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World War II Lesson Plan:

Restrictions on Freedom during World War II Lesson Objectives By the end of this lesson students will: · Understand the multiple ways freedoms were restricted during World War II · Analyze primary and secondary sources related to freedom during World War II focusing on their main message and connecting them to other sources during the era · Share their interpretation of primary and secondary sources related to freedom during World War II with their classmates · Expand on their opinion and defend their position about whether or not freedoms should be restricted during times of war Time About 2 Days. (I spent about 2 days on this lesson because I was short on time with the semester ending in a few days. However, if a teacher had students break into groups and analyze each source as a group with an analysis sheet to guide their discussion this could be extended into a 3 or 4 day lesson.) Grade Level This lesson involved 11th grade students in a regular U.S. history course. My school also offers an A.P. U.S. history course. However, the students I teach have decided for various reasons not to take that course. The lesson could easily be used or adapted for students at all levels in middle and high school. Wisconsin Model Academic Standards Addressed in the Lessons B.12.1 Explain different points of view on the same historical event, using data gathered from various sources, such as letters, journals, diaries, newspapers, government documents, and speeches B.12.2 Analyze primary and secondary sources related to a historical question to evaluate their relevance, make comparisons, integrate new information with prior knowledge, and come to a reasoned conclusion B.12.3 Recall, select, and analyze significant historical periods and the relationships among them B.12.5 Gather various types of historical evidence, including visual and quantitative data, to analyze issues of freedom and equality, liberty and order, region and nation, individual and community, law and conscience, diversity and civic duty; form a reasoned conclusion in the light of other possible conclusions; and develop a coherent argument in the light of other possible arguments B.12.6 Select and analyze various documents that have influenced the legal, political, and constitutional heritage of the United States B.12.18 Explain the history of slavery, racial and ethnic discrimination, and efforts to eliminate discrimination in the United States and elsewhere in the world

Content-Based Theme Restrictions placed on freedoms and liberties during World War II with a particular focus on the ethnic discrimination against Italian and Japanese Americans, restrictions imposed against American fascist supporters during the War, restrictions and discrimination against women and African Americans during the War Historical Methods Utilized Primary and secondary source document analysis and interpretation Resources Utilized (see Appendix B for actual resources) · Letter to President Roosevelt by Mario Valdastri (pp. 146-147 in Una Storia Segreta) · Description of liberating Dachau by Iciro Imamura (pp. 376-377 in A Different Mirror) · Photograph of internment camp and excerpt from the interview with Robert and Toshi Akamatsu from the papers of Robert and Toshi Akamatsu at the Wisconsin Historical Society Archives · Wartime biographies of Johnnie Holmes, Marion Rivers Nittel, Claudine "Scottie" Lingelbach, and Alison Ely Campbell (pp. 151-161; 194-200 in Tom Brokaw's The Greatest Generation) · PP.562- 568; pp. 590-595 of students' textbook. (Danzer, G.A., Klor de Alva, J.J., Woloch, N., & Wilson, L. E. (2005). The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st century. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell ) Exercise · Students were asked to read their textbook's explanation of World War II on the home front for homework (pp.562-568; pp.590-595). Students were also asked to read a letter to President Roosevelt by Mario Valdastri (pp. 146-147 in Una Storia Segreta), a description of liberating Dachau by Iciro Imamura (pp. 376-377 in A Different Mirror), and the wartime biographies of Johnnie Holmes, Marion Rivers Nittel, Claudine "Scottie" Lingelbach, and Alison Ely Campbell (pp.151-161; 194-200 in Tom Brokaw's The Greatest Generation) for homework. · In class, students first answer the following question in writing and the teacher leads a class discussion about students' responses to gauge their prior knowledge and opinions (especially focusing on what they remember about this topic from the discussion during the World War I unit): Should the freedoms and liberties of Americans be restricted in any way during times of war? If so? Which freedoms and liberties and why? If not? Why not? · The teacher asks students to take out their readings for homework and assigns each row or a particular group one of the following readings: the letter to President Roosevelt by Mario Valdastri (pp. 146-147 in Una Storia Segreta), a description of liberating Dachau by Iciro Imamura (pp. 376-377 in A Different Mirror), and the wartime biographies of Johnnie Holmes, Marion Rivers Nittel, Claudine "Scottie" Lingelbach, and Alison Ely Campbell

(pp.151-161; 194-200 in Tom Brokaw's The Greatest Generation). The teacher gives the students 5-10 minutes to briefly write an answer to the following questions about their assigned reading: 1. In what ways do these readings indicate that individuals' freedoms were restricted during World War II? 2. How were the restrictions on individual liberties as presented in these readings similar and different to the restrictions placed on individuals during World War I? · The teacher once again reviews the definition of nativism and asks students to provide examples from the World War I era or their previous understandings about U.S. history. The teacher once again points out that many forces have influenced nativist sentiments for decades in the U.S. and war can serve as a motivating factor in discriminating against ethnic and immigrant groups. (Here is where I also remind them of some of the same ideas from John Higham's Strangers in the Land presented in the lesson on World War I). The teacher asks the group of students who focused on the description of liberating Dachau by Iciro Imamura (pp. 376-377 in A Different Mirror) how they responded to the previous two questions. As part of the discussion, the teacher provides an overview of the Japanese internment and offers and explicit and personal example of the Japanese internment using the photograph of the internment camp and excerpts from the interview with Robert and Toshi Akamatsu from the papers of Robert and Toshi Akamatsu. One of the main points the teacher highlights is the way this represents one of the most extreme measures of nativism in U.S. history on such a wide scale and also reemphasizes the reoccurring theme that students learned about in the World War I lesson: wartime hysteria can deny basic freedoms to individuals who previously held those same liberties in the U.S. The teacher asks the group of students who focused on the letter to President Roosevelt by Mario Valdastri (pp. 146-147 in Una Storia Segreta) how they responded to the previous two questions. As part of the discussion, the teacher provides an overview of the internment of Italian Americans and offers a personal example of the internment using information from the story of Mario Valdastri and a few other individuals like Martini Battistessa and Celestina Loero as described in Una Storia Segreta. The teacher points out the differences between the Italian and Japanese internment and reminds students of the point from Highma's book made during the discussion of nativism during the World War I lesson that sometimes when economic interests and nativist interests collide, there can even be easing of nativist sentiments. The teacher uses this idea to point out that one of the main reasons Italians were not interned in greater numbers was their importance to the economy during the War. The teacher asks the class to speculate on why the students were not provided with a source detailing violations of civil liberties of non-ethnics like the Eugene Debs speech from World War I. Students usually observe that World War II saw much greater public support and therefore, there was less need to crack down on dissenters. (If no student makes this observation, the teacher should point this out). At the same time, the teacher asks students about the way the government might respond in a hypothetical scenario where a Nazi or

