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CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION In order to address the objective of determining available lining methods, the fore-mentioned literature sources were reviewed. Review of the literature produced five (5) general lining methods. For clarification purposes, some methods have been divided further into sub-methods. A list of the five (5) methods used to describe the state-of-the-practice in culvert lining techniques is presented below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sliplining Close-fit Lining Spirally Wound Lining Cured-in-place Pipe Lining Spray-on Lining

For each of the culvert lining techniques, the following characteristics were described in each section of this chapter for each method: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Description Effective Uses, Advantages, and Limitations Costs General Installation Guidelines Standards/Specifications Contractors and Manufacturers

SLIPLINING Sliplining involves inserting a flexible, usually thermoplastic, liner of smaller diameter directly into a deteriorated culvert. Liners are inserted into the host by either pulling or pushing the liner into place. After insertion, the annular space between the existing culvert and liner is generally grouted with a cementitious material providing a watertight seal. Annular space is the space between the outside diameter of the pipe being installed and existing pipe.(4) Once installed, lateral and service connections are reopened. Sliplining can further be categorized into segmental and continuous sliplining.

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Segmental Sliplining Description Segmental sliplining consists of lining the deteriorated culvert with sections shorter than that of the existing culvert. A bell or spigot joint is commonly used to join culvert segments. Segments of the liner are assembled at entry points and forced into the host culvert. As each segment is added, the liner is forced further into the existing culvert until lining has been completed. Once installed, the annular space is generally grouted and service connections are reopened. Figure 3 illustrates the segmental sliplining process.

Figure 3. Drawing. Duratron System's Segmental Sliplining.(5)

Effective Uses, Advantages, and Limitations General characteristics and effective uses of segmental sliplining are presented in Table 1. Advantages and limitations associated with the method of segmental sliplining are presented in Table 2. Table 1. General Characteristics and Effective Uses of Segmental Sliplining.(5,6,7)

Applications Gravity & Pressure Pipelines Diameter Range 100 - 4,000 millimeters (4 - 157.5 inches) Liner Material1 PE, HDPE, PP, PVC, GRP (-EP & -UP) Maximum Installation 1,600 meters (5,248 feet)

1 PE ­ Polyethylene, HDPE ­ High Density Polyethylene, PP ­ Polypropylene, PVC ­ Poly(Vinyl Chloride), GRP ­ Glassfiber Reinforced Polyester

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Table 2. Advantages and Limitations of Segmental Sliplining.(5,6,7,8)

Advantages Access pit (no digging) may be avoided with short lengths Applicable to all types of existing culvert materials Existing pipe can be corroded, deformed, badly damaged, and/or near collapse Custom shaped liner installation possible Simplistic method Limitations Existing culvert must be longitudinally uniform (diameter changes or discontinuous culverts may prohibit this method) Reduction in flow capacity may be significant Annular space grouting is generally required Numerous joints Excavation required for lateral reconnection and sealing

Costs According to the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) Draft Report on trenchless technology for Forest Service culverts,(9) the range of costs for segmental sliplining is approximated to be $50 per linear foot for 45.7-centimeter (18-inch) diameter pipes and $400 to $500 per linear foot for 1.5meter (60-inch) diameter pipes. Information based on specific case study costs is presented below. The case study "Marion County Culvert Lining" presented in the Oregon Roads Newsletter (Fall 2001)(10) provided information on the sliplining of a 30.5-meter (100-feet) long, 76-centimeter (30-inch) diameter corrugated metal pipe (CMP) that was covered by more than 6 meters (20 feet) of fill. Six (6) 6-meter (20-feet) long, 71-centimeter (28-inch) diameter sections of polyethylene pipe were used. The project cost totaled $12,080, with the liner costing a total of $7,140, or $59 per linear foot. In the October-November 1997 issue of Technology News, an article titled "Plastic culvert liners the "in" thing,"(11) presented cost information from two (2) segmental sliplining case studies. The first case study was the lining of a 91.4-centimeter (36-inch) diameter deteriorated corrugated metal pipe located in Audubon County, Iowa. For this project, a 31-meter (102-ft) long, 81centimeter (32-inch) diameter liner was used with a total liner cost of $6,500, or approximately $64 per linear foot. In the second case study, a 103-meter (339-feet) long, 1-meter (42-inch) diameter culvert located in Hamilton County, Iowa was sliplined due to the 14 meters (46 feet) of fill above it. A 107-meter (352-feet) long, 81-centimeter (32-inch) diameter liner was used with a total liner cost of $21,655, or approximately $62 per linear foot. William Sunley from the Illinois DOT presented typical liner material costs as $13 per linear foot for 30.5-centimeter (12-inch) diameter and $42 per linear foot for 91.4-centimeter (36-inch) diameter in the June, 1994 Illinois Municipal Review.(12) In the Fall 1997 edition of Crossroads, the Wisconsin DOT reported that sliplining was 52% less expensive when compared to conventional metal culvert replacement on one of their sliplining projects.(13)

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General Installation Guidelines A general list of installation guidelines for segmental sliplining is provided below:(5,8,14,15) 1. Thoroughly inspect the existing culvert to determine the smallest diameter located within the culvert to be lined (structural deterioration and wall collapse may have reduced the original culvert diameter). For non-man entry culverts, a foam bullet-shaped device used for cleaning, known as a "pig," can be used to determine the smallest diameter. 2. Inspect the existing culvert for lateral and service connections, as well as protrusions such as roots and sediment. 3. Clean and clear the existing culvert. 4. Determine the diameter of the liner (in general, the outside diameter of the liner should be at least 10 % smaller than the inside diameter of the existing culvert. A 5% reduction should be sufficient for existing culvert diameters greater than 61 centimeters (24 inches)). 5. Determine the material of the liner. The material chosen should meet the designed load requirements. Factors to be considered in design load requirements include, but are not limited to, hydraulic loads caused by groundwater, soil conditions and loads, traffic loads, and temperature. 6. If excavation is required, excavations should be minimal and comply with local, State, or Federal regulations regarding excavation safety. Excavations at elbows minimize the total number of excavations required because the liner can be installed in two directions from one location. 7. Determine if the bypassing of flow is necessary. Flow bypass is necessary if the annular space and pulling head openings are incapable of handling the existing flow capacity. If possible, maintaining the flow will often reduce the force required for installation, but may cause accessibility problems and difficulty for workers. 8. Cut the existing culvert and initiate installation. Install the liner segments either with the push method or the pull method, making sure liner segments are connected properly. Figure 4 illustrates the use of heavy machinery to push a segmental sliplining into a large diameter culvert. Continue installation until the entire section of existing culvert has been lined.

