobrivi kompetenciis ganviTarebisaTvis. weris procesi metyvelebasTan SedarebiT nela da pasiuri codnis gaaqtiurebiT mimdinareobs, ramdenadac enis Semswavlels / moswavles sakmarisi dro aqvs azris gadmosacemad mis mier aTvisebuli masalidan gaazrebulad SearCios formebi. amdenad werisas daSvebuli Secdomebi saukeTeso indikatoria gaazrebuli codnis doneze arsebul problemaTa gamosavlenad. Tu weriT namuSevarSi Secdomebi mravladaa, es aSkarad aCvenebs, rom enis SemswavlelisaTvis garkveuli sakiTxebi jer kidev dauZlevelia. amdenad, werisas daSvebul Secdomebze mizanmimarTulad enis Semswavlelmac, aseve maswavlebelma. weriTi davalebebis saxiT moswavles SesaZloa sxvadasxva samuSao mieces da TiToeuli maTgani Tavisebur midgomasa da muSaobas moiTxovs. upirveles yovlisa ki unda aRiniSnos, rom didi mniSvneloba eniWeba weriTi namuSevris kargad gamoyenebas SecdomaTa analizisaTvis. amitom maswavlebelma aucileblad unda mianiSnos yvela Secdomaze, xolo Semdgom gamokveTilad unda miuTiTos swori forma an azris gamoxatvis swori enobrivi saSualebebi. vizualizaciis es xerxi kargi saSualebaa moswavlisaTvis sakuTar SecdomaTa gasaanalizeblad. dawyebiT safexurze efeqturia karnaxi, radgan igi avlens im problemebs, romlebic mosmenis, gagebis, enis fonematuri struqtuunda imuSaos rogorc

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risa da orTografiis gaazrebis dones avlens. karnaxi kargad gamoavlens, ra problemebia bgeraTa aRqmisa da sworad weris TvalsazrisiT. weriTi davalebis erT-erTi saxeobas warmoadgens winadadebebisa da teqstebis Sedgena. am SemTxvevaSi vlindeba gramatikuli problemebi, rac aseve unda gaxdes Secdomebis gasworebisa da analizi safuZveli. rveulSi, specialur adgilze, gamokveTilad, umjobesia sqematurad da TvalsaCinod, saTiTaod unda gamoikveTos yvela Secdoma swori variantis CvenebiT. M metad efeqturi saSualebaa, moswavleTa mier Secdomebis gasworeba. amisaTvis rveulSi unda gamoiyos adgili Secdomebis gasworebisaTvis, sadac moswavle Tavadve dawers Secdomis sanacvlod swor, gamarTul variants. mokled, Secdomebis analizi weris mimarTulebiT amgvarad SeiZleba warmovidginoT: karnaxi da misi analizi; weriTi davaleba da misi analizi; naweris gasworebisas mieniSnos yvela Secdoma swori formis miTiTebiT; gamoiyos specialuri adgili Secdomebis gasworebisaTvis; Seiqmnas specialuri davalebebi, teqstebi tipur SecdomaTa gaanalizebisaTvis. dasasrul, kidev erTxel mivubrundeT im SekiTxvebs, romlebic daisva da sakiTxis gaTvaliswinebiT maT mokled gavceT pasuxi: amdenad, Secdomebi reagirebis gareSe ar unda darCes, magram TiToeul maTganze dauyovneblivi reagireba Seaferxebs moswavlis metyvelebis process. amitom sasurvelia, maswavlebelma CainiSnos Secdomebi, moaxdinos maTi klasifikacia da Semdgom gaaanalizos isini. enis Seswavlis sawyis safexurze SeiZleba

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mxolod mieniSnos swori formis Sesaxeb. aseve efeqturi iqneba TvalsaCinoebebis, gansakuTrebiT ki sqemebis, gamoyeneba. enobrivi kompetenciis zrdasTan erTad ki sasurvelia SecdomaTa analizi da maTze garkveuli msjeloba. SecdomaTa klasifikaciis Semdeg maswavlebelma enis aTvisebis procesSi TandaTanobiT unda gaaanalizos Secdomebi da igi etapobrivad miawodos klass. araa aucilebeli Secdomebis analizs mTeli sagakveTilo procesi daeTmos, an garkveuli TanamimdevrobiT moxdes maTze msjeloba. piriqiT, maTi gaanalizeba SeniSvnis xasiaTs unda atarebdes. aseve aucilebelia specialuri savarjiSoebis Sedgena, romlebSic ukve gaanalizebuli Secdomebis praqtikaSi gadatana moxdeba. es kidev erTxel gamoavlens imas, ramdenad sworad iyeneben ganxilul formebs. sasurvelia Secdomebi mTel klasTan erTad gaanalizdes da ara individualurad, Tumca weris mimarTulebiT amas mainc individualuri xasiaTi eZleva.

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4. bilingvuri gakveTilis Sefaseba

B bilingvuri swavlebis procesis Sefasebisas gansakuTrebuli eqceva Tavad swavlebis Sefaseba) da da sxva. processa Sedegebs da xerxi, swavlebis kerZod: unarebis (formatuli amisaTvis interviu, (Semajamebeli

yuradReba strategiebs Sefaseba). dakvirveba,

gamoiyeneba testebi

sxvadasxva

producirebis

Sefaseba gulisxmobs pasuxs Semdeg kiTxvebze: ra informaciis / sametyvelo funqciis gamoyeneba SeuZliaT mSobliur da meore enaze moswavleebs SecdomebiT Tu uSecdomod (dasaxuli amocanebis Sesrulebis Sefaseba)? visTan _ maswavleblebTan, TanatolebTan da stumrebTan _ SeuZliaT urTierTqmedeba (komunikaciis problema)? rogoria maTi lingvisturi unarebi (enobrivi konstruqciebis aTvisebis donis Sefaseba da ara Secdomebis aRnusxva)? SemfasebelTa analizi mSoblebis amocanebSi unda Sediodes saswavlo / aseve procesis / (dakvirveba klasSi), maswavleblis masalebi, / moswavleebis

urTierTobebi, testireba

saswavlo

moswavleTa klasSi

kompetenciebis

(formatuli

Semajamebeli).

dakvirvebisas yuradReba unda mieqces ara marto moswavleebis, aramed maswavleblis qcevasac: ra gavlenas axdens is moswavleebze da rodis da rogor iyenebs enebs? rogor qmnis motivacias? rogor reagirebs iyenebs: Secdomebze? Secdomebis gasworebis rogor formebs da xSiri modelirebas (swori formis Tanamimdevruli

gameoreba Secdomebis pirdapiri Sesworebis gareSe) Tu xelaxla

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formulirebas (moswavlis SecdomiT naTqvamis sworad da gasagebad formulireba)? rogor aris organizebuli saswavlo procesi? moswavleTa progresis Sesafaseblad bilingvur skolaSi yuradReba unda mieqces maT miRwevebs saganSi. bilingvur skolaSi moswavles xuTi weli mainc sWirdeba imisaTvis, rom igi daeuflos meore enas sagnebis Sesaswavlad. Aam xangrZlivobis gamo moswavles SeiZleba gza: gauCndes _ sakuTari ususurobis klasis gancda, Camouyalibdes Sefaseba dabali TviTSefaseba. am problemis gadasawyvetad arsebobs ori pirveli bilingvuri moswavleTa specialurad maTTvis Sedgenili standartebis mixedviT. am midgomam SeiZleba mSoblebisa da sagnebis maswavlebelTa gamoiwvios, radgan maTi survilia, moswavlis Sedegebi Seesabamebodes amasTan, saxelmwifo vifiqroT standarts. amis gamo aucilebeli xdeba Cveulebrivi skolebisaTvis kuTvnili SeiZleba SeiZleba testebis iyos mieceT gamoyeneba. Mmagram, aseve neba unda testebSi garkveuli cvlilebebis Setanis Sesaxeb. magaliTad, aseTi orenovani testi. dro, SeiZleba davrToT, moswavleebs isargeblon ar unda unda damatebiTi ra mxolod

leqsikonebiT an gavumartivoT testuri davalebebis pirobebi. vafasebT SemovifargloT bilingvur enobrivi programebs, unarebis SefasebiT.

Sefasdes Sinaarsi, mizani da meTodika. qvemoT gTavazobT savaraudo CamonaTvalis cxrils: moswavleTa Sefaseba bilingvuri swavlebis komponentebis Sefaseba

ras vafasebT?

bilingvuri modelis Sefaseba

kompetencias

mSobliur enaSi;

swavlebis meTodika; saswavlo Sinaarsi;

sa- maswavlebelTa TierToba

modelis

turoba; ur- bilingvuri swavlebis

efeq-

kompetencias

ganSi;

moswavle-

mas-

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kompetencias meore

enaSi;

ebTan.

wavlebelTa momzadeba.

motivacias; sxva

kompetenciebi unare-

(kognituri

bi, socialuri unarebi, sxva saswavlo una-rebi); vin afasebs?

maswavleble-bi; saatestacio / sagamocdo komisia.

damkvirvebelTa jgufi.

gare

monitor-

ingis jgufi.

mizani

moswavleTa Zlieri

da susti mxareebis gamovlena;

xarisxis kontroli; masalebis

veba; gadamuSa-

gadawyvetilebis

miReba modelis SenarCuneba / arSenarCunebaze, ganviTarebaze.

standartis

gebis miRweva;

Sede-

maswavlebelTa

zadebis done.

mom-

informacia

belTaTvis;

mSo-

SerCeva.

rogor vafasebT?

kiTxvarebi; testebi; interviu; dakvirveba.

interviu; dakvirveba

Catarebul oebze; klasSi samuSa-

saswavlo programebis zi; anali-

kiTxvarebi; kvlevebi.

zepirmetyvelebis

analizi;

saswavlo

analizi.

masalebis

gakveTilis Sefasebisas, rekomendebulia, rom maswavleblebma upasuxon Semdeg kiTxvebs:

miRweuli iyo Tu ara gakveTilis gamokveTili miznebi?

68

SerCeuli strategiebis saSualebiT ramdenad moxerxda gakveTilis winaSe dasmuli amocanebis gadaWra? Seesabameba Tu ara gakveTilisaTvis gamoyofili drois gadanawileba realur SesaZleblobebs da moswavleTa moTxovnebs? rogor gamoiyeneben moswavleebi gakveTilze miRebul codnas momavalSi? ra SeiZleboda gakeTebuliyo sxvagvarad?

TviTSefaseba imisaTvis, rom moswavle SeeCvios sakuTari pasuxis Semowmebas, Camouyalibdes Secdomis mimarT swori damokidebuleba, daZlios SiSi Secdomis winaSe, xSirad unda mivceT sakuTari namuSevris Sefasebis saSualeba. TviTSefaseba mas exmareba imis gacnobierebaSi, rom Secdomebis aRiareba da gamosworeba winsvlis aucilebeli pirobaa. TviTSefasebiT igi grZnobs met valdebulebas da cdilobs iyos maqsimalurad obieqturi. TviTSefasebis ramdenime xerxi arsebobs. yvelaze gavrcelebulia swor pasuxebTan moswavleebis pasuxebis Sedareba. moswavleebi am Sedarebis gziT Tavad aRmoaCenen sakuTar Secdomebs da Semdeg aanalizeben, ratom dauSves es Secdomebi, ris codna daakldaT, ra ver gaiTvaliswines, iqneb koncentracia ver moaxerxes sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT an marTebuli gza ar airCies da sxva. TviTSefasebis procesSi mniSvnelovani swored sakuTari saqmianobis refleqsiis procesia. es aRmoaCeninebs moswavles sakuTar sust mxareebs, romelTa dasaZlevadac unda mimarTos sakuTari Zalisxmeva. Sedegiania TviTSefasebis iseTi xerxi, roca moswavle winaswar SemuSavebuli Sefasebis sqemis mixedviT afasebs sakuTar naSroms, Semdeg ucvlis mewyviles da erTmaneTis namuSevrebs afa-

69

seben, bolos ki maswavlebeli afasebs. am SemTxvevaSic mniSvnelovania analizis procesi. ra daemTxva Sefasebis am sam SemTxvevaSi erTmaneTs, ra _ ara da ratom? ris codna ar eyo moswavles Tavad an mis Tanaklasels obieqturi SefasebisaTvis.

70

Tavi III

1. bilingvuri gakveTilis dagegmva

riT gansxvavdeba bilingvuri gakveTili meore enis swavlebis gakveTilisgan?

enis gakveTili programa yuradReba maxvildeba enaze da enis Seswavlis miznebze (codna enaze da enis codna) yuradReba enaze, mis struqturaze, enis Seswavlis kontrolsa da praqtikul samuSaoze enaSi yuradReba producirebaze orientirebul aqtivobebze, savarjiSoebi, romlbic unda da SeiZleba kontroldebodes. maswavlebeli da moswavleebi (SeZlebisdagvarad) mTel gakveTilze urTierToben samizne enaze. gakveTili, romelzedac viTardeba ena yuradReba sagnis Sinaarsa da enobriv unarebze (sagnis codna da enis gamoyeneba) yuradReba enis gamoyenebaze, vsaubrobT ra sagnis Sinaarsze; yuradReba im Sinaarsze, romelic wignSia. yuradReba sagnis Sinaarsidan gamomdinare savarjiSoebze; aqcenti vizualur saSualebebze da masalis CarTva kiTxvisa da werisaTvis. moswavle iyenebs enas, romelic Seesabameba mis codnas; maswavlebeli iyenebs enas mkacrad gegmiurad, fiqrobs ra moswavlesa da saganze.

dagegmva

aqtivobebi

enis arCeva

71

gakveTilis dagegmvisas, upiratesoba unda mieniWos iseT sistemas, sadac gamoyenebulia kritikuli azrovnebis principebi. sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT, gakveTilis TiToeul fazaSi garkveuli problemis dasma unda moxdes. aucilebelia imis damaxsovreba, rom mecadineobis TiToeul fazaSi saWiroa Sesabamisi meTodisa da strategiis gamoyeneba. swavlebis strategiisa, Tu meTodis SerCevisas mniSvnelovania gakveTilis miznis da Sefasebis kriteriumebis gaTvaliswineba. gakveTilis dagegmvisas, pirvel rigSi saWiroa gakveTilze gamokveTili mavlobaSi. aseve saWiroa gakveTilis TiToeuli fazisaTvis strategiis SemuSaveba. Tumca, unda gvaxsovdes, rom strategia aris mxolod saSualeba, romelic gvexmareba dagegmili Sedegebis miRwevaSi. gakveTilis Semdeg saWiroa miRweuli Sedegebis analizi da maTi Sesabamisobis dadgena winaswar SemuSavebul miznebTan. es maswavlebels aZlevs imis saSualebas, rom iswavlos sakuTar gamocdilebaze da ukeTesad dagegmos yoveli momdevno gakveTili. bilingvuri gakveTili: maswavleblis ena

rogor leqsika da frazebia saWiro moswavleTa organizebisaTvis? saganTan dakavSirebuli leqsika

miznebis Sefaseba da am miznebis ganxorcielebis Se-

saZleblobis gansazRvra gakveTilisaTvis gamoyofili drois gan-

enis

dagegmva

masalebi

ra masala damWirdeba da romel enaze?

sayrdeni masala moswavleTaTvis

ra daxmareba dasWirdeba yvelas da ra _ calkeuls?

romel enas enas rodis gamoviyeneb? enis romeli kompetencia ganviTardeba?

