Read Ãͧ»¡-ÊÒúÑ.... text version

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨ Á¢. ÑJOURNAL KKU RESEARCH

à¨Ò¢Í§ Çѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤ ¡Ó˹´ÍÍ¡ ¡ÒÃà¼Âá¾Ã ·Õè»ÃÖ¡ÉÒ ºÃóҸԡÒà ¡Í§ºÃóҸԡÒà ½ÒÂÇԨ ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ Í.àÁ×ͧ ¨.¢Í¹á¡¹ 40002 Ñ â·Ã. (043) 202-222-40 µÍ 2012 ; (043) 202-011 1. à¾×Íà¼Âá¾Ã¼Å§Ò¹¡ÒÃÇԨ·ÕÁ¤³¤Ò᡼ʹ㨷ÑÇä» è Ñ è Õ Ø Ù è 2. à¾×Í໹Ê×Í¡ÅÒ§ÃÒ§ҹ¤ÇÒÁ¡ÒÇ˹Ò㹡ÒÃÇԨ è è Ñ 3. à¾×ÍáÅ¡à»ÅÕ¹á¹Ç¤ÇÒÁ¤Ô´ã¹¡ÒÃÇԨ è è Ñ »ÅÐ 2 ©ºÑº (Á¡ÃÒ¤Á-ÁÔ¶¹Ò¹ áÅСá®Ò¤Á-¸Ñ¹ÇÒ¤Á) Ø ¨Ñ´Ê§ãËá¡ÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒ ¤³Ð áÅÐËͧÊÁØ´ã¹ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ ËͧÊÁش˹ǧҹÃÑ°ºÒÅ áÅÐËͧÊÁØ´¢Í§Ê¶ÒºÑ¹¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ ÃдѺÍØ´ÁÈÖ¡ÉÒ Ãͧ͸ԡÒú´Õ½ÒÂÇÔ¨Â Ñ ÃÈ.ÊØ¹Â Õ àÅÕÂÇà¾çÇ§É è ÃÈ.´Ã.¡ØÅ¸Ô´Ò ·ÇÁÊØ¢ ¼È.´Ã.à¡ÃÕ§ÈÑ¡´Ôì ¡ÕÊÇÑʴԤ͹ è ì ÃÈ.ÁÒÅÕ ¡ÒºÁÒÅÒ Í.¡Ñ¹ÂÒÃѵ¹ ´Ñ´¾Ñ¹¸ ¹Ò§¡ÃÃ³Ô¡Ò ËÍÁ¨Ñ¹·¹

½Ò¨Ѵ¡ÒÃ

a º·¤ÇÒÁ·Ø¡àÃ×èͧä´ÃѺ¡ÒõÃǨ·Ò§ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃâ´Â¼Ù·Ã§¤Ø³ÇØ²Ô (Reader) ¨Ò¡ÀÒÂã¹áÅÐ

ÀÒ¹͡ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ è Ñ ÙÑ a ¢Í¤Ô´àËç¹ã´ æ ·Õŧ¾ÔÁ¾ã¹ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨ Á¢. ©ºÑº¹Õàé »¹¢Í§¼àÙ ¢Õ¹ ¤³Ð¼¨´·ÓÇÒÃÊÒà äÁ¨Ó໹¨ÐµÍ§àËç¹´Ç ì è a ¡Í§ºÃóҸԡÒÃÇÒÃÊÒÃäÁʧǹÊÔ·¸Ô¡ÒäѴÅÍ¡ áµãËÍÒ§ÍÔ§áÊ´§·ÕÁÒ

ÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠ»·Õè 8 ©ºÑº·Õè 2 ¹Õé ÍÍ¡ÅÒªÒ仡ÇÒ¡Ó˹´ä»ÁÒ¡ ¡Í§ºÃóҸԡÒà äÁÁ¢ÍᡵÇã´ æ áÁÇÒ¡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹§Ò¹ã¹ÃкºÃÒª¡ÒÃ Õ Ñ ·ÕèÍÂÙÃÐËÇÒ§¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»ÃкºÃÒª¡Ò÷Õèʧ¼ÅãËÁÕ¡ÒûÃѺâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§ §Ò¹ÃÒª¡Òõҧ æ ÁÒ¡ÁÒ «Ö§àËÁ×͹¨ÐäÁà¡ÕÂǡѺ¹Ñ¡ÇԨ áµã¹ÃкºÃÒ£¡Òà è è Ñ ¹Ñ¡ÇÔ¨ÂÊǹãËÅǹÁÕº·ºÒ·áÅÐä´Ãº¼Å¡Ãзº¨Ò¡¡ÒÃà»ÅÕ¹á»Å§«Ö§äÁ¤ÍÂ Ñ Ñ è è ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁṹ͹¹Õâ´Â·Ñǡѹ ¹ÕÍҨ໹¼Å¡ÃзºË¹Ö§¢Í§¡ÒÃÃǺÃÇÁº·¤ÇÒÁÇԨ é è è è Ñ ãËà¾Õ§¾Í ÊÓËÃѺ¡ÒèѴ·ÓÇÒÃÊÒÃáµÅЩºÑº «Ö§ÍÒ¨¨Ðʧ¼Å¡Ãзºä»ÍÕ¡ÃÐÂÐ è ˹֧ ÍÂÒ§äáçµÒÁ ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹¡ÓÅѧ¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒûÃѺâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§áÅÐÃкº è ¡ÒÃà¼Âá¾Ã¼Å§Ò¹ÇÔ¨ÂãËÃÇ´àÃçÇáÅзѹÊÁÑ «Ö§¨Ð·ÓãËä´º·¤ÇÒÁ·Õ¹Òʹã¨áÅÐ Ñ è è ·Ñ¹ÊÁÑÂÂÔ§¢Ö¹ à¾×Í»ÃÐ⪹ÊÓËÃѺǧ¡ÒÃÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃáÅмʹ㨷ÑÇä» è é è Ù è ÇÒÃÊÒéºÑº¹ÕÁº·¤ÇÒÁã¹ËÅÒ¡ËÅÒÂÊÒ¢Òã˼ʹã¨àÅ×Í¡ÍÒ¹ä´àª¹à´ÔÁ é Õ Ù áÅÐä´àʹÍàÃ×èͧÃÒǢͧÈÙ¹ÂÇÔ¨ÑÂ੾Òзҧ·ÕèÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ÀÒ¤ÀÙÁÔ㨠Íա˹֧ÈÙ¹Â¤Í ÈÙ¹ÂǨ¾ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ è × ÔÑ Ñ ¼Å§Ò¹·ÕàÍ×Í»ÃÐ⪹á¡Ê§¤ÁÍÂÒ§ªÑ´à¨¹ ¼ÃÇÁ§Ò¹·Ø¡·Ò¹ ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÁ§ÁѹáÅÐ è é Ñ Ù Ø è ¾ÃÍÁ㨡ѹ·Ó§Ò¹ÍÂÒ§¨ÃÔ§¨Ñ§ à¾×èÍã˺ÃÃÅØà»ÒËÁÒÂÊÙ§ÊØ´ ¤×ÍÊØ¢ÀÒ¾·Õè´Õ¢Í§ ¤¹ÍÕÊÒ¹

Ç

¡Í§ºÃóҸԡÒÃ

¡ÃÃÁ¡Òüٷç¤Ø³ÇØ²Ô (Readers) »ÃШөºÑº

ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨Òà´Ã.¡Ô§¿Ò è ÍÒ¨ÒáµµÔº´Õ Ô ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨Òà´Ã.¤§ÈÑ¡´Ôì ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨Òà´Ã.¨Ô¹´Ò ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒèÌÒÀó Ø ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨Òà´Ã.©ÇÕ ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒéÅͧ ¼ªÇÂÈÒʵÃÒ¨Òà´Ã.ªÂѹµ Ù ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒúÊÃÒ§ Ø ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒûÃÐÀҾà ¼ªÇÂÈÒʵÃÒ¨Òà´Ã.¾Ôʯ° Ù Ô ¼ªÇÂÈÒʵÃÒ¨Òà´Ã.ä¾ÈÒÅ Ù ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨Òà´Ã.àÅÔȪÑ ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒÃÂÇê ÔÑ ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒÃÂÇÅÒÇÃó Ô ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨Òà´Ã.ʧǹ ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒÃÂÊ¹Â Ø Õ ¼ªÇÂÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒÃÂʾµÃÒ Ù Ø Ñ ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨Òà´Ã.ÍÃسÈÃÕ ÊÔ¹¸ØÇ§É ã¾ÅÙ ¸ÒµØ·Í§ ËÇѧºØÊ¡ØÅ âʵРàÂç¹ã¨ ºÑǼѹ ¾ÔàªÕÂÃÊع·Ã ´ÔàáʶҾà ÈÃÕµÃСÙÅ à¨ÃÔÊش㨠ÊØÇÃó¹Í à¨ÃÔ¸ÑÃÑ¡É ¨ÔÇáËÂÁ ë ¾Ñ¹¸¾Ä¡É Ø »·Á¸ÃÃÁ¡ØÅ àÅÕÂÇà¾çÇ§É è ªÒµÔºªÒªÑÂ Ñ »ÃÕà»ÃÁ

͸ԺÒÂÀÒ¾¨Ò¡»¡

ÀÒ¾¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁÈÙ¹ÂǨ¾ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµº áÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ ÀÒÂ㵤µÔ»ÃШÓÈÙ¹ÂÏ ÔÑ Ñ äÁᢧ¢Ñ¹¡Ñ¹àͧ ÃÇÁºÃÃàŧà¾Å§Ê×èÍÊÒà ¼ÊÒ¹¤ÇÒÁÊѵ«×èÍ ÂÖ´¶×ͤÇÒÁâ»Ã§ãÊ ãÊ㨡ѹáÅСѹ à¾×ͨÐä´à»¹Èٹ¡ÅÒ§¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÂáÅоѲ¹Ò·ÕÁ¤ÇÒÁ໹àÅÔÈ·Ò§ÇÔª¡ÒÒÃã¹´Ò¹¾ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµº áÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ è Ñ èÕ Ñ ã¹ÀÒ¤¾×¹àÍà«ÕÂáÅÐâÍà«ÕÂà¹Õ é

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨ Á¢. Ñ

ISSN 0859-3957 »·Õè 8 ©ºÑº·Õè 2 ¡Ã¡®Ò¤Á-¸Ñ¹ÇÒ¤Á 2546

ÊÒúÑ

áǴǧÇԨ Á¢. Ñ

ÈÙ¹ÂǨ¾ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹............................................................................................. ÔÑ Ñ

˹Ò

ÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵêÇÀÒ¾ Õ

1 4 11 18 25 32

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒÃãªà·¤¹Ô¤ ¾Õ«ÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃàÍ¿´Õã¹àº×ͧµ¹ã¹¡§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ Õ é Ø ºÑ³±ÔµÂ àµç§à¨ÃÔ¡ØÅ, ¤Á¡ÃÔª ¾ÔÁ¾ÀÑ¡´Õ, ÍØäà àµç§à¨ÃÔ¡ØÅ ...................................................................................

ÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵÃÊ¢ÀÒ¾ Ø

¡ÒÃà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin áÅÐÄ·¸Ô¡ÒÃÂѺÂѧ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÊÒÁª¹Ô´µÍ˹͹ã¼ѡ ì é õÔÂÒ ¤Ùࢵ¾Ô·Ñ¡ÉÇ§È áÅФ³Ð ..................................................................................................................... ÊÒÃÍÐà«·ÒäÁ´ª¹Ô´ãËÁ¨Ò¡ÊÒÃÀÕ ÈØÀªÑ µÔÂÇùѹ· áÅФ³Ð ............................................................................................................................. ÃдѺµÐ¡ÑÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§»ÃЪҡÃ㹨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹ è ºÑ§Íà ÈÃÕ¾Ò¹Ôª¡ØŪÑ áÅФ³Ð ....................................................................................................................... ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅоѲ¹ÒÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ ٠㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í ¡Ò¨¹Ò ¹Ò¶Ð¾Ô¹¸Ø áÅФ³Ð .........................................................................................................................

ÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵáÒÂÀÒ¾

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ ¡ÒõÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼Ç´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇԸǴ¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ Ô ÕÑ à¾Õ§µÒ ÊÒµÃÑ¡É áÅФ³Ð ........................................................................................................................... 41 »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ÊÒªŠàÁ×ͧ¢Ø¹·´ ....................................................................................................................................... 53 ¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹㹷ͷÕÁ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇÊÍ´ÍÂÀÒÂã¹ è Õ Ù Í¹ØÊó ªÔ¹ÊØÇÃó ....................................................................................................................................... 66

Á¹ØÉÂÈÒʵÃáÅÐÊѧ¤ÁÈÒʵÃ

¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯Ôû¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹è§ËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹ Ù ÙÑ à¾ç³Õ á¹ÃÍ· áÅФ³Ð .............................................................................................................................. 74 ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ËÒ¡ÒÃàÅÕ¹Ẻ¼Ò·Í¾×¹àÁ×ͧÍÕÊÒ¹ áÅÐâÁà´Å·Ò§¡®ËÁÒÂà¾×ͤÁ¤ÃͧÀÙÁ»Ò·Í§¶Ô¹ é è Ø Ô è ¸Ñ¸Ã ÍÔ¹Èà ............................................................................................................................................. 83 ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹à¾×;Ѳ¹ÒÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾¢Í§¹Ñ¡àÃÕ¹ªÑ¹»ÃжÁÈÖ¡ÉÒ»·Õè 6 è é âçàÃÕ¹ÊÒ¸ÔµÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ (ÈÖ¡ÉÒÈÒʵÃ) ÃдѺ»ÃжÁ ÇÃóÔÀÒ ÈØ¡ÃÕ¾§È áÅФ³Ð........................................................................................................................... 97

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨ Á¢. Ñ

¢Í¡Ó˹´ÊÓËÃѺ¼à¢Õ¹㹡ÒÃʧº·¤ÇÒÁŧ¾ÔÁ¾ Ù

¡ÒÃàµÃÕÂÁµ¹©ºÑº

1. àÃ×ͧ·Õ¨ÐʧÁÒŧ¾ÔÁ¾µÍ§à»¹º·¤ÇÒÁÇÔ¨Âà·Ò¹Ñ¹ áÅÐäÁà¤ÂµÕ¾Á¾à¼Âá¾Ã·ã´Áҡ͹ è è Ñ é Ô Õè à¢Õ¹໹ÀÒÉÒä·ÂËÃ×ÍÀÒÉÒÍѧ¡ÄÉ¡çä´ 2. º·¤ÇÒÁµÍ§ÁÕÊǹ»ÃСͺ´Ñ§¹Õé 2.1 ª×ÍàÃ×ͧ ª×ͼà¢Õ¹·Ø¡¤¹ ·Ñ§ÀÒÉÒä·ÂáÅÐÀÒÉÒÍѧ¡ÄÉ è è è Ù é 2.2 µÓá˹§·Ò§ÇÔªÒ¡Òà (¶ÒÁÕ) ¤Ø³ÇزʧÊØ´ áÅÐʶҹ·Õ·Ó§Ò¹¢Í§¼à¢Õ¹·Ø¡¤¹ ÔÙ è Ù 2.3 º·¤Ñ´ÂÍ ·Ñ§ÀÒÉÒä·ÂáÅÐÀÒÉÒÍѧ¡ÄɤÇÒÁÂÒÇÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹äÁà¡Ô¹ 1 ˹ҡÃдÒÉ é 2.4 ¤ÓÊÓ¤Ñ (Keywords) ·Ñ§ÀÒÉÒä·ÂáÅÐÀÒÉÒÍѧ¡ÄÉÍÂÒ§ÅÐäÁà¡Ô¹ 3 ¤Ó é 2.5 à¹×ÍàÃ×ͧº·¤ÇÒÁ»ÃСͺ´ÇÂËÑǢ͵ÒÁÅӴѺ¤×Í º·¹Ó (¤Ãͺ¤ÅØÁ¤ÇÒÁÊÓ¤Ñ é è ¢Í§»ËÒ Çѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤ áÅÐÇÃó¡ÃÃÁ·Õèà¡ÕèÂǢͧ) ÍØ»¡Ã³áÅÐÇÔ¸Õ¡ÒÃÇԨѠ¼Å¡ÒÃÇԨ ÊÃØ»áÅÐÇÔ¨Òó¼Å ¡ÔµµÔ¡ÃÃÁ»ÃСÒÈ (¶ÒÁÕ) áÅÐ àÍ¡ÊÒÃÍÒ§ÍÔ§·Ñ§ Ñ é ÀÒÂã¹áÅзÒº·¤ÇÒÁ 3. µ¹©ºÑº¤ÇÒÁÂÒÇäÁà¡Ô¹ 12 ˹ҡÃдÒÉ ¢¹Ò´àÍ 4 ¾ÔÁ¾Ë¹Òà´ÕÂÇ àǹÃÐÂÐ 2 ºÃ÷Ѵ ¨Ñ´¾ÔÁ¾Å§º¹¡ÃдÒɾÃÍÁá¼¹´ÔÊà¡çµµ

¡ÒÃÍÒ§ÍÔ§àÍ¡ÊÒÃ

1. ¡ÒÃÍÒ§ÍÔ§ã¹à¹×éÍàÃ×èͧ ãËǧàÅ纪×ͼᵧ (ÊÓËÃѺ¤¹ä·Â) ª×ÍÊ¡Øżᵧ (ÊÓËÃѺ è Ù è Ù ªÒǵҧ»ÃÐà·È) áÅл¾Á¾¢Í§àÍ¡ÊÒ÷ÕÍÒ§¶Ö§ µÍ·Ò¢ͤÇÒÁ·ÕµÍ§¡ÒÃÍÒ§´Ñ§µÑÇÍÂÒ§ Ô è è ................................................................................................................... (ÁÑ·¹Ò áÅÐÍØÉÒ, 2535) ...................................................................................................................... (Miller and Apt, 1993) 2. ¡ÒÃÍÒ§ÍÔ§·ÒÂàÃ×ͧ è 2.1 Íҧ˹ѧÊ×Í ª×èͼÙᵧ. »·Õè¾ÔÁ¾. ª×è Í Ë¹Ñ § Ê× Í. ¤ÃÑ駷Õè¾ÔÁ¾. àÁ×ͧ·Õè¾ÔÁ¾ : Êӹѡ¾ÔÁ¾. ÁÑ·¹Ò ËÒÇÔ·Â, ÍØÉÒ ·ÔÊÂÒ¡Ã. 2535. àÍ´Ê ¡ÒôÙáÅÃÑ¡ÉÒ. ¾ÔÁ¾¤Ãѧ·Õè 2. é ¡ÃØ§à·¾Ï : ´Õä«Ã. 2.2 ÍÒ§º·¤ÇÒÁÇÒÃÊÒà ª×è Í ¼Ù à ¢Õ Â ¹. » ¾Ô Á ¾ . ª×è Í º·¤ÇÒÁ. ª×è Í ÇÒÃÊÒÃ. » ·Õè (©ºÑ º ·Õè ) : ˹ Ò . Miller, KM ; Apt, L. 1993. Unsuspected glove perforation during ophtalmic surgery. Arch Ophthalmal. 111(2) : 186-193.

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

ÈÙ¹ÂÇԨѾÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµÑºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ

1

áǴǧÇԨѠÁ¢.

Research Notes

Liver Fluke and Cholangiocarcinoma Research Center (LFCRC)

ÈÙ¹ÂÇԨѾÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµÑºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹

ÈÙ ¹  ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¾ÂÒ¸Ô ã ºäÁ µÑ º áÅÐÁÐàÃç § · Í ¹éÓ ´Õ ä´ÃѺ¤ÇÒÁàË繪ͺ¨Ò¡ÊÀÒÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ãË ¨Ñ´µÑ§¢Ö¹ µÒÁ¤ÓÊѧÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹·Õè 385/2545 é é è ŧÇѹ·Õè 10 ÁÔ¶¹Ò¹ 2545 â´Â¡ÒÃÃÔàÃÔÁáÅмÅÑ¡´Ñ¹ Ø è ¢Í§Í´ÕµÃͧ͸ԡÒú´Õ½ÒÂÇԨ ¼È.ÍÑÈ¹Õ »Ò¨Õ¹ºÙÃÇÃó Ñ ·ÓäÁµÍ§ÁÕȹÂǨ¾ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµºáÅÐÁÐàÃç§ Ù ÔÑ Ñ ·Í¹éÓ´Õ 1. ໹»ËÒ੾ÒТͧªÒÇÍÕÊÒ¹áÅÐ໹ ¨Ø´á¢ç§¢Í§ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ ¡ÒõԴàª×;ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµºáÅÐ é Ñ ÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ໹»ËÒÊÒ¸ÒóÊØ¢·Õ¨Óà¾ÒÐáÅÐÊÓ¤Ñ è ¢Í§ªÒÇÍÕÊÒ¹ÁÒªÒ¹Ò¹ â´Â੾ÒШѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹ ÁÕͺµ¡Òó¢Í§ÁÐàÃ秷ʹÕʧ·ÕÊ´¢Í§»ÃÐà·ÈáÅТͧ Ø Ñ Ô Ù èØ âÅ¡ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õé Á ÐàÃç § · Í ¹éÓ ´Õ ·Õè à ¡Ô ´ 㹤¹ä·ÂÂÑ § ÁÕ ÊÁÁص԰ҹ¢Í§âÅ¡·ÕèÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¡Ñº¡ÒõԴàª×é;ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁ µÑº (Opisthorchis viverrini) «Ö§áµ¡µÒ§¨Ò¡¼»ÇÂã¹ è Ù »ÃÐà·ÈµÐÇѹµ¡áÅлÃÐà·Èã¹á¶ºàÍàªÕµÐÇѹÍÍ¡ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹¢ÍÁÙÅáÅÐͧ¤¤ÇÒÁÃÙ·Õèä´¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÇÔ¨ÑÂã¹ ª¹ªÒµÔ͹¨Ö§äÁÊÒÁÒö¹ÓÁÒ»ÃÐÂØ¡µãª¡º¼»ÇÂÁÐàÃç§ ×è Ñ Ù ·Í¹éÓ´Õã¹»ÃÐà·Èä·Âä´â´ÂµÃ§ ¡Íû¡ÑºÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑÂ

¢Í¹á¡¹à»¹áËŧ¢Í§¼Ù»ÇÂÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´ÕáÅÐÍÂÙã¹ áËŧÃкҴ¢Í§¾ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµÑº ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ ¢Í¹á¡¹ 㹰ҹзÕè໹ͧ¤¡ÃËÅÑ¡´Ò¹ÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵà ÊØ¢ÀÒ¾ã¹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í áÅÐ໹ʶҺѹ Íѹ໹·Õ¾§áÅФÇÒËÇѧ¢Í§ªÒÇÍÕÊÒ¹ ¨Ö§¤ÇÃÃѺ¼Ô´ªÍº è Öè â´ÂµÃ§ã¹¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÇÔ¨Âà¾×Íá¡ä¢»ËÒ¹ÕÍÂÒ§¨ÃÔ§¨Ñ§ Ñ è é 2. ໹¤Ó¶ÒÁÇԨѷÕèÊÒÁÒöËÒ¤ÓµÍºä´ ¢ÍÁÙÅ·Ò§ÃкҴÇÔ·ÂÒ ¡Ò÷´Åͧã¹Á¹ØÉÂáÅСÒà ÈÖ¡ÉÒã¹ÊѵǷ´ÅͧáÊ´§ÇÒÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ·Õèà¡Ô´ã¹ ¤¹ä·ÂÍÕÊÒ¹ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¡Ñº¡ÒõԴàª×é;ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁ µÑº ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹»ËÒÁÐàÃ秷͹éӴը֧໹»ËÒ·ÕèÊÒÁÒö ËҤӵͺ »Í§¡Ñ¹áÅФǺ¤ØÁä´ ËÒ¡ä´Ãº¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ Ñ ÇÔ¨ÂÍÂҧ໹Ãкº µÍà¹×ͧáÅШÃÔ§¨Ñ§ Ñ è 3. ໹¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÇԨѷÕèµÍ§ãª¼ÙàªÕèÂÇªÒ ÊËÊÒ¢Ò â´ÂÅÑ ¡ ɳТͧ§Ò¹ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¹Õé ¨Óà» ¹ µ Í §ãª ¼ÙªÓ¹Ò੾ÒдҹËÅÒ´ҹ µÍ§¢ÂÒ¤ÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×Í ÃÐËÇҧ˹ǧҹ·Ñé§ÃдѺ»ÃÐà·ÈáÅеҧ»ÃÐà·È «Öè§à»¹¡ÒâÂÒÂà¤Ã×Í¢Ò¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂáÅÐàÊÃÔÁÊÃÒ§¤ÇÒÁ à¢Áá¢ç§á¡Ã§´Ò¹¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂãˡѺʶҺѹ

2

ÈÙ¹ÂÇԨѾÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµÑºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õ¡ÅÁÇÔ¨ÂÂѧÁÕº³±ÔµÈÖ¡ÉÒ·Õà¢Áá¢ç§ é Ø Ñ Ñ è ÃͧÃѺ ¤³Ò¨ÒÃÂ㹡ÅÁÇԨ¹ÕÁ¹¡ÈÖ¡ÉÒÃдѺ»ÃÔÒ Ø Ñ é Õ Ñ â·-à͡㹤ÇÒÁÃѺ¼Ô´ªÍº ÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹ÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ËÒ¾ÂÒ¸Ô ãºäÁµºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´ÕÍÂÒ§µÍà¹×ͧ «Ö§·ÓãË¡ÒÃÇÔ¨Â Ñ è è Ñ ´Óà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃä´ã¹ÊÀÒÇзդ³Ò¨ÒçÁÕÀÒÃÐÃѺ¼Ô´ªÍº è Ñ ËÅÒ´ҹáÅÐäÁÊÒÁÒö»¯ÔºÑµÔ§Ò¹ÇԨѴǵ¹àÍ§ä´ ÍÂÒ§àµçÁ·Õè áÅФ³Ò¨ÒÃÂ㹡ÅÁ¹Õ§ä´Ãº¨Ñ´ÊÃ÷ع Ø éÑ Ñ â¤Ã§¡ÒûÃÔÒàÍ¡¡Ò¨¹ÒÀÔàÉ¡¢Í§ Ê¡Ç.ÃÇÁ¶Ö§ »¨¨Øº¹ ¨Ó¹Ç¹ 11 ·Ø¹ Ñ ÈÙ ¹  ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¾ÂÒ¸Ô ã ºäÁ µÑ º áÅÐÁÐàÃç § · Í ¹éÓ ´Õ ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ ¾Ñ²¹ÒÁÒ¨Ò¡¡ÅØÁÇÔ¨ÑÂÁÐàÃç§ ·Í¹éÓ´Õ ¤³Ðá¾·ÂÈÒʵà «Ö§àÃÔÁµ¹ã¹»ÅÒ ¾.È.2539 è è ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÃÇÁµÑǢͧ¤³Ò¨Òà4-5 ¤¹ ·ÕèÁÕਵ¨Ó¹§ ·Õ¨ÐÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹ÈÖ¡ÉÒÇԨ»ËÒ¾ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµºáÅÐÁÐàÃç§·Í è Ñ Ñ ¹éÓ´Õ â´Â¤ÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×ͧ͢ ÃÈ.¹¾.ÇѪþ§È ¾Ø·¸ÔÊÇÑÊ´Ôì (ËÑÇ˹ÒÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒÈÑÅÂÈÒʵÃ) ·ÓãËâ¤Ã§¡ÒÃÇԨѷÕè ¨Óà» ¹ µ Í §ãª µÑ Ç ÍÂ Ò §¨Ò¡¼Ù » Ç ÂÁÐàÃç § · Í ¹éÓ ´Õ ã ¹ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÊÒÁÒö´Óà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃä´ áÅдÇ¡ÒÃʹѺʹع ¢Í§ È.¹¾.ÀÔàÉ¡ ÅØÁ¾Ô¡Ò¹¹· Ãͧ¤³º´Õ½ÒÂÇԨѠ¤³Ðá¾·ÂÈÒʵÃã¹¢³Ð¹Ñé¹·Õè䴨ѴÊÃ÷ع»ÃÐàÀ· ¡Ó˹´ËÑÇ¢ÍãË¡º¡ÅÁ ·ÓãË¡ÅÁÇÔ¨ÂÊÒÁÒö¨Ñ´Ãкº Ñ Ø Ø Ñ ºÃÔËÒèѴ¡Òà ¡ÒÃà¡çº¢ÍÁÙÅ »ÃÐÇѵáÅеÑÇÍÂÒ§Êԧʧ Ô è µÃǨ¢Í§¼Ù » Ç ÂÍÂ Ò §à» ¹ Ãкºä´ ·ÓãË ¡ ÅØ Á ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ÊÒÁÒö¢ÂÒ§ҹÇÔ¨ÑÂä´ÍÂÒ§äâմ¨Ó¡Ñ´ ã¹» ¾.È. 2542 â´Â¡ÒÃÃÔàÃÔèÁ¢Í§ È.¹¾. »Â·Ñȹ ·ÑȹÒÇÔÇѲ¹ Ãͧ¤³º´Õ½ÒÂÇÔ¨ÑÂã¹¢³Ð¹Ñé¹ ä´ãË¡ÒÃʹѺʹعâ´Â¡ÒèѴÊÃ÷ع»ÃÐàÀ·¡ÅØÁÇԨѠ·ÓãËÁÕ¡ÒèѴµÑ駡ÅØÁÇÔ¨ÑÂÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ ¤³Ðá¾·Â ÈÒʵà ¢Öé¹à¾×è;Ѳ¹ÒÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾¹Ñ¡ÇÔ¨ÑÂã¹ÃÙ»¡ÅØÁÇԨѠ´Óà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃÇԨѻËÒ¾ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµÑºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ áÅÐàÊÃÔÁÊÃÒ§¤ÇÒÁà¢Áá¢ç§ãˡѺÃкººÑ³±ÔµÈÖ¡ÉÒ ¡ÒÃÃÇÁµÑÇ໹¡ÅØÁÇÔ¨ÑÂÀÒÂ㵡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡ÒÃÍÂÒ§ ໹Ãкº·ÓãË¡ÅÁÊÒÁÒöÊÃÒ§â¤Ã§¡ÒÃÇԨ·ÕÊÁ¾Ñ¹¸ Ø Ñ èÑ ¡Ñ¹¨¹ÊÒÁÒö¾Ñ²¹Ò໹ªØ´â¤Ã§¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÂáÅÐä´Ãº¡ÒÃ Ñ Ñ Ê¹Ñ º Ê¹Ø ¹ ·Ø ¹ ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¨Ò¡ÁËÒÇÔ · ÂÒÅÑ Â ÁÒà» ¹ ÅÓ´Ñ º

¤ÇÒÁ໹ÁÒ

¨Ò¡¼Å§Ò¹ÇÔ¨ÑÂáÅСԨ¡ÃÃÁ¢Í§¡ÅØÁ·ÕèÁÕÍÂÒ§µÍà¹×èͧ ·ÓãËä´ÃѺ¡ÒÃÂÍÁÃѺ¨Ò¡Ê¶ÒºÑ¹µÒ§»ÃÐà·È áÅÐ ¾Ñ²¹Ò¤ÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×Í´Ò¹¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂáÅкѳ±ÔµÈÖ¡ÉҡѺ µÒ§»ÃÐà·ÈËÅÒÂʶҺѹ » ¨ ¨Ø ºÑ ¹ ÈÙ ¹  ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¾ÂÒ¸Ô ã ºäÁ µÑ º áÅÐÁÐàÃç § · Í ¹éÓ ´Õ » ÃСͺ´ Ç ÂÊÁÒªÔ ¡ ¨Ñ ´ µÑé § 52 ¤¹ ¨Ò¡ ¤³Ðá¾·ÂÈÒʵà 11 ˹ǧҹ áÅФ³Ðà·¤¹Ô¤¡Òà ᾷ 2 ˹ǧҹ ÁչѡÈÖ¡ÉÒÃдѺºÑ³±ÔµÈÖ¡ÉÒ â·-àÍ¡ÃÇÁã¹â¤Ã§¡Òèӹǹ 22 ¤¹ ໹¹Ñ¡ÈÖ¡ÉÒã¹ â¤Ã§¡ÒûÃÔÒàÍ¡¡Ò¨¹ÒÀÔàÉ¡¢Í§ Ê¡Ç. ¨Ó¹Ç¹ 11 ¤¹ ÁÕâ¤Ã§¡ÒÃÇԨѷÕèàÊÃç¨ÊÔé¹áÅСÓÅѧ´Óà¹Ô¹¡Òà ¨Ó¹Ç¹ 44 â¤Ã§¡ÒÃ

ÇÔÊ·Ñȹ (Vision) Ñ

໹Èٹ¡ÅÒ§¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÂáÅоѲ¹Ò·ÕÁ¤ÇÒÁ໹ Ñ è Õ àÅÔÈ·Ò§ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃã¹´Ò¹¾ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ Ñ ã¹ÀÒ¤¾×é¹àÍàªÕÂáÅÐâÍàªÕÂà¹ÕÂ

¾Ñ¹¸¡Ô¨ (Mission)

ÃǺÃÇÁ¼àªÕÂǪÒáÅлÃÐÊÒ¹¤ÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×Í Ù è à¾×è Í ´Óà¹Ô ¹ ¡ÒÃÇÔ ¨Ñ  ÊÃ Ò §Í§¤ ¤ ÇÒÁÃÙ á Åж Ò Â·Í´ à·¤â¹âÅÂÕà¾×èÍÅ´ÍغѵԡÒó¡ÒõԴàª×é;ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµÑº áÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õã¹ÀÒ¤ÍÕÊÒ¹

¤Ó¢ÇÑ

ÃÇÁ¾ÅѧÊÃÒ§ÊÃä»Ò ¢¨Ñ´»ËÒ¾ÂÒ¸Ô ãºäÁ µÑ º áÅÐÁÐàÃç § · Í ¹éÓ ´Õ à¾×è Í ÊØ ¢ ÀÒ¾·Õè ´Õ ¢ ͧ ¤¹ÍÕÊÒ¹

1. ¾Ñ²¹Ò§Ò¹ÇÔ¨ÑÂà¾×èÍÅ´¡ÒõԴàª×é;ÂÒ¸Ô ãºäÁµÑºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õã¹ÍÕÊÒ¹ 2. ¾Ñ²¹Ò§Ò¹ÇÔ¨ÑÂà¾×èÍÅ´¤ÇÒÁÃعáç¢Í§ ÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´ÕáÅÐà¾ÔèÁ¤Ø³ÀÒ¾ªÕÇÔµ¢Í§¼Ù»ÇÂÁÐàÃç§ ·Í¹éÓ´Õ 3. ¾Ñ ² ¹Òͧ¤ ¡ ÃãË ÁÕ ¤ ÇÒÁà» ¹ àÅÔ È ·Ò§ ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃ

Çѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

ÈÙ¹ÂÇԨѾÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµÑºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ

3

1. ÃǺÃÇÁ¹Ñ¡ÇÔ¨ÑÂáÅоѲ¹Òà¤Ã×Í¢Ò´ҹ ºØ¤¤Å/¢ÍÁÙÅ/¤ÃØÀ³± 㹡ÒèѴµÑ§ÈÙ¹ÂǨÂ੾Òзҧ Ñ é ÔÑ ¾ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµÑºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õä´ÀÒÂã¹ 1 » áÅÐ ÊÒÁÒöÃÑ ¡ ÉÒʶҹÀÒ¾à¾×è Í »ÃСͺ¡Ô ¨ ¡ÃÃÁµÒÁ Çѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤ä´ÍÂÒ§µÍà¹×ͧ໹ÍÂÒ§¹Í 5 » è 2. ¾Ñ ² ¹Òâ¤Ã§¡ÒÃÇÔ ¨Ñ  ẺÊËÊÒ¢ÒáÅÐ ÃÇÁʶҺѹà¾×èÍ໹µ¹áººã¹¡ÒÃÅ´ÍѵÃÒ¡ÒõԴàª×éÍ ¾ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµÑºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ㹪ØÁª¹ÍÂÒ§¹Í 1 â¤Ã§¡ÒÃÀÒÂã¹ 5 » 3. ¾Ñ²¹Òâ¤Ã§¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂà¾×èÍÊÃҧͧ¤¤ÇÒÁÃÙ à¡ÕèÂǡѺ¡ÒõԴàª×é;ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµÑºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ ÍÂÒ§¹Í 9 â¤Ã§¡Òõͻ ÃÇÁ 45 â¤Ã§¡ÒÃã¹ 5 » 4. ¾Ñ²¹Ò¹Ñ¡ÇÔ¨ÂùãËÁáÅÐÃÇÁ¼ÅÔµºÑ³±Ôµ Ñ Ø ·Ñ§ÃдѺ»ÃÔÒâ·áÅÐàÍ¡ÍÂÒ§¹Í 4 ¤¹µÍ» ÃÇÁ é 20 ¤¹ ã¹àÇÅÒ 5 » á¼¹¡ÅÂØ·¸à¾×ÍãËȹÂÏ ÊÒÁÒö´Óà¹Ô¹ è Ù ¡ÒÃÊÓàÃ稵ÒÁà»ÒËÁÒÂáÅÐÇѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤Áմѧ¹Õé 1. ¨Ñ´µÑé§ÈÙ¹ÂÇÔ¨ÑÂ੾Òзҧ¾ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµÑº áÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ 2. ¨Ñ´ËÒáËŧ·Ø¹Ê¹ÑºÊ¹Ø¹¡ÒÃÇԨѷÑ駨ҡ ͧ¤¡ÃÀÒÂã¹áÅÐÀÒ¹͡ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ 3. àÊÃÔÁ¤ÇÒÁà¢Áá¢ç§´Ò¹¡ÒÃÇԨѠ4. ÊÃ Ò §Ãкºà¡×é Í Ë¹Ø ¹ ¡ÒÃ¾Ñ ² ¹Ò¹Ñ ¡ ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ˹ÒãËÁáÅÐàÊÃÔÁÊÃÒ§¤ÇÒÁà¢Áá¢ç§¢Í§ºÑ³±ÔµÈÖ¡ÉÒ

à»ÒËÁÒÂ

á¼¹¡ÅÂØ·¸

á¹Ç¤Ô´ËÅѡ㹡ÒèѴ¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃÈÙ¹ÂǨ ÔÑ à©¾Òзҧ¾ÂÒ¸ÔãºäÁµÑºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ 1. ¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃáÅдÓà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃÀÒÂãµËÅÑ¡¡Òà ÂصԸÃÃÁ-໹¸ÃÃÁ (win-win-strategy) ÀÒÂãµ ¤µÔ»ÃШÓÈٹ äÁᢧ¢Ñ¹¡Ñ¹àͧ ÃÇÁºÃÃàŧà¾Å§ Ê×è Í ÊÒà ¼ÊÒ¹¤ÇÒÁÊÑ µ «×èÍ ÂÖ ´ ¶× Í ¤ÇÒÁâ»Ã § ãÊ ãÊ㨡ѹáÅСѹ 2. à» ¹ ÈÙ ¹  ·Õè ã ª º ÃÔ Ë ÒÃ¨Ñ ´ ¡ÒÃàªÔ § Ãкº ÁÕà¾Õ§Êӹѡ§Ò¹ªÑèǤÃÒÇ໹Èٹ¡ÅÒ§»ÃÐÊÒ¹§Ò¹ Í·Ëͧ B2 µÖ¡ÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵäÅÔ¹¡ 2 ªÑ¹ 4 ¤³Ðá¾·Â Ù Õè Ô é ÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ â·ÃÈѾ· 3861,3863 3. ãªËͧ»¯ÔºÑµÔ¡ÒõÒÁ˹ǧҹµ¹Êѧ¡Ñ´ ¢Í§¹Ñ¡ÇÔ¨ÑÂ໹ʶҹ·Õ軯ԺѵԷ´Åͧ 4. ÁÕ ¡ ÒúÃÔ Ë ÒÃáÅСÒÃÊ¹Ñ º Ê¹Ø ¹ à¾×è Í ãË ¹Ñ¡ÇÔ¨ÂÊÒÁÒö㪤ÃØÀ³±Ç¨Â ¢ÍÁÙÅáÅеÑÇÍÂÒ§¼»ÇÂ Ñ Ñ ÔÑ Ù ÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹ÍÂÒ§Êдǡ 5. ¤ÃØÀѳ±ÇԨѷÕèä´ÃѺ¡ÒÃʹѺʹعÀÒÂãµ ÈÙ¹ÂÏ à»¹¤ÃØÀ³±ÃÇÁ·Õ¹¡ÇÔ¨ÂÊѧ¡Ñ´¢Í§ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑÂ Ñ è Ñ Ñ ¢Í¹á¡¹ÃÇÁãªä´ 6. ¹Ñ¡ÇԨ¢ͧÈÙ¹ÂÏ ÁÕ¾¹¸Ð·ÕµÍ§ÃѺ¼Ô´ªÍº Ñ Ñ è 㹡ÒÃà¢ÒÃÇÁ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ¢Í§ÈÙ¹ÂÍÂÒ§ÊÁèÓàÊÁÍ 7. ¹Ñ ¡ ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¨ Ð ª Ç Â ¡Ñ ¹ Ë Ò ·Ø ¹ Ê ¹Ñ º Ê ¹Ø ¹ §º»ÃÐÁÒ³«Öè§à»¹¤Ò㪨ÒÂ㹡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡ÒáÅÒ§ à¾×èÍãËÈÙ¹ÂÊÒÁÒö¾Ö觵¹àͧä´ã¹Í¹Ò¤µ 8. ¼Å§Ò¹¢Í§¹Ñ ¡ ÇÔ ¨Ñ  à¼Âá¾Ã ã ¹¹ÒÁ ˹ǧҹµ¹Êѧ¡Ñ´áÅÐã¹¹ÒÁÈÙ¹ÂǨÂ੾Òзҧ¾ÂÒ¸Ô ÔÑ ãºäÁµºáÅÐÁÐàÃ秷͹éÓ´Õ ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ Ñ

á¼¹¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃÈÙ¹ÂǨ ÔÑ

4

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒÃãªà·¤¹Ô¤ ¾Õ«ÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃà;մã¹àº×ͧµ¹ã¹¡§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ Õ Õ é Ø

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

Preliminary Study on Implementation of RCR-RAPD Technique in Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man

ºÑ³±ÔµÂ àµç§à¨ÃÔ¡ØÅ (Bundit Tengjaroenkul)* ¤Á¡ÃÔª ¾ÔÁ¾ÀÑ¡´Õ (Komkrich Pimpukdee) ** ÍØäà àµç§à¨ÃÔ¡ØÅ (Urai Tengjaroenkul)***

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒÃãªà·¤¹Ô¤ ¾Õ«ÕÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃà;´Õã¹àº×éͧµ¹ã¹¡Ø§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒÃãªà·¤¹Ô¤ ¾Õ«ÕÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃà;մÕã¹àº×éͧµ¹ã¹¡Ø§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ´Ç¡ÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ ¡ÒÃà¾ÔèÁ¨Ó¹Ç¹ áÅСÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË¢¹Ò´ ´ÕàÍç¹à;ºÇÒ ´ÕàÍç¹àÍÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡¡Ø§·ÕèâµàµçÁÇÑÂÁÕ»ÃÔÁÒ³ 61.13±1.74 äÁâ¤Ã¡ÃÑÁµÍ¡ÃÑÁ¡ÅÒÁà¹×éÍ áÅÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁºÃÔÊØ·¸Ôì·Õè 1.85±0.08 áÅÐÂѧ¾ºÇÒä¾ÃàÁÍà 11 ª¹Ô´ ¨Ò¡ 23 ª¹Ô´·ÕèÊØÁÁÒ ÊÒÁÒöà¾ÔèÁ¨Ó¹Ç¹´ÕàÍç¹àÍä´ áÅÐàÁ×è͹ӴÕàÍç¹àÍÁÒÇÔà¤ÃÒÐˤÇÒÁᵡµÒ§¢Í§ ¢¹Ò´â´Âãªâ»Ãá¡ÃÁ Photo-Cap ¾ºÇÒ á¶º´ÕàÍç¹àÍ·Ñé§ 32 ᶺ ÁÕ¢¹Ò´ã¹ªÇ§ 362-1,122 ¤ÙàºÊ

º·¤Ñ´ÂÍ

A preliminary study on implementation of PCR-RAPD technique in Macrobrachium rosenbergii by extraction, amplification, and analysis of DNA indicated that the amount of extracted DNA was 61.13±1.74 microgram per gram of flesh, and the purity of the DNA was 1.85±0.08. Furthermore, using PCR technique, eleven of twenty-three randomed primers enabled to amplify the DNA. An analysis of size of thirty-two DNA bands indicated that the sizes were ranged from 3621,122 base pairs.