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Figure 4. Drawing. Segmental Sliplining Installation Using the Push Method.(15)

9. Once installation has been completed, a 24-hour relaxation period is recommended prior to reopening lateral and service connections. 10. Inspect the completed lining by closed-circuit TV or manually if the diameter permits manentry. The liner should be continuous over the entire length. 11. If leakage or other testing is required, perform testing to specifications and prior to the reopening of lateral and service connections. 12. Reopen lateral and service connections. Dependent upon installation conditions, reconnection may be possible from within the lined culvert or may require point excavation. 13. After lateral and service connections have been reopened, reconnect and stabilize terminal connections. Fill the annular space between the liner and the original culvert with grout or another cementitious material. The allowable grout pressure of the liner should not be exceeded during the grouting process. Hydrostatically pressurizing the liner will allow for higher grouting pressures and help prevent collapse of the liner during the grouting process. 14. Finally, restore flow if bypass was required and initiate site cleanup.

Annular Grouting Annular space between the liner pipe and the original pipe may be filled with grout or other material if required by the design engineer. Grouting will stabilize the line against flotation offgrade and collapse due to external ground water pressure.(15) Cement mortar is the most commonly used grout mixture.(4) Standards and specifications associated with cement mortar annular grouting are presented in Table 3.

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Table 3. Standards and Specifications for Cement-mortar Annular Grouting.

Standard/Specification ASTM C 109 ­ Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (2002)(16) Description This test method covers determination of the compressive strength of hydraulic cement mortars, using 2-inch or 50-millimeter cube specimens. ASTM C 138 ­ Standard Test Method for Unit Weight, Describes the determination of the weight per cubic foot Yield, and Air Content (Gravimetric) of Concrete or cubic meter of freshly mixed concrete and gives formulas for calculating the yield, cement content, and the (2001)(17) air content of the concrete. Yield is defined as the volume of concrete produced from a mixture of known quantities of the component materials. ASTM C 144 ­ Standard Specification for Aggregate for Covers aggregate use in masonry mortar. Masonry Mortar (2003)(18) ASTM C 150 ­ Standard Specification for Portland Ce- Covers the use of eight (8) types of Portland cement. ment (2002)(19) When the special properties specified for any other type are not required,where air-entrainment is, when moderate sulfate resistance or moderate heat of hydration is desired, when high early strength is desired, when a low heat of hydration is desired, and for use when high sulfate resistance is desired. ASTM C 403 ­ Test Method for Time of Setting of Con- Covers the determination of the time of setting of concrete Mixtures by Penetration Resistance (1999)(20) crete, with slump greater than zero, by means of penetration resistance measurements on mortar sieved from the concrete mixture. ASTM C 495 ­ Standard Test Method for Time of Set- Covers the preparation of specimens and the determinating of Concrete Mixtures by Penetration Resistance tion of the compressive strength of lightweight insulating concrete having an oven-dry weight not exceeding (1999)(21) 800 killogram/meter (50 lb/foot) as determined by the procedures described herein. This test method covers the preparation and testing of molded 75- by 150-millimeter (3- by 6-inch) cylinders. ASTM C 618 ­ Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash Covers coal fly ash and raw or calcined natural pozzolan and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use as a Min- for use in concrete where cementitious or pozzolanic eral Admixture in Concrete (2003)(22) action, or both, is desired, or where other properties normally attributed to fly ash or pozzolans may be desired, or where both objectives are to be achieved.

In addition to the standards and specifications listed in Table 3, the following list of related standards are associated with annular grouting of segmental sliplining: · · · · ASTM F 585 ­ Standard Practice for Insertion of Flexible Polyethylene Pipe Into Existing Sewers (2000)(15) NASSCO Specification for Sliplining, Segmented, Polyethylene (as provided by Duratron Systems for BUTTRESS-LOC® Pipe)(1999)(14) NASSCO Specification for Sliplining, Segmented, PVC (as provided by Lamson Vylon Pipe for large diameter Vylon® Slipliner Pipe) (1999)(14) NASSCO Specification for Sliplining, Segmented, PVC (as provided by Lamson Vylon Pipe for small diameter Vylon® Slipliner Pipe) (1999)(14) 14

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

Standards/Specifications Table 4 presents the current standards and specifications associated with the method of segmental sliplining. Table 4. Standards Associated with the Segmental Sliplining Method.(14,23)

Standard/Specification Description ASTM D 3212 ­ Standard Specification for Joints for Covers joints for plastic pipe systems intended for Drain and Sewer Plastic Pipes Using Flexible Elasdrain and gravity sewage pipe at internal or external tomeric Seals (1996)(24) pressure less than 7.6-meter (25-foot) head using flexible watertight elastomeric seals. Test requirements, test methods, and acceptable materials are specified. ASTM F 585 ­ Standard Practice for Insertion of Describes the design considerations, material selection Flexible Polyethylene Pipe Into Existing Sewers considerations, and installation procedures for the (2000)(15) construction of sanitary and storm sewers by the insertion of polyethylene pipe through existing pipe, along the previously existing line and grade. NASSCO Specification for Sliplining, Segmented, Describes the specifications, design considerations, Polyethylene (as provided by Duratron Systems for and installation procedures for the segmented sliplining BUTTRESS-LOC® Pipe) (1999)(14) utilizing polyethylene liners. NASSCO Specification for Sliplining, Segmented, Describes the specifications, design considerations, PVC (as provided by Lamson Vylon Pipe for large and installation procedures for the segmented sliplining diameter Vylon® Slipliner Pipe) (1999)(14) utilizing large diameter PVC liners. NASSCO Specification for Sliplining, Segmented, Describes the specifications, design considerations, PVC (as provided by Lamson Vylon Pipe for small and installation procedures for the segmented sliplining diameter Vylon® Slipliner Pipe) (1999)(14) utilizing small diameter PVC liners.

In addition to the two (2) specific ASTM standards presented in Table 4, the following list of related standards were also associated with segmental sliplining: · · · · · · · · · · ASTM D 543 ­ Test Method for Resistance of Plastics to Chemical Reagents(25) ASTM D 790 ­ Test Method for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials(26) ASTM D 1600 ­ Terminology for Abbreviated Terms Relating to Plastics(27) ASTM D 2122 ­ Test Method for Determining Dimensions of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings(28) ASTM D 2657 ­ Practice for Heat-Joining of Polyolefin Pipe and Fittings (1997)(29) ASTM D 3350 ­ Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and Fittings Materials(30) ASTM F 412 ­ Terminology Relating to Plastic Piping Systems(31) ASTM F 477 ­ Specification for Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe(32) ASTM F 714 ­ Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter(33) ASTM F 894 ­ Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Large Diameter Profile Wall Sewer and Drain Pipe(34)

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·

ASTM F 913 ­ Specification for Thermoplastic Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe(35)

Contractors and Manufacturers A listing of manufacturers and contractors of segmental sliplining is presented in Table 5.

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Table 5. Listing of Manufacturers and Contractors of Segmental Sliplining.