72

2. bilingvuri gakveTilis dagegmvis etapebi

a. gakveTilis Tema. b. motivacia. risTvis aris saWiro es gakveTili? ramdenad aris dakavSirebuli gakveTilis Tema im codnasTan,

romlis SeZenac sxva gakveTilebis Sedegad moxda? dakavSirebulia Tu ara gakveTilis Tema adre miRebul

codnasTan da momavalSi misaReb masalasTan? ramdenad aris gakveTilis Tema dakavSirebuli moswavleTa pirad gamocdilebasTan da maT interesebTan? rogor moxerxdeba am gakveTilis saSualebiT swavlis swavla da kritikuli azrovnebis ganviTareba? ra saxis informacias miiReben moswavleebi saSualebiT? rogor unda moxdes gakveTilis gegmis SemuSaveba imgvarad, rom gaiRviZos TiToeuli moswavlis personalurma interesma? ra saxis kiTxvebis dasma moxdeba moswavleTaTvis, rogor gaarTmeven Tavs axali Temis gagebas, rogor SeZleben da axali informaciis gaanalizebas, ideebis sinTezirebas a.S. rogor SeiZleba gakveTilis Temis gamoyeneba imgvarad, rom ganviTardes lebloba? Temis rogori aspeqtebiT aris SesaZlebeli moswavleTaTvis Semdgomi kvleviTi muSaobisaTvis xelSewyoba? kiTxvebis dasmis, analizis, diskusiis SesaZam gakveTilis

73

rogor moxdeba aRniSnuli gakveTilis saSualebiT debulebas meore enis mimarT?

meore enis

aTviseba da rogor Camouyalibebs moswavles dadebiT damoki-

ra saxis TanamSromloba iqneba sagnis maswavlebelsa da enis maswavlebels Soris?

gakveTilis romel etapze da ra mizniT moxdeba mSobliuri enis da meore enis gamoyeneba? sityvebis SeTvisebaa aucilebeli sityvebis meore enidan,

romeli

moswavlis

leqsikonidan

romeli

aqtivizaciaa

aucilebeli? swavlebis ra saxis meTodebi da meTodologiuri xerxebi

iqneba gamoyenebuli imisaTvis, rom moswavleSi ganaviTaros zepirsityvieri da werilobiTi saxiT meore enaze azris da grZnobis gadmocema? rogor ganxorcieldeba moswavleTa TanamSromloba da maT

mier axalad aTvisebuli leqsikis gamoyeneba?

g. gakveTilis miznebi yoveli gakveTilisaTvis saWiroa ramdenime miznis win wamoweva: mizani, romelic dakavSirebulia aTvisebuli masalis SinaarsTan; mizani, romelic aviTarebs moswavlis kritikul azrovnebas da

misi swavlebis SesaZleblobebs; mizani, romelic aviTarebs meore enis SesaZleblobebs da iZleva kulturul garemoSi integrirebis saSualebas; d. winaswar wayenebuli pirobebi aucilebelia imis Sefaseba, Tu ra unda icodes da SeeZlos moswavles imisaTvis, rom warmatebiT gaarTvas Tavi axal masalas. ra winaswari codna gaaCnia moswavles Temis irgvliv?

74

imisaTvis amitom

rom

codna Temis

SenarCunebuli aTvisebamde

da

xangrZlivi rom

iyos,

aucilebelia misi SeTviseba ukve nacnob da gasageb TiToeuli saWiroa

konteqstSi, moswavle

flobdes winaswar informacias aRniSnuli Temis Sesaxeb. gvaZlevs Tu ara moswavleTa niWierebis done, azrovneba da swavlis unari imis saSualebas, rom maT daZlion maswavlebelTa mier gakveTilisaTvis SemuSavebuli masala? Tu gakveTilze interesis xdeba gegmavT gamowveva swavlebis aucilebelia axali aRniSnuli axali meTodis maSin gamoyeneba, Tu moswavleTa SesaZlebelia moswavleebisaTvis informaciis Setanas, meTodis mimarT miwodeba.

meTodis

kiTxvebis dasmiT. imis aucilebloba, rom Tavidanve ganviTardes swavlebis SesaZlebloba, Seexeba moswavleTa jgufur muSaobasac da swavlebis SesaZleblobis gaTavisebas ra donezea warmodgenili qarTuli enis swavlebis mzaoba? maswavleblisaTvis aucilebelia Seafasos klasSi moswavleTa mier meore enis codnis done. agreTve aucilebelia imis damaxsovreba, rom bilingvur meTodebSi mTavar princips warmoadgens ara gadaTargmna, aramed Sedareba. e. gakveTilis Sefaseba Sefasebis dros mniSvnelovania gvaxsovdes gakveTilis gamokveTili miznebi. fasdeba Semdegi: rogor aris aTvisebuli saswavlo masala; iswavles Tu ara moswavleebma fiqri da swavla; Seivses Tu ara moswavleebma meore enis codna; Sefasebis gamoyenebis moswavleebi, dadebiTad. warmarTva gziT. maT Tu unda SesaZlebelia Sefasebis icodnen, aucilebelia Tu sxvadasxva meTodebis arian fasdeba da procesSi romeli naTlad CarTulebi davaleba codna da bilingvurad

amisaTvis

Camoyalibdes

75

Seiqmnas im kriteriumebis formulireba, romelTa saSualebiTac moxdeba davalebis Sefaseba. Sefasebis kriteriumebis SemuSaveba umjobesia moswavleebTan erTad, uSualod Sesafasebeli davalebis Sesrulebis win. v. droisa da masalebis gadanawileba gakveTilis msvlelobisas xelsawyoebi. imisaTvis, mizanmimarTuli rom mofiqrebuli, dawyebamde saWiro ufro saWiroa Tu imis ara drois gansazRvra, damxmare erTgvar gakveTilis da drois kargad yvela iqneba masalebi

rTulia

gadanawileba. dinamiuri, moaxerxos

gadanawileba swavlebis raTa

warmoadgens procesi iyos

winapirobas

efeqturi,

maswavlebelma

winaswar dagegmili ideis ganxorcieleba.

76

3. gakveTilis mimdinareobis dagegmva

gakveTilis safuZvels warmoadgens swavlebisa da swavlis

samsafexuriani meTodi a. gamxnevebis/waxalisebis faza waxalisebis fazis dagegmvisas aucilebelia iseTi strategiis SemuSaveba, romelic ukeT moaxerxebs: Temis irgvliv winaswari codnis gaerTianebas moswavleTa waxalisebas, swavlis mowadinebas. b. codnis gaTavisebis faza codnis gaTavisebis fazis dagegmvisas, unda moxdes imis Sefaseba, Tu rogor moxerxdeba SerCeuli strategiis Sedegad gakveTilze miRebuli codnis gaTaviseba da rogor ganviTardeba TanamSromlobisa da damoukideblad muSaobis unari.

g. ukukavSiris faza mocemuli fazis dagegmvisas, saWiroa imis gansazRvra, Tu rogor moxdeba SerCeuli strategiis Sedegad codnis SeTviseba, agreTve rogor imoqmedebs es strategia miRebuli codnis SemoqmedebiTad gamoyenebis procesze.

kooperatiuli swavlebis mniSvneloba bilingvur ganaTlebaSi kvlevebi bilingvur ganaTlebaSi amtkicebs, rom jgufuri

kooperatiuli swavlebis organizebisas: arsebobs Sinaarsis konteqstidan gagebis SesaZlebloba, agreTve upiratesoba arsebobs bevri drois TvalsazrisiTac da enis

77

srulyofilad gamoyenebis saSualebiTac; Sinaarsisa da koncefciis ukeTesad gasagebad SesaZlebelia mSobliuri enis gamoyenebac; meore enaSi garkveuli unarebis ganviTarebisas, SesaZlebelia mSobliuri enis codnis sistemiT operireba; xdeba moswavleTa stimulireba codnisa da enis aTvisebis

procesSi aqtiurad CasarTavad; warmoCenilia da gamoyenebulia axali saswavlo masalebi; swavlebis gansxvavebul procesSi Tvisebebze yuradReba da maxvildeba da moswavleTa maTi

stilze

viTardeba

mravalmxrivi SesaZleblobebi; icvleba maswavleblis is roli informaciis informaciis umeteswilad sqema mimwodebeli SeTvisebis saubrobs SegviZlia

adamianisgan, organizatorad; tradiciuli maswavlebeli.

gadaiqceva msvlelobisas gakveTilis

gakveTilis aseTi

tipuri

warmovadginoT Semdegi saxiT:

maswavleblis SekiTxva-moswavlis

,,swori pasuxi am SekiTxvaze. amavdroulad, TvalsaCinoa droSi SezRudva. Tu moswavle myisierad ver pasuxobs SekiTxvaze, is eZebs Sesaferis sityvas, aseT SemTxvevaSi ki maswavlebeli mas ar aZlevs dros da ekiTxeba da sxva moswavles. enis jgufSi muSaobis dros aucilebelia gamoyeneba. mxolod gamoyenebis variantebi, saSualebas. SesaZlebelia mravalmxrivi izrdeba enis enis funqciebis funqciebis meti met

rodesac moswavleebi saubroben erTmaneTSi, da ara maswavlebelTan, SesaZlebloba. rac, Tavis mniSvnelovania mkveTrad mxriv, arsebobs iZleva rom, isic, TanamSromlobis gavarjiSebis rodesac

moswavleebi

saintereso problemis gadaWras cdiloben, am dros isini enas iyeneben ara imitom, rom saxelmZRvanelos tradiciuli davaleba ,,SeadgineT winadadeba'' Seasrulon, aramed srulad iyeneben

78

codnas meore enaSi. miuxedavad imisa, rom maTi saubari yovelTvis gramatikulad gamarTuli ar aris, am gziT moswavleebs aqvT azris gadmocemis saSualeba. aseve garkveul SeiZleba dgas teqsts. Seicvalos klasis misi tradiciuli da mTel karnaxi, klass rodesac karnaxobs swavlebad maswavlebeli winaSe gardaqmna

kooperatiul

SesaZlebelia moswavleTa dawyvilebis an jgufebad dayofis gziT, romlis drosac moswavleebi rig-rigobiT karnaxoben erTmaneTs srul teqsts, an moswavleebi gamotovebul sityvebs. am gziT mcirdeba stresi, axdenen davalebaze da aqtiurad koncentrirebas

usmenen erTmaneTs. izrdeba TanamSromlobiTi damokidebuleba da individualuri pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba. yoveldRiuri urTierTobisas sakmarisia SezRuduli raodenobis sityvebis maragi da gramatikuli struqtura; sxvadasxva sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT sakuTari azris dafiqsirebisas moswavleebs uviTardebaT farTo leqsikis da enis gansxvavebuli modelebis gamoyenebis moTxovnileba. maswavleblebi xSirad sifrTxiliT ekidebian jgufebSi muSaobas. ase, magaliTad: `rogor SeiZleba viyo darwmunebuli, rom moswavleebi ar daiwyeben saubars mSobliur enaze? vifiqroT imaze, Tu rogor mivaRwioT sasurvel Sedegs martivi gziT: mkacri discipliniT Tu mizanmimarTuli davalebebis SedgeniT?~ specialurad konstruirebuli davaleba, sadac yvela moswavles aqvs raRac nawili mxolod reagirebis, saocari amisa, ar maT informaciisa am da davalebis Sesruleba iZleva da SesaZlebelia pirdapiri nuTu informaciis SegrovebiT,

individualuri aris ar is faqti,

pasuxismgeblobisa rom isxdnen emociis aTeuli

aqtiuri mosmenis saSualebas. wlebis da, da ganmavlobaSi miuxedavad moswavleebi wyvilebad hqondaT merxebTan gaziarebisa

79

erTmaneTis enobrivi SeekiTxos

daxmarebis SesaZleblobis sxvas

saSualeba. mqone enaze,

jgufSi xolo

muSaobisas aqvs moswavle,

dabali romelic

moswavles

saSualeba,

mSobliur

warmatebulia meore enaSi, moaxdens sakiTxebis perifrazirebas da amiT moaxdens saubris bilingvur ganviTarebas. izrdeba maswavleblis roli. ganaTlebaSi

tradiciuli sagnis maswavlebeli zogjer fiqrobs: ,,me var sagnis maswavlebeli, CemTvis mniSvnelovania, Tu rogor aiTvisa moswavlem sagnobrivi masala. me vafaseb Sinaarss da ara enas. `bilingvuri ganaTlebis dros TiToeuli maswavleblis roli farTovdeba da is gadaiqceva principi: aseve enis maswavleblad. pirvel rigSi, yvela maswavlebeli xdeba enis momxmarebeli, xSirad ki tardeba Semdegi ,,viswavloT erTad~.

80

Tavi IV

qarTuli enisa da geografiis integrirebuli swavlebis sanimuSo gakveTilebi da Tematika

81

VII klasi

wlis bolos misaRwevi Sedegebi:

Tema geologiuri dro. saswavlo miznebi moswavle ecnoba geoqronologiur sqemas; ecnoba bunebrivi movlenebis ganviTarebas geologiuri etapebis mixedviT; swavlobs dedamiwis warmoSobidan momxdar cvlilebebs. teritoriis bareobis globusze. mdeganmoswavle rukisa da globusis gamoyenebiT gansazRvravs daaqvs ieqtebi kaze; axdens sivrceSi orientirebas horizontis mxareebis mixedviT da poulobs sasurvel obieqts rukasa da globusze. geografiuli garemo da adamiani; bunebaTsargebloba da adamianis zeda moqmedeba bunebaze; katastrofuli bi bunebaSi. stiqiuri movlenemoswavle ecnoba geografiuli garemos da mravalikvlevs swavlobs ferovnebas bis geografiuli obrudRemde masze mniSvnelovan enobrivi miznebi

moswavles

TemisaTvis lo-vani

SeuZlia mniSvneterminebis

qarTulad dasaxeleba, icis am terminTa qarTuli ganmartebebi, muri biT SeuZlia sinonisityvebiTa terminTa da Secmsjelo-

aRweri-Ti

vla da maTi meSveobiT mosazrebis gadmocema.

sazRvra rukasa da

obieqtebis koordinatebs; geografiuli konturul

moswavles

sworad is romlebic Wirdeba.

SeuZlia gamoiyenos sakiTxze daski saWiroebis

konstruqciebi,

msjelobisas SemTxvevaSi tikuli ciiT

SeuZlia erTi gramakonstruqSecvla ise, gaciis sxva konstruqrom aagos swori da gramatikulad marTuli msjeloba.

masze adamianis gansaxlemizezebs; bunebrivi resursebis tipebs da maT rols adamianis saqmianobaSi; msjelobs stiqiur mov-

moswavlem icis yvela im funqciuri

82

lenebze, maTi warmoSobisa da Tavidan acilebis mizezebze. bunebrivi bis da garemos meurneobis Tarebaze. pirobebunebrivi gavlena ganvimoswavle msjelobs raRebze ikvlevs ecnoba adamianis uZvelesi da saq-

frazis mniSvneloba, rac Temaze muSaobisas sWirdeba da SeuZlia am frazebis Tavad gamoyenebac.

mianobasa da Sromis iadroidan dRemde; geografiuli garemos rols meurneobis dargebis ganlagebasa da ganviTarebaze.

moswavles esmis yvela instruqcia,

rac Temis irgvliv savarjiarsebuli

SoebisTvis sWirdeba da Tavadac SeuZlia amgvari instruqcieTavisufasrulebs davalebebs SeuZlia davalebis instruqcieSesabamisi frazebibis ageba.

samecnieroteqnikuri progresis bi; dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareeadamianis ekologiuri pasuxismgebloba.

moswavle

ecnoba

samec-

niero-teqnikur progress; msjelobs stp-is dadebiT da uaryofiT mxareebze; da mohyavs magaliTebi

moswavle

lad fikur Tavadac amgvari Seqmna bis, funqciuri

tests an sxva specisakiTxis irgvliv da

asabuTebs stp-is wvlils ekonomikis ganviTarebaze; msjelobs sursebis ekologiur lobaze. bunebrivi reracionalur pasuxismgebwinsvla-

gamoyenebasa da adamianis

sa da konstruqciebis gamoyenebiT.