Abstract

¤ÓÊÓ¤Ñ : ¾Õ«ÕÍÒà ÍÒÃàÍ¾Õ´Õ ¡Ø§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ Keywords : PCR, RAPD, Giant Freshwater Prawn

* ¼ÙªÇÂÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒÍÒÂØÃÈÒʵà ¤³ÐÊѵÇá¾·ÂÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ ** ¼ÙªÇÂÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒÊѵÇá¾·ÂÊÒ¸ÒóÊØ¢ ¤³ÐÊѵÇá¾·ÂÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ *** ÍÒ¨ÒÃÂÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒà¤ÁÕ ¤³ÐÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑÂàªÕ§ãËÁ

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒÃãªà·¤¹Ô¤ ¾Õ«ÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃà;մã¹àº×ͧµ¹ã¹¡§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ Õ Õ é Ø

5

» ¨ ¨Ø ºÑ ¹ ¡ÒÃàÅÕé  §¡Ø § ¡ Ò Á¡ÃÒÁ¢Í§ä·Âä´ ¾Ñ²¹Òä»ã¹àªÔ§¾Ò³ÔªÂÁÒ¡ÂÔ觢Öé¹ ·Ñ駹Õéà¹×èͧ¨Ò¡¤ÇÒÁ µÍ§¡ÒÃ㹡ÒúÃÔâÀ¤¡Ø§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁÀÒÂã¹»ÃÐà·È·ÕèÊÙ§ ¢Öé¹ ´Ñ§ã¹» 2540 ·ÕèÁÕÁÙŤҼżÅÔµà¡×ͺ 3,000 ÅÒ¹ ºÒ· (ʶԵԼżÅÔµ¡ÒÃàÅÕé§ÊѵǹéӨ״, 2541) ÍÂÒ§äà ¡çµÒÁ»ËÒ˹Ö觷Õè¼Ùà¾ÒÐàÅÕ駡ا¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁã¹»¨¨ØºÑ¹ »ÃÐʺ¤×Í ¢¹Ò´ ¹éÓ˹ѡáÅФÇÒÁá¢ç§áç¢Í§¡Ø§·Õè Å´µèÓŧ »ËÒ¹Õà¡ÕÂǢͧâ´ÂµÃ§¡Ñº¡ÒüÊÁ¾Ñ¹¸àÅ×Í´ é è Ø ªÔ´ã¹¾ÍáÁ¡Ø§ à·¤¹Ô¤¾Õ«ÍÒà (Polymerase Chain Reaction, Õ PCR) áÅÐ ÍÒÃàÍ¾Õ´Õ (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA, RAPD) ໹෤¹Ô¤·Õ§Ò ·Óä´ÃÇ´àÃçÇ áÅÐ è ã˼ŴÕ㹡ÒõÃǨÊͺ¤ÇÒÁã¡ÅªÔ´¢Í§ÊÒ¾ѹ¸Ø¡Ø§ â´ÂäÁµÍ§·ÃÒºÃÒÂÅÐàÍÕ´¢Í§¨Õâ¹Á¢Í§¡Ø§·ÕèÈÖ¡ÉÒ (Williams et al., 1990; Benzie et al., 1993; Tassanakajon et al., 1998; Klinbunga, 2001) à·¤¹Ô¤ ¹Õãªã¹¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧ¾Ñ¹¸Ø¡ÃÃÁ¢Í§¡§ é Ø ¢ÒÇ (Penaues vannamei) (Garcia et al., 1994) 㪠µÃǨ¤ÇÒÁᵡµÒ§·Ò§¾Ñ¹¸Ø¡ÃÃÁ¢Í§¾ÍáÁ¡Ø§¡ØÅÒ´Ó (Penaues monodon) ã¹à¢µ·ÐàÅä·Â (Tassanakajon et al., 1997 áÅÐ Klinbunga et al., 2001) ÊÒÁÒö µÃǨ¤ÇÒÁã¡ÅªÔ´¢Í§ÊÒ¾ѹ¸Ø¡Ø§ÊÕ¹éÓà§Ô¹ (Penaues stylirostris) ã¹ÍÒÇàÁç¡«Ôâ¡ (Aubert and Lightner, 2000) áÅÐ㪵ÃǨÊͺ¾Ñ¹¸Ø¡ÃÃÁ¢Í§¡Ø§¡ØÅÒ´Ó㹿ÅÔ»»¹Ê (Xu et al., 2001) ÍÂÒ§äáçµÒÁ¨¹¶Ö§»¨¨ØºÑ¹ÂѧäÁÁÕ ¡ÒÃÃÒ§ҹ෤¹Ô¤¾Õ«ÕÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃà;մÕ㹡ا¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ ´Ñ § ¹Ñé ¹ ¼Ù ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¨Ö § ä´ ÈÖ ¡ ÉÒà·¤¹Ô ¤ ¹Õé µÑé § áµ ÇÔ ¸Õ ¡ ÒÃÊ¡Ñ ´ ¡ÒÃà¾ÔÁ¨Ó¹Ç¹ áÅСÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË´àÍç¹àÍ ¼Å·Õä´¨Ð໹ è Õ è ¢ÍÁÙÅàº×ͧµ¹à¾×ÍãªÈ¡ÉÒ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧ¾Ñ¹¸Ø¡ÃÃÁ é è Ö áÅФÇÒÁã¡ÅªÔ´¢Í§ÊÒ¾ѹ¸Ø¡Ø§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁµÍä»

º·¹Ó

ÇÔ¸¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ Õ

¡ÒÃÊ¡Ñ´µÑÇÍÂÒ§´ÕàÍç¹àÍ à¡ç º µÑ Ç ÍÂ Ò §¡Å Ò Áà¹×é Í ÅÓµÑ Ç ºÃÔ à dz»Å Í §·Õè 1-3 ¢Í§¡Ø§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁâµàµçÁÇÑ ¨Ò¡áËŧà´ÕÂǡѹ

¨Ó¹Ç¹ 6 µÑÇÁÒ᪷ͳËÀÙÁÔ 60 ͧÈÒà«Åà«ÕÂÊ ¡Í¹ Õè Ø ¹ÓÁÒÊ¡Ñ´´ÕàÍç¹àÍ â´ÂãªÇÔ¸Õ·Õè´Ñ´á»Å§¨Ò¡ Merante et al. (1996) áÅÐ Boiteux et al. (1999) «Öè§ÁÕ ÃÒÂÅÐàÍÕ´´Ñ§¹Õé¤×Í ¹Óà¹×é͵ÑÇÍÂÒ§·Õ躴áÅÇ ÁÒº´µÍ ¡ÑºÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´´ÕàÍç¹àÍ·Õè»ÃСͺ´Ç Tris pH 8.0 500 mM, NaCl 1.4 M, CTAB 2%, EDTA 20 mM áÅÐ b-mercaptoethanol 0.2% áÅǹÓ仺Á·ÕèÍسËÀÙÁÔ 65 ͧÈÒà«Åà«Õ  Êà» ¹ àÇÅÒ 60 ¹Ò·Õ ¡ Í ¹àµÔ Á chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1) ËÅѧ¨Ò¡¹Ñ¹¹Óä» é »¹·ÕèÍسËÀÙÁÔ 4 ͧÈÒà«Åà«ÕÂÊ ´Ç¤ÇÒÁàÃçÇ 11,000 ÃͺµÍ¹Ò·Õ ໹àÇÅÒ 10 ¹Ò·Õ ¨Ò¡¹Ñé¹¹ÓÊÒÃÅÐÅÒ ªÑ¹º¹ÁÒàµÔÁ chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1) áÅÇ é ¹Óä»»¹·ÕèÍسËÀÙÁÔ 4 ͧÈÒà«Åà«ÕÂÊ ´Ç¤ÇÒÁàÃçÇ 11,000 ÃͺµÍ¹Ò·Õ໹àÇÅÒ 10 ¹Ò·Õ ¡Í¹àµÔÁÊÒà ÅÐÅÒªÑ鹺¹´Ç isopropanol ·ÕèàÂ繨Ѵ à¢ÂÒàºÒæ »¹ µÍ·ÕèÍسËÀÙÁÔ 4 ͧÈÒà«Åà«ÕÂʴǤÇÒÁàÃçÇ 11,000 ÃͺµÍ¹Ò·Õ໹àÇÅÒ 10 ¹Ò·Õ à·ÊÒÃÅÐÅÒªÑ鹺¹·Ôé§ áÅÇÅÒ§µÐ¡Í¹´Ç ethanol ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ 70 à»ÍÃà«ç¹µ ¼ÊÁ¡Ñº ammonium acetate ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ 10 ÁÔÅÅÔâÁ ÅÒà ËÅѧ¨Ò¡¹Ñ¹µÒ¡µÐ¡Í¹ãËá˧ ÅÐÅÒµС͹´Ç é TE buffer áÅǹÓä»à¡çºäÇ·ÕèÍسËÀÙÁÔ 4 ͧÈÒà«Åà«ÕÂÊ à»¹àÇÅÒ 12 ªÑèÇâÁ§ àµÔÁ Rnase A ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ 10 äÁâ¤Ã¡ÃÑ Á µ Í ÁÔ Å ÅÔ ÅÔ µ à áÅ Ç ¹Óä»Íº·Õè 65 ͧÈÒ à«Åà«Õ  Êà» ¹ àÇÅÒ 30 ¹Ò·Õ ¨Ò¡¹Ñé ¹ à¡ç º ´Õ à Íç ¹ àÍ·Õè ÍسËÀÙÁÔ 60 ͧÈÒà«Åà«ÕÂÊ ¡ÒÃÇÑ´»ÃÔÁÒ³áÅлÃÐàÁÔ¹¤Ø³ÀÒ¾´ÕàÍç¹àÍ ¡ÒÃËÒ»ÃÔ Á Ò³´Õ à Íç ¹ àÍ â´Â¹Ó´Õ à Íç ¹ àÍ·Õè Ê¡Ñ´áÅÇ·ÕèÍÂÙã¹ TE buffer ÁÒ 5 äÁâ¤ÃÅԵà ¼ÊÁ¡Ñº ¹éÓ¡ÅÑè¹ 995 äÁâ¤ÃÅԵà áÅǹÓä»ÇÑ´¤Ò´Ù´¡Å×¹áʧ ´ÇÂà¤Ã×èͧ Ê໤âµÃâ¿âµÁÔàµÍà ·Õè¤ÇÒÁÂÒǤÅ×è¹ 260 áÅÐ 280 ¹Òâ¹àÁµÃ ¡ Í ¹¹ÓÁҤӹdz»ÃÔ Á Ò³ ¡Ã´¹ÔǤÅÕÍÔ¤ áÅÐËÒ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁºÃÔÊØ·¸Ôì¢Í§´ÕàÍç¹àÍ à·¤¹Ô¤¾Õ«ÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃàÍ¾Õ´Õ Õ ä¾ÃàÁÍà ·Õè ÁÕ ÅÓ´Ñ º ¹Ô Ç ¤ÅÕ â Íä·´ 23 ª¹Ô ´ (Operon Technologies, Germany) (µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1) áÅÐ ªØ´·´ÊͺÊíÒàÃç¨ (QIAGEN, USA) ¹ÓÁÒ㪵ÃǨÊͺ

6

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒÃãªà·¤¹Ô¤ ¾Õ«ÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃà;մã¹àº×ͧµ¹ã¹¡§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ Õ Õ é Ø

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

»¯Ô ¡Ô ÃÔ Â Ò¾Õ «Õ Í Òà â´Â»ÃÔ Á ÒµÃÊØ · ¸Ô ¢ ͧÊÒÃÍÂÙ ·Õè 25 äÁâ¤ÃÅԵõͻ¯Ô¡ÃÔÂÒ ¨Ó¹Ç¹ 22 »¯Ô¡ÔÃÔÂÒ áµÅÐ »¯Ô¡ÔÃÔÂÒ»ÃСͺ´Ç 1) PCR buffer ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ 1 à·Ò 2) Q buffer ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ 1 à·Ò 3) dNTP ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ 0.2 mM 4) MgCl2 2 mM 5) Primer 0.2 mM 6) DNA template 25 ng 7) Taq DNA polymerase 2 unit à¤Ã×ͧ PCR ä´µ§â»Ãá¡ÃÁÍسËÀÙÁÔ è Ñé áÅШӹǹÃͺ ÍÒ§ÍÔ§µÒÁ Garcia and Benzie (1995) ´Ñ§¹Õé 1) pre-denaturation ·ÕèÍسËÀÙÁÔ 91.5 ͧÈÒ à«Åà«ÕÂÊ ¹Ò¹ 1 ¹Ò·Õ ¨Ó¹Ç¹ 1 Ãͺ 2) denaturation ·ÕͳËÀÙÁÔ 92 ͧÈÒà«Åà«ÕÂÊ ¹Ò¹ 1 ¹Ò·Õ 3) annealing èØ ·ÕèÍسËÀÙÁÔ 36 ͧÈÒà«Åà«ÕÂÊ ¹Ò¹ 1.30 ¹Ò·Õ 4) extension ·ÕèÍسËÀÙÁÔ 72 ͧÈÒà«Åà«ÕÂÊ ¹Ò¹ 1 ¹Ò·Õ ·Ó«éÓã¹¢Ñ鹵͹·Õè 2 ¶Ö§ 4 ·Ñé§ËÁ´ 40 Ãͺ áÅǹÓÁÒ µÃǨÊͺ´ÇÂà¤Ã×èͧÍÔàÅç¤âµÃâ¿ÃÔ«ÔÊ áÅжÒÂÃÙ»´Ç ¡Å Í §â¾ÅÒÃÍ´ áÅ Ç ¹Ó´Õ à Íç ¹ àÍÁÒÇÑ ´ ¢¹Ò´ â´Â à»ÃÕºà·Õº¡Ñº´ÕàÍç¹àÍÁҵðҹ 100 bp DNA Ladder (BioLabs, USA) ´ÇÂâ»Ãá¡ÃÁ Photo-Cap (Vilber Laurmat, Fr)

à·¤¹Ô¤ÍÑÅâÅä«ÁÍàŤâµÃâ¿ÃÔ«Êä´¶¡¾Ñ²¹Ò Ô Ô Ù ¢Ö¹à¾×ÍãªÈ¡ÉÒ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧ¾Ñ¹¸Ø¡ÃÃÁ ·Õ¼Ò¹ÁÒ é è Ö è ¼ÅÊÓàÃ稢ͧ¡ÒÃãªà·¤¹Ô¤¹Õ㹡§ÂѧµèÓ à»¹»ÃÐ⪹µÍ é Ø ¡ÒäѴàÅ×Í¡ÊÒ¾ѹ¸Ø¹Í (Hedgecock et al., 1982; Daud, 1995; Tassanakajon et al., 1998) »¨¨ØºÑ¹ ¤ÇÒÁÃÙ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉҾѹ¸Ø¡ÃÃÁã¹ÃдѺ´ÕàÍç¹àͨҡ à·¤¹Ô¤¾Õ«ÕÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃàÍ¾Õ´Õ ¾ºÇÒãË»ÃÐ⪹ÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ ÁÕ ¤ÇÒÁàËÁÒÐÊÁ¡Çҵ͡ا¡ØÅÒ´Ó ¡Ø§¢ÒÇ áÅСاÊÕ¹éÓà§Ô¹ (Garcia et al., 1995; Tassanakajon et al., 1997; Aubert and Lightner, 2000) ÍÂÒ§äáçµÒÁÂѧäÁÁÕ¡Òà ÃÒ§ҹËÃ×͵վÔÁ¾¶Ö§à·¤¹Ô¤¹Õé㹡ا¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ ¡ÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ ¡ÒÃÇÑ´»ÃÔÁÒ³ áÅСÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹ ¤Ø³ÀÒ¾´ÕàÍç¹àÍ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÊ¡Ñ´´ÕàÍç¹àÍâ´ÂãªÇÔ¸Õ·Õè´Ñ´á»Å§¨Ò¡ Marante et al. (1996) áÅÐ Boiteux et al. (1999)

¼Å¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅÐÇÔ¨Òó¼Å

¾ºÇÒä´»ÃÔÁÒ³´ÕàÍç¹àÍ 61.13±1.74 äÁâ¤Ã¡ÃÑÁµÍ ¡ÃÑÁ¡ÅÒÁà¹×Í áÅÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁºÃÔÊ·¸Ôì 1.85±0.08 »ÃÔÁÒ³ é Ø áÅФÇÒÁºÃÔÊØ·¸Ôì¢Í§´ÕàÍç¹àÍ·ÕèÊ¡Ñ´ä´ÁÕ¤ÒàËÁÒÐÊÁ ·Ñ§¹Õ¤§à¾ÃÒÐÁÕ¡ÒÃãªÊÒõҧæ à¾×Í·ÓãË´àÍç¹àÍ·ÕÊ¡Ñ´ é é è Õ è ä´ÁդسÀÒ¾´Õ¢Öé¹ (Welsh and McClelland, 1990; Garcia, 1994; Merante et al., 1996; Benzie, 1998; Tassanakajon et al., 1998 áÅÐ Boiteux et al., 1999) ÊÒÃàËÅÒ¹Õ»ÃСͺ´Ç 1) CTAB ·ÕªÇ¡ӨѴÊÒþǡ é è â¾ÅÕ á «ç ¤ ¤Òäô á ÅзÓãË ´Õ à Íç ¹ à͵¡µÐ¡Í¹ 2) b-mercaptoethanol ªÇ·ÓãËâ»ÃµÕ¹àÊÕÂÊÀÒ¾ 3) chloroform ªÇ¡ӨѴÊÒþǡ¤ÒÃâºäÎà´Ãµ áÅÐ 4) RNAse A ªÇ¡ӨѴÍÒÃàÍç¹àÍ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õé¢Ñ鹵͹áÅÐ àÇÅÒ㹡ÒÃÊ¡Ñ ´ ·Õè ä Á Á Ò¡ ¹ Ò ¨Ðª Ç Â·ÓãË ´Õ à Íç ¹ àÍÁÕ ¤Ø³ÀÒ¾àËÁÒÐ㹡Ò÷ӾիÕÍÒà ෤¹Ô¤¾Õ«ÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃàÍ¾Õ´Õ Õ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒä¾ÃàÁÍ÷ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁ㹡ÒÃ·Ó ¾Õ«ÍÒà ¾ºÇÒÁÕä¾ÃàÁÍà 11 ª¹Ô´¨Ò¡ 23 ª¹Ô´ ·ÕÊÒÁÒö Õ è à¾ÔèÁ»ÃÔÁÒ³´ÕàÍç¹àÍä´¤×Í MR-5, MR-12, MR-14, MR-15, MR-16, MR-17, MR-19, MR-20, MR21, MR-22 áÅÐ MR-23 (µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1, ÃÙ»·Õè 1) ¼Å·Õè ä´áÊ´§ÇÒä¾ÃàÁÍ÷Ñé§ 11 ª¹Ô´ÁÕÅӴѺ¢Í§àºÊ·Õè໹ ¤ÙÊÁ¡Ñº´ÕàÍç¹àÍẺ inverted sequence ·ÕèÍÂÙ㹪ǧ 100-3,000 ¤ÙàºÊ 㹡Ò÷´Åͧ¹Õéä´ãªä¾ÃàÁÍà 12 ª¹Ô´ (MR1-MR12) ·ÕèÁÕÃÒ§ҹÇÒãËᶺ´ÕàÍç¹àÍ ªÑ´à¨¹ã¹¡Ø§¡ØÅÒ´Ó(Garcia and Benzie, 1995) áµ ¼Å¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ㹡ا¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ»ÃÒ¡¯ÇÒÁÕà¾Õ§ä¾ÃàÁÍà 2 ª¹Ô´ (MR5 áÅÐ MR12) ·ÕèãËᶺ´ÕàÍç¹àͪѴਹ (µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1, ÃÙ»·Õè 1) ¼Å·ÕèᵡµÒ§¹ÕéÍҨ໹à¾ÃÒÐ ÃÒÂÅÐàÍÕ´ã¹à·¤¹Ô¤¾Õ«ÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃà;մ·ãªäÁàËÁ×͹¡Ñ¹ Õ Õ Õè ËÃ× Í ÅÓ´Ñ º àºÊã¹´Õ à Íç ¹ àͧ͢¡Ø § ·Ñé § Êͧª¹Ô ´ ÁÕ ¤ ÇÒÁ ᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ ¨Ò¡¡ÒùӴÕàÍç¹àÍ·Õà¾ÔÁ»ÃÔÁÒ³ä´ÁÒÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË è è ÅÒ¾ÔÁ¾ »ÃÒ¡¯ÇҨӹǹᶺ´ÕàÍç¹àÍ·ÕèàË繪ѴਹÁÕ ·Ñé§ËÁ´ 32 ᶺ ÁÕ¢¹Ò´ÍÂÙ㹪ǧ 362-1,122 ¤ÙàºÊ (µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1, ÃÙ»·Õè 1) ᶺ´ÕàÍç¹àÍ·ÕèäÁàËÁ×͹¡Ñ¹ÁÕ 28 ᶺ ᶺ¢Í§´ÕàÍç¹àÍ·ÕèÁÒ¡·ÕèÊØ´ÁÕ 5 ᶺ à¡Ô´¨Ò¡

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒÃãªà·¤¹Ô¤ ¾Õ«ÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃà;մã¹àº×ͧµ¹ã¹¡§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ Õ Õ é Ø

7

ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-20 áÅÐ MR-22 áÅÐᶺ¢Í§´ÕàÍç¹ àÍ·ÕÁ¢¹Ò´¤àºÊà·Ò¡Ñ¹ÁÕ 3 ᶺ¤×Í 1) ᶺ 490 ¤àºÊ è Õ Ù Ù ¨Ò¡ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-19 áÅÐ MR-22 2) ᶺ 644 ¤ÙàºÊ ¨Ò¡ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-15 áÅÐ MR-23 áÅÐ 3) ᶺ 916 ¤ÙàºÊ ¨Ò¡ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-17 áÅÐ MR-19 (µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1, ÃÙ»·Õè 1) â´Â·ÑÇ仨ӹǹᶺ¢Í§´ÕàÍç¹àÍ è ¨Ò¡à·¤¹Ô¤¾Õ«ÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃà;մ·ÁÒ¡¾Í¨Ð·ÓãË¡ÒõÃǨ Õ Õ Õè ¤ÇÒÁËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧ¾Ñ¹¸Ø¡ÃÃÁÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¤ÇÒÁáÁ¹ÂÓ ÊÙ § ¢Öé ¹ áÅÐ㪠» ÃÐ⪹ ä ´ Á Ò¡¢Öé ¹ ã¹» ¤È.1998 Tassanakajon et al. ä´ãªä¾ÃàÁÍ÷ÕèãËᶺ´ÕàÍç¹àÍ ¨Ó¹Ç¹ÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ 8 ᶺ ¢³Ð·Õè Klinbunga et al. (2001) ãªá¶º´ÕàÍç¹àÍÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ 13 ᶺ¢Ö¹ä»ã¹¡ÒõÃǨ¤ÇÒÁ é ËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ·ҧ¾Ñ¹¸Ø¡ÃÃÁ¡Ø§ áµã¹¡Ò÷´ÅͧÈÖ¡ÉÒ¹Õé ᶺ´ÕàÍç¹àÍ·ÕèÁÒ¡·ÕèÊØ´ÁÕà¾Õ§ 5 ᶺ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹à¾×èͤÇÒÁ áÁ¹ÂÓ㹡ÒõÃǨÊͺ¤ÇÒÁᵡµÒ§ÊÒ¾ѹ¸Ø¡Ø§¡ÒÁ ¡ÃÒÁã¹âÍ¡ÒʵÍä» ¨Ö§¤ÇÃàÅ×Í¡ãªä¾ÃàÁÍ÷ÕèãËᶺ ´ÕàÍç¹àͨӹǹÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ¹Õé â´Â·ÑèÇä»ä¾ÃàÁÍÃã¹à·¤¹Ô¤¾Õ«ÕÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃàÍ ¾Õ´Õ ÁÑ¡ÁÕÊǹ»ÃСͺ¢Í§àºÊ GC 50-80 à»ÍÃà«ç¹µ (Williams et al., 1990) ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¹Õ¾ºÇÒÊÑ´Êǹ é àºÊ GC ¢Í§ä¾ÃàÁÍ÷ÕèãËᶺ´ÕàÍç¹àͪѴਹ (µÒÃÒ§ ·Õè 1, ÃÙ»·Õè 1) ÁÕ¤Ò 57.33±0.059 à»ÍÃà«ç¹µ áµ ä¾ÃàÁÍ÷ÕèäÁÊÒÁÒöãË´ÕàÍç¹àÍä´ÍÂÒ§ªÑ´à¨¹¾ºÇÒÁÕ ÊÑ´Êǹ GC 53.967±0.063 à»ÍÃà«ç¹µ ¢ÍÁÙÅ·Õèä´¹Õé ÍÒ¨º§¶Ö§»ÃÔÁÒ³g[l GC ¢Í§ä¾ÃàÁÍ÷ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁã¹ à·¤¹Ô¤¾Õ«ÕÍÒâͧ¡Ø§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ

¼Å¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒà·¤¹Ô¤ ¾Õ«ÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃàÍ¾Õ´Õ µÑ§áµ Õ é ¡ÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ ¡ÒÃà¾ÔèÁ»ÃÔÁÒ³ áÅСÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË´ÕàÍç¹à͹Õé ÊÒÁÒöãªà»¹¢ÍÁÙÅàº×éͧµ¹ã¹¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ´Ò¹¾Ñ¹¸Ø ¡ÃÃÁáÅЪÕÇâÁàÅ¡ØÅ㹡ا¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁµÍä»ä´

ÊÃØ»¼Å¡Ò÷´Åͧ

ʶԵԼżÅÔµ¡ÒÃàÅÕé§ÊѵǹéӨ״. 2541. ¡ÅØÁʶԵÔáÅÐ ÊÒÃʹà·È¡ÒûÃÐÁ§. ¡ÃÁ»ÃÐÁ§ ¡ÃзÃǧ à¡ÉµÃáÅÐÊˡó. àÍ¡ÊÒéºÑº·Õè 9/2541. Aubert, H. and Lightner, D.V. 2000. Identification of genetic populations of the Pacific blue shrimp Penaeus stylirostris of the Gulf of California, Mexico. Mar. Biol. 137: 875-885. Benzie, J.A.H., Ballment, E. and Frusher, S. 1993. Genetic structure of Penaeus monodon in Australia: Concordant results from mt DNA and allozyme. Aquaculture 111: 89-93. Benzie, J.A.H. 1998. Penaeid genetics and biotechnology. Aquaculture 164: 23-47. Boiteux, L.S., Fonseca, M.E.N. and Simon, P.W. 1999. Effects of plant tissue and DNA purification method on random amplified polymorphic DNA-based genetic fingerprinting analysis in carrot. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 124: 32-38. Daud, S.K. 1995. Population genetics of Penaeus monodon Fabricus and Penaeus meguiensis de Man in Malaysia. Ph.D. thesis, University of Stirling, UK. 327 pp. Garcia, D.K., Faggart, M.A., Rhoades, L., AlcivarWarren, A.A. 1994. Genetic diversity of cultured Penaeus vannamei shrimps using three molecular genetic techniques. Mol. Mar. Biol 3: 270-280. Garcia, D.K. and Benzie, J.A.H. 1995. RAPD markers of potential use in penaeid prawn (Penaeus monodon) breeding programs. Aquaculture 130: 137-144.

àÍ¡ÊÒÃÍÒ§ÍÔ§

8

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒÃãªà·¤¹Ô¤ ¾Õ«ÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃà;մã¹àº×ͧµ¹ã¹¡§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ Õ Õ é Ø

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

Hedgecock, D., Tracey, M.L. and Nelson, K. 1982. Genetics. In: Abele, L.G. (eds) Embryology, morphology, genetics. Academic Press, New York, pp. 283-355. Klinbunga, S., Siludjai, D., Wudthijinda, W., Tassanakajon, A., Jarayabhand, P. and Menasveta, P. 2001. Genetic heterogeneity of the Giant Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Thailand revealed by RAPD and Mitochondrial DNA RFLP analyses. Mar. Biotechnol. 3: 428-438. Merante, F., Raha, S., Reed, J.K. and Proteau, G. 1996. The Simultaneous isolation of RNA and DNA from Tissues and Cultured Cells. In: Basic DNA and RNA Protocols. A.J. Harwood (Ed.). Humana Press, New Jersey, USA. pp. 3-10. Tassanakajon, A., Pongsomboon, S., Rhimphanitchayakit, V., Jarayabhand, P. and Boonsaeng, V. 1997. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers for determination of genetic variation in wild populations of the black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) in Thailand. Mol. Mar. Biol. Biotech. 6: 110-115.

Tassanakajon, A., Pongsomboon, S., Rhimphanitchayakit, V., Jarayabhand, P.., Klinbunga, S. and Boonsaeng, V. 1998. Genetic structure in wild populations of black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. J. Mar Biotechnol. 6: 249-254. Welsh, J. and McClelland, M. 1990. Fingerprinting genomes using PCR with arbitrary primers. Nucleic Acids Res. 18: 7213-7218. Williams, G.K., Kubelik, A.R., Livak, K.L., Rafalski, J.A. and Tingey, S.V. 1990. DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res. 18: 6531-6535. Xu, Z., Primavera, J.H., De La Pena, L.D., Pettit, P., Belak, J. and Alcivar-Warren. 2001. Genetic diversity of wild and cultured Black Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in the Phillippines using microsatellites. Aquaculture 199: 13-40.

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒÃãªà·¤¹Ô¤ ¾Õ«ÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃà;մã¹àº×ͧµ¹ã¹¡§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ Õ Õ é Ø

9

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1 ÅӴѺ¹ÔǤÅÕâÍä·´¢Í§ä¾ÃàÁÍ÷Õèãªã¹¡ÒÃà¾ÔèÁ»ÃÔÁÒ³´ÕàÍç¹àÍ

ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-1 MR-2 MR-3 MR-4 MR-5 MR-6 MR-7 MR-8 MR-9 MR-10 MR-11 MR-12 MR-13 MR-14 MR-15 MR-16 MR-17 MR-18 MR-19 MR-20 MR-21 MR-22 MR-23 ÅíҴѺ 5 3 TCACGATGC TGCTCACTG ACGGTACACT TCGTAGCCAA TCACGATGCA CTGTTGCTAC CCTGATGCT GCAAGTAGCT CGCAAGTAG TGGACACTG GGAAGTAGT ACCTCGAGC CGAGCACTG ATTGCGTCCA TCTCCGCTTG TGTAGCAGGG TGGTCGCAGA CTCAGTGTCC ACCCCGCCAA GGCGGATAAG GACTGCCTCT TCGCATCCCT TGGGCAGAAG ÁÇÅâÁàÅ¡ØÅ 2699 2690 3012 3012 3012 2994 2690 3052 2748 2739 2803 2684 2724 3993 2961 3099 3059 2970 2933 3108 2970 2930 3108 à»ÍÃà«ç¹µ G+C 0.56 0.56 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.56 0.5 0.56 0.56 0.5 0.67 0.67 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 ¢¹Ò´á¶º´ÕàÍç¹àÍ (¤ÙàºÊ) 552, 654, 774, 973 883 735, 848 644, 1049 560 551, 691, 916 490, 916, 1085 368, 414, 634, 900, 1122 634, 723 362, 490, 623, 711, 865 373, 547, 644, 748

- ËÁÒ¶֧ ᶺ´ÕàÍç¹àÍäÁ»ÃÒ¡®ªÑ´à¨¹

10

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒÃãªà·¤¹Ô¤ ¾Õ«ÍÒÃ-ÍÒÃà;մã¹àº×ͧµ¹ã¹¡§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ Õ Õ é Ø

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

ÃÙ»·Õè 1 áÊ´§á¶º´ÕàÍç¹àͧ͢¡Ø§¡ÒÁ¡ÃÒÁ¨Ò¡ä¾ÃàÁÍà 11 Ẻ (àŹ·Õè 1-11) ¨Ò¡ 23 Ẻ ·Õèà¾ÔèÁ»ÃÔÁÒ³ä´. Marker ໹àŹ¢Í§´ÕàÍç¹àÍÁÒµÃÒ°Ò¹ 100 bp Ladder, àŹ·Õè 1 ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-5, àŹ·Õè 2 ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-12, àŹ·Õè 3 ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-14, àŹ·Õè 4 ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-15, àŹ·Õè 5 ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-16, àŹ·Õè 6 ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-17, àŹ·Õè 7 ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-19, àŹ·Õè 8 ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR- 20, àŹ·Õè 9 ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-21, àŹ·Õè 10 ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-22, àŹ·Õè 11 ä¾ÃàÁÍà MR-23

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒÃà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin áÅÐÄ·¸Ôì¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑé§ ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÊÒÁª¹Ô´µÍ˹͹ã¼ѡ

11

¡ÒÃà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin áÅÐÄ·¸Ôì¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑ駡ÒáԹ ¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÊÒÁª¹Ô´µÍ˹͹ã¼ѡ

A Comparison of Azadirachtin Content and Their Efficacy of Three Varieties of Neem Extracts against Plutella xylostella L.

õÔÂÒ ¤Ùࢵ¾Ô·Ñ¡ÉÇ§È (Ratiya Kukhetpitakwong)1 ÊѧÇÒÅ ÊÁºÙó (Sungwarl Somboon)2 ÊØÀÒ³Õ ¾ÔÁ¾ÊÁÒ¹ (Supanee Pimsamarn)4 ÇѪÃÕ ¤Ø³¡ÔµµÔ (Watcharee Khunkitti)5

¡ÒÃÇԨ¤Ãѧ¹ÕÁǵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤à¾×ÍÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËËÒ»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin ¨Ò¡ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÍÔ¹à´Õ (Azadirachta indica Ñ é é ÕÑ è A. Juss) ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§ (Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) Jacobs) áÅÐÊÐà´Òä·Â (Azadirachta indica var siamensis Valeton) â´ÂÇÔ¸Õ HPLC áÅз´Êͺķ¸Ô¡ÒÃÂѺÂѧ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ÊÐà´ÒµÍ˹͹ã¼ѡ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¾ºÇÒÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Òä·Â·Õà¡çº¨Ò¡¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ ì é è ¢Í¹á¡¹áÅÐÊؾÃóºØÃÕ ÁÕÊÒà azadirachtin à·Ò¡Ñº 0.25% áÅÐ 0.82% µÒÁÅӴѺ áÅÐàÁ×èÍÈÖ¡ÉÒà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÔÁÒ³ azadirachtin ã¹àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò·Ñé§ 3 ª¹Ô´ «Öè§à¡çºÁÒ¨Ò¡áËŧ»ÅÙ¡·ÕèµÒ§¡Ñ¹ ¾ºÇÒÊÐà´ÒÍÔ¹à´Õ (¨Ò¡¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹) ÁÕ»ÃÔÁÒ³ azadirachtin ÁÒ¡¡ÇÒÊÐà´ÒªÒ§ (¨Ò¡¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÊØÃÒɮøҹÕ) áÅÐÊÐà´Òä·Â (¨Ò¡¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹) µÒÁÅӴѺ àÁ×èÍ·´Êͺ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ ¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò·Ñé§ÊÒÁª¹Ô´µÍ¡ÒõÒ¢ͧ˹͹ã¼ѡ ·ÕèàÇÅÒ 72 ªÑèÇâÁ§ ¾ºÇÒ àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò·Ñé§ 3 ÊÒ¾ѹ¸ÁÕ¤Ò LC50 µÒÁÅӴѺ´Ñ§¹Õé 9,550, 8,430 áÅÐ 14,510 ppm áÅмšÒÃÂѺÂÑ駡ÒáԹ㺤йҢͧ˹͹ã¼ѡà·Ò¡Ñº 55.69, 79.69 áÅÐ 44.45% µÒÁÅӴѺ «Öè§à»¹·Õè¹ÒÊѧࡵÇÒ»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin ã¹ÊÐà´ÒäÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¡Ñº»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀҾ㹡ÒáӨѴ˹͹ã¼ѡ

º·¤Ñ´ÂÍ

The aims of this study were to investigate an amount of azadirachtin in 3 species of neem seed extracts by HPLC and to compare antifeedant action of the extracts against Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L). It was found that the percentage of azadirachtin in the extract of Azadirachta indica var siamensis Valeton collected from Khon Kaen and Suphan Buri was 0.25% and 0.82%, respectively. In comparison, azadirachtin was found in Azadirachta indica A. Juss (from Khon Kaen) more than Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) Jacobs (from Suratthani) and Azadirachta indica var siamensis Valeton (from Khon Kaen), respectively. The antifeedant effect of the extracts on Diamondback moth was found at 55.69, 79.69 and 44.45%, respectively. In addition, when the toxicity of the extracts against Diamondback moth was carried out, the LC50 at 72 hours of the three species were 9,550, 8,430 and 14,510 ppm, respectively. It was interesting to note that the amount of azadirachtin was not related to the lethal and the antifeedant activities of the extracts against Diamondback moth.