Manufacturer/ Contractor Affholder Inc. Ameron International1 A.P. Construction, Inc. New Jersey Office A.P. Construction, Inc. Pennsylvania Office Bown Plumbing The Crow Company The Crow Company The Crow Company Gelco Services, Inc. California Office Gelco Services, Inc. Oregon Office Gelco Services, Inc. Washington Office HMIM, Inc. Hopas Pipe USA, Inc. Telephone Fax Address Number Number (800) 325-3997 (636) 537-2533 17988 Edison Ave. Chesterfiled, MO 63005 (626) 683-4000 (626) 683-4060 245 South Los Robles Ave. Pasadena, CA 91101 (856) 227-2030 (856) 227-2273 915 S. Black Horse Pike Blackwood, NJ 08012 (215) 922-2323 (215) 922-2700 1080 N. Delaware Ave. Suite 1500 Philadelphia, PA 19125 (530) 244-7473 N/A 3990 RailRoad Ave. Redding, CA 96001 Coverage Area N/A2 National N/A N/A Contact Person N/A N/A N/A N/A

CA N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A LA, MS, AL, GA N/A National

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Rich Vanek Sr. N/A N/A

(520) 294-3344 (520) 294-4770 2275 E. Ginter Tucson, AZ 85706 (602) 246-6940 (602) 269-8677 3735 W. Cambridge Ave. Phoenix, AZ 85009 (303) 571-4444 (303) 572-8888 9700 E. 104th Ave., #G Henderson, CO 80640 (530) 406-1199 (530) 406-7991 1244 Wilson Way Woodland, CA 95695 (888) 223-8017 (503) 391-8317 1705 Salem Industrial Dr. NE Salem, OR 97303

(888) 322-1199 (253) 876-9932 3411 C St. NE, Suite 16 Auburn, WA 98002 (504) 626-1072 (504) 626-9169 N/A (800) 856-7473 (281) 821-7715 1413 Richey Road Houston, TX 77073 ISCO-Industries, LLC1 (800) 345-4726 (502) 584-9713 926 Baxter Ave. P.O. Box 4545 Louisville, KY 40204 ISCO-Industries, LLC (800) 345-4726 (866) 369-0539 N/A ISCO-Industries, LLC (800) 345-4726 (866) 580-8963 N/A ISCO-Industries, LLC (800) 233-1305 (866) 580-8991 N/A Lamson Vlyon Pipe1 (800) 382-0892 (216) 766-6577 25701 Science Park Dr. Cleveland, OH 44122 Lee Mastell & Associates, (405) 752-5000 (405) 752-5002 N/A Inc. Lee Mastell & Associates, (316) 722-5612 (316) 722-6351 N/A Inc. Municipal Associates (614) 846-7529 (614) 885-1110 N/A Ten Point Sales Trenchless Resources International, Inc. (303) 233-3883 (303) 233-0117 (916) 681-0689 (916) 681-0690 N/A N/A N/A N/A

West Midwest East, South National NE, KS, IA, MO, OK, AR, TX NE, KS, IA, MO, OK, AR, TX OH, KY CO, UT, WY WA, OR, ID, HI, CA, NV, AK WA, OR, ID, HI, CA, NV, AK WA, OR, ID, HI, CA, NV, AK

Larry Case Redgie Huftel Bruce Larson N/A Lee Mastell Scott Mastell Russ Krueger Mike Killian Bob Wagenhals Dana Frew Dave Gellings Gary Korte Rocky Capehart

Trenchless Resources (503) 364-1199 (503) 391-8317 International, Inc. Trenchless Resources (916) 686-8055 (916) 686-0601 International, Inc. 1 Designates company headquarters, 2N/A ­ not available

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Continuous Sliplining Description Continuous sliplining involves the lining of a deteriorated culvert with a continuous liner. Liners are generally made from polyethylene or high-density polyethylene pipe segments that are buttfused together. The continuous liner is pulled, pushed, or simultaneously pushed and pulled into the host culvert. Once installed, the annular space is generally grouted and service connections are reopened. A typical, continuous sliplining process where the liner is pulled into the host culvert is shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5. Drawing. Continuous Sliplining Installation Process.(5)

Effective Uses, Advantages, and Limitations General characteristics and effective uses of continuous sliplining are presented in Table 6. Advantages and limitations associated with the method of continuous sliplining are presented in Table 7. Table 6. General Characteristics and Effective Uses of Continuous Sliplining.(5,6,7)

Applications Gravity & Pressure Pipelines

1

Diameter Range 100 - 1,600 millimeters (4 - 63 inches)

Liner Material1 PE, HDPE, PP, PVC, PE/EPDM

Maximum Installation 1,600 meters (5,248 feet)

PE ­ Polyethylene, HDPE ­ High Density Polyethylene, PP ­ Polypropylene, PVC ­ Poly(Vinyl Chloride), EPDM ­ Ethylene Polypelene Diene Monomer

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Table 7. Advantages and Limitations of Continuous Sliplining.(5,6,7,8)

Advantages Applicable to all types of existing culvert materials Limitations Existing culvert must be longitudinally uniform (diameter changes or discontinuous culverts may prohibit this method) Reduction in flow capacity may be significant Annular space grouting is usually required Excavation required for access pits Excavation required for lateral reconnection and sealing

Capable of accommodating large radius bends Few or no joints Flow bypass is seldom required Simplistic method Existing pipe can be corroded, deformed, badly damaged, and/or near collapse

Costs According to the USFS Draft Report on trenchless technology for Forest Service culverts,(9) the range of costs for continuous sliplining is approximated to be $50 per linear foot for 45.7centimeter (18-inch) diameter pipes and $400 to $500 per linear foot for 1.5-meter (60-inch) diameter pipes.

General Installation Guidelines A general list of installation guidelines for continuous sliplining is provided below:(5,8,14,15,36) 1. Thoroughly inspect the existing culvert to determine the smallest diameter located within the culvert to be lined (structural deterioration and wall collapse may have reduced the original culvert diameter). For non-man entry culverts, a foam bullet-shaped device used for cleaning, known as a "pig," can be used to determine the smallest diameter. 2. Inspect the existing culvert for lateral and service connections, as well as protrusions such as roots and sediment. 3. Clean and clear the existing culvert. 4. Determine the diameter of the liner (in general, the outside diameter of the liner should be at least 10 % smaller than the inside diameter of the existing culvert. A 5% reduction should be sufficient for existing culvert diameters greater than 61 centimeters (24 inches)). 5. Determine the material of the liner. High density or medium density polyethylene is generally chosen for liner material. The material chosen should meet the designed load requirements. Factors to be considered in design load requirements include, but are not limited to, hydraulic loads caused by groundwater, soil conditions and loads, traffic loads, and temperature. 6. Excavate insertion pits to a 2.5H:1V slope from the ground surface to the top of the existing culvert. Excavation should comply with local, State, or Federal regulations regarding excava19

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

tion safety. The length of level excavation should be at least twelve (12) times the outside diameter of the existing culvert. Insertion pit width should be a minimum of the outside diameter plus 30.5 centimeters (12 inches) for culverts smaller than 45.7 centimeters (18 inches) in diameter, a minimum of the outside diameter plus 45.7 centimeters (18 inches) for culverts less than 1.2 meters (48 inches) in diameter, and a minimum of the outside diameter plus 61 centimeters (24 inches) for culverts greater than 1.2 meters (48 inches) in diameter. Excavations at elbows minimize the total number of excavations required because the liner can be installed in two directions from one location. 7. Determine if the bypassing of flow is necessary. Flow bypass is necessary if the annular space and pulling head openings are incapable of handling the existing flow capacity. If possible, maintaining the flow will often reduce the force required for installation, but may cause accessibility problems and difficulty for workers. 8. Cut the existing culvert and initiate installation. Join/fuse liner segments prior to insertion and above ground. Thermal butt fusion or thermal welding are the general methods of joining liner segments. Once joined, use the push method, the pull method, or a combination of both to install the liner into the existing culvert. Figure 6 illustrates the push and pull sliplining methods used for butt fusion welded HDPE. Continue installation until the entire section of existing culvert has been lined.