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gakveTili 1

Tema - adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra rukaze; pirobiTi niSnebi

gakveTilis mizani ­ moswavleebma SeZlon geografiuli obieqtebis povna rukasa da globusze geografiuli koordinatebis saSualebiT. enobrivi mizani _ moswavleebma unda icodnen rukebi da misi saxeebi, horizontis ZiriTadi da Sualeduri mxareebi, grZedi da ganedi. Sesaswavli leqsika/terminebi ­ geografiuli koordinatebi, grZedi ganedi, kartografiuli niSnebi, paraleli, meridiani, gradusTa bade, topografiuli ruka, adgilis gegma. funqciuri frazebi _ ras gamosaxaven, ra tipisa arsebobs, gansazRvreT, ipoveT gansxvaveba, SeasruleT davaleba. dro _ resursebi _ 45 wuTi. saxelmZRvanelo, samuSao rveuli, saxazavi, geografiuli da topografiuli rukebi, sqemebi, dafa, carci.

84

A

aqtivobebi

aqtivoba 1 rukis saSualebiT gamosaxaven: mTel dedamiwas romelime kontinents okeaneebs

calkeul saxelmwifos

rukis daniSnuleba: saswavlo samxedro sainJinro

turistuli maswavlebeli moswavleTa kriteriumebiT: namuSevrebs qulebiT afasebs Semdegi

davalebis amomwuravad Sesruleba; pasuxebis sizuste.

dro _ 10 wuTi. aqtivoba 2 adgilmdebareobis gansazRvra rukaze; pirobiTi niSnebi. maswavlebeli dafaze gamosaxavs horizontis mxareebis sqemas:

85

C/N

d/W s/S

a/O

maswavlebeli moswavleTa wyvilebs aZlevs melic momzadebuli aqvs formatze.

davalebas, ro-

daadgine qvemoT mocemul rozetze 5­12 wertilebis mimarTuleba moyvanili nimuSis mixedviT. magaliTi: wertili wertili wertili wertili dasavleTisaken. wertili wertili wertili wertili wertili wertili wertili wertili 1 mimarTulia CrdiloeTisaken; 2 mimarTulia samxreT-dasavleTisaken; 3 mimarTulia dasavleTisaken; 4 mimarTulia CrdiloeT-Crdilo5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 C/N . 4 . 8 . 10 d/W . 3 . 11 . 2 . 12 . 5 s/S . 9 . . 6 a/O . 1 . 7

86

samuSaos dasrulebis Semdeg maswavlebeli ramdenime wyvilis saSualebiT amowmebs Sesrulebul davalebas. namuSevrebs afasebs sityvieri komentariT, risTvisac SeiZleba gamoiyenos frazebi: "Tqveni pasuxi sworia"; "meti yuradReba gmarTebT", "Tqveni pasuxi moiTxovs sizustes" da a.S. dro 20 wuTi. aqtivoba 3 maswavlebeli iyenebs msoflios fizikur an naxevarsferoebis rukas da moswavleebs aCvenebs ekvators, sawyis meridians, polusebs. maswavlebeli uxsnis moswavleebs geografiul koordinats. aCvenebs grZedsa da ganeds, risTvisac igi iyenebs sqemas saxelmZRvaneloSi ­ grZedebi da ganedebi dedamiwis sferul modelze. saubris dasasruls maswavlebeli moswavleTa wyvilebs aZlevs davalebas: saxelmZRvanelos teqstSi mocemuli wyaros daxmarebiT _ ,,geografiuli ganedebisa da grZedebis ganlageba dedamiwis sferul modelze" an msoflios politikur rukaze gansazRvreT Tbilisis, londonis da keiptaunis grZedi da ganedi. dro 10 wuTi. aqtivoba 4 maswavlebeli klass aCvenebs geografiul da topografiul rukebs (SeiZleba kedelze dakidon an saxelmZRvanelos danarTi gamoiyenos) da aZlevs davalebas:

87

ipoveT gansxvaveba rukebs Soris da mosazrebebi SeitaneT sqemaSi. magaliTad:

topografiuli rukis maxasiaTeblebi

geografiuli rukis maxasiaTeblebi

gamosaxulia

mcire

teritoria-

gamosaxulia

didi

teritoria-

qalaqi, sofeli, daba da a.S.

saxelmwifo, kontinenti da a.S.

gamosaxulia Senobebi; teritoria dawvrilebiTaa naCvenebi; msxvili masStabia gamoyenebuli ar aris naCvenebi sasargeblo

gamosaxulia reliefis formebi; teritoria zogadia; saSualo an wvrili masStabia gamoyenebuli;

gamosaxulia sasargeblo wiaRiseuli.

wiaRiseuli da relief. da a.S.

da a.S.

dro _ 10 wuTi.

gakveTilis dasasruli.

88

gakveTili 2

Tema ­ globusi; dedamiwis sasaaTo sartylebi

gakveTilis mizani ­ moswavleebi gaecnon sasaaTo zolebs; gaigebon sasaaTo zolebis praqtikuli mniSvneloba. enobrivi mizani ­ moswavleebma icodnen dedaqalaqebis mdebareobis saxeebi, sazRvrebis xasiaTi, dedamiwis sasaaTo sartylebi. Sesaswavli leqsika / terminebi ­ sasaaTo zolebi, ZiriTadi meridiani. funqciuri frazebi _ ipoveT, gansazRvreT, sad mdebareobs, ra hqvia, warmoadgineT davaleba, monacemebi SeitaneT. dro _ 45 wuTi.

resursebi _ saxelmZRvanelo, samuSao rveuli, msofliosa da evraziis politikuri rukebi, globusi (fizikuri, politikuri).

89

Aaqtivobebi

aqtivoba 1 maswavlebeli aZlevs wyvilebs davalebas: rukaze ipoveT dedaqalaqi, gansazRvreT misi mdebareoba qveynis teritoriaze da monacemebi SeitaneT cxrilSi. magaliTad:

dedaqalaqi

qveyana

centraluri mdebareoba

aracentraluri mdebareoba

periferiuli mdebareoba

kievi

ukraina

+

dro 5 wuTi. aqtivoba 2 maswavlebeli dedaqalaqebs. Semdeg maswavlebeli svams SekiTxvebs. magaliTad: sad mdebareobs italia? ra hqvia italiis dedaqalaqs? moswavleebs amuSavebs evraziis politikur

rukaze. moswavleebi aCveneben saxelmwifoebs da asaxeleben maT

moswavle pasuxobs SekiTxvebs da rukaze aCvenebs dasaxelebul saxelmwifos da mis dedaqalaqs. dro 10 wuTi.

90

aqtivoba 3 maswavlebeli wyvilebs urigebs baraTebs, romelzec erT-erTi saxelmwifoa miTiTebuli da aZlevs davalebas: rukis daxmarebiT gansazRvreT saxelmwifos sazRvrebi ­ qveynebi da zRvebi/okeaneebi; warmoadgineT davaleba cxrilis saxiT. cxrils maswavlebeli dafaze akeTebs. magaliTad: SvedeTi aRmosavleTi esazRvreba neTi, zRvebi dasavleTi CrdiloeTi esazRvreba norvegia samxreTi CrdiloeTis da baltiis zRvebi

fi- esazRvreba

Crdiloe- norvegia

Tis da baltiis

maswavlebelma SeiZleba moswavleTa codna qulebiT Seafasos. Sefasebis kriteriumebi:

cxrilis amomwuravad Sevseba; rukaze sworad Cveneba.

dro _ 15 wuTi. aqtivoba 4 maswavlebeli saubrobs globusis, rogorc dedamiwis modelis Sesaxeb. moswavleebs aCvenebs masStabiTa da Tematurad

91

gansxvavebul globusebs (Tu, ra Tqma unda, maswavlebels xeli miuwvdeba am resursebze). maswavlebeli saubrobs dedamiwis sasaaTo zolebis Sesaxeb, risTvisac igi iyenebs sasaaTo zolebis rukas saxelmZRvanelodan. saubris dasrulebis Semdeg, maswavlebeli svams SekiTxvas: Tu TbilisSi dRis 1 saaTia, romeli saaTi iqneba amave meridianze samxreTiT an CrdiloeTiT mdebare romelime Soreul qalaqSi? dro 10 wuTi. aqtivoba 5 saSinao davaleba _ sasaaTo zolebi. msoflios politikur-administraciuli rukisa da dedamiwis sasaaTo zolebis rukis (gakv. saxelmZRvaneloSi ,,globusi. dedamiwis sasaaTo zolebi") daxmarebiT upasuxeT kiTxvebs: rodesac TbilisSi dilis 9 saaTia, ra droa: 1) tokioSi, 2) parizSi, 3) londonSi, 4) vaSingtonSi, 5) santiagoSi? ra mizniT aris SemoRebuli sasaaTo zolebi? rodesac CrdiloeT naxevarsferoSi dRea, ra xdeba am dros samxreT naxevarsferoSi? ratom? dro 5 wuTi. gakveTilis dasasruli.

92

VIII klasi

wlis bolos misaRwevi Sedegebi:

Tema ra da aris ra regioni niSnebiT qvey-

saswavlo miznebi moswavle msoflios swavlobs regionebs,

enobrivi miznebi

moswavles SeuZlia TemisaTvis mniSvnelo-vani

terminebis dasaxeleba, martebebi, sinonimuri biT qarTulad icis am

aerTianeben

maT mdebareobas da regionuli dayofis mizezebs; ecnoba qveynebis erTmaneTisagan ganmasxvavebel niSnebs; msjelobs saerTaSoriso organizaciebis saxeb. miznebisa da mniSvnelobis Se-

nebs regionebSi?

terminTa qarTuli ganSeuZlia sityvebiTa Secvla

da aRweri-Ti msjeloterminTa da maTi meSveobiT mosazrebis gadmocema.

moswavles

konstruqciebi,

SeuZlia rommsje-

sworad gamoiyenos is lebic sakiTxze

kavkasiis regionis buneba, da dargebi. resursebi meurneobis

moswavle swavlobs kavkasiis regions da axasiaTebs mas msoflios gamoyofis regionebis

lobisas

dasWirdeba.

saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi ki SeuZlia erTi gramatikuli ciis ciiT sxva konstruqkonstruqgra-

principze dayrdnobiT. samxreT kavkasiis ekomdgomabunebrivi kulturuli moswavle im ecnoba kavka-

Secvla ise, rom gamarTuli

aagos swori da matikulad msjeloba.

xalxebis yofa da adaT-wesebi; logiuri reoba, da Zeglebi.

siis xalxebis cxovrebas bunebrivi garemos msjelobs ekologiuri, fonze, romelSic isini saqmianoben; regionis

moswavlem icis yvela

im funqciuri frazis rac Team mniSvneloba, deba da

bunebrivi da kulturuli Zeglebis mdgomareo-

maze muSaobisas sWirSeuZlia

93

bis Sesaxeb. msoflios ritoriuli da tipebi. mosaxganamoswavle msoflios rasobriv denobriv Seiswavlis mosaxleobis da eTnikur rao-

frazebis Tavad gamoyenebac.

leoba da misi tewileba; migraciebi gansaxlebis

moswavles esmis yvela instruqcia, rac Temis

irgvliv arsebuli savarjiSoebisTvis lia amgvari sWirdeba da Tavadac SeuZinstruqciebis ageba.

mravalferovnebas,

cvlilebebs,

gansaxlebis Taviseburebebs, migraciul procesebs; bunebriv ukavSirebs garemos maT da

moswavle

asrulebs lebebs irgvliv

Tavisuflad tests an

ekonomikur ganviTarebas. mogzaurobebi aRmoCenebi. da moswavle aRmoCenebs; maT Sesaxeb, da qveynebsa ecnoba cno-

sxva specifikur davasakiTxis da Tavadac

didi geografiuli

bil mogzaurebs da maT msjelobs rogorc xalxebs

SeuZlia amgvari davalebis Seqmna instruqciebis, funqciuri moyenebiT. Sesabamisi frazebisa

Soris komunikaciis erTerTi saSualebis Sesaxeb; akavSirebs mas vaWrobisa da ekonomikis ganviTarebasTan.

da konstruqciebis ga-

transporti,

ro-

moswavle satransporto bebs; rogorc

swavlobs saSualemaTze,

gorc komunikaciis erT-erTi saSualeba.

transportis saxeebsa da msjelobs

komunikaciis

erT-erT umniSvnelovanes saSualebaze. vaWroba da biznesi, rogorc urerTTierTobis moswavle Wrobisa TarebaSi. ikvlevs da va-

biznesis

rols ekonomikis ganvi-

erTi saSualeba.

94

gakveTili 1

Tema ­ msoflios umsxvilesi regionebi; evrazia

gakveTilis mizani ­ moswavleebi gaecnon msoflios msxvil regionebs; gaarkvion kontinentebisa da qveynis nawilebis gamoyofis niSan-Tvisebebi. enobrivi mizani ­ moswavleebma icodnen kontinentebi da okeaneebi, regionebis klasifikacia, kavkasiisa da xmelTaSua zRvis qveynebi. Sesaswavli leqsika/terminebi ­ makroregioni; iokumena; Zveli samyaro; axali samyaro. funqciuri frazebi _ ras niSnavs, ratom moxda, moiyvane magaliTebi. dro _ 45 wuTi.

resursebi _ saxelmZRvanelo, msoflios fizikuri da politikuri rukebi, evraziis ruka, sqemebi, cxrilebi, furclebi.

95

aqtivobebi

aqtivoba 1 maswavlebeli moswavleebs usvams SekiTxvas: ras niSnavs ,,regioni"?

teritoria kontinentze mag: dro 5 wuTi. aqtivoba 2 maswavlebeli wyvilebs aZlevs davalebas. magaliTad: evraziis an msoflios politikur-administraciuli rukis daxmarebiT moiyvaneT magaliTebi: regioni, romelic moicavs xmelTaSuazRvispireTi ramdenime qveyanas kavkasia mag: baltiispireTi

italia, espaneTi, portugalia, saberZneTi _ evropaSi alJiri, maroko, libia, egvipte _ afrikaSi

96

maswavlebelma SeiZleba moswavleTa codna Seafasos qulebiT. Sefasebis kriteriumebi: sqemaze informaciis sizuste; rukaze swori orientireba.

dro 15 wuTi. aqtivoba 3 maswavlebeli klass uxsnis da msoflios fizikur rukaze aCvenebs kontinentebsa da qveynis nawilebs. igi informacias gamosaxavs dafaze sqemis saxiT: evrazia Crd. amerika samx. amerika afrika avstralia antarqtida evropa azia amerika afrika qveynis nawilebi avstralia antarqtida

kontinentebi

maswavlebeli kontinentebsa da qveynis nawilebs rukaze aCvenebs klass. dro 10 wuTi. aqtivoba 4 maswavlebeli ganmartavs iokumenas da mis nawilebs, da axal samyaros da msoflios rukaze aCvenebs Zvel Sesabamis teri-

toriebs. ganmartavs, Tu ratom uwodeben Tanamedroveni kontinentebs makroregionebs. dro 5 wuTi.

