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FOOT/ANKLE RETROSPECTIVE STU DYIC S

Retrospective Study of Surgical Outcomes for Combined Ankle and Subtalar Joint Arthrodesis, Cavovarus Deformity Correction and Ankle Fractures

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CAS E STUDIES

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CASE STUDY 1

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Retrospective Study of Surgical Outcomes for Combined Ankle and Subtalar Joint Arthrodesis Utilizing the Ilizarov Bent-Wire Technique

CASE STUDY 2

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Retrospective Study of Surgical Outcomes for Management of Ankle Fractures Utilizing the Ilizarov Technique

CASE STUDY 3

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Retrospective Study of Surgical Outcomes for Cavovarus Deformity Correction Utilizing the Ilizarov Technique

Orthofix wishes to thank the following surgeons for their contribution to the development of the technique:

Edgardo R. Rodriguez, DPM Clinical Instructor

Director: Chicago Foot & Ankle Deformity Correction Center

Other Key Contributors: Jared Overman, DPM Nick Anderson, DPM PGY-3 Pablo Trevino, DPM PGY-3 Kris Lopez, DPM PGY-3

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CASE STUDY 1

Retrospective Study of Surgical Outcomes for Combined Ankle and Subtalar Joint Arthrodesis Utilizing the Ilizarov Bent-Wire Technique

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RESULTS

Patients were evaluated using a "Modified" AOFAS scale. The modified scale eliminated grading sagittal and hindfoot range of motion. The goal of the procedure was to achieve fusions at the subtalar joint and at the ankle joint resulting in a platar-grade and pain free extremity. A fourteen point adjustment was made to compensate for the lack of a motion category. The mean score was 79.49. The median score was 80. The highest recorded score was a 95 with the lowest being 70. Thirteen patients progressed to non-unions. These patients were subsequently revised with an intra-medullary tibial nail. Other significant complications included surgical dehiscence (2 patients), and soft tissue infection with deep space abscess (1 patient). Minor complications included pin tract infection (5 patients) and loose/painful hardware (11 patients). All complications resolved uneventfully with antibiotics, wound care, and hardware adjustment/ removal. Co-morbidities encountered in this population included Diabetes Mellitus (48% of patients), obesity (30%), tobacco use (40%), and osteopenia (36%).

PURPOSE

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of ankle and subtalar joint arthrodesis utilizing the Ilizarov bent-wire technique.

PROCEDURES

The ankle joint and subtalar joint surfaces were prepared through an anterior-medial incision. The articular cartilage was sharply excised creating congruent cancellous surfaces. Fusion sites were partially fixated with percutaneous Steinman pins and a 3-ring external fixator was applied. The frame consisted of a 2 ring tibial block connected to a foot plate. The tibial block was fixated with 2 trans-osseous wires per ring. Patients over 250lbs. had 3 wires per ring. The foot plate was fixated using 2 crossed wires at the mid-foot and calcaneus and 2 parallel wires through the talus.

METHOD

A total of 81 patients participated in the study. All patients had a history of painful and severe ankle and subtalar joint arthritis. Patients had a 3-ring external fixator applied to the affected lower extremity for approximately 12 weeks in duration. Patients were allowed to be full weightbearing for the post-operative period. Pin sites were cleaned with EtOH 1-3 times per week.

CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION

We have found ankle and STJ arthrodesis performed using Ilizarov bent wire technique to yield a reproducible and predictable fusion rate (84%) with a relatively low rate of significant complications (19%). The advantages of using this technique include immediate weightbearing as well as limited soft tissue disruption. If there is failure of this procedure there still remains the option of revision with an intra- medullary nail or internal fixation by any other means. In conclusion, we feel that external fixation using Ilizarov techniques is a viable method of achieving ankle and STJ arthrodesis with results and complications comparable to other methods of fixation.

Pre-oprative picture of right ankle.

Pre-operative radiograph showing mal-alignment and degenerative joint disease of the ankle joint.

Intra-operative radiograph showing application of Ilizarov frame.

Ankle joint alignment as well as bent wire technique are demonstrated in this picture.

Post-operative picture demonstrating alignment of the corrected limb (right) compared to uncorrected contralateral limb (left).

Key Contributors: Edgardo R. Rodriguez, DPM Clinical Instructor Jared Overman, DPM Nick Anderson, DPM PGY-3

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CASE STUDY 2

Retrospective Study of Surgical Outcomes for Management of Ankle Fractures Utilizing the Ilizarov Technique

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RESULTS

All 21 patients had successful ankle fracture reduction and fixation with the use of the Ilizarov technique. This is based on clinical and radiographic consolidation of the fracture sites without significant malalignment and with evidence of a stable ankle mortise. 18 patients reported satisfactory post-op ankle range of motion with 3 patients complaining of diminished ROM secondary to ankle DJD. All patients healed all fracture sites uneventfully and resumed their regular daily activities without major complications. Minor complications included 5 pin tract infections which resolved with antibiotics and local wound care. From 1998 to present, none of the patients has required a fusion.