Figure 6. Drawing. Insertion Method for Butt Fusion Welded HDPE Liner.(37)

9. Once installation has been completed, a 24-hour relaxation period is recommended before reopening lateral and service connections. If the pull method was used for liner insertion, stretching of about 1% of the total length may be observed. 10. Inspect the completed lining by closed-circuit TV or manually if the diameter permits manentry. The liner should be continuous over the entire length.

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11. If leakage or other testing is required, perform testing to specifications and prior to the reopening of lateral and service connections. 12. Reopen lateral and service connections. Dependent upon installation conditions, reconnection may be possible from within the lined culvert or may require point excavation. 13. After lateral and service connections have been reopened, reconnect and stabilize terminal connections. Fill the annular space between the liner and the original culvert with grout or another cementitious material. The allowable grout pressure of the liner should not be exceeded during the grouting process. Hydrostatically pressurizing the liner will allow for higher grouting pressures and help prevent collapse of the liner during the grouting process. 14. Finally, restore flow if bypass was required and initiate site cleanup.

Annular Grouting Annular grouting is generally required in continuous sliplining in order to prevent a collapsing or seriously weakened pipe from eventually crushing the liner. In addition to the standards and specifications listed in Table 3, the following list of related standards are associated with annular grouting of continuous sliplining: · · NASSCO Specification for Sliplining, Continuous, Polyethylene (as provided by Plastics Pipe Institute (PPI) for generic polyethylene pipe) (1999)(14) Plastic Pipe Institute Guide-1/95 ­ Guidance and Recommendations on the Use of Polyethylene (PE) Pipe for the Sliplining of Sewers (1995)(36)

Standards/Specifications Table 8 presents the current standards and specifications associated with the method of continuous sliplining.

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Table 8. Standards Associated with Continuous Sliplining.(14,23,36)

Standard/Specification Description ASTM D 2657 ­ Standard Practice for Heat Fusion Describes the general procedures for making joints with polyolefin pipe and fittings by means of heat fusion Joining Polyolefin Pipe and Fittings (1997)(29) joining techniques. ASTM F 585 ­ Standard Practice for Insertion of Describes the design considerations, material selection Flexible Polyethylene Pipe Into Existing Sewers considerations, and installation procedures for the (2000)(15) construction of sanitary and storm sewers by the insertion of polyethylene pipe through existing pipe, along the previously existing line and grade. NASSCO Specification for Sliplining, Continuous, Describes the specifications, design considerations, Polyethylene (as provided Plastics Pipe Institute for and installation procedures for continuous sliplining generic polyethylene pipe) (1999)(14) utilizing polyethylene liners. Plastic Pipe Institute Guide-1/95 ­ Guidance and Describes the specifications, design considerations, Recommendations on the Use of Polyethylene (PE) and installation procedures for continuous sliplining Pipe for the Sliplining of Sewers (1995)(36) utilizing polyethylene liners.

In addition to the two (2) specific ASTM standards presented in Table 8, the following list of related standards were also associated with continuous sliplining: · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ASTM D 543 ­ Test Method for Resistance of Plastics to Chemical Reagents(25) ASTM D 790 ­ Test Method for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials(26) ASTM D 1600 ­ Terminology for Abbreviated Terms Relating to Plastics(27) ASTM D 2412 ­ Test Method for Determination of External Loading Characteristics of Plastic Pipe by Parallel-Plate Loading(38) ASTM D 2657 ­ Practice for Heat-Joining of Polyolefin Pipe and Fittings (1997)(29) ASTM D 3035 ­ Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (DR-PR) Based on Controlled Outside Diameter(39) ASTM D 3350 ­ Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and Fittings Materials(30) ASTM F 412 ­ Terminology Relating to Plastic Piping Systems(31) ASTM F 477 ­ Specification for Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe(32) ASTM F 714 ­ Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe (SDR-PR) Based on Outside Diameter(33) ASTM F 894 ­ Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Large Diameter Profile Wall Sewer and Drain Pipe(34) ASTM F 905 ­ Practice for Qualification of Polyethylene Saddle Fusion Joints(40) ASTM F 1056 ­ Specification for Socket Fusion Tools for Use in Socket Fusion Joining Polyethylene Pipe or Tubing and Fittings(41) ASTM F 1417 ­ Test Method for Installation Acceptance of Plastic Gravity Sewer Lines Using Low-Pressure Air(42)

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Contractors and Manufacturers A listing of manufacturers and contractors of continuous sliplining is presented in Table 9. Table 9. Listing of Manufacturers and Contractors of Continuous Sliplining.

Manufacturer/ Contractor The Crow Company Telephone Fax Address Number Number (520) 294-3344 (520) 294-4770 2275 E. Ginter Tucson, AZ 85706 The Crow Company (602) 246-6940 (602) 269-8677 3735 W. Cambridge Ave. Phoenix, AZ 85009 The Crow Company (303) 571-4444 (303) 572-8888 9700 E. 104th Ave., #G Henderson, CO 80640 Insituform Technologies, (800) 234-2992 (636) 519-8010 702 Spirit 40 Park Dr. Inc. 1 Chesterfiled, MO 63005 Southeast Pipe Survey (912) 647-2847 (912) 647-2869 3523 Williams St. Patterson, GA 31557 1 Designates company headquarters, 2N/A ­ not available Coverage Area N/A2 N/A N/A National AL, FL, GA, NC, SC, TN Contact Person N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

CLOSE-FIT LINING Sometimes referred to as modified sliplining, close-fit lining involves the insertion of a thermoplastic pipe with an outside diameter the same or slightly larger than the inside diameter of the host culvert. As a result, the liner must be modified in cross section before installation. A modified liner is winched into place and reformed/re-rounded to provide a close-fit with the existing culvert. Once reformed, grouting is unnecessary due to the tight fit. Close-fit lining methods can be categorized into two main groups based upon the method used for cross-sectional modification and reformation. These two groups are classified as symmetrical reduction systems and folded systems. Both groups, with associated sub-groupings are presented and described.

Symmetrical Reduction Method for Close-fit Lining Symmetrical reduction methods use either a static die or a series of compression rollers that temporality reduce the diameter of the liner. Once reduced, a winch is used to apply tension while the liner is pulled through the host culvert. After insertion, the tension applied by the winch is released and the pipe reverts to its original dimensions due to the material's molecular "memory." Pressure, generally provided by air, is sometimes used to speed up the reformation process. Symmetrical reduction can further be classified as the swagelining/drawdown method and the rolldown method.