97

aqtivoba 5 maswavlebeli klass hyofs jgufebad. TiToeul jgufs aZlevs furcels, romelzec kontinentia miTiTebuli. maswavlebeli avalebs jgufebs, gamoiyenon msoflios politikuri ruka da cxrilSi Seitanon 10 saxelmwifo kontinentidan. magaliTad:M

saxelmwifoebi

kontinenti / qveynis nawili

safrangeTi nepali italia indoeTi

evropa azia evropa azia

da a.S.

dro 10 wuTi. gakveTilis dasasruli.

98

gakveTili 2

Tema ­ evropis gaerTianebis idea

gakveTilis mizani ­ moswavleebi gaecnon evropis gaerTianebis ideis arss; gansazRvron saqarTvelos natoSi gawevrianebis Sedegebi. enobrivi mizani ­ moswavleebma icodnen evropisa da evrokavSiris qveynebi, natos ganmarteba, evrokavSiris Seqmnis xelSekrulebebi. Sesaswavli leqsika/terminebi ­ ,,evropuli moZraoba"; ,,saerTo bazari"; ,,evratomi"; ,,maastrixtis xelSekruleba"; ,,Sengenis zona". funqciuri frazebi _ gaarkvieT, pasuxebi SeitaneT, gansazRvreT, CamoTvaleT faqtorebi, gaecaniT masalas saxelmZRvaneloSi, miumateT axali informacia. dro _ 45 wuTi.

resursebi _ saxelmZRvanelo, sqemebi, cxrilebi, dafa, carci.

99

aqtivobebi

aqtivoba 1 maswavlebeli gakveTils iwyebs moswavleTa daxmarebiT sqemaSi informaciis SetaniT da rukaze CvenebiT: germania italia evropis qveynebi dania didi britaneTi avstria Sveicaria norvegia da a.S. dro 10 wuTi.

aqtivoba 2 maswavlebelma moswavleTa daxmarebiT dafaze wers saerTaSoriso organizacia nato-s ganmartebas: nato Crdilo atlantikuri organizacia xelSekrulebis

dro 5 wuTi.

100

aqtivoba 3 maswavlebeli moswavleebs warudgens cxrils: saqarTvelosTvis natoSi gawevrianebis mniSvneloba. magaliTad:

xelsayreli faqtorebi - mSvidobis dacva - usafrTxoeba - daxmarebis gaweva - sawvrTnel programebSi monawileoba SeiaraRebuli Zalebis momzadeba da gawvrTna.

araxelsayreli faqtorebi arakeTilganwyobil urTierTobis daZabva saxelmwifosTan

dro 10 wuTi. namuSevrebi SeiZleba Seafasos qulebiT Semdegi kriteriumebis mixedviT: saintereso mosazreba; azris dasabuTeba.

aqtivoba 4 maswavlebeli ekiTxeba moswavleebs: ra iciT evrokavSiris Sesaxeb? maswavlebeli ismens da dafaze afiqsirebs moswavleTa mosazrebebs:

101

evropis qveynebis gaerTianeba evrokavSiri fuli _ evro saerTaSoriso organizacia TanamSromlobs saqarTvelo saqarTvelos surs gawevrianeba dro 5 wuTi. aqtivoba 5 maswavlebeli yuradRebas cxrils. Semdeg maswavlebeli svams SekiTxvebs: romeli saxelmwifoebi gawevriandnen pirvelad evrokavSirSi? sul ramdeni wevri qveyanaa dRes evrokavSirSi? amaxvilebs evropis gafarToebis

istoriaze da klass acnobs evrokavSirSi gawevrianebuli qveynebis

dro 5 wuTi.

aqtivoba 6 maswavlebeli moswavleebs acnobs politikur wreebSi cnobil popularul frazebs, rogoricaa "maastrixtis xelSekruleba" da "Sengenis zona". dro 5 wuTi.

102

aqtivoba 7 am sakiTxebis, evrokavSiris dRevandeli SesaZleblobebisa da evrosabWos Sesaxeb gacnobis Semdeg maswavlebeli moswavleebs aZlevs saxelmZRvanelodan saSinao davalebs. maswavlebeli klass aZlevs weriT saSinao davalebasac: gakveTilis teqstze dayrdnobiT SeavseT cxrili: evrokavSiris Seqmnis xelSemwyobi xelSekrulebebi:

xelSekrulebis saxelwodeba

xelSekrulebis xelmoweris TariRi

xelSekrulebis mizani

dro 5 wuTi. gakveTilis dasasruli.

103

IX klasi

wlis bolos misaRwevi Sedegebi:

Tema saqarTvelos ritoriis reba da sazRvris bareoba, straciulteritoriuli loba. mowyoba da mmarTvetesaswavlo miznebi moswavle ecnoba saqarTvelos teritoriis process Cada moyalibebis sas; gaarkvevs sazRvris tipebs da maT Taviseburebebs; geografiuli saxeebs, mis riSeiswavlis mdebareobis velosaTvis lobas; gaigebs teritoriis administraciul dayofis wifos formebTan. saqarTvelos buneba anu reliefi, niadagebi, samyaro hava mdinareebi da tbebi, organuli moswavle ecnoba saqarTvelos tebs; swavlobs mravalferovani landSaftebis warmoqmnis mizezebs da MmaT daniSnulebas qveynis ekonomikaSi. bunebis elemenerTeulebad da principebs enobrivi miznebi

formisidide, xasiaTi, mdeadmini-

moswavles SeuZlia TemisaTvis mniSvnelo-vani

terminebis qarTulad dasaxeleba, icis am terminTa qarTuli ganmartebebi, SeuZlia sinonimuri sityvebiTa vla da da maTi aRweri-Ti meSveobiT msjelobiT terminTa Secmosazrebis gadmocema.

adarebs mas sxva qveynebi-

geografiuli

Tac gansazRvravs saqarTmniSvne-

moswavles SeuZlia sworad gamoiyenos is konstruqciebi, romlebic sakiTxze msjelobisas dasWirdeba. SemTxvevaSi erTi struqciis struqciiT rom aagos saWiroebis ki SeuZlia konkonda

gramatikuli sxva swori

daakavSirebs mas saxelmmmarTvelobis

Secvla ise,

gramatikulad gamarTuli msjeloba.

moswavlem icis yvela im funqciuri frazis mniSvneloba, Saobisas rac Temaze muda sWirdeba

da landSaftebi.

SeuZlia am frazebis Tavad gamoyenebac.

moswavles

esmis

yvela

104

M saqarTvelos bunebrivi resursebi da maTi gamoyeneba (miwis, mineraluri, havis, wylis, biologiuri). saqarTvelos saxleoba nobrivi bebi, kur momoswavle swavlobs ecnoba da saqarTvelos

instruqcia,

rac

Temis

irgvliv arsebuli savarjiSoebisTvis sWirdeba da Tavadac SeuZlia amgvari instruqciebis ageba.

bunebriv simdidreebs, maT daniSnulebasa da gamoyenebas sameurneo TvalsazrisiT. moswavle veneblebs ecnoba da mosax-

moswavle Tavisuflad asrulebs tests an sxva

specifikur vadac davalebebs amgvari inSesabamisi gamoyenesakiTxis irgvliv da TaSeuZlia davalebis struqciebis, konstruqciebis biT. Seqmna

(raodecvlile-

leobis demografiul maCdinamikur ukavSimaxasiaTeblebs, kur aqtivobas; msjelobs gzebs; akeTebs prognozs. problemebis Sesaxeb da eZebs gadaWris

sqesobriveTni­ religiuri,

asakobrivi, socialur politikuri

rebs maT qveynis ekonomi-

funqciuri frazebisa da

struqtura da demografia). mosaxleobis graciuli grafia; miproce-

moswavle ciisa da procesebs, viTarebas prognozs.

ecnoba

migra-

urbanizaciis aanalizebs qveynis da mTel akeTebs

sebi da maTi geomosaxleobis gansaxleba da urbanizacia.

maT warmoSobasa da ganteritoriaze

erovnuli meurneobis dargebi (saTmebob-energetikuli, agrowarmoeba, oba, venaxeoba-meRvinemrewveloba, mada momsaxsatransporto gistralebi kvanZebi,

moswavle ecnoba erovnuli meurneobis struqturas. akeTebs da Zveliaxalitradiciuli tegorizacias; maT reobaze; akeTebs prognozs maTi

Tanamedrove dargebis kamsjelobs mdgomaamJamindel

105

ureobis sagareo turizmi). garemos bi, daculi

sfero, vaWroba,

ganviTarebis ekonomikaSi.

perspeqtiqveynis

vebsa da rolze

dacva teri-

moswavle ecnoba saqarTvelos logiur movlenebs; aanalizebs geoekologiuri problemebis warmoqmnis bunebriv da anTropogenur wyaroebs; msjelobs bunebis dacvis SesaZleblobebze. Tanamedrove ekomdgomareobas,

(stiqiuri movlenetoriebi).

katastroful da stiqiur

Kkulturuli RirsSesaniSnaobebi (istoriul-arqiteqturuli lebi, dResaswaulebi, TamaSebi, sporti). Zegxalxuri

moswavle ecnoba saqarTvelos kulturul RirsSesaniSnaobebs geografias; aanalizebs qarTuli eTnografiisa da tradiciebis geografiul maTi TaviseamJaminSeburebebs; msjelobs deli mdgomareobis da maT

saxeb; saxavs maTi dacvis RonisZiebebs. saqarTvelos grafiuli Teblebi seburebebi. remoswavle ecnoba saqarTvelos regionebs da maTi dayofis nebas, principebs; da moswavlobs regionebis buresursebs saxleobis sameurneo saqmianobas;

gionebi, maTi geomaxasiada Tavi-

106

akavSirebs regionis bunebriv Tan. saqarTvelo msoflio TaSoriso TierTo-bebi, msoflioSi. ­ da saerursamoswavle ecnoba saqarTvelos adgils msoflios rukaze; swavlobs saerTaSoriso kulturul, gansazRvravs urTierTobebs, ekonomikur saqarTvepirobebs qveynis ekonomikur ganviTarebas-

qarTvelos adgili

da politikur kavSirebs; los adgils msoflioSi socialur-ekonomikuri parametrebis mixedviT.

107

gakveTili 1

Tema ­ urbanizacia saqarTveloSi

gakveTilis mizani ­ moswavle gaecnos saqarTvelos qalaqebisa da dabebis funqciebs; gaigos urbanizaciisa da aglomeraciis Sinaarsi. enobrivi mizani ­ moswavlem Seiswavlos qalaqebTan dakavSirebuli terminebi; icodes qalaqebsa da dabebs Soris gansxvaveba. Sesaswavli leqsika/terminebi ­ urbanizacia, aglomeracia. funqciuri frazebi _ daasaxeleT, gansazRvreT, ras niSnavs, gaarkvieT, gaecaniT sqemas saxelmZRvaneloSi, daasaxeleT mizezebi. dro _ 45 wuTi. formati. resursebi _ saxelmZRvanelo, sqemebi, cxrilebi, dafa, carci,

108

aqtivobebi:

aqtivoba 1 maswavlebeli klass aZlevs davalebas: daasaxeleT TqvenTvis cnobili saqarTvelos qalaqebi da dabebi, gansazRvreT maTi funqcia. maswavlebels mosmenili pasuxebis Seaqvs cxrilSi. magaliTad:

qalaqebi, dabebi

qalaqi

daba

funqciuri datvirTva

quTaisi

*

samrewvelo, manaTleblo, turuli, straciuli

sagankuladmini­ po-

lifunqciuri sakurorto qobuleTi * nofunqciuri ­ mo-

abasTumani da a.S.

*

sakurorto

dro 10 wuTi.

109

aqtivoba 2 maswavlebeli svams SekiTxvas: ras niSnavs "urbanizacia" da ,,aglomeracia"?

dro 5 wuTi.

aqtivoba 3 saxelmZRvanelos saSualebiT gaarkvieT, romeli qalaqebi da dabebi Seiqmna saqarTveloSi 1959-1979 wlebSi:

dro 10 wuTi. aqtivoba 4 maswavlebeli avalebs wyvilebs: gaecaniT sqemas saxelmZRvaneloSi da gansazRvreT, romeli regionia I da bolo adgilze sofelsa da qalaqSi mcxovrebTa ricxviT: regioni I adgilze _ bolo adgilze _ dro 10 wuTi.

110

aqtivoba 5 maswavlebeli klass warudgens sqemas _ Tbilisis aglomeraciad Camoyalibebis mizezebi:

mosaxleobis raodenoba Tbilisis funqciebi produqciis Seqmna samrewvelo obieqtebi zrdis perspeqtiva dro 10 wuTi. gakveTilis dasasruli.

111

gakveTili 2

Tema ­ Tbilisi - saqarTvelos dedaqalaqi

gakveTilis mizani ­ moswavle gaecnos Tbilisisa da sxva dedaqalaqebis mdebareoba; imsjelos Tbilisis ganviTarebis perspeqtivebze. enobrivi mizani ­ moswavlem iswavlos Tbilisisa da msoflios dedaqalaqebis mdebareoba; icodes Tbilisis RirsSesaniSnaobebisa da xedebis saxelwodebebi. Sesaswavli leqsika/frazebi ­ mikromdebareoba.

funqciuri frazebi _ rogori qalaqia, moZebneT dedaqalaqebi, gansazRvreT, gaecaniT masalas, ra migaCniaT, dawereT Tema. dro _ resursebi _ 45 wuTi. msoflios politikuri ruka, saxelmZRvanelo, cxrilebi, Tbilisis fotoebi.

112

aqtivobebi

aqtivoba 1 maswavlebeli klass warudgens axal Temas ­ Tbilisi ­ saqarTvelos dedaqalaqi da sTxovs gaixsenon, wina or gakveTilze ra iswavles Tbilisis Sesaxeb ­ rogori qalaqia Tbilisi? Adro 5 wuTi. aqtivoba 2 M maswavlebeli klass aCvenebs Tbilisis mdebareobas msoflios

rukaze, saubrobs Tbilisis strategiulad moxerxebuli anu mikromdebareobis Sesaxeb da ganmartavs termins "mikromdebareoba". dro 5 wuTi. aqtivoba 3 maswavlebeli davalebas aZlevs wyvilebs: moZebneT dedaqalaqebi afrikaSi, romelTac aqvT periferiuli da centraluri mdebareoba.

saxelmwifo

periferiuli

centraluri

dro 10 wuTi.

113

aqtivoba 4 maswavlebeli saubrobs Tbilisis teritoriuli da mosaxleobis zrdis Sesaxeb. igi davalebas aZlevs wyvilebs: gaecaniT masalas saxelmZRvaneloSi da SeavseT cxrili:

Tbilisi

mosaxleobis maRali zrda (miuTieT weli) teritoriis zrda (1960-1974) teritoriis zrda (1974-2007)

dro 15 wuTi. aqtivoba 5 maswavlebeli moswavleebs uTiTebs Tbilisis Zvel da axal xedebs saxelmZRvaneloSi. sasurvelia, maswavlebels winaswar hqondes momzadebuli Tbilisis RirsSesaniSnaobebis xedebi. xedebis daTvalierebis Semdeg, maswavlebeli davalebas aZlevs moswavleebs: ra migaCniaT Tbilisis RirsSesaniSnaobad da ra rols

aniWebT mas qalaqis zrda-ganviTarebaSi? sakuTari fotoalbomidan moiZieT Tbilisis xedebi da

SeZlebisdagvarad SeadareT isini sxva evropuli qalaqebis xedebs (moamzadon sagamofeno plakati); dawereT Tema ­ momavlis Tbilisi.

dro 10 wuTi. gakveTilis dasasruli.