Abstract

¤ÓÊÓ¤Ñ : azadirachtin ˹͹ã¼ѡ ÊÐà´Ò Keywords: Azadirachtin, Plutella xylostella L, Azadirachta

ÍÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒà·¤â¹âÅÂÕàÀÊѪ¡ÃÃÁ ¤³ÐàÀÊѪÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ ¹Ñ¡ÈÖ¡ÉÒÃдѺ»ÃÔÒàÍ¡ ÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒ¡Õ¯ÇÔ·ÂÒ ¤³Ðà¡ÉµÃÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ 3 ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒ¡Õ¯ÇÔ·ÂÒ ¤³Ðà¡ÉµÃÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ 4 ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒà·¤â¹âÅÂÕàÀÊѪ¡ÃÃÁ ¤³ÐàÀÊѪÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹

1 2

12

¡ÒÃà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin áÅÐÄ·¸Ôì¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑé§ ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÊÒÁª¹Ô´µÍ˹͹ã¼ѡ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

ÊÒà azadirachtin à» ¹ ÊÒ÷Õè Ê ¡Ñ ´ ä´ ¨ Ò¡ ÊǹµÒ§æ ¢Í§µ¹ÊÐà´Ò હ àÁÅç´ã¹ (seed kernel) à»Å×Í¡ÅÓµ¹ 㺠ÃÒ¡ áÅÐÅÓµ¹ ໹µ¹ â¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§ ¢Í§ azadirachtin ¤ÅÒ¡ѺÎÍÃâÁ¹¢Í§áÁŧ·ÕèàÃÕ¡ÇÒ ecdysones «Ö觤Ǻ¤ØÁ¢ºÇ¹¡Òà metamorphosis ¢Í§ áÁŧ㹡ÒÃà¨ÃÔàµÔºâµ¨Ò¡Ë¹Í¹à»¹´Ñ¡á´áÅÐà¢ÒÊÙ µÑÇàµçÁÇÑ હ ÃЧѺ¡ÒáԹÍÒËÒà (antifeedant) ÂѺÂѧ é ¡ÒÃà¨ÃÔàµÔºâµ ÂѺÂѧ¡ÒÃÊÃÒ§ä¢áÅСÒÃÇ񤊢 ÃÇÁ¶Ö§ é Ä·¸ÔìäÅáÁŧÈѵÃپת (repellant) ໹µ¹ (Schmutter, 1992) »ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin ÁÒ¡·ÕèÊØ´ã¹àÁÅç´ã¹ ¤Ô´à»¹ÃÍÂÅÐ 0.25 ¢Í§¹éÓ˹ѡàÁÅç´ã¹Ê´·ÕÁ¤ÇÒÁª×¹ è Õ é ÃÍÂÅÐ 25 (Sundaram, 1996) ¡ÒÃà¡çºà¡ÕèÂÇàÁÅç´ ÊÐà´Òà¾×èÍãËä´ÊÒà azadirachtin »ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÙ§·ÕèÊØ´ àÁ×èÍ ¼ÅÊÐà´Òà»ÅÕ蹨ҡÊÕà¢ÕÂÇ໹àËÅ×ͧ ËÃ×ͼÅÊÐà´ÒÁÕ ÍÒÂØ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 17 ÊÑ»´ÒË áÅФÇùӼŷÕèà¡çºä´ÁÒ ·Ó¡ÒÃÊ¡Ñ´â´ÂàÃçÇ·ÕèÊØ´ à¾×èÍãËÁÕ»ÃÔÁÒ³ azadirachtin ¤§àËÅ×ÍÁÒ¡·ÕÊ´ àÁ×Íà¡çºàÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒäÇ·Á´ ÍسËÀÙÁÔ èØ è Õè × 20-35°C ¤ÇÒÁª×é¹ÊÑÁ¾Ñ·¸ÃÍÂÅÐ 50-60 ໹àÇÅÒ 1 áÅÐ 4 à´×͹ ¾ºÇÒ»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin Ŵŧ ¶Ö§ÃÍÂÅÐ 5 áÅÐ 32 µÒÁÅӴѺ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õé¡ÒÃà¡çºã¹ ·Õâ´¹áʧᴴ¨Ð·ÓãËÊàÊÕÂÊÒà azadirachtin ÁÒ¡¢Ö¹ è Ù é (Yakkundi áÅФ³Ð, 1995) ¡ÒÃÇԨ¤Ãѧ¹Õ໹¡ÒÃà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒÃ Ñ é é azadirachtin ·ÕèÁÕÍÂÙã¹ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ÊÐà´Ò¢Í§àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò ÍÔ¹à´Õ ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§ áÅÐÊÐà´Òä·Â â´ÂÇÔ¸Õ HPLC áÅÐ Ä·¸ÔºÂѧ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ÊÐà´Ò¨Ò¡áËŧµÒ§æ µÍ ìÑ é ˹͹ã¼ѡ (Plutella xylostella L.) «Ö§à»¹áÁŧÈѵÃÙ¢ÒÇ è

º·¹Ó

à¡çº¨Ò¡¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹ àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§ (Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) Jacobs) à¡çº¨Ò¡¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÊØÃÒÉ®Ã¸Ò¹Õ áÅÐ àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Òä·Â (Azadirachta indica var siamensis Valeton) à¡çº¨Ò¡¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹áÅШѧËÇÑ´ÊؾÃóºØÃÕ ªÇ§à´×͹ÁÕ¹Ò¤Á¶Ö§àÁÉÒ¹ ¾.È.2542 áÅйéÓ·Õè㪠ÊÓËÃÑ º HPLC ·ÓãË º ÃÔ ÊØ · ¸Ôì â ´Â㪠à кº Milli Q Water Purification (Millipore) ¡ÒÃÊ¡Ñ´àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò µÒÁÇÔ¸¢Í§ Schroeder Õ áÅÐ Nakanishi ¡ÒÃàµÃÕÂÁÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ÊÐà´ÒẺËÂÒº (crude extract) ·Ó¡Òú´àÁÅç ´ ÊÐà´Ò·Õè á ¡ÐàÍÒà»Å× Í ¡ËØ Á àÁÅç´ÍÍ¡àËÅ×ÍÊǹ¢Í§àÁÅç´ã¹·ÕèÁÕÊÕà¢ÕÂǹéÓ˹ѡ 500 ¡ÃÑÁ ¼ÊÁ¡ÑºàÁ¸Ò¹ÍÅ 2,000 ml ËÁÑ¡·Ô§äÇ 24 ªÑÇâÁ§ é è ¡Ç¹·Ø¡ 1 ªÑèÇâÁ§ ÃÐà˵ÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒÂÍÍ¡â´Âãªà¤Ã×èͧ rotary evaporator ·ÕèÍسËÀÙÁÔ 60°C áÅÐà¡çº crude extract (ÊÒÃà˹ÕÂÇÊÕ¹éÓµÒÅÍÁà¢ÕÂÇ) ·Õèä´ ¡ÒÃàµÃÕÂÁÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ NR-1 ·Ó¡Òú´àÁÅç ´ ÊÐà´Ò·Õè á ¡ÐàÍÒà»Å× Í ¡ËØ Á àÁÅç´ÍÍ¡àËÅ×ÍÊǹ¢Í§àÁÅç´ã¹·ÕèÁÕÊÕà¢ÕÂǹéÓ˹ѡ 500 ¡ÃÑÁ ¼ÊÁŧ㹠hexane »ÃÔÁҵà 500 ml ËÁÑ¡·ÕͳËÀÙÁÔ èØ Ëͧ ¡Ç¹·Ø¡ 1 ªÑèÇâÁ§ áÅÇà·ÊÒÃÅÐÅÒ·Ôé§ Ê¡Ñ´´Ç hexane «éӨӹǹ 4 ¤ÃÑé§ à¾×èÍ᡹éÓÁѹÊÐà´ÒÍÍ¡¨Ò¡ àÁÅç´ ¹Ó¼§àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò·Õè¼Ò¹¡ÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¹éÓÁѹÍÍ¡ä»ÁÒ ¼Öè§ãËá˧ áÅǼÊÁ¡ÑºàÁ¸Ò¹ÍÅ 500 ml ËÁÑ¡·Ôé§äÇ 1 ªÑèÇâÁ§ à·ÊǹÊÒÃÅÐÅÒÂà¡çºäÇ Ê¡Ñ´´ÇÂàÁ¸Ò¹ÍÅ«éÓ ÍÕ¡¨Ó¹Ç¹ 3 ¤ÃÑé§ áÅÐà¡çºÊǹÊÒÃÅÐÅÒ·Õèä´ »ÃÐÁÒ ³ 2,000 ml ¹Óä»ÃÐà˵ÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒÂÍÍ¡â´Âãªà¤Ã×ͧ è rotary evaporator ·ÕèÍسËÀÙÁÔ 60°C áÅÐà¡çº crude extract ·Õèä´ ·Ó¡ÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ crude extract ·Õèä´µÍâ´ÂÅÐÅÒ ã¹àÁ¸Ò¹ÍÅ 80% »ÃÔÁҵà 150 ml áÅÐàµÔÁ hexane ÍÕ¡»ÃÔÁҵ÷Õà·Ò¡Ñ¹ à¢ÂÒà¾×Íá¡ʡѴÊǹ¹éÓÁѹÊÐà´Ò è è ÍÍ¡ á¡à¡ç º Ê Ç ¹¢Í§àÁ¸Ò¹ÍŹÓÁÒÊ¡Ñ ´ «éÓ ¡Ñ º hexane ¨¹¡Ãзѧ¢Í§àËÅǪѹ hexane ãÊ à¡çº¢Í§àËÅÇ è é ªÑé¹àÁ¸Ò¹ÍÅ ä»ÃÐàËÂàÍÒµÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒÂÍÍ¡ ä´ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ NR-1

ÇÔ¸¡ÒÃÇÔ¨Â Õ Ñ

ÊÒÃà¤ÁÕ Azadirachtin ¤ÇÒÁºÃÔ ÊØ · ¸Ôì Á Ò¡¡Ç Ò 95 à»ÍÃà«ç¹µ (Sigma), Acetonitrile, HPLC grade (Labscan) áÅÐÊÒÃà¤ÁÕÍ×è¹æ ໹ analytical grade àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÍÔ¹à´Õ (Azadirachta indica A. Juss)

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒÃà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin áÅÐÄ·¸Ôì¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑé§ ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÊÒÁª¹Ô´µÍ˹͹ã¼ѡ

13

¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËËÒ»ÃÔÁÒ³ Azadirachtin â´Â ÇÔ¸Õ High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐ˹Õé䴾Ѳ¹ÒÇԸբͧ Yakkundi SR áÅФ³Ð (1995) ãªà¤Ã×èͧ HPLC (Perkin Elmer, model 1022) µÍ¡Ñº»Á (Perkin Elmer, series 200 LC pump) áÅÐ mobile phase »ÃСͺ´Ç acetonitrile áÅйéÓ à»¹ÊÑ´Êǹ 40 µÍ 60 â´Â»ÃÔÁҵà 㪠flow rate à·Ò¡Ñº 1 ml/min ໹àÇÅÒ 6 ¹Ò·Õ 㪤ÍÅÑÁ¹ Waters Novapak C18 (4.6 mm x 15 cm ºÃèشÇ octadecylsilica ¢¹Ò´ 4 µm) 㪠UV detector (Perkin Elmer, model 785A/CORAD) ¤ÇÒÁÂÒǤÅ×è¹ 210 nm áÅÐ㪠propylparaben ໹ÊÒÃÁҵðҹÀÒÂã¹ (internal standard) ¡ÒÃàÅÕ§˹͹ã¼ѡ é ¹Ó˹͹ãÂ¼Ñ ¡ ¨Ò¡á»Å§¼Ñ ¡ ¢Í§à¡ÉµÃ¡Ã ÁÒàÅÕ§à¾ÔÁ»ÃÔÁÒ³ã¹Ëͧ»®Ôºµ¡ÒõÒÁÇÔ¸¢Í§ÇªÔÃÒÀó é è Ñ Ô Õ (2545) â´Â¹Ó˹͹ã¼ѡÁÒàÅÕé§㹡Åͧ¾ÅÒʵԡ ¨¹¡ÃзÑè§áÁŧà¢Ò´Ñ¡á´ à¡çº´Ñ¡á´ãÊ¡Åͧ¢¹Ò´àÅç¡ áÅǹÓä»ÇÒ§äÇ㹡ç¼Òä¹Å͹·ÕèÁÕâ¤Ã§à»¹ÅÇ´¢¹Ò´ 20 x 30 x 30 ૹµÔàÁµÃ à¾×èÍãËà¨ÃÔ໹µÑÇàµçÁÇÑ áÅмÊÁ¾Ñ¹¸Ø¡Ñ¹ ãʵ¹¤Ð¹Ò·Õè»ÅÙ¡â´ÂäÁãªÊÒÃ¦Ò áÁŧÍÒÂØ 3-5 Çѹ à¾×ÍãË໹·ÕÇÒ§ä¢áÅÐãËÊÒÃÅÐÅÒ è è ¹éÓ¼Öé§ 10 % ໹ÍÒËÒâͧµÑÇàµçÁÇÑ »ÅÍÂã˼ÕàÊ×éÍ Ç񤊢 ËÅѧ¨Ò¡¹Ñé¹ 2 Çѹ ÂÒ¡Ãжҧ¤Ð¹Ò·ÕèÁÕ¡ÅØÁä¢ Ë¹Í¹ãÂ¼Ñ ¡ ä»äÇ ã ¹¡Ã§·Õè ã ª à ÅÕé  §µÑ Ç Ë¹Í¹·Ó´ Ç Â ¾ÅÒʵԡäÁÅÒâ¹Ò´ 30 x 30 x 75 ૹµÔàÁµÃ áÅÇ àÅÕé  §´ Ç Âµ ¹ ¤Ð¹ Ò ÍÒÂØ 5-6 ÊÑ » ´ÒË à»ÅÕè  ¹¤Ð¹ Ò ·Ø¡ 1-2 Çѹ àÅÕ駨¹à¢Ò´Ñ¡á´ÃعãËÁáÅÇà¡çº´Ñ¡á´ ä»ÇÒ§äÇ㹡ç¼Òà¾×èÍãË໹µÑÇàµçÁÇÑ ¼ÊÁ¾Ñ¹¸ØáÅÐ Çҧ䢵Íä» àÁ×è͵ͧ¡Ò÷´Êͺķ¸Ôì¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑ駡ÒáԹ ¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ÊÐà´ÒãËàÅ×͡˹͹ã¼ѡÍÒÂØ 4 Çѹ ÁÒ ·Ó¡Ò÷´ÊͺµÍä»

¡Ò÷´Êͺķ¸Ô¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ÊÐà´Ò㹡ÒÃÂѺÂѧ ì é ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã¼ѡ ÇÔ¸Õ feeding leaf disc (Feeding test) â´ÂàµÃÕÂÁ ÊÒÃÅÐÅÒ¢ͧÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº·Õè¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ 5,000, 10,000, 30,000 áÅÐ 50,000 ppm áÅǹÓãº¤Ð¹Ò »ÅÍ´ÊÒÃ¾Ô É ·Õè µÑ ´ à» ¹ ǧ¡ÅÁàÊ ¹ ¼ Ò ÈÙ ¹  ¡ ÅÒ§ 3 ૹµÔàÁµÃ ¨ØÁã¹ÊÒÃÅÐÅÒ»ÃÔÁҵà 10 ÁÔÅÅÔÅԵà ໹ àÇÅÒ 3 ÇÔ¹Ò·Õ ¼Öè§ãËá˧¨Ö§»ÅÍÂ˹͹ã¼ѡÇÑ 2 ¨Ó¹Ç¹ 10 µÑÇ ·Ó¡Ò÷´Åͧ 5 ªØ´ (á¼¹¡Ò÷´Åͧ completely randomized design) µÃǨ¹Ñº¼Å¡ÒõÒ ¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã¼ѡ·Ø¡ 24 ªÑèÇâÁ§ ÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË¢ÍÁÙÅ Probit analysis ´ÇÂâ»Ãá¡ÃÁÊÓàÃç¨ÃÙ» QUANTX 13 ËÒ¤ÇÒÁ ࢠÁ ¢ ¹ ¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ ´ ·Õè ·ÓãË Ë ¹Í¹ãÂ¼Ñ ¡ µÒ 50% (LC50) ·ÕèàÇÅÒ 72 ªÑèÇâÁ§ áÅÐÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑ駡ÒáԹ ¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã¼ѡàÁ×èÍãªÊÒÃÅÐÅÒ¢ͧÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´·Õè¤ÇÒÁ à¢Á¢¹ 10,000 ppm â´Â¡ÒÃÇÑ´¾×¹·Õ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ é è ã¼ѡáÅФӹdzËÒà»ÍÃૹµ¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑ駡ÒáԹ¨Ò¡ ÊÁ¡ÒÃ

Treatment Feeding Inhibitor (%) = 100 - 100 × Control

àÁ×èÍ Treatment ¤×Í ¾×é¹·Õè¡ÒáԹ㺤йҷÕè ÁÕÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã¼ѡ Control ¤×Í ¾×é¹·Õè¡ÒÃ¡Ô¹ãº¤Ð¹Ò »ÅÍ´ÊÒþÔɢͧ˹͹ã¼ѡ

¼Å¡ÒÃÇԨ Ñ

¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËËÒ»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin ´Ç ÇÔ¸Õ HPLC ÁÕ¤Ò¾Ô¡Ñ´µèÓÊØ´·ÕèÊÒÁÒöµÃǨ¾ºä´à·Ò¡Ñº 472 ng/ml (9.5 ng) áÅоԡѴµèÓÊØ´·ÕèÊÒÁÒöµÃǨ ÇÑ´»ÃÔÁÒ³ä´à·Ò¡Ñº 2.12 mg/ml (42.4 ng) ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁ äÇà·Ò¡Ñº 16 ng/ml â´ÂµÃǨ¾ºÊÒà azadirachtin áÅÐ propylparaben ·ÕàÇÅÒ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 3.9 áÅÐ 5.2 ¹Ò·Õ µÒÁ è ÅӴѺ àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Òä·Â·Õ»Å١㹨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹áÅÐ è ÊؾÃóºØÃÕ (µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1) ÁÕ»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin

14

¡ÒÃà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin áÅÐÄ·¸Ôì¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑé§ ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÊÒÁª¹Ô´µÍ˹͹ã¼ѡ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

ã¹ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ NR-1 ¹éÓ˹ѡ 1 ¡ÃÑÁà·Ò¡Ñº 2.54 + 0.124 áÅÐ 8.15 + 0.528 ÁÔÅÅÔ¡ÃÑÁ µÒÁÅӴѺ ËÒ¡¹ÓÊÒà ʡѴ NR-1 ÁÒ·Óã˺ÃÔÊØ·¸à¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹ â´Â¹ÓÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ NR-1 ÁÒÅÐÅÒÂã¹ àÁ¸Ò¹ÍÅ 50% áÅÐÊ¡Ñ´´Ç dichloromethane ¾ºÇ Ò ¤ÇÒÁࢠÁ ¢ ¹ ¢Í§ÊÒà azadirachtin ÊÙ§¢Öé¹ÍÂÒ§ÁÕ¹ÑÂÊӤѨҡ 0.25% ໹ 18.20% (»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin 182.0 + 10.839 ÁÔÅÅÔ¡ÃÑÁ/¡ÃÑÁ) áÅÐä´ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´·Õè໹¼§á˧ÊÕà¢ÕÂÇ ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ã¹¢Í§ÊÐà´Ò NR-1 ·ÕèÊ¡Ñ´ä´â´Â ÇÔ¸Õ¡ÒùÕéÁÕÅѡɳÐà˹ÕÂÇÊÕ¹éÓµÒÅÍÁà¢ÕÂÇ áÅоºÇÒÁÕ ÊÒà azadirachtin ໹ͧ¤»ÃСͺËÅѡહà´ÕÂǡѺ㹠ÊÐà´ÒÍÕ¡·Ñé§ 2 ª¹Ô´ â´Â¾ºÇÒÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ ÊÐà´ÒÍÔ ¹ à´Õ  ÁÕ » ÃÔ Á Ò³ÊÒà azadirachtin ÊÙ § ·Õè ÊØ ´ (µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1) ÃͧŧÁÒ໹ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§ áÅÐÊÐà´Òä·Â µÒÁÅӴѺ ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§ÁÕ¤Ò LC50 à·Ò¡Ñº 8,430 ppm (µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1) «Öè§ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ໹¾ÔÉÊÙ§ ·Õʴ㹡Ò÷ÓãË˹͹ã¼ѡµÒÂâ´ÂàËÅ×Í˹͹ã¼ѡ èØ ·ÕÁªÇµÃÍ´ 50% ÃͧŧÁÒ໹ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ è ÕÕÔ ÊÐà´ÒÍÔ ¹ à´Õ  áÅÐÊÐà´Òä·Â µÒÁÅÓ´Ñ º 㹷ӹͧ à´ÕÂǡѹÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÂѧÁÕ¼ÅÂѺÂѧ¡ÒÃ¡Ô¹ãº é ¤Ð¹Ò¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã¼ѡ ¾ºÇÒ˹͹ã¼ѡ¡Ô¹ãº¤Ð¹Ò 䴹ͷÕèÊØ´àÁ×èÍÁÕÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§ µ¡¤Ò§ÍÂÙ (¤Ò¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑ駡ÒáԹ à·Ò¡Ñº 79.69%) ´Ñ§ÃÙ»·Õè 1 ÃͧŧÁÒ໹ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò ÍÔ ¹ à´Õ Â Ê Ç ¹ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ ´ ËÂÒº¨Ò¡àÁÅç ´ ÊÐà´Òä·ÂÁÕ »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀҾ㹡ÒÃÂѺÂÑ駡ÒáԹ㺤йҢͧ˹͹㠼ѡ¹Í·ÕèÊØ´ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑ駡ÒáԹ¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã ¼Ñ¡¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ÊÐà´Ò·Ñ§ÊÒÁª¹Ô´¾ºÇÒ ÅѡɳСÒáԹ é ¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã¼ѡÁÕ¡ÒáÃШÒÂäÁ໹»¡µÔ¨Ö§ÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË ¢ÍÁÙÅʶԵÔẺäÁ㪾ÒÃÒàÁµÃÔ¡ ´Ç JonckheereTerpstra test ¾ºÇÒÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ÊÐà´ÒÁÕ¼ÅÂѺÂѧ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§ é ˹͹ ã¼ѡᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ÍÂÒ§ÁÕ¹ÑÂÊӤѷҧʶԵԷÕè ÃдѺ¤ÇÒÁàª×ÍÁѹ 95% (p=0.012) â´Â¾ºÇÒÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ è è ËÂÒº¢Í§ÊÐà´Òä·ÂáÅÐÍÔ¹à´ÕÂÁռŵ͡ÒÃÂѺÂѧ¡ÒáԹ é ¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã¼ѡäÁᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ ¢³Ð·ÕèÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº ¢Í§ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§ÊÒÁÒöÂѺÂÑ駡ÒáԹ¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã¼ѡ

ä´´Õ¡ÇÒÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ÊÐà´Ò·Ñé§ÊͧÍÂÒ§ÁÕ¹ÑÂÊÓ¤Ñ·Ò§Ê¶ÔµÔ (p< 0.01) ·ÕÃдѺ¤ÇÒÁàª×ÍÁѹ 95% àÁ×Í·´Êͺ¢ÍÁÙÅ è è è è ´Ç Mann-Whitney test

¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin ·ÕèÁÕã¹ ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ ´ àÁÅç ´ ÊÐà´Òä·Â¨Ò¡¨Ñ § ËÇÑ ´ ¢Í¹á¡ ¹ áÅÐ ÊØ ¾ ÃóºØ ÃÕ ¾ºÇ Ò àÁÅç ´ ÊÐà´Òä·Â·Õè à ¡ç º ¨Ò¡¨Ñ § ËÇÑ ´ ÊؾÃóºØÃÁ»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin ÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ·Õà¡çº¨Ò¡ Õ Õ è ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹ ·Ñ駹ÕéÍҨ໹ä»ä´ÇÒÊÒÃÍÒËÒÃã¹´Ô¹ áÅÐÊÀÒ¾ÍÒ¡ÒÈ·Õè¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÊؾÃóºØÃÕ ÍҨᵡµÒ§¨Ò¡ ·Õè¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹Ê§¼ÅãË»ÃÔÁÒ³ azadirachtin ã¹ ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ÊÐà´Ò·Õèà¡çº¨Ò¡¾×é¹·ÕèµÒ§¡Ñ¹ÁÕ»ÃÔÁÒ³·ÕèäÁà·Ò ¡Ñ¹ «Öè§Â×¹Âѹ¼Å¢Í§¡ÒÃÃǺÃÇÁÃÒ§ҹ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒà¡ÕèÂÇ ¡ÑºÊÐà´ÒÇÒ»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin ·ÕèÁÕÍÂÙã¹àÁÅç´ ÊÐà´Ò¹Ñé¹¢Öé¹ÍÂ١Ѻª¹Ô´ áËŧ»ÅÙ¡ áÅСÒÃà¡çºÃÑ¡ÉÒ àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò (¹¾ÁÒÈ, 2535) áÅÐàÁ×èÍà»ÃÕºà·Õº »ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin ·ÕèÁÕÍÂÙã¹àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò 3 ª¹Ô´ ¾ºÇÒ ã¹àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÍÔ¹à´ÕÂÁÕ»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin ÁÒ¡·ÕèÊØ´ ÃͧŧÁÒ໹àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§áÅÐàÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò ä·Â µÒÁÅӴѺ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº ¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒµÍ¡ÒõÒ¢ͧ˹͹ã¼ѡ ¾ºÇÒ ¤Ò ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§·Õè ·ÓãË˹͹ã¼ѡµÒÂã¡Åà¤Õ§¡Ñ¹¡Ñº¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ ¨Ò¡ãºÊÐà´ÒªÒ§´ÇÂàÁ¸Ò¹Íŵ͡ÒõÒ¢ͧ˹͹㠼ѡÇÑ·Õè 3 ¢Í§ Êع·Ã áÅФ³Ð (2543) «Ö觾ºÇÒ¤Ò LC50 ·ÕèàÇÅÒ 72 ªÑèÇâÁ§¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´´Ñ§¡ÅÒÇàÁ×èÍãËâ´Â ¡ÒÃË´ÊÒÃÅÐÅÒ 1 ml ŧº¹ºÃÔàdz͡»Åͧáá (pronotum) ¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã¼ѡ áÅСÒþ¹Êà»ÃÂÊÒà ÅÐÅÒ 10 ml µÍ˹͹ã¼ѡ 1 µÑÇ à»¹ 847.6 mg/L áÅÐ 469.7 mg/L µÒÁÅӴѺ ·Ñ駹ÕéÍҨ໹ä»ä´ÇÒ ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´·Õä´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´áÅÐ㺢ͧÊÐà´ÒªÒ§ÁÕ»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà è ÊӤѷÕèÍÍ¡Ä·¸ÔìµÍ˹͹ã¼ѡã¡Åà¤Õ§¡Ñ¹ËÃ×ÍÍÒ¨ÁÕ ÊÒÃÊӤѷÕèµÒ§¡Ñ¹áµÁռŷÓãË˹͹ã¼ѡµÒÂã¡Å à¤Õ§¡Ñ¹·Ñ駹ÕéµÍ§·Ó¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒà»ÃÕºà·ÕºµÍä»

ÇÔ¨Òó¼Å¡ÒÃÇԨ Ñ

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒÃà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin áÅÐÄ·¸Ôì¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑé§ ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÊÒÁª¹Ô´µÍ˹͹ã¼ѡ

15

¶Ö§áÁÇÒÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº¢Í§àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§¨ÐÁÕ »ÃÔÁÒ³ azadirachtin ¹Í¡ÇÒÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò ÍÔ¹à´Õ¡çµÒÁ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒõÒ¢ͧ˹͹ã¼ѡáÅÐ ¡ÒÃÂѺÂѧ¡ÒáԹ㺤йҢͧ˹͹ã¼ѡ¾ºÇÒ ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ é ËÂÒº¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§ÁռŷÓãË˹͹ã¼ѡµÒÂáÅÐ ÂѺÂѧ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã¼ѡ䴴¡ÇÒÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº¨Ò¡ é Õ àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÍÔ¹à´ÕÂáÅÐÊÐà´Òä·ÂÍÂÒ§ÁÕ¹ÑÂÊӤѷҧ Ê¶ÔµÔ áÊ´§ÇÒ»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin ·ÕèÁÕÍÂÙã¹àÁÅç´ ÊÐà´ÒäÁÁ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¡º»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾µÍ˹͹ã¼ѡ Õ Ñ ·Ñ駹ÕéÍҨ໹ä»ä´ÇÒ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡ azadiracthin ·Õè໹ÊÒà ÊÓ¤ÑáÅǹҨÐÁÕÊÒÃÍ×è¹·ÕèÁռŵÍ˹͹ã¼ѡ áÅÇÂѧ ÍҨ໹¼Å¨Ò¡ÊÒÃÍ×è¹æ «Öè§ÁÕÃÒ§ҹÇÒÁÕ¾ÔɵÍ˹͹ ã¼ѡહ¡Ñ¹ à¾ÃÒÐÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ÊÐà´ÒËÅÑ¡ æ ¨Ð໹Êǹ ¼ÊÁ¢Í§ÊÒûÃСͺ 3-4 ª¹Ô´ ä´á¡ azadiracthin «Öè§ ÊÒÁÒöäŠú¡Ç¹¡ÒÃà¨ÃÔàµÔºâµáÅСÒÃÊ׺¾Ñ¹¸¢Í§ áÁŧÈѵÃÙ áÅÐÊÒÃ㹡ÅÁ Limonoids ÍÂÒ§¹Í 9 ª¹Ô´ Ø «Öè§ÊÒÁÒöÂѺÂÑ駡ÒÃà¨ÃÔàµÔºâµ¢Í§áÁŧËÅÒª¹Ô´ (Schmutter, 1992) Cohen áÅФ³Ð (1996) ÃÒ§ҹ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¤ÇÒÁ໹¾ÔɢͧÊÒà limonoids 6 ª¹Ô´ µ Í à«ÅÅ ¢ ͧáÁŧáÅÐÊÑ µ Ç à ÅÕé  §ÅÙ ¡ ´ Ç Â¹Á ¾ºÇ Ò nimbolide ໹ÊÒ÷ÕèÁÕ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾´Õ·ÕèÊØ´ â´ÂÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ ࢠÁ ¢ ¹ ÊÓËÃÑ º ¡ÒÃÂÑ º ÂÑé § à«ÅÅ ¨Ó¹Ç¹ 50% (IC 50) à©ÅÕè 6 mM áÅÐÍÍ¡Ä·¸ÔìÂѺÂÑé§à«ÅŢͧÊѵÇàÅÕé§ÅÙ¡ ´Ç¹Áä´ÃÇ´àÃçÇÀÒÂã¹àÇÅÒ 25-50 ¹Ò·Õ ·Õè·ÓãËÁÕ à«ÅÅÃÍ´ªÕÇÔµ 50% ¢³Ð·ÕèÊÒà azadirachtin µÍ§ãª ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ 200 mM ¨Ö§¨ÐÂѧ¤§ÁվɵÍà«ÅÅ Ô áÁŧ Drosophila KC áµ ä Á ÁÕ ¼ ŵ Í à«ÅÅ á Áŧ Sopodoptera frugiperda Sf9 áÅÐà«ÅŢͧÊѵÇàÅÕé§ÅÙ¡ ´Ç¹Á ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ã¹¡ÒäǺ¤ØÁ¤Ø³ÀÒ¾¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡ àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Òâ´Â㪻ÃÔÁÒ³ azadirachtin ª¹Ô´à´ÕÂÇ໹ marker ÍÒ¨äÁà¾Õ§¾Í ·Ñ駹Õé¨ÐµÍ§ÈÖ¡ÉÒà¾×èÍËÒÊÒà ÊÓ¤ÑÍ×¹·ÕÊÒÁÒöáÊ´§¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ÃÐËÇÒ§ÊÒÃÊÓ¤Ñ è è ã¹ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¡Ñº»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´µÍáÁŧ໹ ÊÒÃÁҵðҹÃÇÁµÍä»

àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Òä·Â·Õà¡çºä´¨Ò¡áËŧ»ÅÙ¡µÒ§¡Ñ¹ è ¤×Í ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹áÅШѧËÇÑ´ÊؾÃóºØÃÕ ¾º»ÃÔÁÒ³ ÊÒà azadirachtin ᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ â´ÂÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ ÊÐà´Òä·Â·Õà¡çº¨Ò¡¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÊؾÃóºØÃÁ»ÃÔÁÒ³¢Í§ÊÒà è Õ Õ azadirachtin 0.82% «Ö§ÁÕ»ÃÔÁÒ³ÁÒ¡¡ÇÒã¹ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡ è ÊÐà´Òä·Â¨Ò¡¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹«Öè§ÁÕÊÒà azadirachtin à¾Õ§ 0.25% »ÃÔÁÒ³ azadirachtin ÁÕÁÒ¡·ÕÊ´ã¹àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò èØ ÍÔ¹à´Õ ÃͧŧÁÒä´á¡ ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§áÅÐÊÐà´Òä·Â µÒÁ ÅӴѺ Êǹ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒµÍ¡Òà µÒ¢ͧ˹͹ã¼ѡáÅСÒÃÂѺÂÑ駡ÒáԹ¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã ¼Ñ¡ ¾ºÇÒÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§ÁÕ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾´Õ ·ÕèÊØ´ ÃͧŧÁÒ໹ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÍÔ¹à´ÕÂáÅÐ ÊÐà´Òä·Â µÒÁÅӴѺ ÊÒà azadirachtin ໹ͧ¤»ÃСͺËÅÑ¡ã¹ àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò·ÕÊ¡Ñ´´ÇÂàÁ¸Ò¹ÍÅ áµäÁãªÊÒÃÊÓ¤Ñà¾Õ§ è ª¹Ô´à´ÕÂÇã¹àÁÅç´ÊÐà´Ò·ÕèÍÍ¡Ä·¸ÔìÂѺÂÑ駡ÒáԹËÃ×Í ¡ÒÃà¨ÃÔàµÔºâµ¢Í§áÁŧ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¢Í§ ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´µÍáÁŧ¨Ö§äÁÁ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¡¹¡Ñº»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒÃ Õ Ñ azadirachtin «Ö觾ºÇÒÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§ÁÕ »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ÊÙ§·Õʴ㹡ÒÃÂѺÂѧ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã¼ѡ èØ é áÅзÓãË˹͹ã¼ѡµÒ àÁ×Íà»ÃÕºà·Õº¡ÑºÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ è ¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÍÔ¹à´ÕÂáÅÐÊÐà´Òä·Â

ÊÃØ»¼Å¡ÒÃÇԨ Ñ

§Ò¹ÇԨ¤Ãѧ¹Õ໹Êǹ˹֧¢Í§§Ò¹ÇԨ·Õä´Ãº Ñ é é è Ñ è Ñ ·Ø ¹ ÍØ ´ Ë¹Ø ¹ ¡ÒÃÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¨Ò¡¡ÃÁ¡ÒÃá¾·Â á ¼¹ä·Â ¡ÃзÃǧÊÒ¸ÒóÊØ¢ â´Â¤ÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×ÍÃÐËÇÒ§ÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒ ¡Õ¯ÇÔ·ÂÒ ¤³Ðà¡ÉµÃÈÒʵà áÅÐÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒà·¤â¹âÅÂÕ àÀÊѪ¡ÃÃÁ ¤³ÐàÀÊѪÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹

¡ÔµµÔ¡ÃÃÁ»ÃСÒÈ

16

¡ÒÃà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin áÅÐÄ·¸Ôì¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑé§ ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÊÒÁª¹Ô´µÍ˹͹ã¼ѡ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

¹¾ÁÒÈ ÊÃþ¤Ø³. 2535. ÂÒ¦ÒáÁŧ¨Ò¡ÊÐà´Ò. ¨ØÅÊÒâÍÁÙÅÊÁعä¾Ã. 9 (3) : 12-19. ǪÔÃÒÀó Îѧ¡ÒÊÕ. 2545. »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ ÊÐà´ÒµÍ¡ÒÃÇ񤊢 ¡ÒÃÊ׺¾Ñ¹¸Ø áÅСÒà ÃÍ´ªÕÇÔµ. ÇÔ·ÂÒ¹Ô¾¹¸»ÃÔÒÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵà ÁËҺѳ±Ôµ ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹. Êع·Ã ¾Ô¾¸áʧ¨Ñ¹·Ã, ·ÔÇÒ ºØµÃ¼Ò, »ÒÃÔªÒµÔ »ÒÅÔ¹·Ã, Ô ÊØ»ÃÕÂÒ Â׹§ÊÇÑÊ´Ôì áÅÐʹÑè¹ ÈØÀ¸ÕÃÊ¡ØÅ. 2543. ¡ÒÃÈÖ ¡ ÉÒÄ·¸Ôì ¢ ͧ¾× ª ºÒ§ª¹Ô ´ ã¹ ·Í§¶Ôè¹ÀҤ㵻ÃÐà·Èä·ÂµÍ¡ÒõÒ¢ͧ ˹͹ãÂ¼Ñ ¡ . ÇÒÃÊÒÃʧ¢ÅÒ¹¤ÃÔ ¹ ·Ã . 22 (4): 447-455. Cohen E, Quistad GB and Casida JE. 1996. Cytotoxicity of nimbolide, epoxyazadiradione and other limonoids from neem insecticide. Life Sciences. 58 (13) : 1075-1081. Finney DJ. 1971. Probit Analysis. 3rd ed. London : Cambridge University Press.

àÍ¡ÊÒÃÍÒ§ÍÔ§

Raymond M. 1985. Presentation dun programme danalysis log-probit pour microordinatour. J. Parasitology. 22 (2) : 117121. Schmutter H. 1992. Neem : A tree for solving global problems. Washington, D.C. : National Academic Press. Sundaram K.M.S. 1996. Azadirachtin biopesticide : A review of studies conducted on its analytical chemistry, environmental behaviour and biological effects. Federal Republic of Germany : Weinheim. Yakkundi SR. Thejavathi R. and Ravindranath B. 1995. Variation of azadirachtin content during growth and storage of neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds. J Agric Food Chem 43. : 2517-2519.

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1 áÊ´§»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin ã¹ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº (crude extract) áÅлÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ËÂÒº µÍ˹͹ã¼ѡÇÑ 2 ·ÕèàÇÅÒ 72 ªÑèÇâÁ§

ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ ÊÐà´Òä·Â ÊÐà´ÒÍÔ¹à´Õ ÊÐà´ÒªÒ§ ÊÒà azadirachtin (%) 0.0173 0.0301 0.0224 LC50 (ppm) 14,510 9,550 8,430 95% Fiducial Limit 4,440 17,350 7,160 12,970 3,940 18,160 Slope + SE 1.708 + 0.285 1.741 + 0.289 0.877 + 0.318

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒÃà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà azadirachtin áÅÐÄ·¸Ôì¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑé§ ¡ÒáԹ¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´¨Ò¡àÁÅç´ÊÐà´ÒÊÒÁª¹Ô´µÍ˹͹ã¼ѡ

17

ÃÙ»·Õè 1 áÊ´§»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¢Í§ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ÊÐà´ÒËÂÒºµÍ¡ÒÃÂѺÂÑ駡ÒáԹ¢Í§Ë¹Í¹ã¼ѡ

18

ÊÒÃÍÐà«·ÒäÁ´ª¹Ô´ãËÁ¨Ò¡ÊÒÃÀÕ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

A New Acetamide from Mammea siamensis Kosterm.