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Swagelining/Drawdown Method for Close-fit Lining Description: Swagelining, also referred to as the drawdown method, uses a static-diameter reduction die to reduce the diameter of the liner directly before insertion. During insertion, a winch system is used to maintain tension in the liner as it is pulled through the section to be lined. After the full length of the liner is pulled through, the tension is released and the liner rapidly reverts to its original diameter forming a close-fit with host conduit. Due to the limited reduction in diameter size that is provided by the swagelining/drawdown method, the technique is better suited for pressure pipelines, but can be used in certain gravity applications. Currently, the swagelining/ drawdown method is rarely used,(8) and consequently the literature review provided only minimal information. Figure 7 illustrates the swagelining process.

Roller New Pipe Reducing Die Original Pipe Winch

Towing Cone

Figure 7. Drawing. Swagelining Process for Close-fit Lining.(43) Effective Uses, Advantages, and Limitations: General characteristics and effective uses of the swagelining/drawdown method for close-fit lining are presented in Table 10. Advantages and limitations associated with the swagelining/ drawdown method are presented in Table 11.

Table 10. General Characteristics and Effective Uses of the Swagelining/Drawdown Method for Close-fit Lining.(5,6)

Applications Gravity & Pressure Pipelines

1

Diameter Range 62 - 600 millimeters (2.5 - 23.6 inches)

Liner Material1 HDPE, MDPE

Maximum Installation 320 meters (1,050 feet)

HDPE ­ High Density Polyethylene, MDPE ­ Medium Density Polyethylene

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CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

Table 11. Advantages and Limitations of the Swagelining/Drawdown Method for Close-fit Lining.(5,6,8)

Advantages Minimal or no reduction in flow capacity Few or no joints No grouting required Limitations Existing culvert must be longitudinally uniform (diameter changes or discontinuous culverts may prohibit this method) Excavation is required for installation Flow bypass is required Unable to negotiate bends, requiring local excavation at these locations Relatively complex method requiring special machinery Not applicable to structurally deteriorated host culverts

Costs: No literature sources were acquired detailing the general costs associated with the swagelining/ drawdown method for close-fit lining.

General Installation Guidelines: Due to the minimal information obtained regarding the swagelining/drawdown method for Close-fit lining, no general installation guidelines were provided. Manufacturers should be contacted for job-specific installation guidelines.

Standards/Specifications: Due to the minimal information obtained regarding swagelining/drawdown method, no general standards were provided. Manufacturer's standards should be obtained and followed.

Contractors and Manufacturers: A listing of manufacturers and contractors of the swagelining/drawdown method for close-fit lining is presented in Table 12.

25

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

Table 12. Listing of Manufacturers and Contractors of the Swagelining/Drawdown Method for Close-fit Lining.

Manufacturer/ Contractor Advantica Technologies, Inc. ARB Inc. 1 ARB Inc. Pittsburg, CA Office ARB Inc. Thousand Palms, CA Office ARB Inc. Ventura, CA Office ARB Inc. Texas Office Inland Waters Michigan Office Telephone Number Fax Number Address Coverage Area N/A2 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Contact Person N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

5444 Westheimer, Suite 1430 Houston, TX 77056 26000 Commercentre Dr. (800) 622-2699 (949) 454-7190 Lake Forest, CA 92630 1875 Loveridge Rd. (800) 898-3478 (925) 432-2958 Pittsburg, CA 94565 72400 Vista Chino Dr. (800) 243-4188 (760) 343-2740 Thousand Palms, CA 92276 (713) 622-0426 (713) 626-9308 2235-A North Ventura Ave. Ventura, CA 93001 10617 Jefferson Chemical Rd. (800) 443-3805 (936) 756-8671 Conroe, TX 77301 2021 S. Schaefer Hwy. (800) 992-9118 (313) 841-5270 Detroit, MI 48217 (805) 643-4188 (805) 643-7268

Inland Waters 2195 Drydock Ave. (800) 869-3949 (216) 861-3156 Ohio Office Cleveland, OH 44113 1 Designates company headquarters, 2N/A ­ not available

Rolldown Method for Close-fit Lining Description: Rolldown method is similar to the swagelining/drawdown method for close-fit lining except that a cold rolling machine, instead of a die, is used to temporarily reduce the diameter of the liner. Molecular structure of the liner is rearranged in the cold rolling machine to form a smaller diameter pipe with thicker walls and minimal elongation.(44) Unlike the swagelining/drawdown method for close-fit lining, this process is not dependent upon tension or other mechanical means to prevent the liner from reverting to its original size during insertion. Once the diameter has been reduced, a winch is used to pull the liner into place and the liner reverts to its original diameter (although much slower than in the swagelining/drawdown process). Rolldown method is illustrated in Figure 8, while Figure 9 presents a picture of the rolldown method for close-fit lining being used. Similar to the swagelining/drawdown method for close-fit lining, this technique is better suited for pressure pipelines and used commonly in the gas and mining industries. As such, the literature sources obtained for review provided only minimal information pertaining to the rolldown method.

26

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

Figure 8. Drawing. Rolldown Process for Close-fit Lining.(5)

Figure 9. Photo. Culvert Lining Utilizing the Rolldown Method for Close-fit Lining.(8)

27

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

Effective Uses, Advantages, and Limitations: General characteristics and effective uses of the rolldown method are presented in Table 13. Advantages and limitations associated with the rolldown method are presented in Table 14.

Table 13. General Characteristics and Effective Uses of the Rolldown Method for Close-fit Lining.(5,6)

Applications Gravity & Pressure Pipelines

1

Diameter Range 62 - 600 millimeters (2.5 - 23.6 inches)

Liner Material1 HDPE, MDPE

Maximum Installation 320 meters (1,050 feet)

HDPE ­ High Density Polyethylene, MDPE ­ Medium Density Polyethylene

Table 14. Advantages and Limitations of the Rolldown Method for Close-fit Lining.(5,6,8)

Advantages Minimal or no reduction in flow capacity Limitations Existing culvert must be longitudinally uniform (diameter changes or discontinuous culverts may prohibit this method) Excavation is required for installation Flow bypass is required Unable to negotiate bends, requiring local excavation at these locations Relatively complex method requiring special machinery Not applicable to structurally deteriorated host culverts

Few or no joints No grouting required

Costs: No literature sources were acquired detailing the general costs associated with the rolldown method.

General Installation Guidelines: Due to the minimal information obtained regarding the rolldown method, no general installation guidelines were provided. Manufacturers should be contacted for job-specific installation guidelines.

28

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

Standards/Specifications: Due to the minimal information obtained regarding the rolldown method, no general standards were provided. Manufacturer's standards should be obtained and followed.

Contractors and Manufacturers: A listing of manufacturers and contractors of the rolldown method are presented in Table 15. Table 15. Listing of Manufacturers and Contractors of the Rolldown Method for Close-fit Lining.