114

X klasi

wlis bolos misaRwevi Sedegebi:

Tema 1. geografiis savali. Sesaswavlo miznebi moswavle gaixsenebs, Tu ras Seiswavlis geografia da rogor xdeboda misi ganviTareba; gaiazrebs Tanamedrove geografiis rolsa da daniSnulebas; imsjelebs, Tu ratom unda iswavlos geografia da ra mniSvneloba aqvs mis codnas; SeZlebs daakavSiros Zveli da axali codna. moswavle gaecnoba geografiuli kvlevis Zvel da Tanamedrove meTodebs; SeZlebs axsnas, Tu ras niSnavs geografiuli prognozireba da modelireba; imsjelebs geografiul movlenebsa da procesebs Soris arsebul urTierTkavSirebze; Caatarebs kvlevebs, riTac axsnis geografiuli modelirebis praqtikul daniSnulebas; Cawvdeba kvlevis geosainformacio meTodis arsSi da gaigebs mis daniSnulebas. enobrivi miznebi moswavles SeuZlia TemisaTvis mniSvnelovani icis bebi, muri terminebis am qarTulad qarTuli dasaxeleba, terminTa ganmarteda da

SeuZlia sinonisityvebiTa Secvla msjelobiT

aRweriTi terminTa

maTi meSveobiT mosa2. geografiuli kvleva. zrebis gadmocema.

moswavles

SeuZlia rom-

sworad gamoiyenos is konstruqciebi, lobisas saWiroebis gramatikuli ruqciis struqciiT da sxva lebic sakiTxze msjedasWirdeba. SemTxvekonstkonSecvla

vaSi ki SeuZlia erTi

ise, rom aagos swori gramatikulad gamarTuli msjeloba.

115

3. ruka da sxva geografiuli saSualebebi.

4. bunebrivi zonebis sameurneo aTviseba.

5. bunebrivi resursebis gamoyeneba da garemos dacva.

moswavle gaixsenebs geografiul rukasa da adgilis gegmas, maTi Sedgenis xerxebsa da formirebis gzebs; gaakeTebs rukisa da adgilis gegmis pirobiTi niSnebis analizs da axsnis maTi codnis mniSvnelobas; SeZlebs grafikebis, diagramebis, ilustra-ciebis wakiTxvas da maTi saSualebiT informaciis miRebas; konturuli rukis saSualebiT Seqmnis martiv geografiul rukas. moswavle gaixsenebs dedamiwis bunebriv zonebs; iswavlis adamianis mier bunebrivi zonebis aTvisebis meTodebs; daamyarebs mizezSedegobriv kavSirs mosaxleobasa da mis sameurneo saqmianobas Soris bunebrivi garemos aTvisebis dros; gaacnobierebs saresurso potencials da mis sasicocxlo daniSnulebas. moswavle gaakeTebs bunebrivi resursebis klasifikacias; imsjelebs bunebrivi resursebis mniSvnelobaze kacobriobisaTvis; dasaxavs garemoSi warmoqmnili ekologiuri problemebis gadaWris SesaZlo gzebs; gaakeTebs im RonisZiebaTa CamonaTvals, romelTa gatareba aucilebelia bunebrivi garemos SenarCunebisa da adamianis sicocxlisaTvis.

moswavlem icis yvela

im funqciuri frazis mniSvneloba, rac Temaze muSaobisas sWirdeba da SeuZlia am frazebis Tavad gamoyenebac.

moswavles esmis yvela instruqcia, irgvliv rac arseTemis buli

savarjiSo-

ebisTvis sWirdeba da Tavadac SeuZlia amgvari ageba. instruqciebis

moswavle Tavisuflad

asrulebs sxva valebebs irgvliv lebis bamisi frazebisa struqciebis yenebiT. da tests an daspecifikur

sakiTxis Tavadac inSesada kongamo-

SeuZlia amgvari davaSeqmna struqciebis,

funqciuri

116

6. socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTareba da geografiuli garemo.

moswavle gaecnoba bunebisa da sazogadoebis mdgradi ganviTarebis problemebs; gaaanalizebs araracionaluri bunebaTsargeblobiT miRebul Sedegebs; ganixilavs meurneobis dargebis ganviTarebis gamo garemoSi mimdinare cvlilebebs da miRebul Sedegebs; miiRebs informacias da imsjelebs globaluri ekologiuri katastrofis Tavidan acilebis saSualebebis Sesaxeb. moswavle gaecnoba bunebaSi mimdinare stiqiur movlenebs da maT geografias; gaigebs, Tu rogor xdeba mewyruli da Rvarcofuli movlenebis kvleva; miiRebs informacias msoflios kritikuli ekologiuri regionebis Sesaxeb da imsjelebs problemebis ugulvebelyofiT miRebul Sedegebze; Seecdeba dasaxos kritikul regionebSi problemebis gadaWris SesaZlo gzebi. moswavle imsjelebs kacobriobis winaSe Tanamedrove geografiis rolze; gaecnoba geografiis, rogorc mecnierebis ganviTarebaSi axali etapis dawyebas da mis saWiroebebs.

7. bunebis stiqiuri movlenebi da ekologiurad kritikuli regionebi.

8. geografia Tanamedrove msoflioSi.

117

gakveTili 1

Tema _

geografiis Seswavlis obieqti da miznebi

gakveTilis miznebi _ moswavlem gaixsenos geografiis dargebi, misi Seswavlis obieqti da kvlevis meTodebi; daakavSiros erTmaneTTan geografiuli gar sis Semadgenel komponentebi; ecodineba bunebrivi resursebi da misi mravalferovneba. agreTve, geografiis mniSvneloba. enobrivi miznebi _ moswavlem icodes geografiis dargebi da kvlevis meTodebi; geografiuli garsi da misi Semadgenloba; bunebrivi resursebi da misi klasifikacia. Sesaswavli leqsika/terminebi _ sabunebismetyvelo da sazogadoebrivi geografia, aRwerilobiT da SedarebiTi meTodebi, geografiuli garemo, resursi, bunebrivi resursebis klasifikacia funqciuri frazebi _ ras niSnavs, daakavSire isrebiT, aris Tu ara saWiro. dro _ resursebi _ 45 wuTi. saxelmZRvanelo, sqemebi, dafa, carci.

118

aqtivobebi

aqtivoba 1. I. ras niSnavs sityva ,,geografia'' dedamiwis aRwera

,,geo" - miwa

,,grafos"-aRwera II. geografiis mimarTulebebi

sabunebismetyvelo sazogadoebrivi

III.

kvlevis meTodebi

aRwerilobiTi dro 10 wuTi.

SedarebiTi

119

aqtivoba 2 geografiuli garsis Semadgenloba

liTosfero

biosfero

atmosfero liTosfero

hidrosfero

liTos_qvis garsi

qerqi mantia atmosfero vakuumsfero guli/birTvi

haeris garsi troposfero

ionosfero stratosfero

hidrosfero okeaneebi zRvebi wylis garsi xmeleTis wylebi zedapiruli wylebi miwisqveSa wylebi

120

biosfero sicocxlis garsi mcenareebi cxovelebi adamianebi dro 15 wT. aqtivoba 3 bunebrivi resursi franguli _ qarT. maragi

aqtivoba 4 bunebrivi resursebis klasifikacia

gamolevadi aRdgenadi dro 5 wuTi.

gamoulevadi aRudgenadi

121

aqtivoba 5 maswavlebeli wyvilebs aZlevs savarjiSos. qvemoT CamoTvlili bunebrivi resursebi daakavSireT isrebiT imis mixedviT, romeli gamolevadia da romeli _ gamoulevadi: msoflio okeanis qari niadagebi tyis mzis wiaRiseuli dro 10 wuTi. aqtivoba 6 maswavlebeli svams SekiTxvas: aris Tu ara saWiro geografiis codna da risvis? maswavlebeli klass uTiTebs teqsts paragrafSi da sTxovs mis wakiTxvas. dro 5 wuTi. gakveTilis dasasruli. gamoulevadi gamolevadi

122

gakveTili 2

Tema _ rukebi

gakveTilis miznebi _ moswavlem gaixsenos geografiul da topografiuli rukebi; SeZlos ganasxvaos rukebi Temis, DdaniSnulebisa da masStabis mixedviT; SeZlos rukebis wakiTxva da maTi saSualebiT informaciis miReba. enobrivi miznebi _ moswavlem icodes rukebis klasifikacia, rukebis saxelwodebebi, maTze gamosaxuli obieqtebi da movlenebi, rukebi masStabis mixedviT. Sesaswavli leqsika/terminebi _ hidroqseli, samecniero da sacnobaro rukebi, socialur-ekonomikuri obieqtebis amsaxveli Tematuri rukebi. funqciuri frazebi _ ra aqvT saerTo, riT gansxvavdeba, romeli rukaa zogadi, romelia Tematuri, romel rukaze gamoisaxeba, gansazRvreT da pasuxebi SeitaneT. dro _ 45 wuTi. administraciuli rukebi msoflios atlasi, sqemebi, cxrilebi, dafa, carci. resursebi _ saxelmZRvanelo, msoflios fizikuri da politikur-

123

aqtivobebi

aqtivoba 1 maswavlebeli gakveTils iwyebs ramdenime rukis wardgeniT. mag: msoflios fizikuri da msoflios politikur-administraciuli, msoflios bunebrivi zonebis an klimaturi sartylebis da svams SekiTxvas: ra aqvT saerTo da riT gansxvavdebian es rukebi? maswavlebeli avalebs moswavleebs moifiqron pasuxi da gamosaxon dafaze venis diagramis meSveobiT.

msoflios fizikuri

msoflios politikuri

saerTo dro 5 wuTi. aqtivoba 2 maswavlebeli moswavleebs warudgens cxrils, romelSic mocemulia rukebis ganmasxvavebeli niSnebi:

124

Sinaarsi

daniSnuleba

sirTule

masStabi

zogadgeografiuli Tematuri

saswavlo samecniero sacnobaro

martivi rTuli

msxvili saSualo

wvrili

dro 5 wuTi. aqtivoba 3 maswavlebeli yuradRebas amaxvilebs moswavleTa wyvilebs aZlevs davalebas: gansazRvreT da cxrilSi SeitaneT, romeli rukaa zogadi d romeli _ Tematuri? zogad da Tematur

rukebze. igi iyenebs msoflios atlasSi warmodgenil rukebs da

rukebi msoflios fizikuri msoflios klimaturi sartylebis msoflios bunebrivi

zogadi

Tematuri

125

zonebis msoflios mosaxleobis afrikis fizikuri samxreT amerikis fizikuri

dro 10 wuTi. aqtivoba 4 maswavlebeli moswavleTa wyvilebs avalebs, rveulebSi

Seasrulon savarjiSo, romelsac igi dafaze xazavs. romel rukaze gamoisaxeba cxrilSi mocemuli obieqtebi da movlenebi? 1 _ zogadgeografiul rukaze 2 _ Tematur rukaze. pasuxebi SeitaneT Sesabamisi obieqtis gaswvriv ujraSi: atmosferuli wneva gzebi Senobebi da xidebi cxovelebi zafxulis temperatura qaris mimarTuleba qalaqebi klimaturi sartylebi buCqebi mdinareebi mcenareuli safari myinvarebi enobrivi jgufebi mosaxleobis simWidrove vulkanebi borcvebi

dro 10 wT.

126

aqtivoba 5 maswavlebeli dafaze 1: 10 000; 1: 150 000 1: 15 000 000 rukebi masStabis mixedviT xazavs sqemas wers sam ricxviT masStabs:

wvrili msxvili

saSualo

maswavlebeli klass aZlevs davalebas: sqemaSi Sesabamis adgilas SeitaneT mocemuli ricxviTi masStabebi. dro 5 wT. aqtivoba 6 maswavlebeli moswavleebs afasebs saklaso aqtivobebSi. Sefasebis kriteriumebi SeiZleba iyos: gakveTilSi CarTuloba samuSaos droulad Sesruleba Sinaarsis gageba wyvilSi TanamSromloba

127

-

davalebis zustad Sesruleba. TviTSefasebis

qulebi: 0; 1; 2. maswavlebelma SeiZleba moswavleebs daurigos furclebi Semdegi kriteriumebiT: vmonawileobdi saklaso samuSaoebis SesrulebaSi Cemi wvlili Semqonda wyvilSi muSaobis dros mesmoda samuSaos Sinaarsi droulad da miTiTebis Sesabamisad vasrulebdi savarjiSoebs SevZeli davalebis zustad Sesruleba

qulebi _ 1; 1; 2. dro 10 wT. gakveTilis dasasruli

128

XI klasi

wlis bolos misaRwevi Sedegebi:

Temebi msoflios politikuri ruka da misi formirebis etapebi. saswavlo miznebi moswavle ecnoba msoenobrivi miznebi

moswavles SeuZlia TemisaTvis terminebis dasaxeleba, martebebi, aRweri-Ti mniSvnelo-vani qarTulad icis am

flio politikuri rukis Camoyalibebis msjelobs rukis zebze. etapebs; politikuri mize-

cvlilebis

terminTa qarTuli ganSeuZlia simsjelobiT nonimuri sityvebiTa da

msoflios qveynebis Tanamedrove tipologia.

moswavle niSnis

swavlobs mixedviT;

msoaana-

terminTa Secvla da maTi meSveobiT mosazrebis gadmocema.

flios qveynebs sxvadaxva lizebs ama Tu im qveynis adgils msoflioSi; socialuri da ekonomiku-ri parametrebis mixedviT. moswavle ecnoba mniSv-

moswavles SeuZlia sworad gamoiyenos is

konstruqciebi, sas romlebsaWiki ic sakiTxze msjelobidasWirdeba. erTi roebis SeuZlia SemTxvevaSi

msoflios saerTaSoriso organizaciebi.

nelovan maT rolsa

saerTaSoriso msjelobs daniSnuda da

gramatiSecvla gamarTu-

organizaciebs;

kuli konstruqciis sxva konstruqciiT gramatikulad li msjeloba. ise, rom aagos swori da

lebaze msoflios ekonomikur, siT. msoflios mosaxleoba ­ demografia da gansaxlebis Taviseburebebi; rasomoswavle msoflios ricxobriv, swavlobs mosaxleobis demografiul politikur samSvidobo Tvalsazri-

moswavlem icis yvela im funqciuri frazis

mniSvneloba, rac Temaze muSaobisas sWirdeba da SeuZlia am frazebis Tavad gamoyenebac.

da gansaxlebis Tavisebu-

129

brivi, eTnikuri, lingvisturi da religiuri mravalferovneba; msoflios mosaxleobis cxovrebis xarisxi.

rebebs; Sob zebs da

msjelobs

cvliaanaligan-

moswavles

instruqcia, irgvliv

esmis rac

yvela Temis sasWir-

lebebze da maT warmommizezebze; mosaxleobis cxovrebis

arsebuli

varjiSoebisTvis

saxlebis Taviseburebebsa xarisxis ganmsazRvrel faqtorebs.

deba da Tavadac SeuZlia amgvari instruqciebis ageba.

moswavle

specifikur sakiTxis davalebis

Tavisuflad davalebebs irgvliv Seqmna da in-

msoflios regionebi ­ evropa: didi rvianis didi xuTeuli da danarCeni evropa. azia: samxreTdasavleTi, samxreTi, samxreTaRmosavleTi da aRmosavleTi. CineTi ­ saocari cvlilebebi. iaponia _ teqnologiuri giganti. amerika CrdiloeTi: aSS supersaxelmwifo kanada ­ daTvebis mxare. Sua amerika _ sombreros samSoblo. samxreTi: brazilia _ peles samSoblo.

moswavle lios

ecnoba

msof-

asrulebs tests an sxva

msxvil

regionebs

da maTSi Semaval saxelmwifoebs; adarebs qveynebs sxvadasxva bis maxasiaTebleda msjemixedviT

Tavadac SeuZlia amgvari struqciebis, Sesabami-si funqciuri frazebisa da konstruqciebis yenebiT. gamo-

lobs msgavseba _ gansxvavebebze; aanalizebs teritoriuli da geopolitikuri faqtorebis gavlenas sazogadoebis baze. ganviTare-

130

afrika somali _ siRaribis polusi. maroko _ maRribis margaliti. sar _ TeTrebi da Savebi. avstralia _ kenguruebis samSoblo

131

gakveTili 1

Tema ­ msoflios mosaxleobis rasobrivi struqtura

gakveTilis mizani ­ moswavleebi gaecnon msoflios mosaxleobis rasobriv struqturas da maT gansaxlebas; ZiriTad, mikro da Sereul rasebs. agreTve, msoflios xalxebs rasobrivi kuTvnilebis mixedviT. enobrivi mizani ­ moswavleebma icodnen msoflios mosaxleobis ganmasxvavebeli niSnebis dasaxeleba; SeZlon rasebisa da xalxebis CamoTvla. agreTve, maTi warmoSobisa da gansaxlebis adgilebis dasaxeleba. Sesaswavli leqsika/terminebi ­ avstraloidi, Sereuli rasebi, mikrorasebi, mulati, metisi, sambo, rasizmi, aparteidi. funqciuri frazebi _ gaecaniT gakveTilis teqsts, SeavseT qvemoT mocemuli cxrili, ra iciT? dro _ 45 wuTi. resursebi _ saxelmZRvanelo, formati, markeri, dafa, carci.