ÈØÀªÑ µÔÂÇùѹ· (Suppachai Tiyaworanant)1 ¤³Ôµ ÊØÇÃóºÃÔÃÑ¡É (Khanit Suwanborirux)2* ªÑÂ⠪ѪҷԾÂØ·¸ (Chaiyo Chaichantipyuth)3 ¸ÕÃÐ Ä·¸ÔÃÍ´ (Theera Rittirod)4

ÊÒÃÍÐà«·ÒäÁ´ª¹Ô´ãËÁ¨Ò¡ÊÒÃÀÕ

ÊÒÃÀÕ à»¹¾×ªÊÁعä¾Ãä·Âª¹Ô´Ë¹Öè§ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒͧ¤»ÃСͺà¤Áբͧ㺠ÂÍ´ áÅд͡ ¢Í§¾×ªª¹Ô´¹ÕéÁÕ¼ÙÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅÇ ¡ÒÃÇԨѠ¹ÕéÈÖ¡ÉÒͧ¤»ÃСͺà¤Áբͧ¼Å´Ôº Íѹ¹Óä»ÊÙ¡ÒÃá¡ÊÒáÅØÁÍÐà«·ÒäÁ´ª¹Ô´ãËÁ ¤×Í 2-E-(2R,3R,4S-trihydroxycyclopentylidene)-acetamide ã˪×èÍÇÒáÁÁàÁÕÂà«·ÒäÁ´ (Mammeacetamide) ¡ÒÃ͸ԺÒÂâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§¢Í§ÊÒùÕé·Óâ´ÂÍÒÈÑ¢ÍÁÙÅ·Ò§ Ê໡â·ÃÊ⤻ à·Õº¡Ñº¢ÍÁÙÅ«Öè§ÁÕ¼ÙÃÒ§ҹäÇáÅÇ

º·¤Ñ´ÂÍ

Mammea siamensis Kosterm. is a Thai medicinal plant. Chemical constituents of leaves, twigs, and flowers of this plant have previously been studied. This research on the chemical constituents of unripe fruits led to the isolation of a new acetamide 2-E-(2R,3R,4S-trihydroxy-cyclopentylidene)-acetamide, or mammeacetamide. Structure of this compound was established by spectroscopic data, and by compared with reported values.

Abstract

¤ÓÊÓ¤Ñ : ÊÒÃÀÕ ÍÐà«·ÒäÁ´ áÁÁàÁÕÂ૵ÒäÁ´ Keywords : Mammea siamensis, Acetamide, Mammeacetamide

ÍÒ¨ÒळÐàÀÊѪÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ ÍÒ¨ÒळÐàÀÊѪÈÒʵà ¨ØÌÒŧ¡Ã³ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ 3 ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒळÐàÀÊѪÈÒʵà ¨ØÌÒŧ¡Ã³ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ 4 ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒळÐàÀÊѪÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ * Corresponding author E-mail: [email protected]

1 2

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

ÊÒÃÍÐà«·ÒäÁ´ª¹Ô´ãËÁ¨Ò¡ÊÒÃÀÕ

19

ÊÒÃÀÕ໹¾×ªãºàÅÕ§¤ª¹Ô´Ë¹Ö§ Áժ;ġÉÈÒʵà é Ù è ×è Ç Ò Mammea siamensis Kosterm. ¨Ñ ´ ÍÂÙ ã ¹Ç§È Guttiferae (Clusiaceae) ໹äÁµ¹ ÊÙ§ÃÒÇ 20 àÁµÃ àÃ×͹ÂʹἡÇÒ§ ÊÕà¢ÕÂÇà¢Á à»Å×Í¡µ¹ÊÕ¹éÓµÒÅ»¹à·Ò ¼ÔÇàÃÕº¶Ö§ÁÕÃͧàÅ硹Í à»Å×Í¡ªÑé¹ã¹ÊÕá´§à¢Á ÁÕÂÒ§ ÊÕ¢ÒÇËÃ×ÍÊÕàËÅ×ͧÍ͹ ãºà»¹ãºà´ÕèÂÇÃٻ䢡ÅѺËÃ×Í ¢Íº¢¹Ò¹ »ÅÒÂãºÁ¹ËÃ×Í໹µÔè§ ãºÍ͹ÊÕÁǧ ãºá¡ ÊÕà¢ÕÂÇà¢Á´Ò¹º¹ ´Ò¹ÅÒ§ÊÕà¢ÕÂÇá¡ÁàËÅ×ͧ ´Í¡à»¹ ´Í¡á¡à¾È µÒ§µ¹ Í͡໹¡ÅÁµÒÁ¡Ô§¡Ò¹ ¡Ò¹´Í¡ Ø è àÃÕÂÇ ÂÒÇÃÒÇ 2 ૹµÔàÁµÃ ¡ÅÕºàÅÕ§àª×ÍÁ¡Ñ¹»ÅÒÂá¡ é è ໹ 2 ¡ÅÕºàÁ×èÍ´Í¡ºÒ¹ ¡ÅÕº´Í¡ÁÕ 4 ¡ÅÕº à¡ÊÃà¾È ¼Á¨Ó¹Ç¹ÁÒ¡ à¡ÊÃà¾ÈàÁÕÂÁÕ¡Ò¹ªÙÊ¹æ »ÅÒÂá¡໹ Ù Õ Ñé 2 ¾Ù ¼Å´ÔºÊÕà¢ÕÂÇ ¼ÅÊØ¡ÊÕàËÅ×ͧ à»Å×Í¡¼ÅÁÕÂÒ§ÊÕ¢ÒÇ àÁÅç´ 1 àÁÅç´ (Gardner, 2000) µÒÁµÓÃÒÊÃþ¤Ø ³ ÂÒâºÃÒ³Ç Ò ´Í¡ÊÒÃÀÕ ÁÕ¡ÅÔè¹ËÍÁ ÃÊ¢ÁàÂç¹ ÊÃþ¤Ø³á¡âÅËÔµ¾Ô¡Òà á¡ä¢·Õè ÁÕ¾ÔÉÃ͹ ໹ÂÒà¨ÃÔÍÒËÒà ÂÒºÓÃاËÑÇ㨠áÅÐÂÒ ªÙ¡ÓÅѧ µÓÃÒÂÒä·Â¨Ñ´´Í¡ÊÒÃÀÕ໹à¤Ã×èͧÂÒª¹Ô´Ë¹Öè§ ã¹¾Ô¡Ñ´à¡Ê÷Ñé§ 5 ¾Ô¡Ñ´à¡Ê÷Ñé§ 7 áÅоԡѴà¡Ê÷Ñé§ 9 ¾Ô¡Ñ´à¡ÊÃ໹à¤Ã×èͧÂÒ·ÕèÁÕ¡ÅÔè¹ËÍÁ ¹ÔÂÁ㪷ÓÂÒËÍÁ ºÓÃاËÑÇ㨠á¡ÅÁÇÔ§àÇÕ¹ (àʧÕèÂÁ, 2522) ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉҾġÉà¤Áբͧ´Í¡ÊÒÃÀÕ¾ºÊÒà ¡ÅØÁ¿¹ÔŤÙÁÒÃÔ¹ (phenylcoumarin) 2 ª¹Ô´ ¤×Í 6butyryl-5-hydroxy-4-phenylseselin áÅÐ 6-butyryl5,7-dihydroxy-8-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-4phenylcoumarin ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õ§¾ºÊÒáÅÁâ¾Ãá͹â·ä« éÑ Ø ÂÒ¹Ô´¹Ê (proanthocyanidins) «Ö§áÊ´§Ä·¸Ô¦Ò»ÅÒ áÅÐ Ô è ì ËÍ (Thebtaranonth and others 1981) ÊǹãºÊÒÃÀÕ ¾ºÊÒÃÍÒàÁ¹âµ¿ÅÒâǹ (amentoflavone) Íѹ໹ ÊÒáÅØÁ¿ÅÒâǹÍ´ (Balza and others, 1989) ¹Í¡ ¨Ò¡¹Ñé¹ÂѧÁÕÃÒ§ҹÇÒ¾ºÊÒà 1,2-dimethoxy-5hydroxyxanthone Íѹ໹ÊÒáÅÁ᫹ⷹ (xanthone) Ø ¨Ò¡Êǹ¡Ôè§ÊÒÃÀÕ (Poobrasert and others, 1998) ÍÂÒ§äáçµÒÁÂѧäÁÁÕÃÒ§ҹ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒͧ¤ »ÃСͺà¤ÁÕ ¢ ͧ¼ÅÊÒÃÀÕ áµ ÁÕ ¼Ù à Ò§ҹÊÒáÅØ Á

º·¹Ó

áÅ¡âµ¹ä¡Åâ¤ä«´ (lactone glycoside) ·ÕÍÍ¡Ä·¸ÔµÒ¹ è ì äÇÃÑÊàÍ´Êä´ã¹ËÅÍ´·´Åͧ (Kashman and others, 1992; McKee and others, 1996) ¨Ò¡ÂÒ§¢Í§¾×ªÊ¡ØÅ ¡Ð·Ô§ (Calophyllum) Íѹ໹¾×ªÇ§Èà´ÕÂǡѺÊÒÃÀÕ «Öè§ ¼Å´Ôº¢Í§µ¹ÊÒÃÀÕ¡çÁÕÂÒ§ÁÒ¡áÅÐÁÕÃÊ¢Áહà´ÕÂǡѹ

áËŧ·ÕÁҢͧÇѵ¶Ø´º è Ô ¼ÅÊÒÃÀÕ´º·Õ¹ÓÁÒ·Ó¡ÒÃÇÔ¨Â㹤Ãѧ¹Õà¡çº¨Ò¡ Ô è Ñ é é µ ¹ ÊÒÃÀÕ ·Õè » ÅÙ ¡ ºÃÔ à dzÊǹà Á à¡Å Ò ¡ÒÅ¾Ä¡É ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ 㹪ǧà´×͹ÁÕ¹Ò¤Á µÑÇÍÂÒ§¾×ª ä´à¡çºäÇ·ÕèË;ÃóäÁ¤³ÐàÀÊѪÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ ¢Í¹á¡¹ ¡ÒÃÊ¡Ñ´áÅÐá¡ÊÒà (Extraction and Isolation) ¹Ó¼ÅÊÒÃÀÕ ´Ô º ÁÒ» ¹ ãË ¾ ÍáËÅ¡áÅ Ç ËÁÑ ¡ ´ÇÂàÁ·Ò¹ÍŤÃÑé§ÅÐ 3 ÅԵà 3 ¤ÃÑé§ ÃÇÁÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´·Õèä´ áÅǹÓä»·ÓãËá˧ÀÒÂ㵤ÇÒÁ´Ñ¹ ä´ÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ 2 Êǹ ¤×Í ÊǹµÐ¡Í¹ (191.00 ¡ÃÑÁ) ¡ÑºÊǹ¢Í§àËÅÇ à˹ÕÂÇ¢¹ (327.99 ¡ÃÑÁ) ¹ÓÊǹµÐ¡Í¹ÁÒá¡Êǹ â´Â㪤ÅÍâÿÍÃÁ¡Ñº¹éÓ໹µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ ¹ÓÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ´ ªÑé ¹ ¤ÅÍâÿÍà Á ä»·ÓãË á Ë § ¹ÓÊÒÃÊ¡Ñ ´ ·Õè ä ´ Ë ¹Ñ ¡ 134.02 ¡ÃÑÁ 仼ҹâ¤ÃÁÒâ·¡ÃҿẺ¤ÍÅÑÁ¹ª¹Ô´ äÇ (Quick Column Chromatography) â´Â㪫ÔÅÔ¡Ò à¨Å ¨Õ 60 (Silica Gel G 60) ໹ÇѯÀÒ¤¹Ô§ (stationary è phase) ¤ÅÍâÿÍÃÁáÅÐàÁ¸Ò¹ÍÅ໹Ãкº¢Í§ÇѯÀÒ¤ à¤Å×è Í ¹·Õè (mobile phase) â´ÂàÃÔè Á ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃ㪠¤ÅÍâÿÍÃÁ áÅǨ֧¤ÍÂæ à¾ÔèÁ»ÃÔÁÒ³àÁ·Ò¹ÍÅ¢Öé¹ àÃ×ÍÂæ »ÃÔÁҵâͧÇѯÀÒ¤à¤Å×͹·Õ·ãªã¹áµÅФÃѧ¤×Í è è è Õè é 100 ÁÔÅÅÔÅԵà ä´ÊÒÃÁÒ·Ñé§ÊÔé¹ 10 Êǹ ÊÒÃã¹Êǹ·Õè 9 ÁÕÅѡɳÐ໹à¡Å紵С͹ÊÕ¢ÒÇÅÐÅÒÂä´¹ÍÂã¹àÍ·ÔÅ ÍЫÔà·µ Íѹ໹µÐ¡Í¹·Õ»¹ÍÂ㹪ѹÂÒ§ÊÕ¹éÓµÒÅà¢Á ¨Ö§ è Ù ·Ó¡ÒÃÅÒ§ªÑ¹ÂÒ§¹Ñé¹ÍÍ¡´ÇÂàÍ·ÔÅÍЫÔà·µ á¡àÍÒ µÐ¡Í¹ÁÒµ¡¼ÅÖ¡«éÓã¹µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ«Öè§à»¹¢Í§¼ÊÁ ÃÐËÇÒ§¤ÅÍâÿÍÃÁáÅÐàÁ·Ò¹ÍŠ䴢ͧá¢ç§ÍÊѳ°Ò¹ (amorphous solid) ÊÕ¢ÒǹéÓ˹ѡ 196.3 ÁÔÅÅÔ¡ÃÑÁ ÇÑ ´ ¨Ø ´ ËÅÍÁàËÅÇä´ 185.0-186.7 à«Åà«Õ  Ê

ÇÔ¸¡ÒÃÇÔ¨Â Õ Ñ

20

ÊÒÃÍÐà«·ÒäÁ´ª¹Ô´ãËÁ¨Ò¡ÊÒÃÀÕ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

ÇÑ´¤Ò []D28 ä´ -164.93 ¡Òôٴ¡Å×¹áʧà˹×ÍÁǧ ·Õè max 215.5 nm ÁÕ¤Ò max 1714.11 ¡ÒõÃǨÊÙµÃâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§à¤ÁÕ ÊÒûÃСͺ·Õè Ê ¡Ñ ´ áÂ¡ä´ ¹ÓÁÒµÃǨÊÙ µ à â¤Ã§ÊÃ Ò §à¤ÁÕ ´ Ç Âà¤Ã×è Í §Á× Í ·Ò§Ê໡â·ÃÊ⤻ µÃǨ¡Òôٴ¡Å×¹áʧà˹×ÍÁǧ (UV-vis absorption spectra) â´Âà¤Ã×èͧ Shimadzu UV-160A UV/vis spectrophotometer ÁÕàÁ¸ÔÅÍÑÅ¡ÍÎÍÅ໹µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ µÃǨÇÑ´¡ÒõͺʹͧÀÒÂãµÃѧÊÕãµá´§ (IR absorption spectra) ´ÇÂà¤Ã×ͧ Perkin-Elmer Spectrum 2000 è FT-IR spectrophotometer â´Âãªà·¤¹Ô¤á¼¹ÍÑ´ãʢͧ â¾á·Êà«ÕÂÁâºÃäÁ´ (KBr Pellets) µÃǨËÒÁÇÅâÁàÅ¡ØÅ (Mass spectra) ´ Ç Âà¤Ã×è Í §Á× Í ¤ÇÒÁÅÐàÍÕ Â ´µèÓ (low resolution Mass spectrometer) Ãع Micromass Platform II mass spectrometer ·Õè 70 eV áÅеÃǨ ¹ÔÇà¤ÅÕÂÃáÁ¡à¹µÔ¡àÃâ«á¹¹« (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectra) ´ÇÂà¤Ã×èͧ NMR spectroscopy ¢¹Ò´ 300 MHz Ãع Brucker AVANCE DPX-300 FT-NMR spectroscopy â´Â㪠deuterated DMSO ໹ µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒ ¡ÒõÃǨËҤسÊÁºÑµ·Ò§¡ÒÂÀÒ¾ Ô µÃǨÇÑ ´ ¨Ø ´ ËÅÍÁàËÅǢͧÊÒÃâ´Âà¤Ã×è Í § Electrothermal 9100 Melting Point Apparatus µÃǨ ÇÑ ´ ¤ Ò ¡ÒÃàºÕè  §áʧâ¾ÅÒäë ´ Ç Âà¤Ã×è Í § ADP220 Polarimeter â´ÂãªàÁ¸ÔÅÍÑÅ¡ÍÎÍÅ໹µÑÇ·ÓÅÐÅÒÂ

¡ÒõÃǨÊͺÊÙµÃâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§·Ò§à¤ÁբͧÊÒà ¨Ò¡¡ÒõÃǨËÒÁÇÅâÁàÅ¡Ø Å ¢Í§ÊÒÃâ´Â à·¤¹Ô¤áÁÊÊ໡â·ÃàÁ·ÃÕ (Mass Spectrometry) ¾ºÇÒ ÊÒ÷Õèä´ÁÕ¤ÒÁÇŵͻÃШØáÊ´§ ³ µÓá˹§»ÃШØâÁàÅ ¡ØÅ (Molecular Ion peak) ໹ 173 áÅШҡ¡ÒõÃǨ Êͺ´ÇÂà·¤¹Ô¤¹ÔÇà¤ÅÕÂÃáÁ¡à¹µÔ¡àÃâ«á¹¹«Ê໡ⷠÃÊ⤻ (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy) ¾ºÇÒ ÁÕÊÑÒ³¢Í§â»ÃµÍ¹ (proton signal) »ÃÒ¡¯ ãË à Ëç ¹ 8 µÓá˹ § â´Âà» ¹ µÑ Ç á·¹¢Í§â»ÃµÍ¹

¼Å¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅÐÇÔ¨Òó

ÍÂ Ò §¹ Í Â 8 µÑ Ç â´Âà» ¹ â»ÃµÍ¹¢Í§âÍàÅ¿ ¹ (olefinic proton) 1 µÑÇ áÅÐÁÕÊÑÒ³¢Í§¤Òú͹ (carbon signal) »ÃÒ¡¯ãËàËç¹ 7 µÓá˹§ «Öè§à»¹µÑÇ á·¹¢Í§¤Òú͹ÍÂÒ§¹Í 7 µÑÇ àÁ×èÍ·Ó¡ÒõÃǨËÒ ª¹Ô´¢Í§¤Òú͹´ÇÂà·¤¹Ô¤ DEPT ¾ºÇÒ໹¤Òú͹ ·ØµÔÂÀÙÁÔ (secondary carbon) ÍÂÒ§¹Í 1 µÑÇ à»¹ ¤Òú͹µµÔÂÀÙÁÔ (tertiary carbon) ÍÂÒ§¹Í 4 µÑÇ áÅР໹ ¤Òú͹¨µØÃÀÙÁÔ (quaternary carbon) ÍÂÒ§¹Í 2 µÑÇ Ê໡µÃÑÁ·Õä´¨Ò¡à·¤¹Ô¤ÍÔ¹¿ÃÒàôÊ໡â·Ã è Ê⤻ (IR spectroscopy) ¾ºÇÒÁÕÊÑÒ³¢Í§ËÁÙ ¿§ªÑè¹ÊÓ¤Ñ ³ µÓá˹§àÅ¢¤Å×è¹ (wave number) ·Õè 1640 cm-1 ໹µÓá˹§¢Í§ N-H bending ÊÑÒ³ µÓá˹ § ¹Õé ¤ Í ¹¢ Ò §ªÑ ´ ਹáÅÐáËÅÁÅÖ ¡ ¹ Ò ¨Ðà» ¹ ÊÑÒ³¢Í§àÍäÁ´»°ÁÀÙÁÔ (primary amide) «Ö§Â×¹Âѹ è -1 ä´´ÇÂÊÑÒ³·ÕèµÓá˹§ 3250 cm «Öè§à»¹ÊÑÒ³ ¢Í§ N-H stretching vibration ¢Í§àÍäÁ´ ÍÕ¡ÊÑÒ³ ˹Öè§ÍÂÙ ³ µÓá˹§ 1680 cm-1 «Öè§à»¹ÊÑÒ³·Õè º § ºÍ¡¶Ö § ËÁÙ ¤ Òà ⠺¹Ô Å (carbonyl group) ·Õè ÁÕ ä¹âµÃਹÁÒÍ»ÃЪԴ ·ÓãˤÒÊÑÒ³¢Í§¤ÒÃ⺹ÔÅ Ù à¤Å×͹µÑÇÁÒ·Ò§´Ò¹¢ÇҢͧÊ໡µÃÑÁ ¢ÍÁÙŪش¹Õ¹Âѹ è é× ÇÒÊÒùÕéÁÕËÁÙàÍäÁ´»°ÁÀÙÁÔ ÍÂÙã¹âÁàÅ¡ØÅ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Ñé¹ Âѧ¾ºÊÑÒ³ 㹪ǧ 3500 - 2500 cm-1 Íѹ໹ ÊÑÒ³¢Í§ËÁäδÃÍ¡«Õ (hydroxy group) ¨Ò¡¢ÍÁÙÅ Ù µÒ§æ ÊÃØ»ÊÙµÃâÁàÅ¡ØŢͧÊÒê¹Ô´¹Õéä´ÇÒ C7H11NO4 áÅÐÁÕÃÒÂÅÐàÍÕ´¢Í§¤Ò chemical shift () ¨Ò¡ à·¤¹Ô¤¹ÔÇà¤ÅÕÂÃáÁ¡à¹µÔ¡àÃâ«á¹¹«Ê໡â·ÃÊ⤻ áÊ´§ã¹µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1 ¨Ò¡¢ Í ÁÙ Å ·Õè ä ´ ¨ ÐàËç ¹ ä´ Ç Ò ÊÑ Ò³¢Í§ ¤Òú͹µÓá˹§·Õè 1 Íѹ໹¤ÒÃ⺹ÔŤÒú͹¹Ñé¹ÁÕ ¤Òà¤ÁդŪԿ·µèÓ¡ÇҤҢͧ¤ÒÃ⺹ÔÅ»¡µÔ »ÃСͺ¡Ñº Ñ ¢ÍÁÙŨҡÍÔ¹¿ÃÒàôÊ໡â·ÃÊ⤻·º§ÇÒÁÕËÁàÍäÁ´ Õè Ù ã¹âÁàÅ¡ØÅ ËÁàÍäÁ´¹¨§¹Ò¨Ð͵´¡Ñº¾Ñ¹¸Ð¤Ù ·Õ·ÓãË Ù Õé Ö Ù Ô è ¤ÒÃ⺹ÔÅÍÂã¹ÃÙ»¢Í§ a,b unsaturated ketone »ÃСͺ Ù ¡ÑºÁÕÊÑÒ³¢Í§â»ÃµÍ¹·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹·Õèà¤ÁÔ¤ÑŪԿ· 6.6 pmm áÅÐ໹ÊÑÒ³à´ÕèÂÇ äÁÁÕ¡ÒÃᵡ¢Í§ÊÑÒ³

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

ÊÒÃÍÐà«·ÒäÁ´ª¹Ô´ãËÁ¨Ò¡ÊÒÃÀÕ

21

(splitting) ໹ÊÔ§·Õº§ºÍ¡ÇÒ໹ â»ÃµÍ¹¢Í§âÍàÅ¿¹ è è (olefinic proton) ¼ÅàËÅÒ¹Õé·ÓãËÊÃØ»â¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§Êǹ ˹Ö觢ͧâÁàÅ¡ØÅ䴴ѧáÊ´§ã¹ÀÒ¾ (1) ÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹·ÕàËÅ×Í໹ÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹ è ¨Ó¹Ç¹ 5 â»ÃµÍ¹·Õèà¡Ô´ÍѹµÃ¡ÔÃÔÂҤ٤Ǻã¹Ãкº à´ÕÂǡѹ â´ÂÁÕÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹ ÊͧµÓá˹§·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ ÊÑ Á ¾Ñ ¹ ¸ ¡Ñ º ¤Òà º ͹µÓá˹ § à´Õ Â Ç¡Ñ ¹ ¨Ò¡¤ Ò µ Ò §æ ´Ñ§¡ÅÒǨ֧à¢Õ¹â¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§ÍÕ¡Êǹ˹Ö觢ͧâÁàÅ¡ØÅä´ ´Ñ§áÊ´§ã¹ÀÒ¾ (2) ÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹·Õè ÁÕÊÑÒ³·ÕèÁÕ¤Ò à¤ÁÔ¤ÑŪԿ·¤Í¹ä»·Ò§¤ÒʹÒÁáÁàËÅç¡¡ÓÅѧµèӢͧ ÀÒ¾ÊÑÒ³ NMR 3 ÊÑÒ³ ºÍ¡ÇÒÁÕ¡ÒÃÅ´¡Òà º´ºÑ§Ê¹ÒÁáÁàËÅ硺ÃÔàdzâ´ÂÃͺ¹ÔÇà¤ÅÕÂÊ »ÃСͺ ¡Ñº¢ÍÁÙŨҡ¡ÒõÃǨËÁÙÊӤѷҧà¤ÁÕ ¾ºÇÒÁÕËÁÙ äδÃÍ¡«Õ ã¹âÁàÅ¡ØÅ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹·Ñé§ÊÒÁ ¹Ò¨Ðͺ¹¤Òú͹·ÕÁËÁäδÃÍ¡«ÕÁÒà¡ÒÐÍÂÙ ¨Ö§ÊÃØ» Ù è Õ Ù â¤Ã§ÊÃҧ䴴ѧáÊ´§ã¹ÀÒ¾ (3) ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹â¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§à¤ÁբͧÊÒê¹Ô´¹ÕéÍÒ¨ÁÕ 2 Ẻ ¤×Í áºº·ÃÒ¹Ê (transoid) ËÃ×ÍẺ«ÕÊ (cisoid) ´Ñ§áÊ´§ã¹ÀÒ¾ (4) áÅÐ (5) µÒÁÅӴѺ ¡ÒþÔÊÙ¨¹ÇÒÊÒê¹Ô´¹ÕéÁÕâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§à¤ÁÕẺ (4) ËÃ×Í (5) ·Óä´â´ÂÍÒÈÑ¢ÍÁÙżŹÔÇà¤ÅÕÂÃâÍàÇÍà àÎÒà«Íà (nuclear Overhauser effect: nOe) (Noggle and Schirmer, 1971) ¼Å¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒä´áÊ´§äÇã¹µÒÃÒ§ ·Õè 2 ã¹·Õè¹ÕéÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹·Õèà¡ÕèÂǢͧ¡Ñº¡ÒþԨÒÃ³Ò ¤×Í â»ÃµÍ¹·ÕèµÓá˹§ 2 µÓá˹§ 2 áÅеÓá˹§ 5 àÁ×èÍ irradiate ÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§·Õè 2 ¾º¢¹Ò´ÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§·Õè 2 à¾ÔÁ¢Ö¹ÃÍÂÅÐ è é 4.68 ã¹¢³Ð·ÕèÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§·Õè 5 äÁÁÕ¡Òà à»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ áÅÐàÁ×èÍ irradiate ÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹ µÓá˹§·Õè 2 ¨Ð¾º¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§¢¹Ò´ÊÑÒ³ â»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§ 2 à¾ÔÁ¢Ö¹ÃÍÂÅÐ 12.69 ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹¨Ö§ÊÃØ» è é é ä´ÇÒâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§¢Í§ÊÒùդÇÃ໹Ẻ·ÃÒ¹Ê (transoid) é ÊÒùÕéÁÕ¤Òú͹ 3 µÓá˹§·ÕèµÍ§ÃÐºØ stereochemistry ¤×ͤÒú͹µÓá˹§·Õè 2 3 áÅÐ4 ¼Å¡Òà ÈÖ¡ÉҼŹÔÇà¤ÅÕÂÃâÍàÇÍÃàÎÒà«Íà ¾ºÇÒàÁ×èÍ irradiate

ÊÑÒ³¢Í§â»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§ 5b (2.4 ppm) ¾ºÇÒ ¢¹Ò´ÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§ 4 (3.8 ppm) à¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹ ÃÍÂÅÐ 1 ã¹¢³Ð·ÕèÊÑÒ³Í×è¹æ äÁÁÕ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ áÊ´§ÇÒâ»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§ 4 ÍÂÙã¡Åâ»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§ 5b ÁÒ¡¡ÇÒâ»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§ 5a ËÃ×ÍÍÂÙã¹ÃйҺ à´ÕÂǡѹ¡Ñºâ»ÃµÍ¹ 5b áÅÐàÁ×èÍ irradiate ÊÑÒ³ â»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§ 4 ¾º¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§à¡Ô´¢Öé¹·Õè ÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§ 2 ä»ã¹·Ò§µÔ´Åº (negative enhancement) â´ÂÁÕ¤Ò¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ÃÍÂÅÐ 5.03 áµäÁ¾º¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§¢Í§ÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹ µÓá˹§ 3 áÊ´§ÇÒ â»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§ 4 áÅÐ â»ÃµÍ¹ µÓá˹§ 3 äÁä´ÍÂã¹ÃйҺà´ÕÂǡѹ áÅСÒÃà¡Ô´¡Òà ٠à»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§ 2 ä»ã¹·Ò§·Õè µÔ´Åºà»¹ÅѡɳÐ˹Ö觷Õèà¡Ô´¡Ñº three-spin system «Öè§ àÁ×Íâ»ÃµÍ¹·Õ»ÅÒ¢ҧ˹֧¢Í§Ãкº¶Ù¡ irradiate áÅÐ è è è ä»ÊѧࡵÊÑÒ³â»ÃµÍ¹·Õè»ÅÒÂÍÕ¡¢Ò§Ë¹Ö觨оº ÊÑÒ³·Õà»ÅÕ¹á»Å§ä»ã¹·Ò§·Õµ´Åº ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹â»ÃµÍ¹ è è è Ô é µÓá˹§·Õè 4 áÅÐ 2 ¨Ö§¹Ò¨ÐÍÂã¹ÃйҺà´ÕÂǡѹ â´Â Ù ÊÃØ » áÅ Ç â»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹ § 2 µÓá˹ § 4 áÅÐ µÓá˹§ 5b ໹â»ÃµÍ¹·ÕèÍÂÙã¹ÃйҺà´ÕÂǡѹ ã¹ ¢³Ð·Õèâ»ÃµÍ¹µÓá˹§ 3 ÍÂÙã¹ÃйҺµÃ§¢ÒÁ ´Ñ§¹Ñ鹨֧ÍÒ¨ÃкØä´ÇÒ ¤Òú͹µÓá˹§ 2 ໹ R configuration ¤Òú͹µÓá˹§ 3 ໹ R configuration µÓá˹§ 4 ໹ S configuration ÊÒà »ÃСͺª¹Ô´¹Õé¨Ö§ÁÕª×èÍ·Ò§à¤ÁÕÇÒ (E)-2-(2R, 3R, 4S-trihydroxy-cyclopentylidene)-acetamide áÅÐä´ ¡Ó˹´ª×èÍÊÒÁÑãËÇÒ mammeacetamide ´Ñ§áÊ´§ â¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§à¤ÁÕäÇã¹ÀÒ¾ (6)

ÊÃØ»¼Å¡ÒÃÇԨ Ñ

¡ÒÃÈÖ ¡ ÉÒͧ¤ » ÃСͺà¤ÁÕ ¢ ͧ¼Å´Ô º ¢Í§ µ¹ÊÒÃÀÕ¹ä´á¡ÊÒáÅÁÍÐà«·ÒäÁ´ºÃÔÊ·¸Ôä´ 1 ª¹Ô´ Õé Ø Ø ì ÊÒ÷Õè ä ´ ¹Õé ¤× Í (E)-2-(2R,3R,4S-trihydroxycyclopentylidene)-acetamide àÃÕ Â ¡ª×è Í ÊÒÁÑ Ç Ò mammeacetamide ¡ÒÃÍ¸Ô º ÒÂâ¤Ã§ÊÃ Ò §à¤ÁÕ áÅÐ relative stereochemistry ·Óä´â´ÂÇÔ¸¡Ò÷ҧÊ໤â·ÃÊ Õ â¤»

22

ÊÒÃÍÐà«·ÒäÁ´ª¹Ô´ãËÁ¨Ò¡ÊÒÃÀÕ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

§Ò¹ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ªÔé ¹ ¹Õé ä ´ ÃÑ º §º»ÃÐÁÒ³Ê¹Ñ º Ê¹Ø ¹ ¡ÒÃÇԨѨҡ·Ø¹Íش˹ع¡ÒÃÇԨѠÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ »ÃШӻ§º»ÃÐÁÒ³ 2544

¡ÔµµÔ¡ÃÃÁ»ÃСÒÈ

àÍ¡ÊÒÃÍÒ§ÍÔ§

àʧÕè  Á ¾§É ºØ ÃÍ´. 2522. äÁ à ·ÈàÁ× Í §ä·Â. ¾Ãй¤Ã: à¡ÉÁºÃó¡Ô¨. Balza, Felipe; Abramowski, Zyta; Neil Towers, G. H.; Wiriyachitra, Pichaet. 1989. Identification of proanthocyanidin polymers as the piscicidal constituents of Mammea siamensis, Polygonum stagninum and Diospyros diepenhorstii. Phytochemistry. 28(7): 1827-1830. Gardner, Simon. 2000. A Field Guide to Forest Trees of Northern Thailand. Bangkok: Kobfai Publishing Project. Kashman, Y; Gustafson, K R; Fuller, R W; Cardellina, J H 2nd; McMahon, J B; Currens, M J; Buckheit, RW Jr; Hughes, S H; Cragg, G M; Boyd, M R. (1992). The calanolides, a novel HIV-inhibitory class of coumarin derivatives from the tropical rainforest tree, Calophyllum lanigerum. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 35(15): 2535-2543.

McKee, T C; Fuller, R W; Covington, C D; Cardellina, J H 2nd; Gulakowski, R J; Krepps, B L; McMahon, J B; Boyd, M R. 1996. New pyranocoumarins isolated from Calophyllum lanigerum and Calophyllum teysmannii. Journal of Natural Products. 59(8): 754-758. Noggle, Joseph H; Schirmer, Roger E. 1971. The nuclear overhauser effect chemical applications. New York: Academic Press. Poobrasert, Onoomar; Constant, Howard L; W. Beecher, Christopher W.; Farnsworth, Norman R; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Pezzuto, John M; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Santisuk, Thawatchai; Reutrakul, Vichai. 1998. Xanthones from the twigs of Mammea siamensis. Phytochemistry. 47(8): 16611663. Thebtaranonth, Chachanat; Imraprorn, Supawan; Padungkul, Niramol. (1981). Phenylcoumarins from Ochrocarpus Siamensis. Phytochemistry. 20(9): 23052306.

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

ÊÒÃÍÐà«·ÒäÁ´ª¹Ô´ãËÁ¨Ò¡ÊÒÃÀÕ

23

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1 áÊ´§¤Òà¤ÁÕ¤ÑŪտ·¢Í§â»ÃµÍ¹áÅФÒú͹µÓá˹§µÒ§æ

Position 1-NH2 1-C (-C=O) 2-C (-CH) 1-C (-C) 2-C 3-C 4-C 5a-C 5b-C

1

H chemical shift (: ppm) 4.8 bs 6.6 s 4.2 d 3.5 dd 3.8 ddd 2.0 dd 2.4 dd

13

C chemical shift (: ppm) 167.6 s 138.5 d 128.1 s 65.4 d 70.2 d 66.7 d 29.8 t

໹¤Ò multiplicity ¢Í§ 1H ·Õèä´¨Ò¡ 1H-1H COSY

â´Â bs=broad singlet, s=singlet, d=doublet, t=triplet, q=quartet ໹¤Ò multiplicity ¢Í§ 13C ·Õèä´¨Ò¡ 13C-1H COSY â´Â s=singlet, d=doublet, t=triplet

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 2 ¼Å¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ÃÒ¡¯¡Òó¹ÔÇà¤ÅÕÂÃâÍàÇÍÃàÎÒà«ÍÃ

Proton irradiated nOe observed H-2 H-2 H-3 H-4 H-5a H-5b H-2 6.6 ppm 4.68% H-2 4.2 ppm 12.69% H-3 3.5 ppm 10.43% H-4 3.8 ppm 5.04% -5.03% H-5a 2.0 ppm 18.56% H-5b 2.4 ppm 1.00% 18.48% -

24

ÊÒÃÍÐà«·ÒäÁ´ª¹Ô´ãËÁ¨Ò¡ÊÒÃÀÕ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

O H NH2

H H H H

HO

H

H

H HO OH

ÀÒ¾ (1)

O H

(E )

ÀÒ¾ (2)

O H

(Z)

ÀÒ¾ (3)

# "

OH

NH 2

H 2N HO

!

HO

HO

# "

OH

!

HO

ÀÒ¾ (4) Transoid

O H

(E )

ÀÒ¾ (5) Cissoids

NH2 H #> HO HO

(R) (R) (S )

H

H "

H #=

! H

OH

2-(2,3,4-Trihydroxy-cyclopentylidene)-acetamide ÀÒ¾ (6)

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

ÃдѺµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§»ÃЪҡÃ㹨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

25

Blood lead levels of people in Khon Kaen Province

ºÑ§Íà ÈÃÕ¾Ò¹Ôª¡ØŪÑ (Bungorn Sripanidkulchai)1, à»ÃÁ㨠ÍÒÃÕ¨µÃÒ¹ØÊó (Premjai Areejitranusorn)2, Ô 3 ÊؾÃÃ³Õ ÈÃÕÍÑÁ¾Ã (Supannee Sriamporn) , ¡ÔµµÔÈÑ¡´Ôì ÈÃÕ¾Ò¹Ôª¡ØŪÑ (Kittisak Sripanidkulchai)4, ÇÃÃ³Ò ÈÔÃÔáʧµÃСÙÅ (Wanna Sirisangtrakul)5

ÃдѺµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§»ÃЪҡÃ㹨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¹Õéä´·Ó¡ÒÃÇÑ´¤ÒµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§»ÃЪҡõÑÇÍÂÒ§ã¹ÍÓàÀͪ¹º· áÅÐÍÓàÀͺҹ½Ò§ ¢Í§¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹ ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×ͧ͢»ÃÐà·Èä·Â ´ÇÂÇÔ¸Õ à¿ÅÁÍеÍÁÔ¤áͺ«ÍþªÑè¹ Ê໤âµÃâ¿âµÁÔµÃÕ ¤ÒÁÔà´Õ¹ (ªÇ§) ¢Í§µÐ¡ÑèÇã¹ àÅ×Í´¢Í§»ÃЪҡà 247 ¤¹ à·Ò¡Ñº 7.0 (1.5-32)µd/dl ¤ÒµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§à¾ÈªÒÂäÁᵡµÒ§¨Ò¡¢Í§à¾ÈËÔ§ «Öè§à·Ò¡Ñº 7.0 (2-32) áÅÐ 7.0 (1.5-32) µd/dl µÒÁÅӴѺ äÁ¾º¤ÒµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´à»ÅÕè¹á»Å§µÒÁªÇ§ÍÒÂØ·Ñ駻ÃЪҡÃã¹à¾ÈªÒ áÅÐ à¾ÈËÔ§ àÁ×èÍà»ÃÕºà·ÕºµÑÇÍÂÒ§¨Ò¡¼Ù·ÕèÁվĵԡÃÃÁ¡ÒÃÊÙººØËÃÕè ¡Ñº¼ÙäÁÊÙººØËÃÕè äÁ¾º¤ÇÒÁᵡµÒ§¢Í§¤ÒµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´ áÁ¡Òà ÈÖ¡ÉÒ¹Õé¨Ð¾ºÇҤҵСÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§¼Ù·Õè´×èÁÊØÃÒ ËÃ×Í´×èÁ¡Òá¿ / ªÒ µèÓ¡ÇÒ¼Ù·ÕèäÁ´×èÁ Êǹ¢Í§¼Ù·Õèà¤ÕéÂÇËÁÒ¡ÊÙ§¡ÇÒ¼ÙäÁà¤ÕéÂÇËÁÒ¡ áÅÐ ¤ÒµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§»ÃЪҡÃã¹ÍÓàÀͪ¹º·ÊÙ§¡ÇҢͧ»ÃЪҡÃã¹ÍÓàÀͺҧ½Ò§àÅ硹Í áµäÁ¾ºÇÒÁÕ¤ÇÒÁᵡµÒ§¹Ñ·ҧʶԵԷÕè p<0.05 ¼Å¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¤ÃÑ駹Õéä´ãË¢ÍÁÙÅ·ÕèªÕéá¹Ð¶Ö§¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¢Í§¾ÄµÔ¡ÃÃÁ·Õè໹»¨¨ÑÂàÊÕ觢ͧ¡ÒÃà¡Ô´ÁÐàÃ秵ÍÃдѺ¢Í§µÐ¡ÑèÇã¹ àÅ×Í´ áÅÐÂѧáÊ´§¶Ö§¢ÍÁÙž×é¹°Ò¹¤ÒµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§»ÃЪҡû¡µÔ㹪¹º·¢Í§ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×ͧ͢»ÃÐà·Èä·Â

º·¤Ñ´ÂÍ

Blood lead levels of population live in Chonnabot and Ban Fang districts of Khon Kaen Province the Northeastern Thailand, were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric method in this study. The median (range) of blood lead levels obtained from 247 samples was 7.0 (1.5-32) µd/dl. The values in males and females were not different, which were 7.0 (2-32) and 7.0 (1.5-32) µd/dl, respectively. There was no age dependence of blood lead in the studied population of both genders. When compared the behaviors and lifestyles of subjects, the blood lead levels of cigarette smokers were not different from non-smokers. We observed lower levels of blood lead in alcohol, and coffee / tea drinkers than in non-drinkers and higher levels of blood lead in betel nut chewers than in non-chewers, but there were no statistical significant differences at p<0.05. Similarly, the blood lead levels of subjects from Chonnabot district were relatively higher than those from Ban Fang district with no statistical siginificance. The results provide information that behavior and lifestyle related to cancer risk factors may alter blood lead levels and also demonstrate the baseline data of this metal in blood of normal population resided in the rural area of the Northeast of Thailand.