Manufacturer/ Contractor PIM Corporation United Pipeline Systems USA, Inc. 1 N/A ­ not available Telephone Fax Address Number Number (800) 293-6224 (732) 469-8959 201 Circle Dr. No., Suite 106 Piscataway, NJ 08854 (800) 938-6483 (970) 259-0356 135 Turner Dr. Durango, CO 81302 Coverage Area N/A1 N/A Contact Person N/A N/A

Folded Method for Close-fit Lining Liners used in the folded method are generally folded into "C"-, "U"-, or "H"-shapes during manufacturing or by site-equipment before installation. When shaped at the factory, liners are wound into a reel or coiled for ease of transportation. Figure 10 illustrates a liner folded into an "H"-shape and ready for insertion. Unlike symmetrical reduction systems that dominantly rely on the "memory" of the material for reformation, folded systems are reformed by pressure or a combination of heat and pressure. A minimum fifty (50) year design life was generally applicable to the liners installed with the folded method. Due to the materials and installation procedure associated with folded liners, they can typically be considered environmentally safe. The folded method can further be classified into the deformed/reformed method and the fold and form method.

29

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

Figure 10. Photo. Ultraliner's PVC Alloy Pipeline Folded into an "H"-shape.(45)

Deformed/Reformed Method for Close-fit Lining Description: Before installation, a polyethylene liner is heated and folded to reduce cross-sectional area for insertion. The folded liner is then inserted into the host culvert and pulled into place with a winch. Once in place, the liner is reformed to a shape, with applied heat and pressure (generally steam), that forms a close fit with the host culvert. Liners used in this method are not mechanically rounded with a rounding device. Figure 11 presents a picture showing an inserted deformed pipe and Figure 12 presents the close-fit, reformed pipe.

Figure 11. Drawing. Deformed Method for Close-fit Lining.(46)

Figure 12. Drawing. Reformed Method for Close-fit Lining.(46)

30

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

Effective Uses, Advantages, and Limitations: General characteristics and effective uses of the deformed/reformed method are presented in Table 16. Advantages and limitations associated with the deformed/reformed method are presented in Table 17.

Table 16. General Characteristics and Effective Uses of the Deformed/Reformed Method for Close-fit Lining.(5,6)

Applications Gravity & Pressure Pipelines

1

Diameter Range 100 - 400 millimeters (4 - 15.7 inches)

Liner Material1 HDPE

Maximum Installation 800 meters (2,624 feet)

HDPE ­ High Density Polyethylene

Table 17. Advantages and Limitations of the Deformed/Reformed Method for Close-fit Lining.(5,6,8)

Advantages Minimal or no reduction in flow capacity Few or no joints Fast installation Capable of accommodating large radius bends Limitations Liner lengths are limited by pull-in forces or coil length Flow bypass is usually required Chemical grouting may be required at lateral, service, and end connections Relatively complex method requiring special machinery Not applicable to structurally deteriorated host culverts

Costs: No literature sources were acquired detailing the general costs associated with the deformed/ reformed method.

General Installation Guidelines: The following provides a general list of installation guidelines for the deformed/reformed method for close-fit lining:(5,14,46) 1. Prior to entering access areas and performing inspection or cleaning operations, test the atmosphere in the insertion pits to determine the presence of toxic or flammable vapors, or the lack of oxygen in accordance with local, State, or Federal safety regulations. 2. Thoroughly clean the existing culvert. Gravity culverts should be cleaned with hydraulically powered equipment (high-velocity jet cleaners).

31

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

3. Inspect the existing culvert to determine the location of any conditions that may hinder proper insertion of the deformed liner, such as protrusions, collapsed sections, deflected joints, etc. 4. Clear line obstructions discovered during inspecting prior to inserting the liner. Typically, changes in pipe size and bends in excess of 30° cannot be accommodated and local excavation is necessary. If obstructions cannot be cleared, point repair excavation should be used to remove and repair the obstruction. 5. Bypassing of flow is required, unless flow can be shut off during installation. 6. Insert the deformed liner with a power winch. Pulling forces should be limited to not exceed the axial strain limits of the liner. 7. Once inserted, relieve winch tension and cut the insertion and termination ends to install the processing manifolds used to control heat and pressure within the liner. Attach temperature and pressure measuring instruments at both ends of the liner to ensure proper temperatures and pressures are reached during the reformation process. 8. Apply steam and air pressure through the inlet to conform the deformed liner to the existing culvert wall. Keeping the termination point open, pressurize the liner up to a maximum of 99.9 kPa (14.5 psig), with a steam temperature in excess of 112.8°C (235°F) and less than 126.7°C (260°F). If required, increase pressure in increments up to a maximum of 179.1 kPa (26 psig). 9. Cool the reformed liner to a temperature of 37.8°C (100°F). Then increase the pressure slowly to a maximum of 227.4 kPa (33 psig), while applying air or water for continued cooling. 10. After the cool down process, trim the terminating ends to a minimum of 7.6 centimeters (3 inches) beyond the existing culvert to account for possible shrinkage effects during cooling of the liner to ambient temperature. 11. Inspect the completed installation by closed-circuit TV. The reformed pipe should be continuous over the entire length and conform to the walls of the existing culvert. 12. If leakage or other testing is required, perform testing to specifications and prior to the reopening of lateral and service connections. 13. Reconnect lateral and service connections with a television camera and a remote control cutting device. After reopening the lateral and service connections, reconnect the termination points of the liner to the existing culvert. If specially requested, seal the termination points to the existing culvert with a watertight seal. 14. Finally, restore flow and initiate site cleanup.

32

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

Standards/Specifications: Table 18 presents the current standards and specifications associated with the deformed/ reformed method. Table 18. Standards Associated with the Deformed/Reformed Method for the Close-fit Lining.(14,23)

Standard/Specification Description ASTM F 1533 ­ Standard Specification for Deformed Covers the requirements and test methods for materials Polyethylene (PE) Liner (2001)(47) of deformed PE liner intended for the rehabilitation of gravity flow and nonpressure pipelines. ASTM F 1606 ­ Standard Practice for Rehabilitation Covers the requirements for the installation of deformed of Existing Sewers and Conduits with Deformed Poly- PE liner for pipeline rehabilitation. ethylene (PE) Liner (1995)(46) NASSCO Specification for Deformed Pipe InstallaDescribes the specifications, design considerations, tion, Polyethylene (as provided by Pipe Liners, Inc. for materials, transportation, equipment, and installation of the U-Liner® Process) (1999)(14) deformed and reformed polyethylene liners. NASSCO Specification for Formed-in-place Pipe, (as Describes the specifications, design considerations, provided by Pipelining Products Inc. for the Surematerials, and installation of a temporarily deformed and Line® Process (1999)(14) reformed HDPE liners.