132

aqtivobebi:

aqtivoba 1 maswavlebeli klass warudgens gakveTilis Temas _ msoflios mosaxleobis struqtura da formarze an dafaze akeTebs Sesabamis sqemas: msoflios mosaxleobis struqtura eTnikuri rasobrivi dro 5 wuTi aqtivoba 2 maswavlebeli dafaze akeTebs asociaciuri kavSirebis sqemas _ msoflios rasebi: ekvatoruli afrika evropa evropeoidebi lingvisturi/ enobrivi religiuri

msoflios rasebi

monRoloiduri Cinelebi indielebi amerika dro 10 wuTi. aqtivoba 3 azia

133

maswavlebeli

saubrobs

msoflios

mosaxleobis

rasobriv

struqturaze, moswavleebs Seaxsenebs maTTvis cnobil sam rasas: evropeoiduls, negroiduls, monRoloidurs. yuradRebas amaxvilebs meoTxe ­ avstraloidur rasaze. mohyavs %-uli monacemebi msoflios mosaxleobis rasobriv ganawilebaze. Semdeg ganixilavs mcire anu mikrorasebsa da Sereul rasebs. dafaze akravs formats, romelzec winaswar aqvs momzadebuli mikro da Sereuli rasebis struqtura: evropeoiduli rasa samxreT evropeoiduli CrdiloeT evropeoiduli

Sereuli rasa metisi mulati sambo

dro 10 wuTi. aqtivoba 4 maswavlebeli moswavleTa wyvilebs aZlevs davalebas: gaecaniT gakveTilis teqsts da SeavseT qvemoT mocemuli cxrili. cxrils maswavlebeli dafaze xazavs. magaliTad:

134

rasebi da xalxebi

monRoloiduri E evropeoiduli samxreTi

negroiduli

Sereuli

Crdilo

norvegielebi

qarTvelebi Cinelebi

afrikuli tomebi

eTiopelebi mulatebi

da a.S.

dro 10 wuTi. aqtivoba 5 maswavlebeli klass usvams SekiTxvas: ra iciT rasizmisa da aparteidis Sesaxeb? maswavlebeli ismens moswavleTa mosazrebebs, acnobs saxelmZRvaneloSi mocemul ganmartebebs da saubrobs rasizmisa da aparteidis SemTxvevebze msoflioSi. dro 10 wuTi. gakveTilis dasasruli

135

gakveTili 2

Tema ­ evropa

gakveTilis mizani ­ moswavleebi gaecnon evropis regions da masSi Semaval qveynebs, maT mdebareobas ganviTarebis donis mixedviT. enobrivi mizani ­ moswavleebma icodnen evropis regionebisa da masSi Semavali qveynebis dasaxeleba, mikrorasebi evropaSi da Sesabamisi xalxebi, didi xuTeulisa da didi rvianis wevri qveynebi, evropa-aziis sazRvris obieqtebis saxelwodebebi. Sesaswavli leqsika/terminebi ­ ,,didi rviani"; ,,didi xuTeuli". funqciuri frazebi _ daarqvi saxeli, ras daarqmevdi? gaixseneT da rukaze aCveneT. dro _ 45 wuTi da statuss

resursebi _ formati, saxelmZRvanelo, evraziis (evropis) politikuri ruka, evraziis an msoflios fizikuri ruka.

136

aqtivobebi

aqtivoba 1 maswavlebeli klass warudgens gakveTilis Temas _ evropa da acnobs evropis teritoriul struqturas: evropa

dasavleTi centraluri CrdiloeTi safrangeTi Sveicaria islandia aRmosavleTi

samxreTi saqarTvelo italia

dro 10 wuTi.

137

aqtivoba 2 mikrorasebi evropaSi CrdiloeT peoidebi evro-

skandinavielebi samxreT evropeoidebi

kavkasielebi

maswavlebeli ganmartavs sqemas da ambobs,

rom evropa evro-

peoiduli rasis samSobloa. Seaxsenebs moswavleebs mikrorasebs _ CrdiloeT da samxreT evropeoidebs da Sereul rasebs. magaliTad, CrdiloeTi _ skandinavielebi, samxreTi _ kavkasielebi, Sereuli _ slavebis umetesoba. dro 10 wuTi. aqtivoba 3 maswavlebeli iyenebs evraziis an msoflios fizikur rukas da moswavleebs aZlevs davalebas: gaixseneT da rukaze aCveneT evropa-aziis sazRvari. dro 5 wuTi.

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aqtivoba 4 evropis ,,didi xuTeuli" _ daarqvi saxeli: ras ruseTi germania didi britaneTi safrangeTi italia daarqmevdi?

magaliTisTvis maswavlebeli Seaxsenebs moswavleebs, rom niderlandebi rembrandtis samSoblod moixsenieba. dro 10 wuTi. aqtivoba 5 maswavlebeli aRniSnavs, rom evropis "didi xuTeuli" msoflios "didi rvianis" wevria. igi davalebas aZlevs klass:

,,didi rviani" aSS iaponia germania didi britaneTi safrangeTi italia kanada/avstralia ruseTi dro 10 wuTi.

dedaqalaqi

kontinenti

gakveTilis dasasruli.

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XII klasi

wlis bolos misaRwevi Sedegebi:

Tema 1. globaluri problemebi, globalizacia. swavlebis miznebi Mmoswavle aqtualur swavlobs globalur enobrivi miznebi

moswavles SeuZlia TemisaTvis mniSvnelo-vani terminebis dasaxeleba, martebebi, sinonimuri biT qarTulad icis am

saerTaSoriso masStabis problemebs da maT gamomwvev mizezebs; gansazRvravs balizacia''; msjelobs problemebis Sesaxeb; msjelobs globalizaciis dadebiT da uaryofiT mxareebze; gamoTqvams sulobisa da Sesaxeb. mosazrebas safrTxis globalizaciis progreglobaluri gamomwvevi cnebebs ,,globaluri'' da ,,glo-

terminTa qarTuli ganSeuZlia sityvebiTa Secvla

da aRweri-Ti msjeloterminTa da maTi meSveobiT mosazrebis gadmocema.

mizezebisa da Sedegebis

moswavles SeuZlia sworad gamoiyenos is

konstruqciebi, lebic sakiTxze lobisas rommsje-

dasWirdeba.

saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi ki SeuZlia erTi gramatikuli ciis ciiT sxva konstruqkonstruqgra-

Secvla ise, rom gamarTuli

aagos swori da swavlobs saqmianobis warmoqmnil matikulad msjeloba.

2. buneba da sazogadoeba. globaluri ekologiuri problemebi.

Mmoswavle adamianis Sedegad

globalur problemebs: gamoTqvams varauds maTi SesaZlo Sesaxeb. ganviTarebis

moswavlem icis yvela im funqciuri frazis

mniSvneloba, deba da rac Team maze muSaobisas sWirSeuZlia

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3. liTosfero da masTan dakavSirebuli problemebi.

Mmoswavle liTosferos sakiTxebs;

swavlobs aTvisebis

frazebis Tavad gamoyenebac.

msjelobs mTiani regionebis reliefis da zogadad daqmnis reliefis garproblemebze,

moswavles esmis yvela instruqcia, rac Temis

irgvliv arsebuli savarjiSoebisTvis lia amgvari sWirdeba da Tavadac SeuZinstruqciebis ageba.

stiqiuri movlenebis aqtivizaciis sakiTxebze; gansazRvravs liTosferos usafrTxo aTvisebisa da mTiani teritoriebis xebs, biomravalferovneenergetikuli rebis SenarCunebis sakiTsursebis moxmarebis Tanamedrove tendenciebsa da masTan dakavSirebul mosalodnel Sedegebs. 4. globaluri klimaturi problemebi. Mmoswavle ecnoba Tanamedrove klimatsa da mis geografiul Taviseburebebs, atmosferos dabinZu-rebis roebs, efeqts''; Mmsjelobs havis globaluri globaluri da havis Tanamedrove ciebze; gamoTqvams varauds klicvlilebebis, daTbobisa tendencvalebadobis ZiriTad wya,,saTburis

moswavle

asrulebs lebebs irgvliv

Tavisuflad tests an

sxva specifikur davasakiTxis da Tavadac

SeuZlia amgvari davalebis Seqmna instruqciebis, funqciuri moyenebiT. Sesabamisi frazebisa

da konstruqciebis ga-

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matis cvlilebebTan dakavSirebuli Sesaxeb. 5. hidrosfero da wyalTan dakavSirebuli problemebi. moswavle swavlobs hiSedegebis

drosferosa da wyalTan dakavSirebul mebs; aanalizebs da zedapiruli wylebis miwisqveSa proble-

saresurso mniSvnelobas; msjelobs wylis moxmarebasa da dabinZurebasTan dakavSirebuli problemebis Sesaxeb. 6. msoflio okeanis problemebi. Mmoswavle bis lenas sebze; msjelobs okeanis moyenebis daciis masStabebze; gansazRvravs problemebis gadaWris gzebs. 7. pedosfero da miwis resursebTan dakavSirebuli problemebi. moswavle rebs, briv ecnoba niabunemaTi msoflio gaproblemebze, Tanamedrove resursebis swavlobs wya-

msoflio okeanis wyledabinZurebis okeanur roebsa dad a maT gavresur-

sanapiro zolis degra-

dagwarmomqmnel niadagebis tipebs da

faqto-

formebis

Tavisebure-

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bebs, pedosferosTan dakavSirebul funqciebs; msjelobs miwis resursebis gamoyenebis problemebze. 8. cocxali bunebisa da biomravalferovnebis SenarCunebis problema. moswavle xali ecnoba cocTanameglobalur

samyaros

drove mdgomareobas; msjelobs resursebis mcenareuli araraciona-

lur gamoyenebasTan dakavSirebul Sedegebze; aanalizebs biomravalferovnebis SemcirebasTan ekolodakavSirebul

giur mdgomareobas. 9. globaluri politikuri problemebi. Mmoswavle swavlobs

geopolitikis cnebas da mis klasikur Teoriebs; mimoixilavs mSvidobis msoflioSi; msjelobs mSvidobis SenarCunebisa araRebis SeiaraRebuli warmomSob saxelmwifos da ganiproblemebze, konfliqmizezebze, niSnebze, omisa da problemebs

tebis xasiaTsa da maT

funqciebsa da formebze, globalistur da antiglobalistur xedvebze;

143

ecnoba globalizaciasa da saerTaSoriso urTierTobebs, Tanamedrove sistemis saerTaSoriso akeTebs mokle moxilvas; swavlobs ganixilavs globalur swavlobs terorizmis saerTaSoriproblemas demokratiisa saxeebs da formebs; so terorizms, rogorc dam is Sedegebs; da adamianis uflebebis dacvis sakiTxebs; ecnoba demokratiisaTvis damaxasiaTebel niSnebs; akeTebs analizs da demoRirekratiis istoriuli wanamZRvrebisa bulebebis Sesaxeb. 10. globaluri ekonomikuri problemebi. moswavle cobriobis lemebis swavlobs ka-

globalur tendenciebs; terorizmis geografiul mi-

nedleuliT probniSnebs

uzrunvelyofis zogad

da misi gadaWris gzebs; ikvlevs energiis alternatiul wyaroebs; gansazRvravs ulo sanedlemomavresursebis

lis perspeqtivebs;

144

ganixilavs

ekonomikuri zogad

globalizaciis

niSnebs da masTan dakavSirebul problemebs; msjelobs ganviTarebadi qveynebis ekonomikuri CamorCenilobis problemebis daZlevis gzebze; aanalizebs saqarTvelos ganviTarebis mimarTulebebs mikuri pirobebSi. 11. globaluri socialuri problemebi. moswavle briobis ecnoba sursaTiT da kacouzSimZiriTad ekono-

globalizaciis

runvelyofisa msjelobs problemis gzebze; swavlobs geografias mrTelobis ganixilavs degebs vis; mimoixilavs problemas

Silis problemas; sasursaTo gadaWris daavadebebis da dacvis janzo-

gad Taviseburebebs; globalur daavadebebs da maT SekacobriobisaTsiRaribis da umuSev-

robasa da usaxlkarobas ganixilavs, rogorc siRaribis safuZvlebs;

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ganixilavs problemebs, uwignurobis, saSualo asiaTebel msoflioSi; msjelobs problemebis kerZod, da

ganaTlebis kerZod, dawyebiTi, umaRlesi damaxproblemebs kriminaluri Sesaxeb. danaSaulis, trefimaT Sede-

ganaTlebisaTvis

narkobiznesis, tabebze gebze; gansazRvravs ecnoba kulturuli msjelobs da

kingis, korufciis masS-

kulturis Tanamedrove globalidasavluri globa-

globalizaciis cnebas;

zaciis formebs; Rirebulebebis

lizaciis masStabebze; aanalizebs mis dadebiT da uaryofiR mxareebs. G12. globaluri demografiuli problemebi. moswavle swavlobs zogadad amasTan, samyaros msjelobs dinamikis neblebze; msoflios da ganviTarebadi demografiul mosaxleobis tendenciebsa

problemebs;

da depopulaciis maCve-

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ganixilavs migrantebis msoflioSi;

migraciis problemebs

mizezebs da Tanamedrove

aanalizebs mosaxleobis gansaxlebisa msjelobs sakiTxebsa drove mebze; ganixilavs demografiuli politikis saxeebs, mis safuZvlebs da mosalodnel Sedegebs. 13. globaluri eTnikuri da kulturuli problemebi. moswavle bas da ganixilavs eTnosis dayoda simWidrovis problemebs; urbanizaciis da TanameqalaqebisaTvis

damaxasiaTebel proble-

eTnikur mravalferovnefasTan dakavSirebul

problemebs; swavlobs eTnikuri procesis stadiebs; msjelobs eTnikuri konfliqtebis warmomSob mizezebze da maT masStabebze msoflioSi; ecnoba rasobriv da religiur problemebs; msjelobs nacionalizmisa da globalizaciis urTierTmimarTebaze; gamoTqvams varauds na-

147

cionalizmis peqtivebze.

pers-

14.globaluri problemebi: momavlis perspeqtivebi.

moswavle saSiSroebas obis ganviTarebaSi; ayalibebs ekologiuri

aanalizebs kacobrida

globaluri problemebis sicocxlesa

momavlis suraganvi-

Tis,politikuri ekonomikuri bis daZlevis xedvas; cdilobs kacobriobis mareoba msjelobs rebis da

Tarebisa da socialurproblemesakuTar

gansazRvros globalumomavlis eTnokultuglo-

ri demografiuli mdgoperspeqtivebi; momavalze

balizaciis procesSi.