Abstract

¤ÓÊÓ¤Ñ : µÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´, ¢Í¹á¡¹, »ÃÐà·Èä·Â Keywords : blood lead, Khon Kaen, Thailand

ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒàÀÊѪà¤ÁÕ ¤³ÐàÀÊѪÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ ¼ÙªÇÂÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒªÕÇà¤ÁÕ ¤³Ðá¾·ÂÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ 3 ¼ÙªÇÂÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒÃкҴÇÔ·ÂÒ ¤³ÐÊÒ¸ÒóÊØ¢ÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ 4 ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÂÇÔÀÒ¤ÈÒʵà ¤³Ðá¾·ÂÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ 5 ¹Ñ¡ÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵà §Ò¹ºÃÔ¡ÒÃÇÔªÒ¡Òà ¤³ÐàÀÊѪÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹

1 2

26

ÃдѺµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§»ÃЪҡÃ㹨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

Introduction

Lead is a toxic heavy metal that can be contaminated to human by two primary routes, inhalation and ingestion. The absorbed lead can be distributed to various organs and body tissues and mostly deposited in bones. The most common procedure to measure a persons lead intake after exposure is through blood testing. Blood lead level is an indication of lead exposure at the time point in the past. Exposure to lead has been associated with a number of serious systemic toxicological effects involving the central and peripheral nervous system, blood-forming organs, endocrine and cardiovascular system (Goyer, 1990; Lundstrom et al., 1997; Osterbreg et al., 1997). Lead compounds have also been classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans. (IARC, 1980; 1987). Although blood lead has been followed to monitor the environmental pollution in many areas, the human epidemiological evidence seemed to be still inadequate (Silbergeld et al. 2000; Steenland and Boffeta, 2000). In the United States, blood lead in children is related to residence in older housing (Pirkle et al., 1998; Taha et al., 1999). The studys on level of thirteen trace elements, including blood and serum lead, of Swedish adolescents were reported to have relation to gender, age and socioeconomic status. Higher serum levels of cobalt and copper were found in girls, while higher blood level of lead was shown in boys (Barany et al., 2002). The results of an Italian polycentric study showed that the main factors influencing blood lead levels were gender, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption and smoking habits (Apostoli et al., 2002). Ruangkanchanasetr and Suepiantham (2002) reported an increase in blood lead level of children live in Bangkok with an increase in age.

It is reported that the high incidence of liver cancer in the Northeastern population of Thailand might have a relation to life style, and behavior of dietary intake as well as other risk factors (Vatanasapt et al., 1990a, 1990b; Sriamporn et al., 1993). Our previous studies on population live in Chonnabot and Ban Fang distrits of Khon Kaen Province showed higher levels of serum gglutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and antioxidant vitamins in cigarette smokers than those of the non-smokers (Sripanidkulchai et al., 2003;2004). Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the blood lead level of adult population live in these two districts.

Materials and Methods

1. Sample collection The blood samples used in this study were obtained from people in Chonnabot and Ban Fang Districts of Khon Kaen Province who had no disease history and participated in a mobile cancer screening programme during 1990. Those found with any abnormality from a physical investigation, such as oral cavity mass, breast mass, thyroid gland enlargement or from ultrasonography and Pap smear were excluded from this study. Serum g-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase but lower levels of antioxidant vitamins. Information of tobacco smoking, betel nut chewing and alcohol drinking was obtained from questionnaires. Overnight fasting venous blood was drawn, transferred to a test tube and kept in an ice-box. When arrival at the laboratory in the University the samples was kept at 4oC until used for analysis, which was within a week of the sample collection.

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

ÃдѺµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§»ÃЪҡÃ㹨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

27

2. Determination of lead in whole blood The method as described for blood lead determination was modified (Perkin Elmer, 1980; Areejitranusorn and Areejitraunson ,1989). Briefly, 0.6 ml of whole blood was mixed with 0.1 ml of 10% triton x-100 solution, then 0.1 ml of 2% ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and 0.15 ml of methyl isobutyl ketone were added and vigorously mixed for 5 minutes. After an addition of 0.1 ml of deionized water, the mixture was centrifuged at 700g, for 10 minutes, then the organic layer was collected. The lead concentration was determined by using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer 2380,USA). The stock standard solution was prepared by dissolving lead nitrate in 0.5% nitric acid and diluted to obtain the working standard solutions at concentrations of 5,20 and 50 µg/dl. For method calibration, these working standard solutions gave linearity of detection. % coefficients of variation (CVs) of 20 repeated determinations were 3.1 and 4.1 for inter- and intra-assay, respectively. 3. Statistical analysis All the group data were statistically evaluated and significant differences by various factors were determined using non-parametric statistical methods (Hollander and Wolfe, 1973). The results are expressed as µd/dl of median (range) of each group. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05.

Results

The median of blood lead levels of 247 samples collected from people in Chonnabot and Ban Fang districts of Khon Kaen, the Northeast of Thailand was 7.0 (1.5-32) µg/dl. There was no gender and age differences (Table 1). The median levels of male (124 samples) and female (123 samples) were 7.0

(2-32) and 7.0 (1.5-32) µg/dl, respectively. When dividing the subjects into 4 different age groups, i.e., 35, 36-45, 46-55 and 56+ years, their blood lead levels were 10.5 (3-21.5), 7.0 (2-32), 10.5 (3-28.5) and 7.0 (1.5-32) µg/ dl, respectively. The analysis of samples of the population in relation to their various behaviors and lifestyles was demonstrated in Table 2. There was no difference of blood lead in smokers and nonsmokers. The values were 7.0 (2-32) and 7.0 (1.5-32) µg/dl, respectively. The median values of blood lead were slightly lower in alcohol drinkers than in non-drinkers which were 7.0 (3.32) and 10.5 (1.5-32) µg/ dl, respectively. Similarly, the values of coffee or tea drinkers were slightly lower than in non-drinkers, which were 7.0 (3-24.2) and 10.5 (1.5-32) µg/dl, respectively. The blood lead values of betel nut chewers were slightly higher than those of nonchewing i.e. 8.0 (1.5-32) versus 7.0 (2-32 µg/ dl. The median blood lead of subjects in Ban Fang district was slighly higher than those in Chonnabot district, i.e. 10.5 (3-32) versus 7.0 (1.5-32) µg/ dl. However, the statistical significant differences were not detected in the study on the population liftstyle and the residential area. The details on the relationship of gender and age with behaviors and lifestyles were shown in Table3. The smokers and alcohol drinkers were more males than female, whereas betel nut chewers were more females than males. Among the population who smoked or drank, they were mostly 36-45 years old. In contrast, the betel nut chewers were at older age, which were 56+ years old.

28

ÃдѺµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§»ÃЪҡÃ㹨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

Discussion

The results obtained in this study showed the blood lead levels of 247 adults in Khon Kaen, the Northeast of Thailand. The median blood lead values in our study were similar to the values of people resided in Muang Khon Kaen district (Areejitranusorn and Areejitranusorn, 1989), but higher than those reported of Bangkok children (Ruangkanchanasetr and Suepiantham, 2002). These values also were higher than those reported among Swedish girls (Barang, 2002). When compared to the toxicity profile for chronic lead exposure, the values are still under the values for first level toxicity (10-20 µl/dl) (Moshman, 1997). The relative lower blood lead levels of smokers than non-smokers contradictred to the previous studies in Italy which showed higher levels of smokers than non-smokers. (Apostoli et al., 2002). This may reflect the other factors involving in blood lead levels such as types of residences as reported in USA (Pirkle et al., 1998). The blood lead levels of betel nut chewing subjects were similar to the previous report (Areejitranusorn and Areejitranusorn, 1987). Our results therefore provide information that the cancer risk factors in relation to lifestyle and behavior may alter blood lead levels and also give the base line data of this metal in blood of people in the rural area of the Northeastern Thailand.

KKU. We were deeply grateful to Professor Vanchai Vatanasapt for his support in this study.

Acknowledgement

This research was a part of the main project on A Prospective Study of Cancer and Other Outcomes in a Rural Population in Thailand, which was approved on February 11, 1997 by the Research Ethic Committee, Faculty of Medicine,

Apostoli A, Baj A, Bavazzano P, Ganzi A, Neri G, Ronchi A, Soleo L, Di Lorenzo L, Spinelli P, Valente T, Minoia C. 2002. Blood lead reference values: the results of an Italian polycentric study. Sci. Total Environ. 287:1-11. Areejitranusorn S and Areejitranusorn P. 1989. Blood lead level in betel-lime consumer. Research Report no. 2/1989, 23pp. Khon Kaen University. Barany E, Bergdahl IA, Bratteby L-E, Lundh T, Samuelson G, Schiitz A, Skerfving S, Oskarsson A. 2002. Trace elements in blood and serum of Swedish adolescents: relation to gender, age, residential area, and socioeconomic status. Environ Res. Sect. A 89:72-84. Goyer RA. 1990. Lead toxicity: from overt to subclinical to suble health effects. Environ. Health Perspect. 86:177-181. Hollander M, Wolfe DA. 1973. Nonparametric statistical methods. New York, John Wiley and Sons. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1980. Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans-some metals and metallic compounds, vol 23, WHO, Lyon, pp 1-210, 325-415. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 1987. Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risks to humans-genetic and related effects: An updating of selected

References

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

ÃдѺµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§»ÃЪҡÃ㹨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

29

IARC Monographs, Vol42, Suppl. 6, WHO, Lyon, pp.120-121. Lundstrom NG, Nordberg G, Englyst V, Hagmar L, Jin T, Rylander L, Wall S. 1997. Cummulative lead exposure in relation to mortality and lung cancer morbidity in a cohort of primary smelter workers. Scad. J Environ Health. 23: 24-30. Moshman DK. 1997. Reference data sheet on lead. http:// www.meridianeng.com/lead.html. Osterberg K, Borjesson J, Gerhardsson L, Shutz A, Skerfving S. 1997. A neurobehavioural study of long-term occupational inorganic lead exposure. Sci Total Environ. 201:3951. Perkin Elmer Corperation. 1980. Instruction manual for atomic absorption spectrophotometer model 2380. Pirkle JL, Daufmann RB, Brody DJ, Hickman T, Gunter EW, Paschal DC. 1998. Exposure of the US population to lead, 1991-1994. Environ Health Perspect. 106: 745-750. Ruangkanchanasetr S, Suepiantham J. 2002. Risk factors of high lead level in Bangkok childern, J. Med Assoc Thai. 85, Suppl 4: S1049-S1058. Silbergeld EK, Waalkes M, Rice JM. 2000. Lead as a carcinogen: experimental evidence and mechamisums of action. Am J. Ind Med. 38: 310-323. Sriamporn S, Vatanasapt V, Mairiang E, et al. 1993. Epidemiologic study of liver cancer using a population-based registry as a guide in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Health Reports. 5:51-583

Sripanidkulchai B, Areejitunsorn P, Sriamporn S, Sripanidkulchai K, Kamsa-ard S. 2004. Serum glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase of people in Khon Kaen, the Northeastern Thailand. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 5: 54-57. Sripanidkulchai B, Vaikrutta S, Sriamporn S, Vatanasapt P, Sripanidkulchai K, Sirisangtrakul W. 2003. Serum antioxidant vitamin levels of people in Khon Kaen, Northeastern Thailand. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev. 4: 147-152. Steenland K, Boffeta P. 2000. Lead and cancer in humans: where are we now?. Am J Ind Med. 32:295-299. Taha T, Kanarek MS, Schultz BD, Murphy A. 1999. Low-cost houshold paint abatement to reduce childerns blood lead levels. Environ Res. 81: 334-338. Vatanasapt V, Tangvorapornchai V, Titapan V, et al. 1990a. A high incidence of liver cancer in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. Southeast Asian J. Trop Med Public Health. 21: 489-494. Vatanasapt V, Tangvorapornchai V, Titapan V, et al. 1990b. Epidemiology of cancer in Khon Kaen. J Med Asso Thai. 73: 340-344.

30

ÃдѺµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§»ÃЪҡÃ㹨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

Table 1 Blood lead levels of people in Khon Kaen in various age ranges

Age 36-45 46-55 56+ Total

35

No 8 56 31 29 124

Male Median (range)* No 12.5(3-17) 5 8.8(2-32) 51 10.5(3-29) 39 3.0(3-23) 28 7.0(2-32) 123

Female Median (range)* 10.5(3-22) 7.0(3-32) 10.5(3-29) 9.3(2-32) 7.0(1.5-32)

No 13 107 70 57 247

Both sexes Median (range)* 10.5(3-21.5) 7.0(2-32) 10.5(3-28.5) 7.0(1.5-32) 7.0(1.5-32)

* Values expressed in terms of µg/dl. Table 2 Blood lead levels of people in Khon Kaen with various lifestyles and residential areas

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Variables Cigarette Smoking Non-smoking Alcohol Drinking Non-drinking Coffee / Tea Drinking Non-drinking Betel nut Chewing Non-chewing District BanFang Chonnabot

No (%) 113(45.7) 134(54.3) 140(56.7) 107(43.3) 52(21.1) 195(78.9) 68(27.5) 179(72.5) 50(20.2) 197(79.8)

Median (range)* 7.0(2-32) 7.0(1.5-32) 7.0(2-32) 10.5(1.5-32) 7.0(3-24.5) 10.5(1.5-32) 8.0(1.5-32) 7.0(2-32) 10.5(3.-32) 7.0(1.5-32)

* Values expressed in terms of µg/dl.

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

ÃдѺµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§»ÃЪҡÃ㹨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

31

Table 3 Number and percentage distribution of subjects with various lifestyles by gender and age groups.

Variables Male No (%) Cigarette Smoking Non-smoking Alcohol Drinking Non-drinking Coffee / Tea Drinking Non-drinking Betel nut Chewing Non-chewing 111(98.2) 13(9.7) 99(70.7) 25(23.4) 38(73.1) 86(44.1) 5(7.4) 119(66.5) Gender Female No (%) 2(1.8) 121(90.3) 41(29.3) 82(76.6) 14(26.9) 109(55.9) 63(92.6) 60(33.5) 35 No (%) 8(7.1) 5(3.7) 7(5.0) 7(6.5) 0(0) 13(6.7) 0(0) 13(7.3) 36-45 No (%) 50(44.2) 57(42.5) 72(51.4) 32(29.9) 25(48.1) 82(42.0) 17(25.0) 90(50.3) Age 46-55 No (%) 26(23.0) 44(32.8) 28(20.0) 42(39.3) 18(34.6) 52(26.7) 20(29.4) 50(27.9) 56+ No (%) 29(25.7) 28(21.0) 33(23.6) 26(24.3) 9(17.3) 48(24.6) 31(45.6) 26(14.5) Total No (%)

113(100) 134(100) 140(100) 107(100) 52(100) 195(100) 68(100) 179(100)

32

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅоѲ¹ÒÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁã¹ ¤ÃÑÇàÃÕ͹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

Safety and Development of Model for Learning and Problem Solving in Occupational Health and Safety in the Home-Made Industries in Northeast Region.

¡Ò¨¹Ò ¹Ò¶Ð¾Ô¹¸Ø (Ganjana Nathapindhu)* ÊÁªÒ ¹Ò¶Ð¾Ô¹¸Ø (Somchai Nathapindhu)** ¡Ôè§á¡Ç à¡Éâ¡ÇÔ· (Kingkaew Ketkowit)*** ÀÒ³Õ Ä·¸ÔìÁÒ¡ (Panee Rithmark)**** à¿Í§¿Ò ¡Ò¨â¹ÀÒÊ (Fuengfa Kanjanopas)**** ¨ÃÔÂÒ ÍÔ¹·ÃÃÑÈÁÕ (Jariya Intararatsame)*****

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅоѲ¹ÒÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅÐ ¤ÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í

¡ÒÃÇԨ¤Ãѧ¹ÕÁǵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤à¾×ÍÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅоѲ¹ÒÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂã¹ Ñ é é ÕÑ è Ù ¡Ò÷ӧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í ·Ó¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒã¹ 3 ¡ÅØÁÍÒªÕ¾ ¤×Í ·Í¼ÒäËÁ ·Óà¤Ã×èͧ»¹´Ô¹à¼Ò áÅÐ ºÑ´¡ÃÕ½Òâͧ â´ÂÈÖ¡ÉÒ¢ÍÁÙÅàº×éͧµ¹à¡ÕèÂǡѺ¡ÒûÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾áÅÐÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡ÒûÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ ãªÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒà ᡻ËÒ´Ò¹ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ ·Õè䴾Ѳ¹Ò¢Öé¹ÁÒ â´ÂÁÕ¢Ñ鹵͹¡ÒÃÁͧáÅФ¹ËÒÊÀÒ¾¢Í§»ËÒ¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ ÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹ ¢Ñ鹵͹¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË»ËÒÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹ãªÇÔ¸Õ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐ˧ҹà¾×èͤÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ ¨Ò¡¹Ñé¹µÔ´µÒÁ¼Å¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ »ÃÐàÁÔ¹¼ÅáÅÐ »ÃѺ»Ãا à¾×èÍãËä´ÃٻẺ·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁ ¼Å¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¾ºÇÒ ¢Ñ鹵͹¡ÒÃÁͧÀÒ¾»ËÒÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹·Ò§´Ò¹ÊØ¢ÀÒ¾¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ¹Ñé¹ ·Óã˼»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾à¡Ô´¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ö§»ËÒÊØ¢ÀҾ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ·Õà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ ¢Ñ¹µÍ¹¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐ˧ҹà¾×ͤÇÒÁ Ù ÙÖ è é è »ÅÍ´ÀÑ 䴻ÃѺ»Ãا â´ÂÁÕǸ¡Òà 4 ¢Ñ¹µÍ¹¤×Í (1) ầ§Ò¹·Õ¹ÓÁÒÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËÍ͡໹¢Ñ¹µÍ¹µÒ§æ (2) ¤¹ËÒÍѹµÃÒÂËÃ×Íá¹Çâ¹Á·Õè ÔÕ é è é ¨Ðà¡Ô´ÍѹµÃÒ (3) ¤¹ËÒÊÒà˵آͧ¡ÒÃà¡Ô´ÍѹµÃÒ áÅÐ (4) ¡Ó˹´ÁҵáÒÃËÃ×ÍÇÔ¸Õ¡ÒÃ㹡Òûͧ¡Ñ¹ËÃ×Íá¡ä¢ÊÀÒ¾ÍѹµÃÒ ã¹áµÅТÑ鹵͹ â´Â¹Ó¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ 5 Ê. ÃÇÁ¡Ñºà·¤¹Ô¤¡ÒûÃѺ»ÃاÊÀÒ¾¡Ò÷ӧҹã¹Ê¶Ò¹»ÃСͺ¡Òâ¹Ò´àÅç¡ ÁÒ»ÃÐÂØ¡µãª ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õé ¡ÅØÁ¼Ù»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁµÍ§¡ÒÃä´ÃѺ¤ÇÒÁÃÙËÃ×Í¡ÒÃͺÃÁà¾ÔèÁàµÔÁ¨Ò¡à¨Ò˹ҷÕèËÃ×Í˹ǧҹ 㹤ÇÒÁÃÙ´Ò¹µÒ§æ 3 ´Ò¹´Ç¡ѹ¤×Í ¡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁÊØ¢ÀҾ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ ¤ÇÒÁÃÙ·Ò§´Ò¹¡ÒÃÂÈÒʵà áÅСÒèѴÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅÍÁ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁ «Ö§ÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹¹Õé ÊÒÁÒö¹Óä»ãªã¹ è Ù ¡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃ㹡ÅØÁ¼Ù»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹㹡ÅØÁÍÒªÕ¾Í×è¹ ÃÇÁ·Ñ駡ÒûÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ÊÓËÃѺáç§Ò¹¹Í¡Ãкº ·ÕèÁÕÅѡɳСÒ÷ӧҹ·Õè¤ÅÒ¤ÅÖ§¡Ñ¹ä´ The objectives of this research were to study and develop model for learning and problem solving in occupational health and safety in the home-made industries in Northeast region. The study samples were in 3 groups of people, they were the people who had professions on silk making, ceramics making, and jar cover making. The research conducted by studying the baseline data of professions and occupational health hazards. The developing of learning model and problem solving process for occupational health and safety were used by searching the working problems. Problem analysis was taken by job safety analysis(JSA) in order to be the way for prevention and control actions. The professional groups learning follow up and evaluation methods were used in order to find out the standard model. The results of the research were; the searching of occupational health problems with the professional groups made them learned about occupational health and safety problems.

ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵÃ͹ÒÁÑÂÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ ¤³ÐÊÒ¸ÒóÊØ¢ÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒÊØ¢ÈÖ¡ÉÒ ¤³ÐÊÒ¸ÒóÊØ¢ÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ *** ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒºÃÔËÒçҹÊÒ¸ÒóÊØ¢ ¤³ÐÊÒ¸ÒóÊØ¢ÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ **** ÍÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵÃ͹ÒÁÑÂÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ ¤³ÐÊÒ¸ÒóÊØ¢ÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ ***** ¹Ñ¡ÇÔªÒ¡Òà 7 ÈÙ¹Â͹ÒÁÑÂÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁࢵ 6 ¢Í¹á¡¹ ¡ÃзÃǧÊÒ¸ÒóÊØ¢

* **

º·¤Ñ´ÂÍ

Abstract

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅоѲ¹ÒÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁã¹ ¤ÃÑÇàÃÕ͹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í

33

The JSA was developed into 4 steps, they were: (1) sequence of job steps (2) risks identified. The objectives of this research were to study and develop model for learning and problem solving in occupational health and safety in the home-made industries in Northeast region. The study samples were in 3 groups of people, they were the people who had professions on silk making, ceramics making, and jar cover making. The research conducted by studying the baseline data of professions and occupational health hazards. The developing of learning model and problem solving process for occupational health and safety were used by searching the working problems. Problem analysis was taken by job safety analysis(JSA) in order to be the way for prevention and control actions. The professional groups learning follow up and evaluation methods were used in order to find out the standard model. The results of the research were; the searching of occupational health problems with the professional groups made them learned about occupational health and safety problems. The JSA was developed into 4 steps, they were: (1) sequence of job steps (2) risks identified

¤ÓÊÓ¤Ñ : ÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡ä¢»ËÒ ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑ ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹ Keywords : Model for Learning and problem Solving, Occupational Health, Home-Made Industries

º·¹Ó

¨Ò¡¡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁãË»ÃЪҪ¹ã¹ª¹º·ÁÕ§Ò¹ ·ÓÍÂÙ㹶Ôè¹°Ò¹à´ÔÁâ´Â¡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁãËÁÕ¡ÒûÃСͺ ÍÒªÕ¾áÅСÒüÅÔµ ã¹ÃÙ»¢Í§§Ò¹ÈÔÅ»¡ÃÃÁ¾×鹺ҹ áÅЧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹·Õ໹§Ò¹·Õ·Ó¡Ñ¹àͧ·Õè è è ºÒ¹ËÃ×ÍÀÒÂ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹ à¾×èÍà¾ÔèÁÃÒÂä´ »ÃСͺ¡Ñº ÊÀÒÇСÒó·Ò§´Ò¹àÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨ã¹»¨¨ØºÑ¹ ·Õè·ÓãËà¡Ô´ »ËÒ¡ÒÃÇÒ§§Ò¹à»¹¨Ó¹Ç¹ÁÒ¡ â´Â੾ÒÐ㹡ÅØÁ¼Ù ãªáç§Ò¹áÅСÅØÁ·Õè㪤ÇÒÁªÓ¹Ò੾Òдҹ ¨Ö§ ʧ¼ÅãË»ÃЪҡÃàËÅÒ¹ÕéµÍ§¡ÅѺÁÒÍÂÙ㹷ͧ¶Ôè¹ áÅÐ ÁÒ»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾·ÕèÊÒÁÒö·Óä´ã¹ËÁÙºÒ¹ËÃ×ÍÀÒÂã¹ ¤Ãͺ¤ÃÑǢͧµ¹àͧ â´ÂÁÕ˹ǧҹ¢Í§·Ò§ÃÒª¡Òà áÅÐͧ¤¡ÃàÍ¡ª¹·Õèä´ÁÕÊǹªÇÂ㹡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁÍÒªÕ¾ µÒ§ æ ·ÕÊÒÁÒö·Óä´ã¹¤Ãͺ¤ÃÑÇËÃ×Í㹷ͧ¶Ô¹ ·ÓãË è è ã¹ËÅÒ æ ËÁºÒ¹ÁÕÍÒªÕ¾ãËÁ·ÊÒÁÒö·ÓÃÒÂä´ãË¡º Ù Õè Ñ ¤Ãͺ¤ÃÑÇä´à»¹ÍÂÒ§´Õ ¡Ò÷ӧҹã¹âç§Ò¹ÍØ µ ÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ¹Ñé ¹ ÁÕ ¢Í¡Ó˹´¢Í§¡¯ËÁÒÂ˹ǧҹµÒ§æ·Õà¢ÒÁÒ´ÙáÅáÅÐ è ¤Çº¤ØÁãË»¯ÔºÑµÔÍÂÒ§¶Ù¡µÍ§µÒÁËÅÑ¡¡Ò÷Ñé§ã¹´Ò¹ ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃÊÀҾʶҹ·Õè·Ó§Ò¹·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁ ¤ÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹáÅСÒûͧ¡Ñ¹ÍѹµÃÒÂ

¨Ò¡¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔ§Ò¹ 㹧ҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹¹Ñé¹ ÁÕËÅÒÂæ§Ò¹·ÕèÊÀÒ¾¢Í§§Ò¹áÅÐÅѡɳСÒ÷ӧҹ ¨Ð¡ÍãËà¡Ô´¼Å¡ÃзºËÃ×ÍÍѹµÃÒµͼٷÕè·Ó§Ò¹¹Ñé¹ áÅм»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾àËÅÒ¹Õ¡¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒôÙáÅÊØ¢ÀÒ¾µ¹àͧ Ù éç áÅзӧҹâ´Â·ÕäÁÃÇÒ§Ò¹·Õ·Ó͹¹ÁÕ͹µÃÒÂÍÂÒ§äà è Ù è Ù Ñé Ñ ºÒ§ áÅФÇõͧÁÕÇÔ¸Õ¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔËÃ×ͨеͧ»Í§¡Ñ¹ ÍѹµÃÒÂÍÂÒ§äà àÁ×èÍ·Ó§Ò¹¹Ñé¹ä»¹Ò¹æÂÍÁ¡ÍãËà¡Ô´ âäËÃ× Í ÍÑ ¹ µÃÒµ Í ÊØ ¢ ÀÒ¾Ã Ò §¡Ò¼٠·Õè·Ó§Ò¹¹Ñé ¹ ä´ Ê§¼ÅµÍ¤Ø³ÀÒ¾ªÕÇÔµ¢Í§ªÒǺҹ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õé ÊÁÒªÔ¡ 㹤Ãͺ¤ÃÑÇÍѹä´á¡ à´ç¡ ¤¹ÊÙ§ÍÒÂØ áÅÐÊÁÒªÔ¡Í×¹æ è 㹤Ãͺ¤ÃÑÇ ¡çÍÒ¨ä´ÃºÍѹµÃÒ·Õà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡ÒÃ·Ó§Ò¹ä´ Ñ è â´ÂäÁÃÙµÑÇáÅÐäÁÁÕ¡Òûͧ¡Ñ¹ÍѹµÃÒ »ËÒÊØ¢ÀÒ¾ ¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ ÍÒ¨à¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡Òû¯Ôºµ·äÁ¶¡µÍ§ ËÃ×Í Ñ Ô Õè Ù ¢Ò´¤ÇÒÁÃÙ ¤ÇÒÁªÓ¹Ò áÅлÃÐʺ¡Òó¡Ò÷ӧҹ ·ÕèäÁà¾Õ§¾Í ÃÇÁ·Ñé§äÁÁÕÁҵáÒäǺ¤ØÁáÅлͧ¡Ñ¹ ÍѹµÃÒ·ÕÍÒ¨à¡Ô´¢Ö¹¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ áÅÐÇÔ¸´áÅÊØ¢ÀÒ¾ è é Õ Ù ·Õ¶¡µÍ§ «Ö§¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ËÒÊØ¢ÀÒ¾¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ èÙ è áÅÐ¾ÄµÔ ¡ ÃÃÁ㹡Òô٠á ÅÊØ ¢ ÀҾ㹼٠» ÃСͺ ÍÒªÕ¾ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹¢Í§ªØÁª¹ª¹º·ÍÕÊÒ¹ ¢Í§ ¡Ò¨¹Ò ¹Ò¶Ð¾Ô¹¸Ø áÅФ³Ð (2542) ¾ºÇÒ »ÃЪҪ¹·Õè»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹

34

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅоѲ¹ÒÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁã¹ ¤ÃÑÇàÃÕ͹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

ÊǹãË (ÃÍÂÅÐ 84.15) ÁÕ»ËÒ¡ÒÃà¨çº»ÇÂËÃ×Í âä¨Ò¡§Ò¹·Õè·ÓÍÂÙ áÅÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¤Ô´ÇÒÍغѵÔà˵بҡ¡Òà ·Ó§Ò¹äÁÊÒÁÒö»Í§¡Ñ¹ä´ ¡ÒôÙáÅÊØ¢ÀҾ໹Íѹ´Ñº ááàÁ×Íà¡Ô´¡ÒÃà¨çº»ÇÂËÃ×ͺҴà¨çº¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ¹Ñ¹ è é Êǹã˨лÅÍ·ԧäÇãËËÒÂàͧ »ÃЪҡÃàËÅÒ¹Õ¡¨Ð é éç ¡ÅѺÁÒÁÕÍÒ¡ÒÃà¨çº»ÇÂËÃ×Í Âѧä´ÃѺºÒ´à¨çº¨Ò¡ ÍغѵÔà˵ءÒ÷ӧҹàËÁ×͹à´ÔÁÍÕ¡ µÃҺ㴡çµÒÁ·ÕèÂѧ µ Í §·Ó§Ò¹áººà´Ô Á áÅÐÂÑ § äÁ ÁÕ ¡ ÒÃà»ÅÕè  ¹á»Å§ ¾ÄµÔ¡ÃÃÁ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ·ÕàÊÕ§µÍ¡ÒÃä´ÃºÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ è è Ñ ¡Ò÷ӧҹ¹Ñé¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñ鹨֧¤ÇÃÁÕ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËáÅоѲ¹ÒÃкº ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹÷ҧ´Ò¹ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ à¾×Í Ù è ¹Óä»ÊÙ¡ÒùÓä»ãªã¹¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔ㹡ÒûÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ ¢Í§»ÃЪҪ¹ â´Â੾ÒлÃÐàÀ·§Ò¹ÈÔÅ»Ëѵ¶¡ÃÃÁ ¾×¹ºÒ¹ §Ò¹ÃѺªÇ§Áҷӹ͡ʶҹ»ÃСͺ¡Òà ·ÕàÃÕ¡ é è ÇÒ§Ò¹ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹ ËÃ×Íáç§Ò¹¹Í¡Ãкº ÍÑ ¹ ¨Ðà» ¹ »ÃÐ⪹ µ Í »ÃЪҪ¹ã¹¡ÅØ Á ´Ñ § ¡Å Ò Ç «Ö觻¨¨ØºÑ¹ÁըӹǹÁÒ¡ ¡ÃШÒÂÍÂÙã¹áµÅÐËÁÙºÒ¹ áÅÐÁÕ»ËÒÊØ¢ÀÒ¾·ÕèÊÓ¤ÑÊǹ˹Ö觷Õèà¡Ô´Íѹà¹×èͧÁÒ ¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹÍÒªÕ¾´Ñ§¡ÅÒÇ

¡ÒÃÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¹Õé à » ¹ ÇÔ ¨Ñ  àªÔ § »¯Ô ºÑ µÔ ¡ ÒÃ(Action Research) ÁÕ¢Ñ鹵͹㹡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹¡Òôѧ¹Õé 2.1 ¡ÒäѴàÅ×Í¡¡ÅØÁµÑÇÍÂÒ§ÍÒªÕ¾·Õè·Ó¡Òà ÈÖ¡ÉҨӹǹ 3 ¡ÅØÁÍÒªÕ¾´Ç¡ѹ â´ÂãªËÅÑ¡¡Òà »ÃÐàÁÔ¹¤ÇÒÁàÊÕè§ (Risk Assessment) ÍѹµÃÒ ¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ¢Í§¡ÅØÁÍÒªÕ¾·Õè¨Ð·Ó¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ 3 ¡ÅØÁ ÍÒªÕ¾ ä´á¡ 1) ÍÒªÕ¾·Í¼ÒäËÁ ·Õè ºÒ¹ËÇÂ¤Í µ.â¹¹¾ÂÍÁ Í.ª¹º· ¨.¢Í¹á¡¹ 2) ÍÒªÕ ¾ ·Óà¤Ã×è Í §» ¹ ´Ô ¹ à¼Ò ·Õè ªØ Á ª¹à¤Ã×è Í §» ¹ ´Ô ¹ à¼Ò µ.´ Ò ¹à¡ÇÕ Â ¹ Í.⪤ªÑ  ¨.¹¤ÃÃÒªÊÕÁÒ 3) ÍÒªÕ ¾ ºÑ ´ ¡ÃÕ ½ ÒâÍ § ·Õè º Ò ¹§Ôé Ç ºÒ¹â¹¹ µ.â¹¹ÊÓÃÒ Í.àÁ×ͧ ¨.ªÑÂÀÙÁÔ

ÇÔ¸´Óà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃÇÔ¨Â Õ Ñ

2.2 ÈÖ¡ÉÒ¢ÍÁÙÅàº×éͧµ¹¢Í§¡ÒûÃСͺ ÍҪվ㹡ÅØÁ»ÃЪҡ÷ÕèÈÖ¡ÉÒ 2.3 ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¢ÍÁÙÅ»ËÒÊØ¢ÀÒ¾¨Ò¡¡Òà »ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ à¡çº¢ÍÁÙÅàªÔ§¤Ø³ÀÒ¾ â´Â¡ÒÃÊѧࡵ¡Òó ẺÁÕÊǹÃÇÁ´Ò¹¾ÄµÔ¡ÃÃÁ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ¢Í§¡ÅØÁ ÍÒªÕ¾·ÕÈ¡ÉÒ áÅÐâ´Â¡ÒÃÊÑÁÀÒɳẺà¨ÒÐÅÖ¡à¾×ÍËÒ è Ö è ¾ÄµÔ¡ÃÃÁ·ÕÍÒ¨¡ÍãËà¡Ô´¡ÒúҴà¨çºËÃ×Íà¨çº»Ç¨ҡ è ¡Ò÷ӧҹáµÅлÃÐàÀ· áÅÐÈÖ¡ÉÒÃкº¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹÷ҧ Ù ´Ò¹ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ 㹼»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ Ù ÈÖ¡ÉÒ¢ÍÁÙÅà¡ÕèÂǡѺ»ËÒÊØ¢ÀÒ¾¨Ò¡áËŧã˺ÃÔ¡Òà ÊØ¢ÀÒ¾ ÊÓÃǨÊÀÒ¾ÊÔ§áÇ´ÅÍÁã¹Ê¶Ò¹·Õ·Ó§Ò¹ áÅÐ è è ÈÖ¡ÉÒ¢ÍÁÙÅ·Ò§´Ò¹¡ÒÃÂÈÒʵà (Ergonomics) 2.4 ¢Ñé¹àµÃÕÂÁªØÁª¹ â´Â¡ÒÃãªà·¤¹Ô¤¡ÒÃÊÃÒ§¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ã¹ ¡ÅÁ¼»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ ·Ó¤ÇÒÁà¢Ò㨡Ѻ¼»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ Ø Ù Ù à¡ÕÂǡѺ»ËÒ·Ò§´Ò¹ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ è 2.5 ¢Ñé¹´Óà¹Ô¹¡Òà »ÃЪØÁ¡ÅÁ¼»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾áµÅÐÍÒªÕ¾ ãªÃ» Ø Ù Ù áºº¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ·Ò§´Ò¹ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑ áÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ·Õè䴾Ѳ¹Ò¢Öé¹ÁÒ ÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËÊÀÒ¾ »ËÒÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹ã¹áµÅСÅØÁÍÒªÕ¾ â´Âãªà·¤¹Ô¤ÇÔ¸Õ¡Òà ÇÔà¤ÃÒÐ˧ҹà¾×ͤÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ (Job Safety Analyè sis) áÅÐ㪡Ԩ¡ÃÃÁ 5 Ê.ÃÇÁ¡Ñº à·¤¹Ô¤¡ÒûÃѺ»Ãا ÊÀÒ¾¡Ò÷ӧҹã¹Ê¶Ò¹»ÃСͺ¡Òâ¹Ò´àÅç¡(WISE Techniques; Work Improvement in Small Enterprises) à¾×èÍã˼ٻÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ÁÕÊǹÃÇÁ㹡Òä¹ËÒáÅÐËÒ á¹Ç·Ò§ã¹¡ÒÃá¡»ËҴǵ¹àͧ â´Â¼ÙÇÔ¨ÑÂáÅÐà¨Ò ˹ҷըҡ˹ǧҹÃÒª¡Ò÷Ó˹ҷÕ㹡ÒÃãˤÓá¹Ð¹Ó è è 2.6 ¢Ñ¹µÔ´µÒÁ »ÃѺ»Ãا áÅлÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å·Õä´ é è µÔ´µÒÁ¼Å¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙà¾×èÍËÒÊǹ·ÕèµÍ§»ÃѺ »Ãا ¨Ò¡¡ÅØÁ»ÃЪҡüٻÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾·Õè·Ó¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ à¾×ÍãËä´Ã»áºº·ÕàËÁÒÐÊÁ »ÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹¡Òà è Ù è

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅоѲ¹ÒÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁã¹ ¤ÃÑÇàÃÕ͹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í