In addition to the two (2) specific ASTM standards presented in Table 18, the following list of related standards were also associated with the deformed/reformed method for the close-fit lining: · · · · ·

·

· · · · ·

ASTM D 618 ­ Practice for Conditioning Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials for Testing(48) ASTM D 638 ­ Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics(49) ASTM D 790 ­ Test Method for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials(26) ASTM D 1600 ­ Terminology for Abbreviated Terms Relating to Plastics(27) ASTM D 1693 ­ Test Method for Environmental Stress-Cracking of Ethlene Plastics(50) ASTM D 2122 ­ Test Method for Determining Dimensions of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings(28) ASTM D 2412 ­ Test Method for Determination of External Loading Characteristics of Plastic Pipe by Parallel-Plate Loading(38) ASTM D 2837 ­ Test Method for Obtaining Hydrostatic Design Basis for Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings(51) ASTM D 3350 ­ Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Pipe and Fittings Materials(30) ASTM F 412 ­ Terminology Relating to Plastic Piping Systems(31) ASTM F 1248 ­ Test Method for Determination of Environmental Stress Crack Resistance (ESCR) of Polyethylene Pipe(52) 33

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

·

ASTM F 1417 ­ Test Method for Installation Acceptance of Plastic Gravity Sewer Lines Using Low-Pressure Air(42)

Contractors and Manufacturers: A listing of manufacturers and contractors of the deformed/reformed method for the close-fit lining is presented in Table 19.

34

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

Table 19. Listing of Manufacturers and Contractors of the Deformed/Reformed Method for the Close-fit Lining.

Manufacturer/ Contractor Azurix-Madsen/Barr Longwood, FL Office Azurix-Madsen/Barr Ft. Lauderdale, FL Office Azurix-Madsen/Barr Miami, FL Office Boh Brothers Construction Co. Cullum Pipe Systems Hydro Tech Inc. Insight Pipe Contracting New Hope Pipe Liners Pipelining Products, Inc. New York Office Pipelining Products, Inc. North Carolina Office Rinker Pipeline Systems1 Rinker Pipeline Renewal Telephone Fax Address Number Number (800) 547-6193 (407) 260-9668 109 Applewood Longwood, FL 32750 (954) 561-0942 (954) 491-5427 1117 NW 55th St. Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309 (305) 591-0001 (305) 591-0854 8609 NW 64th St. Miami, FL 33166 (504) 821-2400 (504) 821-0714 730 S. Tonti St. New Orleans, LA 70119 (800) 858-0894 (972) 278-0980 2814 Industrial Dr. Garland, TX 75041 (775) 575-4100 (775) 575-4100 155 Lyon Dr. Fernley, NV 89408 (724) 452-6060 (724) 452-3226 344 Little Creek Rd. Harmony, PA 16037 (845) 369-0873 (845) 369-1098 143 Rt. Rd. Building #6 Hillburn, NY 10931 (718) 747-9000 (718) 747-1186 151-45 6th Rd. Whitestone, NY 11357 (919) 319-9696 (919) 319-0046 251 West Chatham St. Cary, NC 27511 1539 Jackson Ave. New Orleans, LA 70130 (800) 939-1277 (614) 529-6441 4143 Weaver Courtt Hilliard, OH 43026 (800) 344-3744 N/A Coverage Area AL, FL Ft. Lauderdale, FL Miami, FL Southern LA, Southern MS TX NV, UT PA, OH CT, DE, MD, NJ, NY, PA NY NC National AR, AZ, CO, GA, HI, ID, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, ME, MI, MO, MS, MT, NC, NE, NH, NM, OH, OK, OR, RI, SC, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WV, WY, parts of TX, Western PA MS, LA, AR, FL, Southern AL AK CA IA, MN, ND, SD, WI TN, KY, Northern AL, GA, MS Contact Person N/A2 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Mike Marburger N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Suncoast Infrastructure, Inc. U-Liner North, Inc.

(901) 385-3863 (901) 266-0655 6376 Daybreak Dr. Bartlet, TN 38135 (907) 479-3118 (907) 474-0619 3691 Cameron St. Fairbanks, AK 99709 U-Liner West, Inc. (888) 570-3534 (310) 329-0981 547 W. 140th St. Gardena, CA 90802 Visu-Sewer Clean & Seal (800) 876-8478 (262) 695-2359 W230 N4855 Betker Rd. Pewaukee, WI 53072 W.L. Hailey & Co. Inc. (615) 255-3161 (615) 256-1316 P.O. Box 40646 Ext. 144 2971 Kraft Dr. Nashville, TN 37204 1 Designates company headquarters, 2N/A ­ not available

David Peaks N/A N/A N/A Randy Houston

35

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

Fold and Form Method for Close-fit Lining Description: Generally, the fold and form method consists of inserting a PVC liner in the same fashion as in the deformed/reformed method. Fold and form liners are also expanded with heat and pressure, in similar fashion to the deformed/reformed method, but a rounding device is usually used to unfold the pipe and form a close-fit between the liner and host pipe. A folded and formed liner is illustrated in Figure 13.

Figure 13. Drawings. Fold and Form Method for Close-fit Lining.(53)

An alternative fold-and-form method is to fold the liner on site. This method requires site-based equipment that cold-folds the liner and applies thin plastic straps to restrict the expansion of the liner during installation. A folded and banded liner is winched into the host culvert and rerounded when the binding straps are broken by expanding the liner with internal pressure. Figure 14 presents a photo of an on-site folded and banded liner being inserted into the host culvert.

36

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

Figure 14. Photo. Installation of Cold-folded and Banded Liner.(8)

Effective Uses, Advantages, and Limitations: General characteristics and effective uses of the fold and form method were similar to those presented for the deformed/reformed method and are presented in Table 20. Advantages and limitations associated with the fold and form method are presented in Table 21.

Table 20. General Characteristics and Effective Uses of the Fold and Form Method for Close-fit Lining.(5,6)

Applications Gravity & Pressure Pipelines

1

Diameter Range 100 - 400 millimeters (4 - 15.7 inches)

Liner Material1 PVC

Maximum Installation 210 meters (689 feet)

PVC ­ Poly(Vinyl Chloride)

37

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

Table 21. Advantages and Limitations of the Fold and Form Method for Close-fit Lining.(5,6,8)

Advantages Minimal or no reduction in flow capacity Few or no joints Fast installation Capable of accommodating large radius bends Limitations Liner lengths are limited by pull-in forces or coil length Flow bypass is usually required Chemical grouting may be required at lateral, service, and end connections Relatively complex method requiring special machinery Not applicable to structurally deteriorated host culverts

Costs: According to the USFS Draft Report on trenchless technology for Forest Service culverts,(9) the range of costs for the fold and form method is approximated to be $160 per linear foot for 45.7centimeter (18-inch) diameter pipes and $300 per linear foot for 1.2-meter (48-inch) diameters. A review of Structural Renovation of a Water Main by Lining with Polyester Reinforced Polyethylene Pipe by Hodnik and Heavens,(54) presented a case study wherein a fold and form liner was used to rehabilitate a 427-meter (1,400-feet) long, 20-centimeter (8-inch) diameter, cast iron water main in Highland, Indiana. After considering six (6) alternative methods of repair, including cured-in-place lining and pipe bursting, the fold and formed liner was chosen due to its strength and low cost. Installation costs for the system were $89 per linear foot with an average construction cost of $118.60 per linear foot. Kupskay's case study titled B&B Relines Deep Culverts in Coquitlam Improvement Project presented the lining of two (2) corrugated metal pipe culverts in the City of Coquitlam, located approximately 48 kilometers (30 miles) east of Vancouver.(55) Fold and form liners were chosen for the rehabilitation of both culverts. Total project costs reached $81,000, with an average construction cost of approximately $210 per linear foot.