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gakveTili 1

Tema _ kacobriobis globaluri problemebi

gakveTilis miznebi _ moswavleebi miiReben informacias

msoflio

masStabis problemebis Sesaxeb; eqnebaT SesaZlebloba Seasrulon sxvadasxva tipis davaleba. enobrivi mizani _ moswavleebi SeZleben globaluri problemebis dasaxelebas da maTi gamomwvevi mizezebis CamoTvlas; gaakeTeben globalur problemebTan dakavSirebul terminTa ganmartebebs. Sesaswavli leqsika/terminebi _ globaluri problemebi, garemos degradacia, baqteriologiuri iaraRi, toqsikuri nivTierebebi, pesticidebi, sayofacxovrebo aerozolebi, trefikingi. funqciuri frazebi _ waikiTxeT pirveli qveTavi saxelmZRvaneloSi, gaakeTeT terminTa ganmarteba dro _ 45 wuTi.

resursebi _ saxelmZRvanelo, formatebi, markerebi, sqemebi, cxrili.

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aqtivobebi:

aqtivoba 1 globaluri problemebi demografiuli janmrTelobis dacvis sursaTis problema wylebis dabinZureba ekologiuri problemebi pesticidebi da niadagis dabinZureba kosmosis mSvidobiani aTvisebis dro 5 wT aqtivoba 2 maswavlebeli moswavleebs aZlevs davalebas: waikiTxeT pirveli qveTavi da gaecaniT globalur problemebs (paragrafis pirveli qveTavi). dro 10 wT aqtivoba 3 maswavlebeli klass hyofs gansaxilvelad konkretul Temebs: I jgufi _ demografiuli problemebi II jgufi _ janmrTelobis dacvis III jgufi _ sursaTis IV jgufi _ wylis V jgufi _ ekologiuri jgufad an wyvilebad da aZlevs

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VI jgufi _ niadagis dabinZureba VII jgufi _ kosmosis mSvidobiani aTvisebis maswavlebeli avalebs jgufebs: gamoiyeneT saxelmZRvanelo da informacia warmoadgineT cxrilis saxiT

problema

raSi mdgomareobs anu arsi

ram gamoiwvia

ekologiuri

cocxali organizmebis kleba an gadaSeneba

tyeebis gaCexvam, brakonierobam

dro

20 wT

aqtivoba 4 gaakeTeT terminTa ganmarteba: globaluri garemos degradacia baqteriologiuri iaraRi toqsikuri nivTierebebi pesticidebi trefikingi sayofacsovrebo aerozolebi dro 10 wT gakveTilis dasasruli yovlismomcveli

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gakveTili 2

Tema _

globalizacia _ sikeTe Tu ubedureba

gakveTilis miznebi _ moswavleebi gaecnobian globalizaciis arss da masTan dakavSirebul movlenebs. aseve mosazrebebsa da mimdevrebs; imsjeleben globalizaciis dadebiT da uaryofiT mxareebze; gamoTqvamen mosazrebebs globalizaciis progresulobisa da safrTxis Sesaxeb. enobrivi mizani _ moswavleebi SeZleben globalizaciis safrTxeebisa Tu dadebiTi mxareebis dasaxelebas da CamoTvlas; iswavlian da aiTviseben globalizaciasTan dakavSirebul terminTa ganmartebebs. Sesaswavli leqsika / terminebi _ globalizacia, internacionalizacia, liberalizacia, universalizacia, vesternizacia, deteritorizacia, globalistika, hiperglobalistebi, skeptikosebi, transformacionistebi.

dro _ resursebi _ saxelmZRvanelo, dafa, carci.

45 wuTi

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aqtivobebi

aqtivoba 1. maswavlebeli gakveTilis axsnas iwyebs nacnobi da ucnobi cnebebis _ globaluri problemebisa da globalizaciis SedarebiT.

globaluri problemebi

globalizacia

dro 10 wT aqtivoba 2 maswavlebeli moswavleebs sTxovs saxelmZRvaneloSi gaecnon masalas ,,globalizaciis cneba da arsi''. dro 5 wT

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aqtivoba 3 maswavlebeli avalebs wyvilebs: gamoiyeneT wakiTxuli da gansazRvreT globalizaciis dadebiTi da uaryofiTi mxareebi

dadebiTi

uaryofiTi

dro 10 wuTi aqtivoba 4 maswavlebeli wyvilebs aZlevs davalebas: gaecaniT masalas saxelmZRvaneloSi da gansazRvreT, vin arian hiperglobalistebi, skeptikosebi da transformacionistebi? hiperglobalistebi skeptikosebi transformacionistebi

dro 10 wuTi

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aqtivoba 5 maswavlebeli moswavleebs afasebs saklaso davalebebis komponentSi. Sefasebis kriteriumebi SeiZleba iyos: - yuradRebis mobilizeba da CarTuloba - teqstze muSaoba - SinaarsSi wvdoma da davalebis sizuste - davalebis droulad esruleba - wyvilSi TanamSromloba qulebi 0, 1, 2.

gakveTilis bolos maswavlebeli klass aZlevs weriT saSinao davalebas: globalizacia _ progresi Tu safrTxe. dro 5 wuTi gakveTilis dasasruli.

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danarTi rekomendebuli funqciuri frazebi sxvadasxva sagnis maswavleblebisTvis

1.

misalmeba da socialuri kontaqti

_ dila mSvidobisa! _ gamajobaT! rogor brZandebiT? _ gamarjobaT, bavSvebo! dasxediT! _ gamajobaT! daviwyoT muSaoba! _ mogesalmebiT! daikaveT Tqveni adgilebi! 2. moswavlis gamokiTxva, misi gamoZaxebis gziT

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), modi, geTayva, mogviyevi ... ! _ ... (moswavlis saxeli), gTxov, gamodi dafasTan! _ ... (moswavlis saxeli), SegiZlia ganmarto / Camoayalibo / daasaxelo / dawero / gvaCveno ... ?

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), gTxov, ganmarte / Camoayalibe / daasaxele / CamoTvale / dawere / gvaCvene ... ! 3. movaleobebis gadanawileba

_ msurvelebi xom ar arian? _ mWirdeba damxmare, romelic... . _ romel Tqvengans surs? _ aris vinme, vinc mzad iqneboda... ? _ Tu arc erTs ar surs, maSin gTxov Sen, ... (moswavlis saxeli), moitane / gaarkvie... ! _ me gavanawileb movaleobebs.

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_ kargi, ... (moswavlis saxeli), gTxov moitane...! xolo Sen, ...

(moswavlis saxeli), unda gawmindo dafa!

_ Semdeg kviraSi ... (moswavlis saxeli) da ... (moswavlis saxeli) Seasruleben Semdeg movaleobebs: ... _ Semdeg kviraSi morigeebi iqnebian ... (moswavlis saxeli) da ...

(moswavlis saxeli). _ ... (moswavlis saxeli), gTxov, daarige furclebi / gawminde

dafa / moitane wignebi / daalage klasi / gaaRe fanjara!

_ ... (moswavlis saxeli), Sen iqnebi TamaSis wamyvani / xelmZRvaneli! 4. gancxadebebi _ dRes viwyeb axal Temas ... -is Sesaxeb. _ gakveTilis bolos Catardeba testi / Tavisufal Temaze ... . _ axla gagacnobT sakontrolo samuSaos Sedegebs. _ Semdeg gakveTilze muzeumSi mivdivarT eqskursiaze. _ xval mokle gakveTili iqneba, radganac skolaSi Tojinebis Teatris speqtakli / sportuli Sejibri / maswavlebelTa kreba tardeba. _ momaval kviraSi / Semdeg gakveTilze sakontrolo weraa. _ paraskevs, 18 saaTze mSobelTa krebaa. _ yuradReba! gakveTilebis cxrili Seicvala! _ am gakveTilis Semdeg ... . 5. saSinao davalebebis akreba _ gadaSaleT Tqveni rveulebi. _ saSinao davaleba yvelam ukve dawera / Seasrula / gaakeTa / gaigo / SeZlo dasruleba.

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6. wina gakveTilis Temis gameoreba _ gasul / wina gakveTilze Cven vsaubrobdiT / davwereT ... . _ gavimeoroT mTavari cnebebi! _ gaixseneT cnebebi, romelic ganvixileT ... ! _ ra darCa TqvenTvis gaugebari wina gakveTilze axsnili masalidan? _ gavixsenoT ramdenime faqti / TariRi / cneba / wesi / mizezebi / warmoqnis mizezebi! _ daasaxeleT wina gakveTilze naswavli terminebi! _ CamoayalibeT ...! _ gadaSaleT wignebi da gaimeoreT ...! 7. axali Temis wardgena _ am kviraSi ganvagrZob saubars ...-is Sesaxeb. _ dRes gavecnobiT ... . _ daviwyoT ... Temis ganxilva / Seswavla. _ dRes SevavsebT ... -is Sesaxeb Semajamebel cxrils. _ aseTi problemis gadawyvetas SevecdebiT: ... . _ Tqven ras fiqrobT, ra aris ... ? _ dRes wina gakveTilze dawyebul Temis ... Sesaxeb gavagrZelebT musaobas / saubars. 8. Temis, konkretuli detalebis ganmarteba:

8.1. SekiTxvebi

Txovna, gamoTqvan azri: _ ras fiqrob am sakiTxze / Temaze / mosazrebaze? _ ra azri / warmodgena gaqvs am sakiTxze?

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_ ras fiqrob ...-ze? _ eTanxmebi am mosazrebas / gamonaTqvams? _ safuZvlianad geCveneba es Tu ara? _ Sen ra mosazreba gaqvs? _ eTanxmebi amas? _ Sen rogor geCveneba? SekiTxvebi faqtebis Sesaxeb: _ romelia udidesi ... ? _ ra aris umTavresi ... ? _ rodis daiwyo / dasrulda ... ? _ sad mdebareobs ... ? _ ra simaRlisaa... ? _ romel jgufs miekuTvneba ... ? _ sad gaemgzavra ... ? _ ramden xans iarseba ... ? _ ra iyo ... ? Txovna, ganmarton: _ es rogor xdeba? _ Seni sityvebiT agvixseni! _ ra aris am moqmedebis mizezebi / Sedegebi? _ risTvis iqneboda es sasargeblo ... ? _ ratom moxda ... ? _ rogor gaxda ... ? Txovna, daamtkicon: _ SegiZlia ganmarto amwuTas naTqvami? _ SegiZlia daamtkico Seni mosazreba / gamonaTqvami? _ SegiZlia raime dokumentis / avtoritetuli avtoris citireba?

159

_ es mosazreba safuZvlianad geCveneba? ras fiqroben danarCenebi? daskvnis gakeTebis Txovna _ gTxov, miTxari ra aris am TavSi / naSromSi ZiriTadi / mniSvnelovani? _ ra iyo am Tavis / naSromis mTavari azri? _ gTxov, am Tavis / naSromis / Temis Sesaxeb Sesaxeb mokle Sinaarsi dawere! _ rogor ggonia, ra iyo umniSvnelovanesi TariRebi / movlenebi / adgilebi am ... ?

8.2. plakatebis da sxva vizualuri masalis gamoyeneba

_ plakatze gamosaxulia / naCvenebia ... . _ dRevandel gakveTilze gamoviyenebT plakats / sqemas / films, raTa vnaxoT ... . _ ras adasturebs es eqsperimenti / es savarjiSoebi...? _ wignSi mocemuli naxatebi / gamosaxulebebi / cxrilebi gvaZlevs informacias ... . _ rukaze / wignSi / cxrilSi / koleqciaSi / cxrilSi SegiZliaT ixiloT ... . _ ra saintereso faqtebi / movlenebi naxeT am ... ?

8.3. terminologia

_ gavimeoroT aTvisebuli terminebi! _ amoiwere terminebi teqstidan! ganmarte isini! _ ipove teqstSi terminis aseTi ganmarteba: ... ! _ es sityva ... TargmanSi niSnavs ... . _ es termini rveulSi CaviniSnoT!

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8.4. mniSvnelobis, Targmanis Sesaxeb SekiTxvebi

_ ra aris am sityvis mniSvneloba / cnebis definicia? _ es cneba Seni sityvebiT ganmarte! _ rogor iTargmneba es ... enaze? _ rogor iTqmis es ... enaze?

8.5. kiTxva

_ waikiTxe teqsti wignis ... gverdze! _ ra aris teqstis mTavari azri / dedaazri? _ waikiTxe teqsti da dawere gegma / mokle Sinaarsi! _ ipove teqstSi aseT kiTxvebze pasuxebi: ... !

8.6. Temebis dakavSireba axali Temis axsnis dros

movlenebis Tanmimdevroba _ pirvel rigSi, ... , Semdeg ... . _ daviwyoT imiT, rom ... . _ upirveles yovlisa ... . _ Tavidan ... . _ daaxloebiT 2000 wels ... . _ maSin ... da Semdeg ... . _ ese igi ... amis Sedegad ... . _ am drois ganmavlobaSi ... . _ da bolos ... . _ dasasrul ... . movlenebis mniSvneloba: _ yvelaze mniSvnelovani, rac unda gavigoT, aris ... . _ mTavari problema is iyo, rom ... . _ kidev ufro mniSvnelovani is iyo, rom ... . _ gasaocari is iyo, rom ... .

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azris gamoTqma: _ Cemi azriT, ... . _ me vfiqrob, rom ... . _ me mimaCnia, rom ... . _ me vityodi, rom ... . _ SesaZlebelia, ise iyos, rom ... ? _ SesaZlebelia, rom ... . _ me maqvs eWvi, rom ... . _ me vgrZnob, rom ... . _ veWvob, rom ... . _ oficialuri azri aris - ... . SeTavazeba: _ me maqvs SemoTavazeba ... . _ SegviZlia ... . _ iqneb SegviZlia ... ? _ erTi xerxi, romlis daxmarebiTac SegviZlia situaciis gaumjobeseba, aris ... . _ ar SegviZlia ... ? _ iqneb mogvesinja ... . _ Tqvens adgilze me movsinjavdi ... . _ adre Cven yovelTvis ... . _ tradiciuli midgoma aseTia: ... . _ ase moviqceT: ... . _ xom ar ajobebda, rom ... ? raime TemaSi CaRrmaveba: _ aqve ... . _ kidev ... .