35

3.1 »ËÒÊØ¢ÀÒ¾¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ËÒÊØ¢ÀҾ㹠3 ¡ÅØÁÍÒªÕ¾ ¾ºÇÒ ÃÍÂÅÐ 79.5 ¢Í§¼Ù»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾·ÕèÈÖ¡ÉÒ ÁÕ »ËÒÊØ¢ÀÒ¾¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ (¡ÒÃà¨çº»ÇÂËÃ×Íâä¨Ò¡ ¡Ò÷ӧҹ) ·Õ辺ÁÒ¡¤×Í ÍÒ¡Ò÷Õèà¡Ô´¨Ò¡·Ò·Ò§áÅÐ ÍÃÔÂÒº··ÕäÁàËÁÒÐÊÁ¢³Ð·Ó§Ò¹ ¤ÇÒÁ«éÓ«Ò¡¢Í§§Ò¹ è áÅÐÁÕ¡Ò÷ӧҹµÍà¹×èͧ໹àÇÅÒ¹Ò¹æ ·ÓãËà¡Ô´ ÍÒ¡ÒûǴµÒÁÊǹµÒ§æ¢Í§ÃÒ§¡Ò હ »Ç´ËÅѧ »Ç´µ¹¤Í »Ç´äËÅ »Ç´àÍÇ »Ç´µÒÁÁ×Í á¢¹áÅÐ ¢Ò ÊÓËÃѺÍÒ¡Ò÷ҧµÒ·Õ辺¨Ð໹ÍÒ¡Ò÷Õèà¡Ô´à¹×èͧ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃãªÊÒµÒྦྷÁͧÁÒ¡à¡Ô¹ä»Íѹä´á¡ ÍÒ¡Òà áʺµÒ µÒ¾ÃÒ áÅлǴ¡Ãк͡µÒ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹ÕéÂѧ ¾ºÍÒ¡ÒÃÍ͹à¾ÅÕÂã¹¼Ù»ÃСͺÍҪվ໹ÊǹãË Íѹà¹×èͧ¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹµÔ´µÍ¡Ñ¹à»¹ÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¹Ò¹æ ¡ÅØÁ·ÕèÈÖ¡ÉÒÃÍÂÅÐ 64.5 à¤Âä´ÃѺºÒ´à¨çº ¨Ò¡Ò÷ӧҹ ÍغѵÔà˵بҡ¡Ò÷ӧҹ¾ºÁҡ㹡ÅØÁ ÍÒªÕ¾ºÑ´¡ÃÕ½Òâͧ »ÃÐàÀ·¢Í§ÍغѵÔà˵طÕèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹Êǹ ã˨Ðà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡Òö١¢Í§ÁÕ¤ÁºÒ´ «Öè§ÁÕµÑé§áµÃдѺ ¤ÇÒÁÃعáç¹Í 仨¹¶Ö§ÁÒ¡ ÍغѵÔà˵بҡàÈÉÇѵ¶Ø ªÔ¹àÅç¡æ¡ÃÐà´ç¹à¢ÒµÒ ¡Òö١¡ÃÐá·¡ÃÒ§¡Ò¨ҡ¢Í§ é á¢ç§ áÅСÒÃË¡ÅÁà¹×èͧ¨Ò¡ÊÀÒ¾§Ò¹ ÁÕ¡ÒèѴà¡çº ºÃÔàdz§Ò¹äÁàËÁÒÐÊÁ áÅоºÇÒÁÕÊÁҪԡ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹ ·ÕèäÁä´·Ó§Ò¹¹Õéáµä´ÃѺÍغѵÔà˵بҡÊÀÒ¾§Ò¹à»¹ ¨Ó¹Ç¹¶Ö§ÃÍÂÅÐ 14.9 ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹ÕéÂѧ¾ºÍѹµÃÒ·Õèà¡Ô´ ¨Ò¡ÊÒÃà¤ÁÕ·Á¡ÒùÓÁÒãªã¹ºÒ§¢Ñ¹µÍ¹¢Í§¡Ò÷ӧҹ Õè Õ é હ µÐ¡ÑèÇ ¡Ã´ â«´Òä¿ áÅÐÊÕ à»¹µ¹ 3.2 ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ãã¹»ËÒáÅСÒÃá¡ä¢»ËÒ Ù ¨Ò¡¡ÒûÃÐªØ Á ¡ÅØ Á ¼Ù » ÃСͺÍÒªÕ ¾ ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹áµÅСÅØÁÍÒªÕ¾ à¾×èÍãËà¡Ô´ ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ¶Ö§»ËÒáÅСÒÃá¡ä¢»ËÒ·Ò§´Ò¹ÍÒªÕÇ Í¹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ ¾ºÇÒ 3.2.1 ¢Ñ鹵͹¢Í§¡ÒÃÁͧÀÒ¾»ËÒ ÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹·Ò§´Ò¹ÊØ¢ÀҾ͹ÒÁѨҡ¡Ò÷ӧҹ ¨Ð·ÓãË ªÒǺҹà¡Ô´¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ¶Ö§»ËÒÊØ¢ÀҾ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅÐ ¤ÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ·Õèà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ ·Ñ駷Õèµ¹à¤Âä´ÃѺ áÅШҡ»ÃÐʺ¡Òó¢Í§¼ÙÍ×è¹

¼Å¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂ

3.2.2 ¢Ñé ¹ µÍ¹¡ÒÃÇÔ à ¤ÃÒÐË § Ò¹à¾×è Í ¤ÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ (Job Safety Analysis) «Ö§¨Ò¡¡ÒùÓÇÔ¸Õ è ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐ˧ҹ¹ÕéÁÒ㪾ºÇÒ ¨Ò¡ÇÔ¸Õ¡Ò÷ÕèÁÕÍÂÙà´ÔÁ 3 ¢Ñ鹵͹¤×Í (1) ầ§Ò¹·Õè¹ÓÁÒÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËÍÍ¡ ໹¢Ñ鹵͹µÒ§æ (2) ¤¹ËÒÍѹµÃÒÂËÃ×Íá¹Çâ¹Á·Õè ¨Ðà¡Ô´ÍѹµÃÒ ð µÒÁÅѡɳСÒ÷ӧҹ·Õè ¡ÍãËà¡Ô´ÍѹµÃÒ (Unsafe Act) ð µÒÁÅѡɳТͧÊÔè§áÇ´ ÅÍÁ¢Í§§Ò¹·Õè¡ÍãËà¡Ô´ÍѹµÃÒ (Unsafe Condition) (3) ¡Ó˹´ÁҵáÒÃËÃ×ÍÇÔ¸Õ¡Òà 㹡Òûͧ¡Ñ¹ËÃ×Íá¡ä¢ÊÀÒ¾ÍѹµÃÒÂã¹áµÅТѹµÍ¹ é à¾×è Í ª Ç ÂãË ¡ ÒÃÇÔ à ¤ÃÒÐË § Ò¹à¾×è Í ¤ÇÒÁ »ÅÍ´ÀÑÂÊÒÁÒö·Óä´§Ò¢ֹã¹ÃдѺ·ÕªÒǺҹÊÒÁÒö é è à¢Òã¨ä´§Ò áÅÐËÒÁҵáÒÃ㹡Òûͧ¡Ñ¹áÅÐá¡ä¢ ÍѹµÃÒÂËÃ×Í»ËÒÊØ¢ÀÒ¾·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ä´ ¨Ö§ä´»ÃѺ»Ãا á¹Ç·Ò§¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐ˧ҹãËÁÕ 4 ¢Ñ鹵͹ â´Âà¾ÔèÁ¢Ñé¹ µÍ¹¢Í§¡ÒÃËÒ¤¹ËÒÊÒà˵آͧ¡ÒÃà¡Ô´ÍѹµÃÒ ¡Í¹ ¢Ñé ¹ µÍ¹¡ÒÃËÒÁҵáÒÃ㹡Òû Í §¡Ñ ¹ áÅÐá¡ ä ¢ ÍѹµÃÒÂËÃ×Í»ËÒÊØ¢ÀÒ¾·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ «Ö觪ÇÂãËà¡Ô´¡Òà àÃÕ¹ÃÙ ÊÒÁÒöà¢Ò㨠¢ºÇ¹¡Òä¹ËÒ»ËÒ ÊÒà˵آͧ ¡ÒÃà¡Ô´ÍѹµÃÒÂáÅлËÒÊØ¢ÀÒ¾¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ 3.2.3 ¢Ñ鹵͹¡ÒäԴËÒá¹Ç·Ò§ã¹¡Òà »Í§¡Ñ¹áÅÐá¡ä¢»ËÒ à¹×ͧ¨Ò¡ã¹¡ÒûÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ è ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹¨ÐÁÕÊÀÒ¾¢Í§Ê¶Ò¹·Õ·Ó§Ò¹·Õè è ᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ã¹¡ÒûÃѺ»ÃاÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅÍÁ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ áÅÐÅÑ ¡ ɳТͧ¡Ò÷ӧҹ ¨Ö § ÁÕ ¢ Í ¨Ó¡Ñ ´ ÁÒ¡¡Ç Ò ¡Ò÷ӧҹ»ÃÐàÀ·à´ÕÂǡѹã¹âç§Ò¹ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ â´ÂÊÃØ»áÅÇ¡ÅØÁ¼Ù»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁàËç¹ÇÒ¤ÇÃÁÕ ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ㹡Òûͧ¡Ñ¹áÅÐá¡ä¢»ËÒ 3 àÃ×èͧ ¤×Í (1) ¡ÒûÃѺ»Ãاʶҹ·Õ·Ó§Ò¹ áÅÐÊÔ§áÇ´ÅÍÁ è è 㹡Ò÷ӧҹ (2) ¡ÒÃͺÃÁãË ¤ ÇÒÁÃÙ ¡Ñ º ¡ÅØ Á ÍÒªÕ ¾ 㹡Òà »Í§¡Ñ¹ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡Ò÷ӧҹ

36

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅоѲ¹ÒÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁã¹ ¤ÃÑÇàÃÕ͹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

(3) ¡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁÊØ¢ÀÒ¾ â´Â¡ÒÃÍÍ¡¡ÓÅѧ¡Ò ËÃ× Í ¡ÒúÃÔ Ë ÒÃÃ Ò §¡ÒÂÃ Ç Á¡Ñ ¹ 㹡ÅØ Á ¼Ù»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ ã¹»ÃÐà´ç ¹ ¡ÒûÃÑ º »ÃØ § ʶҹ·Õè ·Ó§Ò¹áÅÐ ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ¹Ñé¹ ¹Ñ¡ÇÔ¨ÑÂä´á¹Ð¹Ó WISE Techniques «Öè§à»¹à·¤¹Ô¤ÇÔ¸Õ·Õèá¹Ð¹Óâ´Â ILO 㹡Òà »ÃѺ»ÃاÊÓËÃѺʶҹ»ÃСͺ¡Òâ¹Ò´àÅç¡ áÅСÒà 㪠¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ 5 Ê (ÊÐÊÒ§ Êдǡ ÊÐÍÒ´ ÊØ¢ÅѡɳРáÅÐÊÃÒ§¹ÔÊÂ) ·ÕÁ¡ÒùÓä»ãªã¹Ê¶Ò¹»ÃСͺ¡ÒÃáÅÐ Ñ è Õ Ë¹Ç§ҹµÒ§æ «Ö§¾ºÇÒ¡ÒÃ㪠¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ 5 Ê ¨Ð·ÓãËà¡Ô´ è ¤ÇÒÁà¢Òã¨ã¹¡Òû¯Ôºµ·§Ò¡ÇÒ ¡ÒÃàÃÔÁ»¯Ôºµ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃ Ñ Ô Õè è Ñ Ô ·Ó¤ÇÒÁÊÐÍÒ´¨Ð·ÓãË䴼ŷҧ´Ò¹Í×è¹µÒÁÁÒ ¡Òûͧ¡Ñ¹ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡Ò÷ӧҹ 㹺ҧ ¡ÅÁÍÒªÕ¾¨ÐÁÕà¨Ò˹ҷÕà¢ÒÁÒãˤÇÒÁÃã¹ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ Ø è Ù ¡Ò÷ӧҹ㹺ҧàÃ×ͧ «Ö§ÊǹãË๹´Ò¹ÊÒÃà¤ÁÕ áµ è è ¼»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ÂѧÁÕ¤ÇÒÁµÍ§¡Ò÷ÃÒº¶Ö§ÇÔ¸¡ÒÃ㹡ÒÃ Ù Õ »Í§¡Ñ¹ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ¡Ò÷ӧҹ «Öè§à»¹¡ÒÃà¨çº»Ç·Õè ¾Ç¡à¢Òà¤Â໹ËÃ×Í¡ÓÅѧä´ÃºÍÂã¹»¨¨Øº¹ ¹Ñ¡ÇÔ¨Âä´ Ñ Ù Ñ Ñ à¢Òä»ãˤÓá¹Ð¹Ó㹡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃ㹺ҧàÃ×ͧ·ÕµÍ§¡Òà è è ¡ÒûÃѺ»Ãاá¡ä¢ã¹¡Ò÷ӧҹ㹡ÅÁ¼»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ Ø Ù ÊÓËÃѺ¡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁÊØ¢ÀÒ¾ ¡ÅØÁ¼Ù»ÃСͺ ÍÒªÕ¾µÍ§¡ÒÃã˹¡ÇÔ¨Âà¢Òä»Ê͹·Ò·Ò§ã¹¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃ Ñ Ñ ÃÒ§¡Ò·ըÐÊÒÁÒö᡻ËÒàÃ×ͧ¡ÒûǴàÁ×ÍÂÃÒ§¡Ò è è è ·Õà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ ¹Ñ¡ÇÔ¨Âä´à¢Òä»ÊÒ¸Ôµ·Ò¡ÒúÃÔËÒà è Ñ ÃÒ§¡ÒÂâ´ÂãªäÁ¾Åͧ(¢Í§»ÒºØÁÕ) ·ÕèÊÒÁÒö¹Óä» »¯Ôºµä´·¡¡ÅÁÍÒÂØ áÅÐÇÔ¸¡ÒäÅÒÂáÅÐÂ×´¡ÅÒÁà¹×Í Ñ Ô Ø Ø Õ é ¡Í¹ËÃ×ÍËÅѧ¡Ò÷ӧҹ â´Âä´á¨¡àÍ¡ÊÒäÙÁ×Í¡Òà ½¡´Ñ§¡ÅÒÇãËäÇà¾×ÍãËÊÒÁÒö䴷º·Ç¹áÅл¯Ôºµä´ è Ñ Ô ´Çµ¹àͧ ËÅѧ¨Ò¡¹Ñé¹ ä´»ÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃã¹ ¡ÒûÃѺ»Ãاà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ã¹¡ÒÃá¡ä¢»ËÒ·Ò§´Ò¹ ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ໹ÃÐÂÐæ â´ÂãªÇÔ¸Õ ÈÖ¡ÉÒ¢ÍÁÙÅàªÔ§¤Ø³ÀÒ¾·Õä´¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÊѧࡵ ¾Ù´¤Ø«ѡ¶ÒÁ è àªÔ§à¨ÒÐÅÖ¡¢ÍÁÙÅ áÅкѹ·Ö¡¢ÍÁÙÅ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ ¾ÄµÔ ¡ ÃÃÁ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ áÅСÒÃ¨Ñ ´ ¡Ò÷ҧ´ Ò ¹ ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ

3.3 ¼Å¡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹¡Òà 3.3.1 ¡ÅÁÍÒªÕ¾ºÑ´¡ÃÕ½Òâͧ Ø ¹Ñ¡ÇÔ¨ÑÂä´à¢Òä»ÊÒ¸Ôµ¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃÃÒ§¡ÒÂã¹ 2 âç§Ò¹ ÁÕ¼Ùà¢ÒÃѺ¡ÒÃÊÒ¸ÔµáÅн¡»¯ÔºÑµÔ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 35 ¤¹ ËÅѧ¨Ò¡¹Ñé¹ä´ÁÕ¡ÒÃÃÇÁ¡ÅØÁ¡Ñ¹à¾×èͺÃÔËÒà ÃÒ§¡ÒÂÍÂÒ§ÊÁèÓàÊÁÍ㹵͹àÂç¹ËÅѧàÅÔ¡§Ò¹·Ø¡Çѹ·Õè ʶҹ·Õè ·Ó§Ò¹ à» ¹ àÇÅÒ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 2 à´× Í ¹ áÅÐã¹ ÀÒÂËÅѧä´Á¡ÒÃÃÇÁ¡ÅÁ¡Ñ¹¢Í§ªÒǺҹà¾×ÍÍÍ¡¡ÓÅѧ Õ Ø è â´Â¡ÒÃ൹áÍâúԤ ·ÕèʹÒÁ¢Í§ËÁٺҹ㹵͹àÂç¹ «Öè§ÁÒ¨Ò¡¤ÇÒÁ¤Ô´àËç¹·ÕèµÍ§¡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁÊØ¢ÀÒ¾¢Í§ ªÒǺҹ¹Ñé¹àͧ ÁÕËÅÒ¤¹·Õèä´¹Ó·ÒºÃÔËÒÃÃÒ§¡Ò·Õè ä´ÃѺ¡Òý¡Ê͹ÁÒãªã¹¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃÃÒ§¡ÒÂà¾Õ§ÅӾѧ àͧ·ÕèºÒ¹ áÅÐä´ãˤÇÒÁ¤Ô´àËç¹ÇÒ¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃÃÒ§¡Ò ·Õä´»¯ÔºµÍ¹¹ÊÒÁÒöªÇÂÅ´ÍÒ¡ÒûǴàÁ×ÍÃÒ§¡Ò è Ñ Ô Ù Ñé è ¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ¢Í§¾Ç¡à¢Òä´ áÅзÓãËã¹ÃÐÂÐËÅÑ§æ ¹ÕéäÁä´¡Ô¹ÂÒà¾×èÍá¡ÍÒ¡ÒûǴàÁ×èÍ¡ÅÒÁà¹×éÍÍÕ¡ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃµÔ ´ µÒÁ¼Å¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè  ¹á»Å§ÊÀÒ¾ ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ¾ºÇÒ ä´ÁÕ¡ÒèѴᡧҹ㹠¢Ñ鹵͹¡ÒúѴ¡ÃÕ·Õè㪵СÑèÇ㹡ÒúѴ¡ÃÕ ãËÍÍ¡ËÒ§ ¨Ò¡§Ò¹Í×è¹·ÕèäÁà¡ÕèÂǢͧ¡ÑºµÐ¡ÑèÇ áÅÐÁÕ¡ÒûÃѺ»Ãا ¡ÒÃÃкÒÂÍÒ¡ÒȺÃÔàdzʶҹ·Õ·Ó§Ò¹·Õ´¢¹¡ÇÒáµà´ÔÁ è è Õ Öé ÁÕ¡ÒûÃѺ»ÃاºÃÔàdz·Õè·Ó§Ò¹à¾×èÍÅ´ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡÊÒà à¤ÁÕâ´Â¡ÒÃᡧҹÊǹ·ÕèÁÕ¡ÒúѴ¡ÃÕÍ͡仨ҡ§Ò¹·Õè äÁà¡ÕèÂǢͧ áÅÐÃÔàÃÔèÁ¡Ò÷ӤÇÒÁÊÐÍÒ´ºÃÔàdz·Õè ·Ó§Ò¹ÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹ ÁÕ¡ÒáӨѴ¢ÂÐÁÙŽÍ áÅÐÁÕ¡ÒèѴËÒ ÀÒª¹ÐÁÒ㪠㠹¡ÒÃãÊ à ÈÉÊÑ § ¡ÐÊÕ Ã ÐËÇ Ò §·Ó§Ò¹ «Öè § ÊÒÁÒöªÇ»ͧ¡Ñ¹¡ÒúҴà¨çº¨Ò¡ÍغѵÔà˵ØÃÐËÇÒ§ ·Ó§Ò¹ ´Ò¹¡ÒÃÂÈÒʵÃ(Ergonomics) ä´ÁÕ¡ÒûÃѺ »Ãاã¹àÃ×èͧµÒ§æä´á¡ ¡ÒÃÅ´¨Ó¹Ç¹á¼¹Êѧ¡ÐÊի͹ ¡Ñ ¹ ·Õè µÍ §µÑ ´ ã¹áµ ŠФÃÑé § ŧ ·ÓãË ä Á µÍ §ÍÍ¡áç ¡´ÁÒ¡à¡Ô¹ä»ªÇÂÅ´ÍÒ¡ÒûǴ¡ÅÒÁà¹×éÍÁ×ÍáÅÐᢹ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÍÍ¡áç¡´¡ÃÃä¡Ãà¾×è͵ѴἹÊѧ¡ÐÊÕ ´Ò¹ ·Ò·Ò§ã¹¡Ò÷ӧҹÁÕ¡ÒûÃѺ»Ãا·Õ¹§·Ó§Ò¹à¾×Íã˹§ è Ñè è Ñè ʺÒ¢Öé¹ ÁÕÃдѺ˹ҧҹ·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁ áÅлÃѺ·Ò·Ò§ ¡Ò÷ӧҹ·ÕèÅ´¡ÒáÁËÅѧÁÒ¡æ ¢³Ð·Ó§Ò¹

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅоѲ¹ÒÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁã¹ ¤ÃÑÇàÃÕ͹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í

37

¼Å¡ÒõÃǨÇÑ´ÃдѺµÐ¡ÑÇã¹àÅ×Í´¢Í§¼»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ è Ù ¡Í¹·Õè¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒûÃѺ»ÃاÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅÍÁ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ (Á¡ÃÒ¤Á 2544) ¨Ó¹Ç¹ 86 ¤¹ áÅÐËÅѧ¡ÒûÃѺ »ÃاÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅÍÁ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ áÅÇ (àÁÉÒ¹ 2545) ¨Ó¹Ç¹ 98 ¤¹ (¡ÅÁÈÖ¡ÉÒà´ÔÁ áµÁ¼·ÊÁ¼ÑÊÍѹµÃÒÂ Ø Õ Ù Õè Ñ à¾ÔÁàµÔÁÍÕ¡ 12 ¤¹) ¾ºÇÒ ÁÕ¤ÒÃÐËÇÒ§ 6.61 37.66 è Á¤¡./à´«ÔÅԵà (X ±SD = 20.89 ± 7.00) áÅÐ2.0 31.2 Á¤¡./à´«ÔÅԵà (X ±SD = 11.27 ± 5.67)µÒÁ ÅӴѺ â´ÂÁÕÃдѺµÐ¡ÑèÇà¡Ô¹ 20 Á¤¡./à´«ÔÅԵà ¡Í¹ áÅÐËÅѧ¡ÒûÃѺ»Ãا໹¨Ó¹Ç¹ÃÍÂÅÐ 44.19 áÅÐ 8.16 µÒÁÅӴѺ (µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1) 3.3.2 ¡ÅÁÍÒªÕ¾à¤Ã×ͧ»¹´Ô¹à¼Ò Ø è à¹×è Í §¨Ò¡§Ò¹¹Õé ÁÕ ¡ ÒÃẠ§ á¡˹ Ò ·Õè ã ¹¡Òà ·Ó§Ò¹ áÅÐÁÕÊÀÒ¾¢Í§Ê¶Ò¹·Õè·Ó§Ò¹·ÕèᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ ·ÓãË»ËÒ·Õèà¡Ô´ã¹áµÅФ¹äÁ¤ÍÂàËÁ×͹¡Ñ¹ «Öè§ä´ ãË ¢ Í ¤Ô ´ àËç ¹ 㹡ÒûÃÑ º »ÃØ § ÊÀÒ¾¡Ò÷ӧҹµÒÁ ÅѡɳЧҹáÅÐʶҹ·Õ·Ó§Ò¹ »ËÒ·Õ¾ºà¡×ͺ·Ñ§ËÁ´ è è é ¨Ð໹»ËÒÊØ¢ÀÒ¾·Õà¡Ô´ÍÒ¡ÒûǴµÒÁÍÇÑÂÇТͧÃÒ§ è ¡Ò·ÕÁ¡Ò÷ӧҹ¹Ò¹æµÔ´µÍ¡Ñ¹ ä´á¡ ËÅѧ ᢹ äËÅ è Õ Á×Í áÅÐã¹¼Ù·Õè¹Ñè§¹Ò¹æ ¡ç¨ÐÁÕÍÒ¡ÒûǴ¢Ò´Ç ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ ¡ÒÃãˤÇÒÁÃâ´Â¡ÒÃͺÃÁã¹àÃ×ͧ·Ò·Ò§·ÕàËÁÒÐÊÁã¹ Ù è è ¡Ò÷ӧҹ ¡ÒûÃѺ»ÃاªÇ§¾Ñ¡ÃÐËÇÒ§·Ó§Ò¹ áÅÐ ¡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁÊØ¢ÀÒ¾´Ç¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃÃÒ§¡Ò ¨ÐÊÒÁÒöŴ ¡ÒÃà¨çº»Ç¨ҡ¡ÒÃ·Ó§Ò¹ä´ áµ¨Ð໹¼Å¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹ á»Å§ã¹ÃÐÂÐÂÒÇ 3.3.3 ¡ÅÁÍÒªÕ¾·Í¼ÒäËÁ Ø ¹Ñ¡ÇÔ¨ÑÂä´à¢Òä»ÊÒ¸Ôµ¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃÃÒ§¡ÒÂáÅÐ ÇÔ¸Õ㹡ÒäÅÒÂáÅÐÂ×´¡ÅÒÁà¹×éÍ ÁÕ¼Ùà¢ÒÃÇÁ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 7080 ¤¹ â´Âä´ÃѺ¤ÇÒÁʹã¨áÅÐãˤÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×Í à»¹ÍÂÒ§´Õ ¡ÅÁ¼Ãº¡ÒÃͺÃÁä´àÅ×Í¡µÑÇá·¹·Õ¨Ð໹ Ø ÙÑ è ¼¹Ó¡ÅÁ㹡ÒùӡÒúÃÔËÒÃÃÒ§¡Ò â´Âä´Á¡Òû¯ÔºµÔ Ù Ø Õ Ñ ¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃÃÒ§¡ÒÂÍÂÒ§ÊÁèÓàÊÁÍ໹»ÃШÓÊÑ»´ÒËÅÐ ËÅÒÂÇѹ·ÕʹÒÁ㹺ÃÔàdzÅÒ¹ÇÑ´¢Í§ËÁºÒ¹·ÕÁºÃÔàdz è Ù è Õ ¡ÇÒ§¢ÇÒ§ áÅÐàÁ×ÍàÊÃ稨ҡ¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃÃÒ§¡ÒÂáÅÇ¡ç¨Ð è ÁÕ¡ÒÃ൹áÍâúԤµÍ·ÓãË¡¨¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃÃÇÁ¡ÅÁ¹Õä´Ãº Ô Ø é Ñ ¤ÇÒÁʹã¨ÍÂÒ§ÁÒ¡ ᵨÐàǹ㹪ǧ·Ó¹Ò ÊǹãË

¨ÐºÃÔËÒÃÃÒ§¡ÒÂÍÂ١ѺºÒ¹â´Â´ÙµÒÁ¤ÙÁ×Í·ÕèᨡãË ªÒǺ Ò ¹ã¹¡ÅØ Á ÍÒªÕ ¾ ¹Õé ¨ ÐÁÕ Ë ÅÒ¡ËÅÒ¡ÅØ Á ÍÒÂØ Êǹã˨Ð໹¼Ù·ÕèÁÕ¤Ãͺ¤ÃÑÇáÅÇáÅСÅØÁ·ÕèÁÕÍÒÂØ ¤Í¹¢Ò§ÁÒ¡ áÅк͡ÇÒ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ¹ÕªÇÂãËÃÒ§¡Ò¡ÃЩѺ é ¡ÃÐ੧ áÅÐá¡»ËÒÍÒ¡ÒûǴàÁ×ÍÂÃÒ§¡Ò·Õà¤Â໹ è è ÍÂÙãËËÒÂËÃ×ÍàºÒºÒ§Å§ä´ ÊÓËÃÑ º ¡ÒÃãª Ê ÒÃà¤ÁÕ ã ¹¡ÒÃÂ Í ÁàÊ ¹ äËÁ ¼Å·Õèä´¨Ò¡¡ÒÃà¢Òä»ÁÕÊǹÃÇÁ㹪ØÁª¹áÅШҡ¡Òà Êѧࡵ¾ºÇÒ ªÒǺҹä´ÁվĵԡÃÃÁ·Õèà»ÅÕè¹ä»ã¹·Ò§ ·Õ´¢¹ ÁÕ¡Òûͧ¡Ñ¹ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡÊÒÃà¤ÁÕ㹢ѹµÍ¹¡Òà è Õ Öé é ÂÍÁäËÁ ÁÕ¡ÒÃãªÍ»¡Ã³»´¨ÁÙ¡áÅÐ㪶§Á×Íã¹¢³Ð·Ó Ø Ø ¡ÒÃÂÍÁ â´ÂÍØ»¡Ã³´§¡ÅÒǪÒǺҹ໹¼¨´ËÒÁÒàͧ Ñ ÙÑ áÅТ³Ð·Ó§Ò¹ÁվĵԡÃÃÁ㹡Òûͧ¡Ñ¹ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡ ÊÒÃà¤ÁÕÁÒ¡ÂÔ§¢Ö¹ હ ¡ÒÃÂ×¹ÍÂà˹×ÍÅÁ áÅоÂÒÂÒÁ è é Ù äÁã˼ÔÇ˹ѧÊÑÁ¼ÑʡѺÊÒÃà¤ÁÕ à»¹µ¹

¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐ˧ҹà¾×èͤÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ(JSA) ¨Ð¡ Í ãË à ¡Ô ´ ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ ã ¹¡Òä ¹ ËÒ» ËÒ·Ò§´ Ò ¹ ÊØ¢ÀҾ͹ÒÁѨҡ¡Ò÷ӧҹ ·Ñ§¨Ò¡¢Í§µÑǼ»ÃСͺ é Ù ÍÒªÕ¾àͧ áÅШҡ»ÃÐʺ¡Òó¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙÃÇÁ¡Ñº¼ÙÍ×è¹ «Ö§ÍÒ¨¨ÐÁբͨӡѴ㹡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ûËÒËÃ×ÍÅѡɳТͧ è Ù ÍѹµÃÒÂ㹺ҧàÃ×ͧ «Ö§ÍÒ¨¶Ù¡Áͧ¢ÒÁä» ÇÔ·ÂÒ¡ÃËÃ×Í è è ¼Ù¹Ó¡ÅØÁ ¤ÇèеͧÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÃÙ ¤ÇÒÁà¢Òã¨ã¹ÊÀÒ¾¢Í§ §Ò¹áÅÐ ÅÑ ¡ ɳТͧÍÑ ¹ µÃÒ·Õè Í Ò¨à¡Ô ´ ¢Öé ¹ ¨Ò¡¡Òà ·Ó§Ò¹áµÅÐÍÒªÕ¾ áÅÐ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ·Õè¶Ö§áÁ¨ÐÍÒªÕ¾ à´ÕÂǡѹ áµÍÒ¨ÁբͻÅÕ¡ÂÍÂ㹺ÃÔº·¢Í§Ê¶Ò¹·Õè ·Ó§Ò¹·ÕèᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ ¡ÒùӡÅØÁ·Ó JSA ¼Ù¹Ó¡ÅØÁ¨Ö§ ¤ÇÃÁÕ¤ÇÒÁà¢Òã¨áÅзÃÒºÅѡɳлËÒ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ ੾ÒÐ㹡ÅØÁ¾×é¹·Õè¹Ñé¹ ÊÒÁÒöªÕéá¹ÐãËàË繶֧»ÃÐà´ç¹ ·Õè¤Ãͺ¤ÅØÁ»ËÒ·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ä´ áÅФÇÃà¾ÔèÁ¢Ñ鹵͹ ¡ÒÃËÒÊÒà˵آͧ»Ëҡ͹¢Ñ鹵͹¡ÒÃËÒÁҵáÒà ¡Òûͧ¡Ñ¹áÅÐá¡ä¢»ËÒ ¨Ò¡¡ÒûÃÑ º »ÃØ § áÅÐÈÖ ¡ ÉҼŢͧ¡ÒÃ㪠ÃٻẺ㹡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ·Ò§´Ò¹ÍÒªÕÇ Í¹ÒÁÑ Â áÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ Â ã¹¡Ò÷ӧҹâ´Â¡ÒÃãª

ÊÃØ»áÅÐÇÔ¨Òó¼Å

38

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅоѲ¹ÒÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁã¹ ¤ÃÑÇàÃÕ͹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

à·¤¹Ô¤ÇÔ¸Õ¡Òõҧæ㹡ÅØÁ¼Ù»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ ¡ÒÃ¹Ó ¤ÇÒÁÃÙ·Õèä´ÃѺ¨Ò¡¢Ñ鹵͹µÒ§æ·Õèä´ä»ãª»ÃÐ⪹㹠¡Ò÷ӧҹà¾×è Í ãË à ¡Ô ´ ¤ÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ Â áÅÐÊ § àÊÃÔ Á ÊØ¢ÀÒ¾¹Ñé¹ ¢Öé¹ÍÂ١Ѻ»¨¨Ñ·ÕèÊÓ¤Ñ 3 ´Ò¹´Ñ§¹Õé 1) ÅѡɳТͧ§Ò¹ ÅѡɳТͧ§Ò¹ ¢Ñ鹵͹¡Ò÷ӧҹ áÅÐ ÊÔè § áÇ´Å Í Á㹡Ò÷ӧҹ·Õè á µ¡µ Ò §¡Ñ ¹ ÊÓËÃÑ º ºÒ§ »ÃÐàÀ· ·ÕÁšɳÐËÃ×ͨ͢ӡѴ¢Í§§Ò¹ ¡ÒûÃѺ»Ãاá¡ä¢ è ÕÑ ¨ÐµÍ§ä´ÃѺ¤ÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×Í໹ÍÂÒ§ÁÒ¡ã¹¼Ù»ÃСͺ ÍÒªÕ¾ ¡ÒÃãˤÇÒÁÃáÅЪÕãËàË繶֧¼Å¡ÃзºµÍÊØ¢ÀÒ¾ Ù é ¨Ð໹Êԧ˹֧·ÕÊӤѷըзÓãËà¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×Í㹡Òà è è è è à»ÅÕè¹á»Å§à¾×èÍá¡ä¢»ËÒ 2) ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ã¹¡ÅÁ¼»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ Ø Ù ¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔ§Ò¹·ÕèÍÂÙÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹ËÅÒ¤¹ ¨Ó໹ µÍ§ä´ÃѺ¤ÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×ͨҡ·Ø¡æ¤¹ 㹡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔà¾×èÍ »Í§¡Ñ¹áÅÐá¡ä¢»ËÒÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹ «Ö觡óÕહ¹Õé¡ÒÃ㪠¤¹¡Åҧ໹¼¹Óà¾×ÍãËà¡Ô´¡ÒÃÂÍÁÃѺ㹡ÅÁ¼··Ó§Ò¹ Ù è Ø Ù Õè ÍÂÙ´Ç¡ѹ㹡ÒûÃѺ»Ãاá¡ä¢ÊÀÒ¾¡Ò÷ӧҹáÅÐ ÊÀÒ¾ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ 㹧ҹºÒ§ÍÒªÕ¾ â´Â ੾ÒЧҹ·ÕèÁÕ¼ÙËÔ§·Ó§Ò¹à»¹Êǹã˹Ñé¹ ¡ÒÃÃÇÁ ¡ÅØÁ¡Ñ¹ã¹¡Ò÷ӡԨ¡ÃÃÁµÒ§æ¨Ðä´ÃѺ¤ÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×Í ÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ 3) ÃдѺ¤ÇÒÁÃعáçËÃ×ͼšÃзº¢Í§ »ËÒ·ÕáµÅФ¹ä´Ãº è Ñ ÃдѺ¢Í§»ËÒÊØ¢ÀҾ͹ÒÁÑ·ÕèáµÅФ¹ä´ ÃѺËÃ×Íà¤ÂÁÕ»ÃÐʺ¡ÒóÁҡ͹¹Ñé¹ ¨Ð໹ÊÔè§ÊÓ¤Ñ ·Õ¨Ð·ÓãËà¡Ô´¡ÒÃà»ÅÕ¹á»Å§á¡ä¢»ËÒËÃ×Í·ÓãËàËç¹ è è ¤ÇÒÁÊӤѢͧ¡ÒÃá¡ä¢»ËÒ·ÕèᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ÍÍ¡ä» áµÍÂÒ§äáçµÒÁ¼Å·Õèä´¨Ò¡¡ÒûÃЪØÁ¡ÅØÁ¼Ù»ÃСͺ ÍҪվ㹡ÒÃÁͧ»ËÒ ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË»ËÒ ¡ç໹Êǹ ·ÕèÊӤѷÕè·ÓãË·Ø¡¤¹·Õè»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾à´ÕÂǡѹä´à¡Ô´ ¤ÇÒÁµÃÐ˹ѡÃѺ·ÃÒºã¹ÍѹµÃÒ·Õèà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ ä´àËç¹áÅÐÃѺ·ÃÒº»ËÒáÅФÇÒÁÃعáç¢Í§»ËÒ ·Õè à ¡Ô ´ ã¹¼Ù Í×è ¹ ·ÓãË à ¡Ô ´ ¡ÒÃÂÍÁÃÑ º áÅÐàËç ¹ ´ Ç Âã¹ ¡ÒûÃѺ»Ãاá¡ä¢

à¾×è Í ãË à ¡Ô ´ »ÃÐ⪹ ã ¹¡ÒùÓÃÙ » áººä» »ÃÐÂØ ¡ µ ã ª ã ¹¡ÅØ Á ¼Ù » ÃСͺÍÒªÕ ¾ ÍØ µ ÊÒË¡ÃÃÁã¹ ¤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹ÊÓËÃѺ§Ò¹ÍÒªÕ¾Í×è¹æ ¤ÇÃÁÕ¡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹¡Òà ¤Çº¤ä»¡Ñº¡ÒÃãˤÇÒÁþ¹°Ò¹ã¹¡Òûͧ¡Ñ¹ÍѹµÃÒ ٠٠×é áÅСÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁÊØ¢ÀÒ¾µÍ仹Õé¤×Í 5.1 ¡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁÊØ¢ÀҾ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ ä´á¡ ¤ÇÒÁÃÙã¹àÃ×èͧ¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃÃÒ§¡Ò ·ÒºÃÔËÒ÷Õãªã¹¡Òü͹¤ÅÒ¡ÅÒÁà¹×ÍÊǹµÒ§æ¢Í§ è é ÃÒ§¡Ò ¡ÒÃÍÍ¡¡ÓÅѧ¡Ò áÅСÒÃãˤÇÒÁÃÙ·Ò§´Ò¹ ÊØ¢ÇÔ·ÂÒÊǹºØ¤¤Å 5.2 ¤ÇÒÁÃÙ·Ò§´Ò¹¡ÒÃÂÈÒʵà (Ergonomics) â´Â੾Òзҧ´Ò¹·Ò·Ò§ã¹¡Ò÷ӧҹ·Õè¶Ù¡µÍ§ áÅÐàËÁÒÐÊÁ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ ä´á¡ ·Ò·Ò§ã¹¡Ò÷ӧҹ ¡ÒÃÍÍ¡áç·Ó§Ò¹ áÅСÒá¢Í§ ·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁáÅÐ äÁʧ¼Å¡ÃзºµÍÊØ¢ÀÒ¾ ¡ÒûÃѺÃдѺ¤ÇÒÁÊÙ§¢Í§ ˹ҧҹãËàËÁÒÐÊÁ¡Ñº¡Ò÷ӧҹ ÃÇÁ¶Ö§¤ÇÒÁÃÙàÃ×èͧ ¡ÒáÓ˹´ÃÐÂоѡ·ÕàËÁÒÐÊÁ㹪ǧ¡Ò÷ӧҹ ໹µ¹ è 5.3 ¡ÒèѴÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅÍÁ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ ·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁ ä´á¡ ¡ÒÃÃкÒÂÍÒ¡ÒÈ㹺ÃÔàdz·Õè·Ó§Ò¹ ¡Òûͧ¡Ñ¹ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡÊÒÃà¤ÁÕàº×ͧµ¹ ¡ÒèѴáʧÊÇÒ§ é ·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁ¡Ñº§Ò¹ ÍѹµÃÒ¨ҡàÊÕ§áÅСÒûͧ¡Ñ¹ ÍѹµÃÒ â´Â¤³Ð¼ÙÇÔ¨ÑÂä´·Ó¤ÙÁ×Í㹡ÒÃãˤÇÒÁÃÙã¹ àÃ×èͧ´Ñ§¡ÅÒÇ·Ñé§ 3 àÃ×èͧà¾×èÍãªã¹¡ÒÃãˤÇÒÁÃÙá¡¡ÅØÁ ¼Ù»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹

¢ÍàʹÍá¹Ð

¡ÔµµÔ¡ÃÃÁ»ÃСÒÈ

¼ÙÇԨѢ͢ͺ¤Ø³Êӹѡ§Ò¹¡Í§·Ø¹Ê¹ÑºÊ¹Ø¹ ¡ÒÃÇԨѠ(Ê¡Ç.) ½Ò 3 ·Õèä´àË繤ÇÒÁÊÓ¤ÑáÅÐã˷ع ʹѺʹع㹡Ò÷ÓÇÔ¨ÑÂàÃ×èͧ¹Õé áÅТ͢ͺ¤Ø³¡ÅØÁªÒÇ ºÒ¹¼»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾·Õ·Ó¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ·Õä´ãˤÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×Í Ù è è 㹡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒã¹¾×é¹·Õèᡤ³Ð¹Ñ¡ÇÔ¨ÑÂ໹ÍÂÒ§´Õ

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅоѲ¹ÒÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁã¹ ¤ÃÑÇàÃÕ͹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í

39

àÍ¡ÊÒÃÍÒ§ÍÔ§

¡Ò¨¹Ò ¹Ò¶Ð¾Ô¹¸Ø áÅФ³Ð. 2542. »ËÒÊØ¢ÀÒ¾ ¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹáÅоĵԡÃÃÁ㹡ÒôÙáÅ ÊØ ¢ ÀÒ¾¢Í§»ÃЪҪ¹·Õè » ÃСͺÍÒªÕ ¾ ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ㹤ÃÑÇàÃ×͹. ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨ Á¢. Ñ 4 (2) : 99-108.