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fascist supporter in the U.S. published an article condemning President Roosevelt for fighting against the Germans in World War II. After allowing students time to discuss their reactions, the teacher explains the real life scenario of the trial and conviction of William Pelley and once again asks for their opinion of this situation. · The teacher asks the group of students who focused on the wartime biography of Johnnie Holmes (pp. 194 -200 in The Greatest Generation) how they responded to the previous two questions. This is a biography about an African American serviceman who was discriminated against during World War II. The teacher also reminds students about the job discrimination, segregation, and violence against African Americans that was occurring in the United States during World War II. The teacher points out that African Americans had made some advancement since World War I, like the Executive Order issued by FDR in response to A. Philip Randolph's threatened march, but much of the discrimination facing African Americans from World War I persisted. The teacher asks the group of students who focused on the wartime biographies of Marion Rivers Nittel, Claudine "Scottie" Lingelbach, and Alison Ely Campbell (pp.151 ­ 161 in The Greatest Generation) how they responded to the previous two questions. These biographies are about the lives of three women who played different roles during World War II like serving in the WAVES, working in a shipyard, and working in a defense factory. The teacher points out that women had made some advancements since World War I, like the right to vote. However, without equal pay and with limited roles in the military, there were still restrictions on their economic, social and political freedom. Once again, students answer the following question in writing and the teacher leads a final class discussion about students' responses to determine what they learned from the primary and secondary sources that they analyzed and the class discussion: Should the freedoms and liberties of Americans be restricted in any way during times of war? If so? Which freedoms and liberties and why? If not? Why not?

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Assessment Since I had less time to devote to this lesson with the end of the semester approaching, I was not able to assign a project or more extensive assessment. Therefore, students' understanding of the content and skills taught in this lesson was assessed in two ways: 1. Through formal discussion of the topic, I gained an understanding of students' knowledge and understanding of restrictions on freedom and liberties during World War II. 2. An exam on World War II included some questions related to restrictions on freedoms and liberties during World War II. The following are some of the exam questions included: Multiple Choice

Write the letter of the best answer in the blank provided. 1.____ How did World War II affect millions of American women? A) The federal government adopted a policy of gender equality in all federal hiring and in all companies doing business with the government B) The proportion of women in the labor force rose significantly as more than 6 million women went to work outside the home C) Because of the importance of their war work, women for the first time achieved equal pay for equal work D) Women were not allowed to help with the military in any fashion as stereotypes of their weakness persisted E) none of the above 2._____ Which of the following is not true about the internment of Japanese Americans during the War? A) the Supreme Court upheld the decision to place Japanese Americans in camps B) Since Japanese Americans were the largest minority group in California, they were seen as an immediate threat C) About two-thirds of those interned had been born in the United States D) Japanese Americans were compensated for their treatment in internment camps after the war E) all of the above are true 3._____ A. Phillip Randolph's call for a massive march on Washington led to: A) an executive order permitting the military to evacuate and intern Japanese living on the West Coast B) a large increase in the number of minorities who volunteered for military service C) an executive order prohibiting employment discriminatory employment practices D) passage of a congressional act restricting union strikes and protests Short Answer Answer the following questions. BE SPECIFIC !!! (2 POINTS) Explain one major way discrimination against women and African Americans still existed during World War II.

(4 POINTS) Describe the ways that the internment of Italian Americans was similar and different to the internment of Japanese Americans using specific references to the sources that we used in class to discuss these events. (4 POINTS) Use specific examples from the sources we analyzed about freedom during World War II to explain how restrictions on freedom imposed by the government during World War I were similar and different to the restrictions on freedom imposed by the government during World War II.

Teaching Experiences I was a bit disappointed that I only had a few days to teach this lesson. With final exams and the end of the semester approaching, I had to finish the World War II chapter. At the same time, I was happy that I was able to modify the lesson enough to experience quality results even with the limited time. As I taught the lesson, I thought the best way to approach this same lesson in the future would be to allow more class time for students to discuss their assigned readings in

groups and then be able to ask questions before they led the discussion on a particular assigned reading. I think it would also be neat to have students do their own writing or create their own diary entries from the perspective of people who suffered ethnic discrimination during World War II. While I was teaching the lesson, I tried to make as many comparisons to the same topic of restrictions on freedom during wartime that my students learned about during World War I. However, I would also try to include this connection to World War I in more depth next time. Finally, in our final class discussion about whether freedoms should or should not be restricted during wartime, I had to constantly remind students to use examples from the lesson. It might be better to include this as part of the instructions when students are given time to write down their final thoughts.

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