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_ kidev ufro ... . _ aq gviCndeba SekiTxva ... . _ Tumca, ZiriTadi azri isaa, rom ... . _ am faqtma SeiZleba aseT sakiTxze dagvafiqros: ... . _ mindoda Tqveni yuradReba kidev erTi aspeqtisTvis / garemoebisTvis / faqtisTvis / sakiTxisTvis mimeqcia. _ ara mxolod es, aramed aseT ... . _ garda imisa, rom ... . _ aqve davZendi, rom ... . mizezebis ganmarteba: _ es im mizezebis gamo moxda: ... . _ amitomac ... . _ am mizeziT ... . _ imasTan dakavSirebiT ... . _ amis gamo ... . _ ase ... . _ amis Sedegad ... . _ Sesabamisad ... . _ amgvarad ... . _ es aris imis mizezi, rom ... . winaswar gansazRvruli situaciebi, winapirobebi: Tu ase moxdeba, maSin ... . roca ase xdeba, Cveulebriv ... . rogorc ki es moxdeba, SegviZlia davelodoT ... . Tu rodesme aseTi situaciis mowmeni gaxdebiT, yuradRebiT daakvirdiT, rom ... . nu eliT, rom ... , sanam, upirveles yovlisa, ar iqneba ... .

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analizi: es aris ...-is magaliTi. es adasturebs, rom ... . es gavfiqrebinebs, rom ... . es SeiZleba niSnavdes, rom ... . es SeiZleba iyos ... SemTxveva. es amtkicebs, rom ... . amis interpretireba SeiZleba, rogorc ... . moswavlis naTqvamis gameoreba: _ axla Sen ambob, rom ... . _ sxva sityvebiT vityodi, ... . _ Tu sworad gagige, gindoda geTqva, rom ... . _ Seni naTqvamis gameorebiT ... . _ Sen migaCnia, rom ... . wina naTqvamSi Sesworebebis Setana: _ amiT mindoda meTqva, rom ... . _ amis safuZvelze vfiqrob, rom ... . _ vcdilob giTxraT, rom ... . _ imaves vityvi sxva sityvebiT: ... . roca mimzidvelad gamoiyureba: _ gamoiyureba ise, TiTqos ... , magram sinamdvileSi ... . _ erTi SexedviT SesaZloa ase mogeCvenebaT ... , magram, faqtobrivad ... . upiratesoba: _ me mirCevnia, rom ... . _ me ufro momwons, roca Tqven ... .

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eWvis gamoTqma: _ eg SesaZlebelia, magram ... . _ eg simarTlea, magram Tu dafiqrebulxar, rom ... . _ geTanxmebi, magram gaiTvaliswine, rom ... . _ eg kargi azria, erTaderTi ... . _ ki, oRond gaxsovdes, rom ... . _ eg SesaZlebelia, magram Tu gaiTvaliswine is faqti, rom ... . sakiTxis sxva aspeqtze yuradRebis gadatana: _ SesaZlebelia, magram ... . _ ar dagaviwydes, rom ... . _ rasac Sen ambob, marTalia, Tumca ... . _ me mainc mgonia, rom ... . ganmartebis Txovna: _ SegiZlia ganmarto, rogor ... ? _ gTxov gangvimarte Seni pasuxi / azri! _ SegiZlia ganmarto, ratom airCie es pasuxi? _ gTxov, gaSale Seni pasuxi! _ es imas niSnavs, Sen fiqrob, rom ... ?

ganzogadeba: _ saerTod ... . _ zogadad Tu ganvixileT ... . _ zogadad saubrisas ... . _ Cveulebriv ... . _ rogorc yovelTvis ... . _ tipobrivia is, rom ... .

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8.9. codnis Semowmeba da gasameorebeli kiTxvebi

_ yvelaferi gaigeT? _ SekiTxvebi xom ar gaqvT? _ ... wakiTxvis / mosmenis / yurebis Semdeg gaugebari xom ar aris rame? _ ras niSnavs es termini / cneba / warmodgena? _ gTxovT, Tqveni sityvebiT gadmosceT! _ am TavSi / naSromSi / TemaSi romelia sami mTavari nawili? _ ra iyo amis naklovaneba / gamomwvevi mizezebi / safuZveli? _ rogori Sedegebi gamoiwvia arCevnebma / skandalma / gamoyofam / gaerTianebam? _ rogori gamoxmaureba / Sedegebi mohyva am movlenebs?

9. miTiTebebi samuSaos organizebis Sesaxeb

jgufuri samuSao

_ dRes Cven jgufebSi / wyvilebSi vmuSaobT! _ daiyaviT patara jgufebad 3-dan 5-mde adamiani jgufSi! _ danarCens wyvilebSi muSaobiT SevasrulebT! _ davaleba jgufSi waikiTxeT! _ dawereT ... , ris Sesaxebac SeTanxmdiT! _ dainawileT movaleobebi jgufSi! _ 15 wuTis Semdeg unda moyveT Tqveni samuSaos / miRwevebis Sesaxeb. _ jgufidan erTi adamiani gamoyaviT / airCieT jgufSi erTi adamiani, romelic Tqvens azrs gagvacnobs da erTi - romelic informacias Caiwers!

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miTiTebebi jgufSi diskusiis dros

_ pirvel rigSi, daiyaviT jgufebad! _ pirvel jgufs eqneba Tema ... , meore jgufs eqneba ... jgufs eqneba ... . _ airCieT erTi, vinc ilaparakebs da erTi adamiani, vinc yvelafers Caiwers! _ TiToeulma moswavlem unda moamzados moTxroba Tavisi ideebis / faqtebis da maTi CarTviT / maT gaacnos danarCenebi. _ gTxov, Cvenc gagvacani Seni azri! _ Sen ra azris xar? _ Sen rogor fiqrob? _ mogviyevi! _ Seadare Seni mosazreba jgufis mosazrebas! _ isaubre da sakiTxi ganixile Seni jgufis wevrebTan! _ daasabuTe Seni mosazreba magaliTebis / konkretuli faqtebis daxmarebiT! _ roca Tqvens jgufebSi yvelani mzad iqnebiT, mogviyveT, Tu ra gaakeTeT, Cven yuradRebiT mogismenT. _ Seni referati / aRmoCena yvelas gagvacani! _ daakonkrete Seni ideebi! _ sxvebsac SesTavaze azri gamoTqvan da SekiTxvebi dasvan! da mesame

TamaSebi rolebis ganawilebiT

_ dRe rolebSi TamaSi monawileobas miiReben ... . _ gTxovT, gadiT da derefanSi daicadeT! _ rolebis CamonaTvali waikiTxeT! _ TamaSi wamyvani iqneba ... . _ airCieT da gainawileT rolebi Tqvens jgufSi! _ mayureblebo, daaxasiaTeT msaxiobebi!

167

individualuri davalebebi

_ amjerad individualurad vmuSaobT! _ yuradRebiT waikiTxe davaleba! _ damoukideblad Seavse / Seasrule ... ! _ ipove ... / Seadare ... / daadgine ... / daaskveni ... / gvanaxe ... / daamtkice, rom ... / ipove ... / Camoayalibe ... / daajgufe ... / aRniSne ... / moniSne ... / gamoikvlie ... / demonstrireba gaakeTe ... / aRwere ... ! _ Sens gankargulebaSi 10 wuTia. _ SeTxze ambavi am sityvebis gamoyenebiT! _ waSale zedmeti sityvebi! _ gamoiyene cxrili / ruka / atlasi / sayrdeni sityvebi! _ ipove / moZebne saxelmZRvaneloSi / ... gverdze / rukaze ... ! _ daajgufe ... mixedviT! _ Seadare sididis / farTis mixedviT! _ mocemuli gegmis mixedviT aRwere ... ! _ Seadgine ... sqema! _ gaarkvie ... wyoba / funqciebi! warmoSobis / zomis / simaRlis / mniSvnelovnebis

sakontrolo samuSaoebi da gamocdebi

_ airCieT / moniSneT swori pasuxi! _ gadaxazeT araswori debuleba / sityvebi! _ teqstis wakiTxvis Semdeg upasuxeT kiTxvebs da SeavseT tabula! _ wereT fanqriT / pastiT! _ am davalebis Sesrulebis dros ar SeiZleba koreqtoris / leqsikonis / saxelmZRvanelos gamoyeneba. _ moifiqreT da uwodeT gamosaxulebas saxeli! _ ganmarteT am sityvaTa mniSvneloba!

168

saSinao davalebebi

_ gadaSaleT dRiurebi da CaiwereT ... ! _ Semdegi kviris ganmavlobaSi dawereT Tema ... Sesaxeb! _ dawereT moTxrobis / statiis / Tavis gegma! _ gaxazeT mTavari! _ saxlSi unda iswavloT ... Tavis mexuTedan meSvide gverdamde. 10. aTvisebuli Temis mokle Sinaarsi

_ dRes Tqven gaigeT ... . _ dRevandeli Temis umTavresi nawili iyo ... . _ axla Tamamad SegviZlia ganvacxadoT, rom _ warmodgena SeviqmeniT ... Sesaxeb. _ mokled rom vTqvaT, ... . _ yovelive naTqvamis gaTvaliswinebiT, ... . _ adre naswavlis gameorebis Sedegad, ... . 11. klasis gakontroleba ... .

_ gTxovT yuradRebas! _ nu laparakobT! _ imuSaveT damoukideblad! _ gTxovT, nu xmaurobT! _ wynarad isxediT! _ imuSaveT odnav Cumad! _ iyaviT yuradRebiT! _ usafrTxoebis wesebi daicaviT! _ nu uSli sxvebs!

169

12.

Sefaseba

_ gmadlobT samuSaosTvis! _ Zalian kargi namuSevaria. _ dRes kargi Sedegebi gvqonda! _ es Sen / Tqven Zalian kargad / kargad gamogivida / gamogividaT! _ mSvenieria! brwyinvalea! sakmaod kargia! _ brwyinvale naSromia! _ mSvenieri azria! _ kargi pasuxia! _ Tqveni naSromebi Sinaarsiani da sainteresoa. _ yvelaferi SevZeliT, rac gvqonda dagegmili. _ dRes Tqven kargad imuSaveT! _ ratom ar aris yvela piroba Sesrulebuli? _ rogor moxda, rom ar aris ... ? _ Tqven zedapirulad imuSaveT. _ ratom ar gadaamowmeT faqtebi? _ es saerTod ar Seexeba am Temas. _ ase Tu imuSaveT, Sors ver wavalT. _ am naSroms azri saerTod ar aqvs. _ darwmunebuli var ukeT SegeZlo. _ SemdgomSi meti yuradReba miaqcie ... . _ Sengan ukeTes / ufro moculobiT pasuxs velodi. _ unda Seecado da kidev ukeTesi gamova. _ ise, ara uSavs, magram dagaviwyda dagewera / gagexaza / gamogeTvala / dagemtkica ... .

170

13.

dasasruli

_ raime SekiTxvebi xom ar gaqvT? _ yvelaferi gasagebia? _ Semdeg gakveTilze gavagrZelebT. _ momeciT dRiurebi, niSnebs CagiwerT! _ Semdeg gakveTilze moitaneT ... . _ yvelaze kargi Sedegebi dRes ... hqondaT. _ gaxsovdeT, rom xval unda wamoiRoT ... ! _ ar dagaviwydeT, rom xval gakveTili 09:45 -ze daiwyeba! 14. damSvidobeba

_ momaval Sexvedramde! _ SevxvdebiT Semdeg gakveTilze! _ warmatebiT! _ gmadlobT, dReisTvis sul es aris. _ Tavisuflebi xarT. _ gmadlobT yuradRebisTvis. _ kargad iyaviT, Semdeg Sexvedramde!

171

bibliografia:

zurab baRaSvili, marika oZeli, komunikaciuri kompetenciis ganviTareba (2006). kolin beikeri, bilingvizmisa da bilingvuri ganaTlebis safuZvlebi. ,,samoqalaqo integraciisa da erovnebaTSorisi urTierTobebis centris'' 2010 wlis qarTuli versiis gamocema. bilingvuri ganaTleba, samagido wigni maswavleblebisTvis; Tbilisi, 2009. kaxa gabunia, enisa da sagnobrivi Sinaarsis integrirebuli swavlebis Taviseburebebi bilingvur klasSi; bilingvuri ganaTleba, # 1, 2010. nino doborjginiZe, maia inasariZe, mosmenisa da zepirmetyvelebis unaris ganviTareba (2006). maia inasariZe, maia naWyebia, qarTuli enisa da literaturis swavlebis Tanamedrove meTodebi; Tbilisi, 2006. maia inasariZe, nino doborjginiZe, kiTxvis unar-CvevaTa ganviTareba (2006). meTodikuri miTiTebani qarTulis, rogorc meore enis swavlebis procesSi (maswavlebelTa gzamkvlevi); Tbilisi, 2007. maia meliqiZe, Wabuki qiria, qarTuli enis gramatikis swavleba (2006). multilingvuri ganaTlebis programis debuleba, 2010, saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministro. marika oZeli, zurab baRaSvili, komunikaciuri kompetenciis ganviTareba (2006). saqarTvelos erovnuli saswavlo gegmebisa da Sefasebis centri, erovnuli saswavlo gegma; http://www.ncac.ge/index.php?m=854 Salva tabataZe, maia inasariZe, qeTevan CaCxiani, Wabuki qiria interkulturuli ganaTlebis praqtikuli saxelmZRvanelo maswavleblebisTvis; Tbilisi, 2010. Wabuki qiria, maia meliqiZe, leqsikaze muSaobis meTodika meore enis swavlebisas (2006). nino SaraSeniZe, Secdomebis analizi da maTze muSaoba enis aTvisebis procesSi; bilingvuri ganaTleba, # 3, 2010. Tamar jayeli, marine xuciSvili, meore enis swavleba dawyebiT skolaSi (2006). Tamar jayeli, marine xuciSvili, weris unar-CvevaTa ganviTareba (2006).

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English Language Arts, A Curriculum Guide for the Middle Level (Grades 6-9) Saskatchewan Education English Language Arts 6-9: A Bibliography for the Middle Level Tibinská, Eva, Teória a prax jazykového vzdelávania v oblasti materinského jazyka na základných skolách na Slovensku. - In: Studia Academica Slovaca. 30. Prednásky XXXVII. letného seminára slovenského jazyka a kultúry. Red. J. Mlacek. Bratislava, Stimul - Centrum informatiky a vzdelávania FF UK 2001, s. 315 - 328. Tibinská, Eva, Základné zásady didaktiky a metodiky vyucovania slovenciny ako cudzieho jazyka. In: Studia Academica Slovaca 34. Prednásky XLI. letného seminára slovenského jazyka a kultúry.Ed. J.Mlacek, M. Vojtech. Bratislava, Stimul - Centrum informatiky a vzdelávania FF UK 2005, s. 165 -173. Cvrtnícková, D. a kol.: Cieové poziadavky na hodinách SJaL Metodická prírucka prinása nové chápanie problematiky výucby SJaL Cvrtnícková, D. a kol.: Klasifikácia slohových prác Anotácia: Súbor ziackych slohových prác niektorých zánrov a ich klasifikácia. Dagmar Ctvrtnícková SPECIALIZACNÉ INOVACNÉ STÚDIUM,Názov projektu: Inovácia obsahu a metód vyucovania SjaL Ministerstvo skolstva Slovenskej republiky, UCEBNÉ PLÁNY PRE 1. AZ 9. ROCNÍK ZÁKLADNÝCH SKÔL, Schválilo Ministerstvo skolstva Slovenskej republiky , 2003 Brasee, E.N. & Capelluti, J. Dissolving boundaries: Toward an integrative curriculum. Columbus,1995 Jacobs, H.H. Mapping the big picture: Integrating curriculum and assessment, Alexandria, 1997 Martinello, M.L. & Cook, G.E. Interdisciplinary inquiry in teaching and learning. New York: Merrill, 1994.

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gamomcemloba `saimedo~

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