¡Ò¨¹Ò ¹Ò¶Ð¾Ô¹¸Ø. 2542. ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ »ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ. ÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒÇÔ·ÂÒÈÒʵÃ͹ÒÁÑ ÊÔè § áÇ´Å Í Á ¤³ÐÊÒ¸ÒóÊØ ¢ ÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ : ÈÔÃԪѡÒþÔÁ¾.

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1 ÃдѺµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´¡Í¹áÅÐËÅѧ¡ÒûÃѺ»ÃاÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅÍÁ¡Ò÷ӧҹ

ÃдѺµÐ¡ÑèÇã¹àÅ×Í´ , µg/dl µíèÒ¡ÇÒ 10 11 20 21 30 31 + ÃÇÁ ¨íҹǹ(ÃÍÂÅÐ)¢Í§¡ÅØÁ¼Ù»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ ¡Í¹´íÒà¹Ô¹¡Òà 4 (4.65) 44 (51.16) 31 (36.05) 7 (8.14) 86 (100.00) ËÅѧ´íÒà¹Ô¹¡Òà 54 (55.10) 36 (36.74) 7 (7.14) 1 (1.02) 98 (100.00)

40

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅоѲ¹ÒÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁã¹ ¤ÃÑÇàÃÕ͹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

ÃÙ»·Õè 1 ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ㹡ÒÃá¡»ËÒ´Ò¹ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷ӧҹ

ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ㹡ÒûÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ ¤¹ ÍѹµÃÒ ·Ò·Ò§ã¹¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹ ¤ÇÒÁ«íéÒ«Ò¡¢Í§§Ò¹ ÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ㹡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹ ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ·Õè·íÒãËà¡Ô´âä

ÍÒ¡ÒüԴ»¡µÔËÃ×Íâä ÍغѵÔà˵Ø

âäáÅСÒúҴà¨çº¨Ò¡¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹

¢Ò´¤ÇÒÁÃÐÁÑ´ÃÐÇѧ ¨Ñ´à¡çºÊÔ觢ͧäÁàÃÕºÃÍ äÁµÃǨàªç¤à¤Ã×èͧÁ×Í áµ§¡Ò·ÕèäÁàËÁÒÐÊÁ äÁãªÍØ»¡Ã³»Í§¡Ñ¹

ÃÙÃٻẺ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒẺÁÕÊÊÇǹÃÇÇÁ㹡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËáÅÐá¡»ËÒ »áºº¡ÒÃàÃÕ ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃá¡»ËÒẺÁÕ ¹Ã Á㹡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËáÅÐá¡»ËÒ ¡Òä¹¹ËÒÊÀÒ¾¢Í§»ËÒ¨Ò¡¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹ ÃÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹ã¹¡ÅØÁ¼Ù»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ ¡Òä ËÒÊÀÒ¾¢Í§»ËÒ¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӧҹ ÇÁ¡Ñ¹ã¹¡ÅØÁ¼Ù»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐˤÃÒÐËèÍÒ¹à¾×èͤÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ (JSA) ¡ÒÃÇÔà§Ò¹à¾× §¤ÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ (JSA) ¡ÒûÃѺ»ÃاÊÀÒ¾¡Ò÷ӧҹã¹Ê¶Ò¹»ÃСͺ¡Òâ¹Ò´àÅç¡ (WISE Techniques) ÊÀÒ¾¡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹ã¹Ê¶Ò¹»ÃСͺ¡Òâ¹Ò´àÅç ÃÇÁ¡Ñú Á¡Ñº ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ5 Ê. Ç ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ 5 Ê. ¡ÒÃãˤÇÒÁÃÙ¾×é¹°Ò¹ àÃ× àÃ× § 㹡ÅØÁ¼Ù»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ ¡ÒÃãˤÇÒÁÃÙ¾×é¹°Ò¹ 3 3 èͧèÍ㹡ÅØÁ¼Ù»ÃСͺÍÒªÕ¾ ¾

à¾ÔèÁ¤ÇÒÁÃÙ·Ò§´Ò¹ÍÒªÕÇ͹ÒÁÑÂáÅФÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ㹡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹ ÁÕ¡ÒûÃѺ»ÃاÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ㹡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹ ÁÕ¡Òû¯ÔºÑµÔ㹡Ò÷íÒ§Ò¹·Õè»ÅÍ´ÀÑÂ

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

Monitoring of Subsurface Cavity Collapsed into a Sinkhole with Resistivity Survey

à¾Õ§µÒ ÊÒµÃÑ¡É (Peangta Satarugsa)* ³Ñ°Çز ÁÕÊÇÑÊ´Ôì (Nutthawut Meesawat)** ÊÔÃÔÈÒʵà ÂѧáʹÀÙ (Sirisart Yongsanpoo)** ഹ⪤ ÁÑè¹ã¨ (Denchoke Murnjai)***

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

41

¡ÒûÃÐÂØ¡µÊÓÃǨ·Ò§¸Ã³Õ¿Ê¡Ê´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÊÓÃǨÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐẺ 2 ÁÔµÔ à¾×Í¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅÑ¡É³Ð Ô Õ è â¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹·Õèà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×Íã¹¾×é¹·Õè·Õè»ÃÒ¡¯¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§ áÅкҹºÍá´§ ÍÓàÀͺҹÁǧ ¨Ñ§ËÇѴʡŹ¤Ã ÊÓËÃѺ¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨºÃÔàdz¾×¹·ÕºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§ ¾ºÅѡɳФҤÇÒÁ¼Ô´»¡µÔ¢Í§¤Ò¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐä´ª´à¨¹ã¹ºÃÔàdz㵼ǴԹ é è Ñ Ô ·Õ¡ÍãËà¡Ô´¡ÒÃÂغµÑÇ áÅÐÅѡɳÐ㵼ǴԹËÅѧ¡ÒÃÂغµÑÇ«Ö§µÍÁÒä´Á¡ÒùӴԹÁÒ¶ÁËÅØÁÂغ ÊÓËÃѺ¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨºÃÔàdz¾×¹·ÕºÒ¹ºÍá´§ è Ô è Õ é è ¾ºà©¾ÒСÒâÂÒµÑÇ¡ÇÒ§ÁÒ¡¢Ö鹢ͧËÅØÁÂغº¹¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ áµäÁ¾º¡ÒâÂÒµÑÇÁÒ¡¡ÇÒà´ÔÁ¢Ö鹢ͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ áÅÐâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ·Õ辺ÁÕÅѡɳзÕèÊÒÁÒö¨Ð·ÓãËà¡Ô´ËÅØÁÂغã¹ÃÑÈÁÕ·Õè¡ÇÒ§»ÃÐÁÒ³ 60-80 àÁµÃä´ã¹Í¹Ò¤µ µÍà¹×èͧ¨Ò¡ËÅØÁÂغ㹻¨¨ØºÑ¹·ÕèÁÕÃÑÈÁÕ »ÃÐÁÒ³ 30 àÁµÃ «Öè§áÊ´§ÇÒÅѡɳÐâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§¢Í§ÊÀҾ㵼ÔÇ´Ô¹·Õè¶Ù¡·ÓÅÒÂ໹ºÃÔàdz¡ÇÒ§ ´Ñ§¹Ñ鹺ÃÔàdz¹Õé¨ÐÂѧ¤§ÁÕ¡ÒÃÂغµÑÇÍÕ¡ µÍä» áÅСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧËÅØÁÂغºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§¨ÐÁÕÍѵÃÒ¡ÒâÂÒµÑÇä´ÃÇ´àÃçÇ¡ÇÒËÅØÁÂغºÒ¹ºÍá´§ à¾ÃÒÐÁÕÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×Í ÁÒ¡ÇÒ ´Ñ§¹Ñ鹡Ò÷Õè¨Ð¤Çº¤ØÁ ´ÙáÅ ËÃ×ͨѴÃÐàºÕº¡Ò÷ӹÒà¡Å×Íã¹¾×é¹·ÕèºÃÔàdz¹Õé ¤ÇÃÁÕ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ ÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË áÅлÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å´ÕáÅÐ ¼ÅàÊÕÂã¹´Ò¹Í×è¹æ à¾×è͹ÓÁÒá¡»ËÒ·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁµÍä» áµËÒ¡¨Ðá¡»ËҢͧËÅØÁÂغà¾Õ§ÍÂÒ§à´ÕÂÇ ÇÔ¸Õ·Õè´Õ¤×Í¡ÒäǺ¤ØÁ¡ÒÃÊÙº ¹éÓà¡Å×Í «Öè§à»¹ÇÔ¸Õ¡ÒÃá¡»ËÒ·Õèµ¹à赯 áÅÐËÒ¡ÂѧäÁËÂØ´¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×Í ºÃÔàdz¾×é¹·ÕèºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§ ºÒ¹àÃ×͹·ÕèµÑé§ã¡Åà¤Õ§ºÃÔàdz ËÅØÁÂغ áÅÐá¹Çᵡ¤ÇÃÅ×éͶ͹ÍÍ¡ä» à¾×èͤÇÒÁ»ÅÍ´ÀÑ¢ͧªÕÇÔµ áÅзÃѾÂÊÔ¹ ÃÇÁ·Ñ駤Çû´àʹ·Ò§ÊѨâͧ¶¹¹·ÕèÁÕËÅØÁÂغ »ÃÒ¡¯ÍÂÙ This study was conducted to assess the possibility of monitoring of subsurface cavities collapsed into a sinkhole with 2D resistivity imaging. Series of 2D resistivity profiles were collected at different times over 2 years monitoring of nearby sinkhole surface expression and sinkhole-prone areas at Ban Non Sa Bang and Ban Bo Dang, Changwat Sakol Nakorn. We were able to acquire resistivity data along the profile before and after the collapse a subsurface cavity. These results confirm our earlier prediction of the sinkhole-prone area along the profile. The subsurface cavity can be considered as a lateral anomaly in a homogenous medium. An anomalous zone of the cavity can be distinguished as a very low to the lowest resistivity zone that is surrounded by the higher background resistivity. After the sinkhole was filled with soils, an anomalous zone of the fill appears to have higher resistivity surrounding the lower resistivity zone. In the results from the nearby sinkhole surface expression area at Ban Bo Dang over the 2 years monitoring, we found expansion of the sinkhole surface exposure without no subsurface cavity expansion. Thus, in consideration of a relief of the fear of cavity collapsed into the sinkhole, a pumping brine groundwater need to be forbidden or re-evaluated. So long as the salt producers continue brine pumping, the subsurface cavities will expand and collapse into sinkholes. In order to prevent the loss of lives and properties of people, the people who live nearly by the sinkhole located along the road at Ban Non Sa Bang need to move out and the road need to be closed.

º·¤Ñ´ÂÍ

Abstract

¤ÓÊÓ¤Ñ : â¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ à¡Å×ÍËÔ¹ ¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨ¸Ã³Õ¿ÊÔ¡Ê´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ Keywords : sinkhole, rock salt, resistivity survey

* **

ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒàÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒà·¤â¹âÅÂÕ¸Ã³Õ ¤³Ðà·¤â¹âÅÂÕ ¹Ñ¡ÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ÃÔÒµÃÕ ÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒà·¤â¹âÅÂÕ¸Ã³Õ ¤³Ðà·¤â¹âÅÂÕ *** ¹Ñ¡ÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ÃÔÒâ· ÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒà·¤â¹âÅÂÕ¸Ã³Õ ¤³Ðà·¤â¹âÅÂÕ

42

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

à¡Å× Í à» ¹ ·ÃÑ ¾ Âҡ÷Õè ÁÕ » ÃÔ Á Ò³ÁÒ¡ÁÒ ÁËÒÈÒÅã¹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í áµà»¹·Õ·ÃÒº¡Ñ¹ è ´ÕÇÒ¡ÒùÓàÍÒà¡Å×Í¢Öé¹ÁÒãªâ´Â¡Ò÷ӹÒà¡Å×Íã¹¾×é¹·Õè ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í¡ÍãËà¡Ô´¼Å¡ÃзºµÍÊÔ§áÇ´ è ÅÍÁ હ ¼Å¡Ãзº¢Í§¤ÇÒÁà¤çÁµÍ¡Òû¹à»Í¹ã¹ áËŧ¹éӨ״·ÕèÍÂÙ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹áÅÐãµ´Ô¹ ¡ÍãËà¡Ô´ÊÀÒ¾´Ô¹ áÅйéÓàÊ×èÍÁâ·ÃÁ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡¤ÇÒÁà¤çÁä´á¾Ã¡ÃШÒ ÍÍ¡ä» ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õ§·ÓãËà¡Ô´¼Å¡ÃзºµÍÊÀÒ¾¨Ôµã¨ éÑ áÅФÇÒÁ໹Í¢ͧ»ÃЪҪ¹¼·Á·ÍÂÍÒÈÑÂã¡ÅáËŧ Ù Ù Õè Õ Õè Ù ·Ó¹Òà¡Å×Í à¹×ͧ¨Ò¡ËÇÒ´¡ÅÑǵ͡ÒÃÂغµÑǢͧἹ´Ô¹ è ·Õà¡Ô´¨Ò¡â¾Ã§à¡Å×Í㵼ǴԹÇÒ¨ÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ໹ä»ä´ËÃ×Í è Ô äÁ·Õè¨Ðà¡Ô´¡ÒÃÂغµÑǴѧ·Õè¡ÅÒÇäÇã¹µÓ¹Ò¹¡ÒÃà¡Ô´ ˹ͧËÒà ʡŹ¤Ã áÅÐ˹ͧËÒ¹ ¡ØÁÀÇÒ» ÍØ´Ã¸Ò¹Õ ¡Ò÷ӹÒà¡Å×Íã¹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í ´Ç¡ÃкǹáÅСÃÃÁÇÔ¸Õ·Õè¼ÅÔµ·ÕèàÃÕ¡ÇÒ ¡ÒÃ·Ó¹Ò à¡Å×Í ·Õè¶×Í»¯ÔºÑµÔµÒÁ¾ÃÐÃÒªºÑѵÔâç§Ò¹» ¾.È. 2535 ໹·Ñ§¡Ò÷ÓÅÒÂÊÀÒ¾áÇ´ÅÍÁãËàÊ×ÍÁâ·ÃÁä» é è â´ÂàÃç Ç áÅÐà» ¹ ·Ñé § ¡ÒÃÊÃ Ò §¤ÇÒÁà´× Í ´Ã Í ¹ãË ¡Ñ º »ÃЪҪ¹ªÒǵÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í «Ö觻ËÒà¡ÕèÂǡѺ ¡Ò÷ӹÒà¡Å×Íã¹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Íä´ÁÕÁÒ¹Ò¹ ´Ñ§àª¹ ¨Ò¡º·¤ÇÒÁàÃ×ͧ ÊÀÒ¾»ËÒ áÅÐÁÒµÃÒ¡Òà è á¡ä¢»ËÒ¡Ò÷ӹÒà¡Å×Íã¹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í ¢Í§ ÈÒʵÃÒ¨Òà´Ã. »ÃÔÒ ¹ØµÒÅÑ áÅÐ ÇѹªÑ âÊÀ³Ê¡ØÅÃѵ¹ ·Õèä´à¢Õ¹¢Öé¹à¾×èÍ»ÃСͺ¡ÒÃÊÑÁÁ¹Ò àÃ×èͧ »ËÒ¡ÒÃ㪻ÃÐ⪹·Õè´Ô¹ à¾×èÍ·Ó¡ÒÃ·Ó¹Ò à¡Å×Íã¹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í µÍ¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡Òà ÊÒ¸ÒóÊØ¢áÅÐÊÔ§áÇ´ÅÍÁ ÊÀҼ᷹ÃÒɮà 㹻 ¾.È. è Ù 2533 áÁàÇÅҨмҹÁÒ¡ÇÒ 10 » ÊÀÒ¾»ËÒ¡Òà ·Ó¹Òà¡Å×Íã¹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í·Õ´àÂ×ÍÁÒ¹Ò¹ è× é ¡Í¹Ë¹Ò¹Ñ¹¡ç§»ÃÒ¡¯Í¨¹¡Ãзѧ·Ø¡Çѹ¹Õé áÅÐáÁÇÒ é Ñ Ù è ÁÒµÃÒ¡ÒÃá¡ä¢»ËÒà¤ÂàʹÍÁÒáÅÇ à¾×èÍãËËÒ·Ò§ »Í§¡Ñ¹áÅÐá¡ä¢»ËÒ·Õèà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡Ò÷ӹÒà¡Å×Í áµÃÑ° ¡ç§äÁä´´Óà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃÍÂÒ§¨ÃÔ§¨Ñ§-µÍà¹×ͧ¾Í·Õ¨Ð·ÓãË Ñ è è ÊÀÒ¾»ËÒ¹Ñé¹ËÁ´ä» äÁÊÒÁÒö·Óã˼ٻÃСͺ ÍÒªÕ¾·Ó¹Òà¡Å×ÍáÅÐà¡ÉµÃ¡ÃÃÁÍÂÙÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹ä´ÍÂÒ§

º·¹Ó

ʧºÊØ¢ ÍÕ¡·Ñ§»ËÒ¡ÒÃá¾Ã¡ÃШÒµÑǢͧ´Ô¹à¤çÁáÅÐ é ¹éÓà¤çÁã¹¾×¹·ÕÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×ÍÂѧÁÕÃÒ§ҹÇÒÁÕ é è ¡ÒâÂÒÂµÑ Ç ÁÒ¡¢Öé ¹ µÒÁÅÓ´Ñ º (ÈÙ ¹  ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¹éÓ ãµ ´Ô ¹ , ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹, 2543) à¾Õ§µÒ ÊÒµÃÑ¡É áÅФ³Ð (2544, 2545, 2546) ä´»ÃÐÂØ¡µÊÓÃǨ·Ò§¸Ã³Õ¿ÊÔ¡Êà¾×è͵ÃǨËÒ â¾Ã§ áÅЪÑé¹à¡Å×ÍËÔ¹ «Ö觾º¡ÒÃÇÒÊÓÃǨ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´ ¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐÊÒÁÒö¹ÓÁÒ㪵ÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳÐâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ä´ áÅÐä´·Ó¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨ㹾×é¹·ÕèÁÕ ¡ÒûÃÒ¡¯¢Í§¡ÒÃÂغµÑÇ áÅкÃÔàdzã¡Åà¤Õ§·Õè¤Ò´ÇÒ ¹Ò¨ÐÁÕâ¾Ã§ãµ¼Ç´Ô¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ㹺·¤ÇÒÁ¹Õ໹ Ô é é ¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺÅѡɳР¢¹Ò´ ËÃ×Í¡ÒâÂÒµÑÇ ¢Í§â¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹µÍà¹×èͧ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉҢͧ à¾Õ§µÒ ÊÒµÃÑ¡É áÅФ³Ð (2545) â´Âä´·Ó¡ÒÃà¡çº¢ÍÁÙÅ«éÓ ã¹ªÇ§µÒ§àÇÅҡѹ à¾×è͹ÓÁÒà»ÃÕºà·Õº´ÙÅѡɳСÒà à»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹

ÇÔ ¸Õ ¡ ÒÃÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ»ÃСͺ´ Ç Â 1) µÔ ´ µÒÁ ´ÙšɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§·Õ»ÃÒ¡¯ãËàËç¹·Õ¼Ç´Ô¹ã¹ Ñ è è Ô ¾×é¹·Õè·ÕèºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§ áÅкҹºÍá´§ ¨Ñ§ËÇѴʡŹ¤Ã 2) ÊÃÒ§ÃÙ»¨ÓÅͧ·Ò§¤³ÔµÈÒʵÃà¾×èÍÈÖ¡ÉÒ·Ó¹Ò ÅÑ ¡ ɳТͧ¤ÇÒÁ¼Ô ´ »¡µÔ ¢ ͧÃÙ » Ã Ò §â¾Ã§¢Í§¾×é ¹ ·Õè ÈÖ¡ÉÒ 3) ÊÓÃǨÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ㹪ǧ àÇÅÒµÒ§æ ã¹¾×é¹·Õè·Õèä´àÅ×͡໹¡Ã³ÕÈÖ¡ÉÒ·ÕèºÒ¹â¹¹ áʺ§ (ÃÙ»·Õè 1 ¡) áÅкҹºÍá´§ (ÃÙ»·Õè 1 ¢) áÅÐ 4) ÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËáÅÐà»ÃÕºà·Õº¼Å¨Ò¡ÊÓÃǨã¹Ê¹ÒÁ㹪ǧ àÇÅÒµÒ§æ 㹡ÒÃÊÓÃǨÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ㪠à¤Ã×èͧ Resistivity Ãع Syscal R1 Plus Êǹ¡ÒÃá»Å ¤ÇÒÁËÁÒ¢ÍÁÙÅ·Õèä´¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨ¹ÓÁÒá»Å¤ÇÒÁ ËÁÒ â´Â¡ÒÃÊÃÒ§ÀÒ¾¢Í§¢ÍÁÙÅã¹ÃÙ»pseudosection â´Âãªâ»Ãá¡ÃÁ RES2DINV (Loke, 1999) à¾×èͪÇ ÊÃÒ§àʹ¤ÇÒÁÊÙ§-µèӢͧ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò áÅÐ ÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËËÒ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁ¼Ô´»¡µÔ·à¡Ô´¨Ò¡¸Ã³ÕÇ·ÂÒ㵼ǴԹ Õè Ô Ô ¨Ò¡àʹ¤ÇÒÁÊÙ§-µèӢͧ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò áÅÐ

ÇÔ¸¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ Õ

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

43

ãªâ»Ãá¡ÃÁ RES2DMOD (Loke, 1999) à¾×èÍÊÃÒ§ ÃÙ»¨ÓÅͧ·Ò§¤³ÔµÈÒʵÃáÅФӹdz¤Ò¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ ¨Ò¡ÃÙ»¨ÓÅͧ ÃٻẺ¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨ¨ÐàËÁ×͹¡Ñº à¾Õ§µÒ ÊÒµÃÑ¡É áÅФ³Ð (2545) ¼Å¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ ¼Å¡ÒõԴµÒÁÅѡɳСÒâÂÒµÑǢͧËÅØÁ Âغ·Õ»ÃÒ¡¯ãËàË繺¹¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ è ¼Å¡ÒõԴµÒÁ¡ÒâÂÒµÑÇáÅСÒÃà¾ÔÁ¨Ó¹Ç¹ è ËÅØÁÂغ㹾×é¹·ÕèºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§ áÅкҹºÍá´§¾º¡Òà à¾ÔèÁ¨Ó¹Ç¹¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغ㹾×é¹·ÕèºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§¨Ó¹Ç¹ 1 ËÅØÁ ÊǹºÒ¹ºÍá´§äÁ»ÃÒ¡¯¢Í§¡ÒÃà¾ÔèÁ¢Í§ ¨Ó¹Ç¹¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغ áÅоº¡ÒâÂÒµÑÇ¡ÇÒ§ÁÒ¡¢Ö¹¢Í§ é ËÅØÁÂغà´ÔÁ㹺ҹ⹹áʺ§áÅкҹºÍá´§ áÅÐáÁÇÒ ËÅØÁÂغºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒùӴԹÁÒ¶Á ᵡ¨ÐÁÕ¡Òà ç ÂغµÑÇÍÂÒ§µÍà¹×ͧ㹪ǧ¢Í§Ä´Ù·Í¹ØÒµãË·Ó¹Òà¡Å×Í è Õè ¼Å¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺÅѡɳТͧâ¾Ã§ 㵼ǴԹ Ô ÃÙ»·Õè 2-5 ໹µÑÇÍÂÒ§¢Í§¼Å¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨÇÑ´ ¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ ã¹¾×é¹·ÕèËÅØÁÂغºÒ¹â¹¹ áʺ§ áÅкҹºÍá´§ ·Õèä´·Ó¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨ㹪ǧàÇÅÒ·Õè µÒ§¡Ñ¹ à¾×è͹ÓÁÒà»ÃÕºà·Õº ¡ÒâÂÒµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ÃÙ»·Õè 2 ໹ËÅØÁÂغºÃÔàdzºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§ «Öè§ ·Ó¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨµÒÁ¶¹¹ ´Ñ§á¼¹·ÕèáÊ´§ã¹ÃÙ»·Õè 1 (¡) ÃÐÂФÇÒÁÂÒǢͧá¹ÇÊÓÃǨ 340 àÁµÃ à¡çº¢ÍÁÙÅẺ Dipole-Dipole ÁÕÃÐÂÐËÒ§Ê¶Ò¹Õ 10 àÁµÃ áÅÐ a = 10, 20, 30, , 100 ã¹¢³Ð·ÕèÊÓÃǨÂѧäÁ»ÃÒ¡¯ÇÒÁÕ ËÅØÁÂغ㹺ÃÔàdz¶¹¹ áÅТÍÁÙŹÕé໹¢ÍÁÙÅ·Õèà¾Õ§µÒ ÊÒµÃÑ¡É áÅФ³Ð (2545) ä´ÊÓÃǨäÇáÅÇ á¹Ç¢Í§ ÃÍÂᵡ¢Í§ËÅØ Á ÂØ º ·Õè Í ÂÙ ã ¡Å à ¤Õ Â §áÊ´§ã¹ÀÒ¾ ¾ºµÓá˹§¤Ò¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿ÒµèÓ ·Õè¤Ò´ÇÒ¨Ð໹ â¾Ã§ 2 µÓá˹§ â´Â·Õè à¾Õ§µÒ ÊÒµÃÑ¡É áÅФ³Ð (2545) ä´¤Ò´¡ÒóÅǧ˹ÒäÇáÅÇÇÒ¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒÃÂغµÑÇ à¡Ô´¢Öé¹ã¹Í¹Ò¤µ «Ö觻ÃÒ¡¯ÇÒ໹¨ÃÔ§´Ñ§¼Å·ÕèáÊ´§ã¹ ÃÙ»·Õè 3

ÃÙ»·Õè 3 áÊ´§ËÅØÁÂغ¡ÅÒ§¶¹¹ ã¹á¹Çà´ÕÂǡѹ ¡Ñº¶¹¹·ÕèáÊ´§ã¹ÃÙ»·Õè 2 (´Ùá¼¹·Õè»ÃСͺã¹ÃÙ»·Õè 1 (¡)) ÀÒ¾¶Ò¢ͧËÅØÁÂغã¹ÀÒ¾ã¹ÃÙ»·Õè 3 ¶Ò¡͹·Õè ¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒùӴԹÁÒ¶ÁËÅØÁÂغ áÅеÍÁÒä´·Ó¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨ µÒÁá¹Ç¶¹¹ËÅѧ¨Ò¡·ÕèÁÕ¡ÒöÁËÅØÁÂغ á¹ÇÊÓÃǨ¹Õé ·Ñº¡Ñºá¹ÇÊÓÃǨà´ÔÁ·Õä´·ÓÁҡ͹¡ÒÃÂغµÑÇ ·ÕáÊ´§ã¹ è è ÃÙ»·Õè 2 à»ÃÕºà·Õº¼Å¢Í§¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹ ·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐÃÐËÇÒ§ÃÙ»·Õè 2 áÅÐ 3 ¨ÐàË繺ÃÔàdz ·ÕèÁÕ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿ÒµèÓ à»¹Ç§¡ÇÒ§ÁÒ¡¢Öé¹ áÅÐ ¾ºÅÑ ¡ ɳТͧ¤ Ò ¤ÇÒÁµ Ò ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿ Ò ÊÙ § á·Ã¡ÍÂÙ ºÃÔàdz¤Ò¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿ÒµèÓ¹Ò¨ÐáÊ´§¶Ö§ÅѡɳР¢Í§´Ô¹¶Á ·Ñ駹Õéà¾ÃÒдԹ·Õè¹ÓÁÒ¶Á໹´Ô¹·ÕèÁÕ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁ µÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿ÒÊÙ§¡ÇÒ¹éÓà¤çÁáÅÐËÔ¹´Ô¹à˹ÕÂÇ ¨Ö§·ÓãË àËç¹ÅѡɳФҤÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿ÒÊÙ§¨Ò¡¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ÇÒ§µÑÇ à»¹ÃÙ»·Ã§¡ÅÁá·Ã¡ÍÂÙÀÒÂ㵤ҤÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò µèÓ (â¾Ã§) «Ö觨ҡÃÙ»¨ÐàËç¹ÇÒ¡ÒöÁ´Ô¹Å§ã¹â¾Ã§¹Ñé¹ ÂѧäÁÊÁºÙó ÂѧÁժͧÇÒ§ÍÂÍ¡ÁÒ¡ (´Ù¨Ò¡ÀÒ¾¨ÐàËç¹ Ù Õ á¹Ç·ÖºÊÕ´Ó ¹Ñ蹤×ͪͧÇÒ§ ËÃ×ͺÃÔàdz·ÕèËÔ¹´Ô¹à˹ÕÂÇ ¶Ù¡·ÓÅÒÂâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§ä»áÅÇ ¾ÃÍÁ·Õ¨Ð·ÃØ´µÑÇŧʾ¹ÅÒ§ è Ù ×é ¢Í§ªÑé¹à¡Å×ÍËÔ¹·ÕèÂѧäÁ¶Ù¡·ÓÅÐÅÒÂ) ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ã¹ºÃÔàdz¹Õé ¨ÐµÍ§ÁÕ¡ÒÃÂغµÑǵÒÁÁÒ¡ÍÕ¡ «Öè§ 2 à´×͹µÍÁÒä´ÍÍ¡ ä»ÊÓÃǨÍÕ¡¤Ãѧ¾ºÇÒËÅØÁÂغºÃÔàdz¹Õä´ÂºµÑÇŧÁÒÍÕ¡ é é Ø áÅÐÁÕ¡ÒâÂÒÂǧ¡ÇÒ§ÁÒ¡¢Öé¹ ÁÕ¡ÒÃÃ×éͶ͹ºÒ¹àÃ×͹·Õè µÑ§ÍÂã¡Åà¤Õ§ÍÍ¡ä» ¡ÒÃÂغµÑÇà¡Ô´ä´àÃçÇà¾ÃÒкÃÔàdz é Ù ã¡Åà¤Õ§ä´Á¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×Í¢Ö¹ÁÒ·Ó¹Òà¡Å×Í ´Ô¹·Õ¹ÓÁÒ Õ é è ¶Á¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒÃà¤Å×è͹ÂÒÂä´´Õ à¾ÃÒÐ໹´Ô¹Ãǹ ᵡµÒ§ ¨Ò¡ËÔ¹´Ô¹à˹ÕÂÇ·Õà¤ÂÁÕÍÂà´ÔÁÁÒ¡ áÅÐÂÔ§ÁÕáçÊÙº¹éÓ è Ù è ÁÒ¡ ¡ç¨ÐÂÔè§à¤Å×è͹ËÒÂä»ä´ÍÂÒ§ÃÇ´àÃçÇ ÃÙ»·Õè 4 ໹ËÅØÁÂغºÃÔàdzºÒ¹ºÍá´§ «Öè§ ·Ó¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨµÒÁá¹Ç·ÕèáÊ´§äÇã¹ÀÒ¾¶Ò ËÃ×Íã¹ á¼¹·ÕèÃÙ»·Õè 1 (¢) ÃÐÂФÇÒÁÂÒǢͧá¹ÇÊÓÃǨ 380 àÁµÃ à¡çº¢ÍÁÙÅẺ Dipole-Dipole ÁÕÃÐÂÐËÒ§Ê¶Ò¹Õ 10 àÁµÃ áÅÐ a = 10, 20, 30, , 120 àÁµÃ ¤ÇÒÁ ¡ÇÒ§¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغ 20 àÁµÃ 㹺ÃÔàdz¹ÕéäÁÁÕ¡ÒùӴԹ ÁÒ¶Á ¨Ò¡¼Å¢Í§¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨ ÅѡɳТͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹

44

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

»ÃÒ¡¯¤Í¹¢Ò§¡ÇÒ§ (á¹ÇǧÃÕ ÊÕ´Óã¹ÀÒ¾) ÅѡɳР¢Í§â¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ÂѧÍÂÙã¹ÅѡɳÐà´ÔÁ áµÅѡɳзÕè »ÃÒ¡¯ãËàËç¹·Õè¼ÔÇ´Ô¹¾ºËÅØÁÂغ¡ÇÒ§¢Ö鹨ҡà´ÔÁÍÕ¡ 10 àÁµÃ ÊÀÒ¾¢Í§â¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹º§ºÍ¡ÇÒËÅØÁÂغ ºÃÔ à dz¹Õé ·Õè ¼Ô Ç ´Ô ¹ ¨Ð»ÃÒ¡¯¡ÒâÂÒÂǧ¡Ç Ò §ä´ ÍÕ ¡ »ÃÐÁÒ³ 60-80 àÁµÃ ´Ñ§áÊ´§¢Íºà¢µ´ÇÂàʹ»Ðã¹ ÃÙ»·Õè 4 áÅÐ 5

ËÅØÁÂغºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§áÅкҹºÍá´§ ¨Ò¡¼Å¡ÒõԴµÒÁ´Ù¡ÒâÂÒµÑǢͧËÅØÁÂغ áÅСÒÃà¾Ôè Á ¨Ó¹Ç¹¢Í§ËÅØ Á ÂØ º ¾ºÇ Ò ÁÕ ·Ñé § ¡ÒÃà¾Ôè Á ¨Ó¹Ç¹ áÅСÒâÂÒÂǧ¡ÇÒ§ÁÒ¡¢Ö¹àÃ×ÍÂæ ¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغ é è ÊÓËÃѺËÅØÁÂغºÃÔàdzºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§áÅкҹºÍá´§ ã¹ »¨¨Øº¹ªØÁª¹¢Í§·Ñ§ÊͧËÁºÒ¹à¢Òã¨áÅеͺ¤Ó¶ÒÁ·Õè Ñ é ٠ʧÊÑÂà¡ÕèÂǡѺËÅØÁÂغ䴴ǵ¹àͧáÅÇÇÒ ¶ÒËÒ¡ÁÕ ¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×ͨҡ㵼ǴԹ¢Ö¹ÁÒ·Ó¹Òà¡Å×Í ¨Ð·ÓãË Ô é à¡Ô´ËÅØÁÂغ áÅÐËÒ¡ÁÕËÅØÁÂغ ¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒâÂÒÂǧ¡ÇÒ§ ÁÒ¡¢Ö¹µÒÁÅӴѺ áµàÁ×ÍËÂØ´¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×Í ËÅØÁÂغ é è ¹Ñ¹¨Ð¤§ÍÂÊÀÒ¾à´ÔÁ é Ù ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹â¾Ã§ãµ´¹¨Ö§à¡Ô´¨Ò¡¼Å¢Í§¡ÒÃà¨ÒÐºÍ é Ô à¾×èÍÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×Í àÁ×èͺÍÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×ÍÍÂÙ㹪Ñé¹à¡Å×ÍËÔ¹ ËÃ×ÍÃ͵ÍÃÐËÇÒ§ªÑ¹à¡Å×ÍËÔ¹áÅЪѹ´Ô¹à˹ÕÂÇ ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹ é é é àÁ×èÍ·Ó¡ÒÃÊÙºÍÂÒ§µÍà¹×èͧ¡Ñ¹ÁÒËÅÒ» ÂÍÁ¨Ð·ÓãË à¡Ô´¡ÒÃÅÐÅÒÂÍ͡仢ͧà¡Å×Í·ÕÍÂÃͺæ à¡Ô´à»¹â¾Ã§ è ٠㹪ǧ 3-4 ËÃ×Í 5 » ÍÒ¨¨ÐÂѧäÁàË繼ŠᵶҺ͹Ñé¹ ÂѧÁÕ¡ÒÃÊÙºµÍà¹×ͧàÃ×ÍÂæ â¾Ã§¨Ð¢ÂÒµÑÇ¡ÇÒ§ÁÒ¡¢Ö¹ è è é áÅÐàÁ×ͪѹ´Ô¹º¹·¹µÍ¡ÒÃÃѺ¹éÓ˹ѡäÁä´ ¨Ðà¡Ô´¡Òà è é ÂغµÑǵÒÁÁÒ âÍ¡ÒÊ·Õ¨Ðà¡Ô´ËÅØÁÂغ¨ÐÁÕÁÒ¡¢Ö¹µÒÁÍÒÂØ è é ¢Í§ºÍÊÙºáÅÐÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃÊÙº µÓá˹§ËÅØÁÂغ·Õè¨Ðà¡Ô´ ãËÁ ¨Ö§ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ໹ä»ä´Ê§ÇÒ ¨ÐµÍ§à»¹µÓá˹§·Õà¤Â Ù è ÁÕËÅØÁà¨ÒÐÁÒáÅÇ áÅÐäÁÇÒ¨ÐÁÕ¡Òö͹¡Ò¹à¨ÒÐÍÍ¡ ä»ËÃ×ÍäÁÁÕ¡Òö͹¡Ò¹à¨ÒÐÍÍ¡ä» àÁ×èÍà¡Ô´¡ÒÃÂغ»ÃÒ¡¯ãËàËç¹·Õè¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ áÁ¨ÐÁÕ ¡ÒùӴԹÁÒ¶Á ¨ÐäÁ㪡ÒÃá¡»ËÒ·Õ¶ÒÇà ËÅØÁ·Õà¤Â è è ÂغÍÂÙà´ÔÁàÁ×èÍÁÕ¡ÒùӴԹÁÒ¶Á ¡ç¨ÐµÍ§¹Ó´Ô¹ÁÒ¶Á