PURPOSE

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of surgical ankle fracture repair with the use of a 3-ring multi-planar external fixator. 1 2

MATERIALS AND METHOD

A retrospective analysis was performed on 21 patients (17 males and 4 females) with bi-malleolar or tri-malleolar ankle fractures. Indication for the Ilizarov technique included a radiographic finding of a bi-malleolar or tri-malleolar unstable ankle fracture with the same indication for open reduction internal fixation. All 21 patients had a 3 ring multi-planar external fixator, which consisted of 2 proximal tibial rings and 1-foot plate, applied to the affected limb. Two-wire fixation was used on each of the proximal rings: a medial face wire and a posterior/lateral to anterior/medial wire. The foot plate fixation consisted of two medial and lateral calcaneal wires and 1-2 midfoot and/or forefoot wires. Extra smooth and olive wires were used depending on the fracture condition for proper reduction and realignment of the ankle mortise. All wires were tensioned to the external frame. All ankles were acutely distracted 4-5 mm following reduction and fixation of fracture in order to offload the joint and minimize secondary DJD.

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CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION

6 7 We found the Ilizarov technique to be a viable method for the management of bi and tri-malleolar fractures. The lead author advocates the initial use of multi-planar external ring fixator in order to provide early ambulation to the patient, and at the same time perform an ankle diastasis using the external ring fixator to provide increase range of motion at the ankle joint post ring fixator. We also found it to be beneficial with the morbidly obese patient, which are incapable of following a nonweightbearing protocol. Finally, vascular compromised patients will profit from possible tissue necrosis that might arise from an open reduction internal fixation technique.

References [1] Rammelt S, Endres T, Grass R, Zwipp H. The role of external fixation in acute ankle trauma. Foot Ankle Clin. 2004 Sep;9(3):455-74, vii-viii. [2] McDonald MG, Burgess RC, Bolano LE, Nicholls PJ. Ilizarov treatment of pilon fractures. Clin. Orthop Relat Res. 1996 Apr;(325):232-8. [3] Functional restoration of the ankle joint after traumatic dislocation and fibular bone loss J Trauma. 2007 Jul;63(1). E22-6.

Figure 1: Preoperative AP Ankle View Figure 2: Preoperative Lateral Ankle View Figure 3: Model of Proper Placement Figure 4: AP Ankle with External Fixator Figure 5: Lateral Ankle with External Ring Fixator Figure 6: Post Operative AP Ankle Figure 7: Post Operative Lateral Ankle

Key Contributors: Edgardo R. Rodriguez, DPM Clinical Instructor Jared Overman, DPM Pablo Trevino, DPM PGY-3

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CASE STUDY 3

Retrospective Study of Surgical Outcomes for Cavovarus Deformity Correction Utilizing the Ilizarov Technique

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PURPOSE

The cavo-varus foot is a complex deformity with limited non-surgical treatment options. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients who had all received surgical reconstruction utilizing Ilizarov mutli-planar ring fixator technique.

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MATERIALS AND METHOD

A total 27 patient (15 males and 12 females) who were diagnosed with a cavovarus foot deformity were reviewed after their surgical experiences and post-operative course. Mean patient follow-up was 62 months. The patient's ages ranged from 39 to 64 years. Patients included in this study had a variety of cavus deformity at multiple levels (global, hindfoot, sub-talar joint, and midfoot) which included all neuro-muscular conditions. They were required to complete a questionnaire to evaluate the satisfaction with their surgical outcome. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) rating system were used. 8 9

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Figure 1: Cavovarus deformity clinically. Figure 2: Lateral of cavovarus foot pre-op. Figure 3: AP of cavovarus foot pre-op. Figure 4: Intra-op of preparing STJ Arthodesis site. Figure 5: Intra-op of Orthofix Trulock fixator. Note rectus position ing of forefoot and hindfoot. Figure 6: Lateral of Ilizarov cavus reconstruction post-op. Note de crease in calcaneal inclination and reduction of metatarsal planterflexion. Figure 7: AP of Ilizarov cavus reconstruction post-op. Note the forefoot postion into a more rectus, less adducted position. Figure 8: Pre-op clinic evaluation of severe hindfoot varus (AP view). Figure 9: Post-operative and status-post frame removal with rectus hind foot allignment (anterior view). Figure 10: Post-operative and status-post frame removal with rectus hind foot allignment (lateral view).

RESULTS

Out of 27 patients, the mean AOFAS score was 85 points on a 100-point scale. Five patients required revision secondary to loss of correction. Other com plications included 3 pin-tract infections, 2 surgical wound dehiscence, and 17 cases of pin site irritation. All complications resolved with antibiotics and local wound care.

CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION

Multiple techniques have been described in the literature for the correction of cavo-varus foot deformity. In order to achieve a successful outcome, each reconstruction needs to be tailored to the individual deformity making it necessary to utilize a variety of procedures. We feel that Ilizarov external fixation techniques are advantageous as they allow for minimal dissection, greater compression at fusion/osteotomy sites, early ambulation, the ability to make post-operative adjustments, and absence of internal fixation. A further benefit is the ability to include ankle joint distraction in patients with concomitant ankylosis. We feel that Ilizarov techniques offer the stability and variability of fixation necessary for the successful reconstruction of the cavo-varus foot deformity.

PROCEDURES

Pre-operatively each patient was examined with gait analysis and biomechanical evaluation to determine what type of procedures needed to be performed in order to best correct their deformity. A variety of procedures were utilized in a variety of combinations.

References [1] Kucukkaya, M.; Kabukcuoglu, Y.; Kuzgun, U.. Management of the Neurumuscular Foot Deformities with the Ilizarov Method. Foot and Ankle International. 2002; 23: 135-141. [2] Paley D.; Lamm BM. Correction of the cavus foot using external fixation. Foot and Ankle Clinics. 2004; 9(3): 611-24.

Key Contributors: Edgardo R. Rodriguez, DPM Clinical Instructor Jared Overman, DPM Kris Lopez, DPM PGY-3

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