General Installation Guidelines: A general list of installation guidelines for the fold and form method is provided below:(5,14,56,57) 1. Prior to entering access areas and performing inspection or cleaning operations, test the atmosphere in the insertion pits to determine the presence of toxic or flammable vapors, or the lack of oxygen in accordance with local, State, or Federal safety regulations. 2. Thoroughly clean the existing culvert. Gravity culverts should be cleaned with hydraulically powered equipment (high-velocity jet cleaners).

38

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

3. Inspect the existing culvert to determine the location of any conditions that may hinder proper insertion of the fold and form liner, such as protrusions, collapsed sections, deflected joints, etc. 4. Clear line obstructions discovered during the inspection before inserting the liner. Typically, changes in pipe size and bends in excess of 30° cannot be accommodated and local excavation is necessary. If obstructions cannot be cleared, point repair excavation should be used to remove and repair the obstruction. 5. Bypassing of flow is required, unless flow can be shut off during installation. 6. If recommended by the manufacturer, heat the coil or reel containing the folded liner prior to insertion. Use a heating chamber to heat the liner for a minimum of one (1) hour at the temperature recommended by the manufacturer (usually around 43°C (110°F)). 7. If required by the manufacturer's specifications, pull a containment tube through the existing culvert and inflate with air at low pressure and heat for liner installation. 8. Insert the deformed liner with a power winch. Pulling forces should be limited to not exceed the axial strain limits of the liner. 9. Once inserted, relieve the winch tension and cut the insertion and termination ends to install the processing manifolds used to control heat and pressure within the liner. Attach temperature and pressure measuring instruments at both ends of the liner to ensure proper temperatures and pressures are reached during the reformation process. 10. Expand the folded liner using heat and pressure, or using heat, pressure, and a rounding device. Apply the recommended temperatures and pressures provided by the manufacturer to overcome the extrusion memory of the liner. If a rounding device is needed, propel the flexible device at a controlled rate (not to exceed 1.2 to 1.8 meters (4 to 6 feet) per minute) within the liner, to expand and conform the liner to the existing culvert in a sequential manner. Maintain the expansion pressure for a minimum period of five (5) minutes within the liner after the rounding device has reached the termination point. 11. Cool the liner to a temperature of 37.8°C (100°F) before relieving the pressure required to expand the liner. 12. After cool down, the terminating ends are trimmed to a minimum of 7.6 centimeters (3 inches) beyond the existing culvert for possible shrinkage effects during the cooling to ambient temperature. 13. Inspect the completed installation by closed-circuit TV. The reformed pipe should be continuous over the entire length and conform to the walls of the existing culvert. 14. If leakage or other testing is required, perform testing to specifications and prior to the reopening of lateral and service connections.

39

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

15. Reconnect lateral and service connections with a television camera and a remote- control cutting device. After reopening the lateral and service connections, reconnect the termination points of the liner to the existing culvert. If specially requested, seal the termination points to the existing culvert with a watertight seal. 16. Finally, restore flow and initiate site cleanup.

Standards/Specifications: Table 22 presents the current standards and specifications associated with the fold and form method. Table 22. Standards Associated with the Fold and Form Method for Close-fit Lining.(14,23)

Standard/Specification Description ASTM F 1504 ­ Standard Specification for Folded Covers the requirements and test methods for materials, Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe for Existing Sewer and dimensions, workmanship, flattening resistance, impact Conduit Rehabilitation (1997)(58) resistance, pipe stiffness, extrusion quality, and a form of marking for folded PVC pipe for existing sewer and conduit rehabilitation. ASTM F 1867 ­ Standard Practice for Installation of Covers the procedures for the rehabilitation of sewer lines Folded/Formed Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe Type A and conduits by the insertion of a folded/formed PVC for Existing Sewer and Conduit Rehabilitation (1998)(56) pipe that is heat, pressurized, and expanded to conform to the wall of the original conduit. ASTM F 1871 ­ Standard Specification for Covers the requirements and test methods for materials, Folded/Formed Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe Type A dimensions, workmanship, flattening resistance, impact for Existing Sewer and Conduit Rehabilitation (1998)(53) resistance, pipe stiffness, extrusion quality, and a form of marking for folded/formed PVC pipe for existing sewer and conduit rehabilitation. ASTM F 1947 ­ Standard Practice for Installation of Describes the procedures for the rehabilitation of sewer Folded Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe into Existing lines and conduits by the insertion of a folded PVC pipe, Sewers and Conduits (1998)(57) which is heated, pressurized, and expanded against the interior surface of an existing pipe with either a mechanical rounding device or steam pressure. NASSCO Specification for Fold and Form Pipe Installa- Describes the specifications, design considerations, tion, PVC (as provided by American Pipe and Plastics for materials, equipment, and installation of fold and form the AM-Liner® II Process) (1999)(14) PVC liners. NASSCO Specification for Fold and Form Pipe Installa- Describes the specifications, design considerations, tion, PVC (as provided by Insituform® Technologies, Inc. materials, equipment, and installation of fold and form for the NuPipe® Process) (1999)(14) PVC liners. NASSCO Specification for Fold and Form Pipe Installa- Describes the specifications, design considerations, tion, PVCAlloy (as provided by UltralinerTM Inc., for the materials, equipment, and installation of fold and form UltralinerTM Process) (1999)(14) PVCAlloy liners.

In addition to the four (4) specific ASTM standards presented in Table 22, the following list of related standards were also associated with the fold and form method:

40

CHAPTER 3­LITERATURE REVIEW

· · ·

·

· · · · · · · · ·

ASTM D 618 ­ Practice for Conditioning Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials for Testing(48) ASTM D 638 ­ Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics(49) ASTM D 648 ­ Test Method for Deflection Temperature of Plastics Under Flexural Load(59) ASTM D 790 ­ Test Method for Flexural Properties of Unreinforced and Reinforced Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials(26) ASTM D 1600 ­ Terminology for Abbreviated Terms Relating to Plastics(27) ASTM D 1784 ­ Specification for Rigid Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Compounds and Chlorinated Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Compounds(60) ASTM D 2122 ­ Test Method for Determining Dimensions of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings(28) ASTM D 2152 ­ Test Method for Degree of Fusion of Extruded Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and Molded Fittings by Acetone Immersion(61) ASTM D 2412 ­ Test Method for Determination of External Loading Characteristics of Plastic Pipe by Parallel-Plate Loading(38) ASTM D 2444 ­ Test Method for Impact Resistance of Thermoplastic Pipe and Fittings be Means of a Tup (Falling Weight)(62) ASTM F 412 ­ Terminology Relating to Plastic Piping Systems(31) ASTM F 1057 ­ Practice for Estimating the Quality of Extruded Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe by Heat Reversion Technique(63) ASTM F 1417 ­ Test Method for Installation Acceptance of Plastic Gravity Sewer Lines Using Low-Pressure Air(42)

Contractors and Manufacturers: A listing of manufacturers and contractors of the fold and form method is presented in Table 23.

41

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