ÍÀÔ»ÃÒ¼ÅáÅÐàʹÍá¹Ð

ÍÕ¡µÍä» µÃҺ㴷ÕèÂѧÁÕ¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓãµ´Ô¹¢Öé¹ÁÒãªà»¹ ¨Ó¹Ç¹ÁÒ¡ à¾ÃÒдԹ·Õè¹ÓÁÒ¶Á໹´Ô¹Ãǹ ᵡµÒ§ ¨Ò¡ÊÀÒ¾à´ÔÁ ·Õ໹ËÔ¹´Ô¹à˹ÕÂÇà¹×Íá¹¹ ÍÕ¡·Ñ§Ãкº è é é ¡ÒÃäËŢͧ¹éÓ㵴Թ㹾×é¹·ÕèºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§¨ÐµÍà¹×èͧ ¶Ö§¡Ñ¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹ËÒ¡ÁÕºÃÔàdz㴺ÃÔàdz˹֧ÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×Í¡ç¨Ð é è à¡Ô´¡ÒÃäËÅàª×èÍÁâ§ËÒ¡Ñ¹ä´ ËÒ¡Ãкº¹éÓãµ´Ô¹äÁÁÕ ¡ÒÃàª×ÍÁâ§ËÅØÁÂغ¡ç¨ÐäÁà¡Ô´ã¹·Õà´ÔÁËÅѧ¨Ò¡·Õ¹Ó´Ô¹ è è è ÁÒ¶Á ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹´Ô¹¶Á¨Ðà¤Å×͹ÂÒÂÍ͡仵ÒÁÃкº¡ÒÃäËÅ é è ¢Í§¹éÓãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´Ô¹·Õè¶Á¨Ðà¤Å×è͹ÂÒÂ仾ÃÍÁæ ¡Ñº à¡Å×Í·ÕèÍÂÙºÃÔàdz¹Ñé¹ÅÐÅÒÂÍÍ¡ä»´Ç ËÅØÁ¨Ö§à¡Ô´¡Òà ÂغµÑÇÍÂÒ§µÍà¹×èͧáÅТÂÒµÑÇ¡ÇÒ§¢Öé¹ áÅÐà¤Å×èÍ¹ä´ ÃÇ´àÃçÇÁÒ¡¢Öé¹àÁ×èÍÁÕÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓÁÒ¡¢Öé¹ ÊÓËÃѺ¡Òûͧ¡Ñ¹ã¹ÃдѺàº×éͧµ¹ ºÃÔàdz·Õè à¤ÂÁÕËÅØÁà¨ÒÐÁҡ͹ à¤Â໹·Õ·Ó¹Òà¡Å×ÍËÃ×Íà¤ÂµÁ è à¡Å×ÍÁҡ͹ ¤Ç÷ըÐËÅÕ¡àÅÕ§㹡ÒõѧºÒ¹àÃ×͹·ÕÍÂÙ è è é è ÍÒÈÑÂËÒ¡ÂѧÁÕ¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×Í Êǹ¾×¹·ÕºÃÔàdz¶¹¹·Õä´ é è è ·Ó¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨã¹ÃÙ»·Õè 2 ËÃ×Í 3 ¤ÇÃËÅÕ¡àÅÕè§㹡ÒõÑé§ ºÒ¹àÃ×͹·ÕÍÂÍÒÈÑ à¾ÃÒШÐÁÕâÍ¡Òʢͧ¡ÒÃÂغµÑÇà¡Ô´ è Ù ä´ÍÕ¡ ÍÕ¡·Ñ駡ÒÃ㪶¹¹ã¹àʹ·Ò§¹Õé¤ÇÃËÅÕ¡àÅÕè§ËÃ×Í »´àÊ÷ҧÊѨÃ㹺ÃÔàdzã¡Åà¤Õ§¡ÑºËÅØÁ ¡ÒõԴµÒÁ¡ÒâÂÒµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ 㹡ÒûÃÐÂØ¡µÊÓÃǨ¸Ã³Õ¿Ê¡Ê à¾×͵ԴµÒÁ Ô è ¡ÒâÂÒµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ ÊÓËÃѺ¡Ã³Õ¢Í§ºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§ (ÃÙ»·Õè 2 áÅÐ 3) ¾ºä´ªÑ´à¨¹ «Öè§ÊÒÁÒöà¡çº¢ÍÁÙÅä´ ¡Í¹·Õè¨Ðà¡Ô´¡ÒÃÂغ áÅÐËÅѧ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÂغµÑǾÃÍÁ¡ÑºÁÕ ¡ÒùӴԹÁÒ¶Á ·ÓãËÁͧàËç¹ÅѡɳТͧ´Ô¹·Õ¶ÁÍÂã¹ è Ù â¾Ã§ «Öè§áÊ´§´Ç¤ҤÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿ÒÊÙ§ ÅÍÁÃͺ ´ÇºÃÔàdz·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿ÒµèÓ ºÃÔàdz¹Õé¤Çà ·Ó¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒµÍä» ãË·º¡Ñºá¹Ç·ÕÊÓÃǨà´ÔÁ à¾×Í´Ù¡ÒÃ Ñ è è à»ÅÕ¹á»Å§¢Í§¡ÒÃà¤Å×͹µÑǢͧ´Ô¹¶Á áÅСÒâÂÒ è è ¢Í§â¾Ã§ ÍÕ¡·Ñ駵ԴµÒÁºÃÔàdz·Õè¤Ò´ÇÒ¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒÃÂغµÑÇ·Õè »ÃÒ¡¯ÍÂÙ ã ¡Å à ¤Õ Â § ¨Ò¡¼Å¢Í§ËÅØ Á à¨ÒТͧ¡ÃÁ ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ¾×¹°Ò¹áÅСÒÃàËÁ×ͧáà ·Õ·Ó¡ÒÃà¨ÒÐËÒ§ é è ¨Ò¡á¹ÇÊÓÃǨ㹾׹·Õ¹Õé ~ 30 àÁµÃ áÅÐÍÂã¹ÃÑÈÁբͧ é è Ù ÃÍÂᵡ ¾ºà¡Å× Í ËÔ ¹ ·Õè ¤ ÇÒÁÅÖ ¡ 52 àÁµÃ áÅÐ äÁÊÒÁÒöà¡çºá·§à¡çºµÑÇÍÂÒ§ËÔ¹´Ô¹à˹ÕÂÇä´ã¹ªÇ§

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

45

37-52 àÁµÃ ¾ºà»¹àÈÉ¡ÃÇ´¢Í§ËÔ¹´Ô¹à˹ÕÂÇ ¢ÍÁÙÅ ¹Õº§ºÍ¡ÇÒÁÕ¡ÒÃÅÐÅÒÂÍ͡仢ͧà¡Å×ÍËÔ¹áÅÐà¡Ô´à»¹ é ªÍ§ÇÒ§»ÃÐÁÒ³ 15 àÁµÃ à¡Å×ÍËÔ¹à´ÔÁ¹Ò¨ÐÍ·¤ÇÒÁ Ù Õè ÅÖ¡ 37 àÁµÃ ᵶ١·ÓÅÐÅÒÂÍÍ¡ä» ¨Ö§à»¹¡ÒÃÅÐÅÒ ÍÍ¡ä»ã¹ÃÐËÇÒ§ªÇ§ÃÍÂµÍ ¤ÅÒ¨Ð໹·Ò§¹éÓ ËÃ×Í Ãͧ¹éÓÇÒ§µÑÇãµË¹´Ô¹à˹ÕÂÇ ¡Ò÷ÃØ´àÃÔÁ¡ÍµÑÇ·Õ¤ÇÒÁ Ô è è ÅÖ¡ ~37 àÁµÃ ¨Ò¡ÃÙ»·Õè 3 ÃÙ»ÃÒ§¢Í§â¾Ã§·Õ辺¤Í¹¢Ò§ÍÂÙ µ×鹡ÇÒ¢ÍÁÙŢͧËÅØÁà¨ÒзÕèÍÂÙËÒ§»ÃÐÁÒ³ 30 àÁµÃ áÅоºÍÂÙã¹ËÔ¹´Ô¹à˹ÕÂÇÍØÁ¹éÓ ·Õè¤ÇÒÁÅÖ¡ 15-30 àÁµÃ ¨Ò¡ÃÙ»·ÕÊÓÃǨä´äÁ¾ºªÑ¹à¡Å×Í à¾ÃÒÐà¡çº¢ÍÁÙÅ è é ä´äÁÅÖ¡¶Ö§ªÑé¹à¡Å×Í áµ¨Ò¡¢ÍÁÙÅ·ÕèÊÓÃǨä´ã¹»·Õè¼Ò¹ ä´ ¾×é¹·ÕèºÃÔàdzÃÍºæ ¾ºªÑé¹à¡Å×ÍËÔ¹¤Í¹¢Ò§à»ÅÕè¹ á»Å§ ¤ÇÒÁÅÖ¡äÁ¤§·Õè ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÅÖ¡ÍÂÙÃÐËÇÒ§ 35-50 àÁµÃ â¾Ã§·Õàè Ëç¹ã¹ÃÙ»·Õè 3 ÍÂ㹪ѹËÔ¹´Ô¹à˹ÕÂÇ ¹Ò¨Ð Ù é à¡Ô´¨Ò¡â¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§¢Í§ËÔ¹´Ô¹à˹ÕÂǺÃÔàdz¹Õé¶Ù¡·ÓãË à»ÅÕè¹ÅѡɳРÁÕÃÍÂᵡ Íѹà¹×èͧÁÒ¨Ò¡â¾Ã§·ÕèÍÂÙÅÖ¡ Å§ä» ~37 àÁµÃ áÅйҨÐ໹ºÃÔàdz·ÕÁºÍÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×Í è Õ Áҡ͹ ·ÕèÁÕ¡Ò÷ÓÅÒÂà¹×éÍ´Ô¹â´Â¡ÒÃà»ÒÅÁ àÁ×èÍÊÙº¹éÓ à¡Å×ÍÁÒ¹Ò¹ áÅÐ/ËÃ×ÍÁÕ¡Òö͹¡Ò¹à¨ÒÐÍÍ¡ä» ·ÓãË à¹×éÍ´Ô¹áÅÐËÔ¹¶Ù¡·ÓÅÒÂâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§áÅФÍÂæ ÂغµÑÇŧ ä»ã¹â¾Ã§·ÕèÍÂÙÅÖ¡¡ÇÒã¹ÃÙ»·Õè 3 હ·Õè¤ÇÒÁÅÖ¡ ~37 àÁµÃ (¢ÍÁÙŨҡËÅØÁà¨ÒзÕÍÂã¡Åà¤Õ§) â¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§¢Í§ è Ù ªÑé¹ËÔ¹´Ô¹à˹ÕÂǤÍÂæ ¶Ù¡·ÓÅÒ¨ҡÅÒ§¢Öé¹ÊÙ¼ÔǺ¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹¨Ö§àËç¹à»¹ÅѡɳФҤÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿ÒµèÓ à»¹ é ÃÙ»·Ã§¡ÅÁËÃ×ͷçÃÕ ¡ÃÇ¡Ò÷ÃØ´µÑÇËÃ×ÍÂغµÑǨÐ໹ á¹Çà´ÕÂǡѺ¡ÃǹéÓÅ´¢Í§ºÍãµ´¹ (cone of depresÔ sion) ¹Ñè ¹ àͧ áµ ¨ Ðà» ¹ ã¹ÅÑ ¡ ɳеç¡Ñ ¹ ¢ Ò Á ¶Ò¾Ô¨ÒóҨҡ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ¹Ñ蹤×ͨÐàË繡ÒÃÂغËÒ§ÍÍ¡¨Ò¡ »Ò¡ËÅØÁ (¤ÅÒÂÀÒ¾¢Í§¡ÃǹéÓÅ´ËÑÇ¡ÅѺ) á¹Ç ÊÓÃǨ¹ÕéáÁÇҵͧ¡ÒÃÇÒ§á¹ÇãËÂÒÇà¾×èͨÐä´ÊÓÃǨ ä´ÅÖ¡ áµäÁÊÒÁÒö·Óä´à¾ÃÒÐÁÕÍØ»ÊÃäà¡ÕèÂǡѺ¡Òà à¢Ò¶Ö§¢Í§¾×é¹·Õèà¾ÃÒÐ໹¹Òà¡Å×ÍÁÕ¹éӢѧ 㹡óբͧ¡ÒõԴµÒÁËÅØÁÂغºÒ¹ºÍá´§ º¹¼ÔÇ´Ô¹¾ºÇÒ¤ÇÒÁ¡ÇÒ§¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغÁÕ¡ÒâÂÒ¡ÇÒ§ ÁÒ¡¢Öé¹ (ÃÙ»·Õè 4 áÅÐ 5) Êǹ¼Å¢Í§¡ÒÃÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹

·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò ¾ºÅѡɳТͧ¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿ÒµèÓ໹ ÅѡɳС֧ǧÃÕ à¡Å×ÍËԹ㹾׹·Õ¹¨Ò¡¢ÍÁÙÅ·ÕÊÓÃǨ¢Í§ è é è Õé è à¾Õ§µÒ ÊÒµÃÑ¡É áÅФ³Ð (2545) Í·¤ÇÒÁÅÖ¡ ~30 Ù Õè àÁµÃ â¾Ã§¨ÐÍÂÙ㹪ǧÃÍÂᵡ¢Í§ªÑé¹ËÔ¹´Ô¹à˹ÕÂÇ áÅÐà¡Å×ÍËÔ¹ ¨Ö§ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ໹ä´ÍÕ¡·ÕèµÍ仺ÃÔàdz¹ÕéËÅØÁ Âغº¹´Ô¹¨Ð¢ÂÒµÑÇ¡ÇÒ§¢Öé¹ ~60-80 àÁµÃ (µÒÁá¹Ç ¢Í§àʹ»Ð·ÕèáÊ´§¢Íºà¢µã¹ÃÙ»·Õè 4 áÅÐ 5) ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ ¶ÒËÒ¡ÂѧäÁÁ¡ÒÃËÂØ´¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁã´æ ·Õ໹ÊÒà˵ØãËà¡Ô´ Õ è ¢Í§¡ÒÃÂغµÑÇ á¹Çâ¹Á¢Í§¡ÒÃàª×èÍÁµÍ¢Í§ËÅØÁÂØºä» ÂѧÊÃйéÓÇÑ´ºÒ¹ºÍá´§ (ÃÙ»·Õè 1 ¢) ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ໹ä»ä´ ÊÙ§ÁÒ¡ ÍÒ¨¨ÐãªàÇÅÒ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 5-10 » ¢Öé¹ÍÂ١ѺÍѵÃÒ ¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×Í ËÒ¡ÁÕ¡ÒâÂÒºÃÔàdz¾×¹·Õ·Óà¡Å×Í áÅÐ é è à¾ÔÁÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃÊÙºÁÒ¡¢Ö¹ ÃÍÂᵡ¢ÂÒÂǧ¡ÇÒ§¨¹àª×ÍÁ è é è ¡ÑººÃÔàdzÊÃйéÓ ¹éÓã¹ÊÃйéÓÇÑ´ºÒ¹ºÍá´§ÍÒ¨¨ÐäÁ ÊÒÁÒö¡Ñ¡¹éÓäÇãªä´µÅÍ´»ÍÕ¡µÍä» ´Ñ§¹Ñ鹨֧¤ÇÃËÒ ·Ò§»Í§¡Ñ¹ºÃÔàdz¹ÕËÒ¡µÍ§¡ÒÃÃÑ¡ÉÒÊÀÒ¾¢Í§ÊÃйéÓ é ÇÑ´ºÒ¹ºÍá´§ãË¡Ñ¡à¡çº¹éÓäÇãªä´µÅÍ´» ËÃ×ÍËÒ áËŧ¹éÓãËÁ ¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨâ¾Ã§´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒР㹡ÒûÃÐÂØ¡µÊÓÃǨ¸Ã³Õ¿ÊÔ¡Ê´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´ ¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ à¾×èÍËÒâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ËÃ×Í ÅѡɳÐâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§·Ò§¸Ã³ÕÇÔ·ÂÒ·ÕèÁÕÅѡɳФҤÇÒÁ¼Ô´ »¡µÔ (anomaly) ã¹á¹Ç¹Í¹ (lateral variation) હ ÃÍÂàÅ×͹ ËÃ×Í ¾¹Ñ§ (dyke) ¢Í§ËÔ¹ÍѤ¹Õ â´ÂÇԸǴ¤ÇÒÁ è ÕÑ µÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿ÒẺ 2 ÁÔµÔ ã¹µÒ§»ÃÐà·Èä´ÁÕ¡Òà ·ÓÍÂÒ§á¾ÃËÅÒ (µÑÇÍÂҧહ Batayneh, 2001; Griffiths and Barker, 1993; Schoor, 2002; Seaton and Burber, 2002) â¾Ã§·Õè㪵ÃǨÊͺ¨Ð໹â¾Ã§·Õè à¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÅÐÅÒ¢ͧËÔ¹»Ù¹ ËÃ×Íâ´âÅäÁµ (Loke, 1999; Schoor, 2002) ã¹»ÃÐà·Èä·ÂÂѧäÁÁÕ¡Òà »ÃÐÂØ¡µãªà¾×è͵ÃǨÊͺâ¾Ã§à¡Å×Íãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ ¤³Ð¼ÙÇԨѨ֧ä´àÃÔèÁ¹ÓÁÒ»ÃÐÂØ¡µãªµÃǨÊͺâ¾Ã§ ÊÓËÃѺ㹻ÃÐà·Èä·Â¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò Êǹã˨Ð໹¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒẺ 1 ÁÔµÔ (sounding)

46

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

(µÑÇÍÂҧહ Ê׺ÈÑ¡´Ôì ÈÅâ¡ÊØÁ áÅФ³Ð, 2542) ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒẺ 1 ÁÔµÔ áÅеͧ㪡ÒÃá»Å¤ÇÒÁ»ÃСͺ ¤Í¹¢Ò§ÁÒ¡ µÃ§¡Ñ¹¢ÒÁ¡Ñº¡ÒÃà¡çº¢ÍÁÙÅẺ 2 ÁÔµÔ ¡ÒÃá»Å¤ÇÒÁËÁÒ·Óä´§ÒÂáÅÐÃÇ´àÃçÇ áµ¨ÐµÍ§à¡çº ¢ÍÁÙÅ㹨ӹǹ·ÕèÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ¡Ò÷ÓẺ 1 ÁÔµÔ ¨Ò¡¼Å¢Í§¤³Ð¼Ù ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ·Õè ä ´ ÈÖ ¡ ÉÒâ´Â㪠ÃÙ » ¨ÓÅͧ·Ò§¤³ÔµÈÒʵà áÅмÅÊÓÃǨ¨ÃÔ§ã¹Ê¹ÒÁ ´ÙÃÒ ÅÐàÍÕ´䴨ҡ à¾Õ§µÒ ÊÒµÃÑ¡É áÅФ³Ð (2546) º§ºÍ¡ÍÂÒ§ªÑ´à¨¹ÇÒ ¡ÒÃá»Å¤ÇÒÁËÁÒ¨ҡ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁ ¼Ô´»¡µÔ¢Í§¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò ¨ÐµÍ§·Ó´Ç¤ÇÒÁ Ãͺ¤ÍºáÅÐÃÐÁÑ´ÃÐÇѧ à¾ÃÒеÑÇá»Ã (parameters) ËÃ×Í»¨¨Ñ (factors) ·Õè·ÓãËà¡Ô´¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§¤Ò ¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹ä¿¿Ò äÁÇÒ¨Ð໹¢Í§ËÔ¹ËÃ×ͧ͢´Ô¹ËÃ×Í Í×è¹æ ÁÕËÅÒ»¨¨Ñ (Telford et al., 1990) ÊÓËÃѺ¡Òà »ÃÐÂØ¡µÊÓÃǨËÒâ¾Ã§ ¾ºÇÒÇÒ ¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁ µÒ¹·Ò¹æ ä¿¿Ò ÊÒÁÒö㪵ÃǨÊͺËÒâ¾Ã§ä´ à¾Õ  §¤Ã Ò Çæ à· Ò ¹Ñé ¹ ËÒ¡µ Í §¡ÒÃàËç ¹ ¤ Ò ¤ÇÒÁ ¼Ô´»¡µÔ¢Í§¤Ò¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Òã¹µÓá˹§ ¢¹Ò´ ÃÙ»ÃÒ§ ·ÕèªÑ´à¨¹àËÁ×͹¨ÃÔ§·Ø¡»ÃСÒà ¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨ´Ç ÇÔ¸Õ¹Õé·ÓäÁä´ â´Â੾ÒеÓá˹§¢Í§â¾Ã§ ¾ºÇÒÁÕ¡Òà à¤Å×͹¨Ò¡µÓá˹§·Õ¹Ò¨Ð໹ (ÃÙ»·Õè 2-5) ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹ àÁ×Í è è é è á»Å¤ÇÒÁËÁÒ¤ÇÃÃÐÁÑ´ÃÐÇѧà¡ÕÂÇ¡Òú§ºÍ¡µÓá˹§ è ÃÙ»ÃÒ§ áÅТ¹Ò´ ¢Í´Õ¢Í§¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨ´ÇÂÇÔ¸¹¤Í·Óä´ÃÇ´àÃçÇ ¨Ö§ Õ Õé × »ÃÐËÂÑ´¤Ò㪨ÒÂ㹡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ áÁ¼Å·ÕèµÃǨÊÍºä´ ¨Ðã˼Åà¾Õ§¤ÃÒÇæ ¡çµÒÁ ËÒ¡ÁÕ¡ÒÃà¨Òз´Êͺ㹠ºÃÔàdz·ÕèµÃǨ¾ºà¾×èÍÂ×¹Âѹ ÅѡɳТͧÊÀÒ¾¸Ã³Õ ÇÔ·ÂÒÍÕ¡¤Ãѧ¡ç¨ÐªÇ¤ÅÒ¢ÍʧÊÑÂä´ÁÒ¡¢Ö¹ áÅзÓãË é é ¡ÒÃá»Å¤ÇÒÁ¹Òàª×èͶ×ÍÁÒ¡¢Öé¹ áµ¡ÒÃà¨ÒÐ â´Â੾ÒÐ ËÒ¡¨Ó໹µÍ§à¨ÒÐà¡çºá·§µÑÇÍÂÒ§áÅеͧ¡ÒâÍÁÙÅ ã¹á¹Ç¹Í¹áÅÐá¹ÇµÑ§ (profile) ¨ÐàÊÕ¤Ò㪨ÒÂÁÒ¡ÇÒ é ¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨ´ÇÂÇԸոóտÊÔ¡ÊÁҡ໹ËÅÒÂà·Ò à¾ÃÒÐ ¨ÐµÍ§à¨ÒÐËÅÒÂæ ËÅØÁà¾×è͹ÓÁÒàª×èÍÁ⧢ÍÁÙÅ ã¹ ¾×é ¹ ·Õè ·Õè ÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ¾ºÇ Ò ÁÕ ¤ ÇÒÁ«Ñ º « Í ¹à¹×è Í §¨Ò¡ÍÂÙ ã ¹ µÓá˹§¢Í§â´Áà¡Å×Í

¡ÒûÃÐÂØ ¡ µ ÊÓÃǨ·Ò§¸Ã³Õ ¿ ÊÔ ¡ Ê ´ Ç ÂÇÔ ¸Õ ÊÓÃǨÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ à¾×èÍ¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ â¾Ã§à¡Å×Í㵼ǴԹ·Õà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×Í Ô è 㹺ÃÔàdz·ÕèÁÕ¡Ò÷Óà¡Å×ÍÊÔ¹à¸ÒÇ ä´·Ó¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒã¹ ¾×é¹·ÕèºÒ§Êǹ¢Í§ ºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§ áÅкҹºÍá´§ ¨Ñ§ËÇѴʡŹ¤Ã 䴼Ŵѧ¹Õé (1) ¼Å¨Ò¡¡ÒõԴµÒÁ ´Ù¡ÒÃà¾ÔÁáÅТÂÒµÑǢͧËÅØÁÂغ·Õ¼Ç´Ô¹ ¾º¡ÒÃà¾ÔÁ è è Ô è ¨Ó¹Ç¹¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغ㹾×é¹·ÕèºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§¨Ó¹Ç¹ 1 ËÅØÁ ÊǹºÒ¹ºÍá´§äÁ»ÃÒ¡¯¢Í§¡ÒÃà¾ÔÁ¢Í§¨Ó¹Ç¹ è ¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغ áµ¾º¡ÒâÂÒµÑÇ¡ÇÒ§ÁÒ¡¢Ö¹¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغ é à´ÔÁ㹺ҹ⹹áʺ§áÅкҹºÍá´§ áÁÇÒËÅØÁÂغ ºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒùӴԹÁÒ¶Á ᵡç¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒÃÂغµÑÇ ÍÂÒ§µÍà¹×èͧâ´Â੾ÒÐ㹪ǧ¢Í§Ä´Ù·Ó¹Òà¡Å×Í (2) ¼Å¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒâ´Â¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò ¨Óà¾ÒÐ㹺ÃÔàdz·Õ»ÃÒ¡¯¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغ㹾׹·ÕºÒ¹â¹¹ è é è áʺ§ áÅк Ò ¹º Í á´§ ´ Ç ÂÇÔ ¸Õ Ç Ò§¢Ñé Ç ä¿¿ Ò áºº Dipole-Dipole «Öè§á¹ÇÊÓÃǨ㹾×é¹·ÕèºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§ ÊÒÁÒöà¡çº¢ÍÁÙŢͧâ¾Ã§¡Í¹¡ÒÃÂغ áÅÐËÅѧ¡ÒÃÂغ µÑÇ«Ö觵ÍÁÒä´ÁÕ¡ÒùӴԹÁÒ¶Á ¾ºÇÒµÒÁá¹ÇÊÓÃǨ áÊ´§ãËàËç¹ÊÀÒ¾¡ÒÃà»ÅÕ蹢ͧ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ ä¿¿ÒÊÙ§·Õà¡Ô´¨Ò¡´Ô¹¶ÁÅÍÁÃͺ´Ç¤ҤÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ è ä¿¿ Ò µèÓ ã¹¾×é ¹ ·Õè ·Õè à » ¹ â¾Ã§ Ê Ç ¹¾×é ¹ ·Õè º Ò ¹º Í á´§ ¾º¡ÒâÂÒµÑÇ¡ÇÒ§ÁÒ¡¢Ö鹢ͧËÅØÁÂغ·Õè¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ áµäÁ ¾º¡ÒâÂÒµÑÇ¡ÇÒ§ÁÒ¡¢Ö鹢ͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹¢Í§ªÇ§ àÇÅÒ·Õè㪡ÒõԴµÒÁ 1 » áÅÐ (3) ÊÒà˵آͧ¡ÒÃà¡Ô´ ËÅØÁÂغºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§ áÅкÍᴧ㹺ÃÔàdz·ÕàÅ×͡໹ è ¡Ã³ÕÈÖ¡ÉÒ à¡Ô´¨Ò¡ºÃÔàdz¹Ñé¹à´ÔÁ¹Ò¨Ð໹ºÍÊÙº¹éÓ à¡Å×Íà¡Ò·ÕèµÑé§ÍÂÙº¹Ã͵ÍÃÐËÇÒ§ªÑé¹à¡Å×ÍËÔ¹áÅÐËÔ¹ ´Ô¹à˹ÕÂÇ àÁ×ÍÁÕ¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×ÍÁÒ¡æ ¨Ö§à¡Ô´â¾Ã§ãµºÍ è àÁ×èÍ㪺Í໹àÇÅÒ¹Ò¹áÅСàÅÔ¡ºÍ¾ÃÍÁÁÕ¡Òö͹ ¡Ò¹ºÍÍÍ¡ä» ·ÓãË´Ô¹-ËÔ¹¶Ù¡·ÓÅÒÂâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§áÅÐ ÂغµÑÇŧã¹â¾Ã§ ¡ÒÃÂغµÑǨÐàÃÔèÁ¨Ò¡ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹¨Ò¡¹Ñé¹ ¨Ðà¤Å×è͹¢Öé¹ÊÙ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ¨Ö§¾ºËÅØÁÂغÁջҡ᤺·Õè¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ áÅТÂÒÂǧ¡ÇÒ§·Õ㵼ǴԹ à¹×ͧ¨Ò¡¹éÓà¡Å×Íã¹¾×¹·Õ¹Õé è Ô è é è

ÊÃØ»

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

47

ÁÕšɳеÍà¹×ͧ ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹àÁ×ÍÁÕ¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×ͺÃÔàdzã¡Å Ñ è é è à¤Õ§¨Ðà¡Ô´¡ÒÃà¤Å×è͹ÂÒ¹éÓáÅеС͹´Ô¹ ¨Ö§·ÓãË à¡Ô´¡ÒÃÂغÍÂÒ§µÍà¹×èͧ 㹡ÒÃá¡»ËÒ áÅСÒà ¨Ñ ´ ¡ÒÃà¡Õè Â Ç¡Ñ º ¡Ò÷ӹÒà¡Å× Í ã¹¾×é ¹ ·Õè ¹Õé ¤ ÇÃÁÕ ¡ Òà ¾Ô¨ÒÃ³Ò á¡ä¢ÍÂÒ§àç´Ç¹

¡ÔµµÔ¡ÃÃÁ»ÃСÒÈ

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ㹤ÃÑ駹Õéä´ÃѺ¡ÒÃʹѺʹع·Ø¹ÇԨѠ¨Ò¡ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ »§º»ÃÐÁÒ³ ¾.È. 2546 ¤³Ð¼Ù ÈÖ ¡ ÉҢ͢ͺ¾ÃÐ¤Ø ³ ËÑ Ç Ë¹ Ò ½ Ò ÂàËÁ× Í §áà â¾á·Ê ÍÓàÀͺÓà˹稳ç¤ ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ªÑÂÀÙÁÔ ·ÕèãˤÇÒÁ ͹Øà¤ÃÒÐËãˤ³Ð¼ÙÇÔ¨ÑÂà¢Òä»ÊÓÃǨ㹾×é¹·Õè·ÕèÁÕÍØâÁ§¤ ¢Ø´¼Ò¹ ·ÓãËÊÒÁÒöµÃǨÊͺ¤ÇÒÁáÁ¹ÂӢͧ¡Òà »ÃÐÂØ¡µÊÓÃǨâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

àÍ¡ÊÒÃÍÒ§ÍÔ§

à¾Õ§µÒ ÊÒµÃÑ¡É, ÊØ·Ò·Ñ´ ·Í§ÁÕ, ¾Ù¹¨ÔµÃ äªÂ·Í§ÈÃÕ áÅÐ ªÑª¹Ò ¤ÓªÒ. 2544. ¡ÒûÃÐÂØ¡µ ÊÓÃǨ·Ò§¸Ã³¿ÊÔ¡Êà¾×èÍ ÈÖ¡ÉÒ ËÒ¤ÇÒÁÅÖ¡ ¢Í§â¾Ã§à¡Å×Í áÅЪÑé¹à¡Å×ÍËÔ¹ 㹺ÃÔàdz ËÁÙ º Ò ¹â¹¹áº§ ÍÓàÀͺ Ò ¹Á Ç § ¨Ñ § ËÇÑ ´ ʡŹ¤Ã. ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨ Á¢. 6 (1): 63-74. Ñ à¾Õ§µÒ ÊÒµÃÑ¡É, ÍÀÔªÒµ ºØµÃ¾ÔàÈÉ, ¶¹Ñ´ ÊÃÍÂ«Ò áÅлÃдÔÉ° ¹ÙàÅ. 2545. ¡ÒõÃǨËÒâ¾Ã§ áÅЪÑé¹à¡Å×ÍËԹ㵼ÔÇ´Ô¹´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹ ·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ. ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨ Á¢. 7 (2): Ñ 22-32. à¾Õ§µÒ ÊÒµÃÑ¡É, ÇÔ¹Ô¨ ÂѧÁÕ, ÊØêÑ ÊÁ¼´Ø§, áÅРçàÃ×ͧ àÅÔÈÈÔÃÇáØÅ. 2546. ÃÒ§ҹ¡ÒÃÇÔ¨Â Ø Ô Ñ àÃ×ͧ ¡ÒûÃÐÂØ¡µµ´µÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ â¾Ã§ è Ô à¡Å×Íãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹·Õèà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÊÙº¹éÓà¡Å×Í. ¢Í¹á¡¹: ÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒà·¤â¹âÅÂÕ¸Ã³Õ ¤³Ðà·¤â¹âÅÂÕ ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹.

ÈÙ ¹  ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¹éÓ ãµ ´Ô ¹ ÁËÒÇÔ · ÂÒÅÑ Â ¢Í¹á¡ ¹ . 2543. ÃÒ§ҹ¤ÇÒÁ¡ÒÇË¹Ò ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ Hydrogeologicalmodel à¾×Í¡ÒäҴ¤Ð๡ÒáÃШÒÂ è ´Ô¹à¤çÁáÅйéÓà¤çÁã¹ÃÐÂÐÂÒÇ â¤Ã§¡Òà ⢧ ªÕ ÁÙÅ. ¢Í¹á¡¹: ÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒà·¤â¹âÅÂÕ¸Ã³Õ ¤³Ðà·¤â¹âÅÂÕ, ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹. Ê׺ÈÑ¡´Ôì ÈÅâ¡ÊØÁ ¡ÑÁ»¹Ò· áËÅÁ¾ÙÅ·ÃѾ áÅÐ ÍØ·Ã »ÃÕªÒÅѡɳ. 2542. ÃÒ§ҹ¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨ¸Ã³Õ ¿Ê¡Êà¾×͵ÃǨÊͺâ¾Ã§ãµ´¹·Õà¡Ô´¨Ò¡ÒÃ Ô è Ô è ·Ó¹Òà¡Å×Í ºÃÔàdzºÒ¹â¹¹áʺ§ µÓºÅ ˹ͧ¡Çѧ ÍÓàÀͺҹÁǧ ¨Ñ§ËÇѴʡŹ¤Ã. è ¡Ãا෾ÁËÒ¹¤Ã: ¡ÃÁ·ÃѾÂҡøóÕ. Batayneh, A. T. 2001. Resistivity imaging for nearsurface resistivity dyke using tow-dimensional DC resistivity techniques. Journal of Applied geophysics. 48: 25-32. Griffiths, D. H., and Barker, R. D. 1993. Twodimensional resistivity imaging and modeling in areas of complex geology. Journal of Applied Geophysics. 45: 10011002. Loke, M. H., 1999. Electrical imaging surveys for environmental and engineering studies. A practical guide to 2-D and 3-D survey. San Jose: Geometrics. Inc. Seaton, J. W. and Burber, J. T. 2002. Evaluation of two-dimensional resistivity methods in a fractured crystalline-rock terrane. Journal of Applied geophysics. 51: 21-41. Telford, W.M., Geldart, L.P., Sheriff, R.E., and Keys, D.A.1990. Applied geophysics. 2nd ed Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Van Schoor, M. 2002. Detection of sinkholes using 2D electrical resistivity imaging. Journal of Applied geophysics. 50: 393-399.

48

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

ÃÙ»·Õè 1: á¼¹·ÕèáÊ´§µÓá˹§¢Í§á¹ÇÊÓÃǨ (¡) ºÃÔàdzºÒ¹

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

49

ÃÙ»·Õè 2: ÀÒ¾º¹ÅѡɳТͧ¶¹¹ÅÙ¡Ãѧ á¹ÇÊÓÃǨ¢¹Ò¹ä»¡Ñºá¹Ç¶¹¹´Ñ§áÊ´§ã¹á¼¹·ÕèÃÙ»·Õè 1 ¡ ÃÙ»Åҧ໹¼Å¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÇÒ§¢ÑéÇẺ Dipole-Dipole à¡çº¢ÍÁÙÅàÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 5 ¾ÄÉÀÒ¤Á 2545 ºÃÔàdz¹ÕéÂѧäÁ»ÃÒ¡¯ËÅØÁÂغ·Õè¼ÔÇ´Ô¹¨Ò¡ÃÙ»ÅѡɳиóÕÇÔ·ÂҢͧ¡ÒÃá»Å¤ÇÒÁ¨Ò¡¢ÍÁÙÅ·Õè ÇÑ´ä´ã¹Ê¹ÒÁ ¾ºÇÒÁÕ¾×é¹·Õè·Õè¹Ò¨Ð໹â¾Ã§´Ñ§áÊ´§ã¹ÃÙ»

50

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

ÃÙ»·Õè 3: ÀÒ¾º¹ËÅØÁÂغº¹¶¹¹ÅÙ¡Ãѧ·Õè»ÃÒ¡¯ã¹ÃÙ»·Õè 2 á¹ÇÊÓÃǨ¢¹Ò¹¡Ñºá¹Ç¶¹¹ËÅѧ¨Ò¡ËÅØÁÂغ ·Õè»ÃÒ¡¯ã¹ÀÒ¾ â´Âä´·Ó¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨËÅѧ¨Ò¡ËÅØÁÂغ¶Áä»áÅÇ ÃÙ»Åҧ໹¼Å¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò ¨Óà¾ÒÐ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÇÒ§¢ÑéÇẺ Dipole-Dipole à¡çº¢ÍÁÙÅàÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 16 ÁÕ¹Ò¤Á 2546 ¨Ò¡ÃÙ»ÅѡɳиóÕÇÔ·ÂҢͧ ¡ÒÃá»Å¤ÇÒÁ¨Ò¡¢ÍÁÙÅ·ÕÇ´ä´ã¹Ê¹ÒÁ ¾ºÇÒÁÕšɳТͧ´Ô¹¶Áá·Ã¡ÍÂã¹â¾Ã§ ´Ô¹·Õ¹ÓÁÒ¶ÁËÅØÁ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 84 èÑ Ñ Ù è ¤Ñ¹Ã¶æ 14 ¤ÔÇ (ÅÙ¡ºÒÈ¡àÁµÃ) àʹ»ÐáÊ´§¶Ö§¢Íºà¢µ¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغ·Õè¨Ðà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ã¹Í¹Ò¤µ áÅФÇÒÁ¡ÇÒ§¢Í§ËÅØÁ Âغ¹Õéà¡Ô´ä´ã¹ÃÑÈÁÕ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 40 àÁµÃ

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

51

ÃÙ»·Õè 4: ÀÒ¾º¹ËÅØÁÂغºÒ¹ºÍá´§ ÍÂÙã¡Å¡ÑºÊÃйéÓÇÑ´ºÒ¹ºÍá´§ ÃÙ»Åҧ໹¼Å¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨÇÑ´ ¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÇÒ§¢ÑéÇẺ Dipole-Dipole à¡çº¢ÍÁÙÅàÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 25 ¸Ñ¹ÇÒ¤Á 2545 ¨Ò¡ÃÙ» ÅѡɳиóÕÇ·ÂҢͧ¡ÒÃá»Å¤ÇÒÁ¨Ò¡¢ÍÁÙÅ·ÕÇ´ä´ã¹Ê¹ÒÁ ¾ºÇÒÁÕšɳТͧâ¾Ã§ÍÂ㵺ÃÔàdzËÅØÁÂغ ÅÑ¡É³Ð Ô èÑ Ñ Ù ¡ÇÒ§¡ÇÒ¤ÇÒÁ¡ÇÒ§¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغ·Õ»ÃÒ¡¯ãËàË繷ռǴԹ ã¹ÃÙ»¤ÇÒÁ¡ÇÒ§¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 20 àÁµÃ àʹ»ÐáÊ´§ è è Ô ã¹ÀҾ໹¢Íºà¢µ¢Í§á¹Ç·Õè¨Ðà¡Ô´¡ÒÃÂغÍÕ¡µÍä»ã¹Í¹Ò¤µ

52

¡ÒõԴµÒÁ µÃǨÊͺ ÅѡɳСÒÃÂغµÑǢͧâ¾Ã§ãµ¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸ÕÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

ÃÙ»·Õè 5: ÀÒ¾º¹ËÅØÁÂغºÒ¹ºÍá´§ ÁÕšɳСÇÒ§ÁÒ¡¢Ö¹¡ÇÒã¹ÃÙ»·Õè 4 ÊѧࡵÇÒ¨ÐäÁàËç¹µ¹ÂÙ¤ÒÅÔ»µÑÊ Ñ é ·Õè»ÃÒ¡¯ã¹ÀÒ¾¶Ò¢ͧÃÙ»·Õè 4 à¾ÃÒÐä´ÅÁŧä»ã¹áÅÇ ÃÙ»Åҧ໹¼Å¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨÇÑ´¤ÇÒÁµÒ¹·Ò¹ä¿¿Ò¨Óà¾ÒÐ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÇÒ§¢ÑéÇẺ Dipole-Dipole à¡çº¢ÍÁÙÅàÁ×èÍÇѹ·Õè 17 ÁÕ¹Ò¤Á 2546 ¨Ò¡ÃÙ»ÅѡɳиóÕÇÔ·ÂҢͧ¡ÒÃá»Å ¤ÇÒÁ¨Ò¡¢ÍÁÙÅ·ÕÇ´ä´ã¹Ê¹ÒÁ ¾ºÇÒÁÕšɳТͧâ¾Ã§ÍÂ㵺ÃÔàdzËÅØÁÂغ ÅѡɳСÇÒ§¡ÇÒ¤ÇÒÁ¡ÇÒ§¢Í§ËÅØÁ èÑ Ñ Ù Âغ·Õè»ÃÒ¡¯ãËàËç¹·Õè¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ ã¹ÃÙ»¤ÇÒÁ¡ÇÒ§¢Í§ËÅØÁÂغ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 30 àÁµÃ àʹ»ÐáÊ´§ã¹ÀҾ໹¢Íºà¢µ¢Í§ á¹Ç·Õè¨Ðà¡Ô´¡ÒÃÂغÍÕ¡µÍä»ã¹Í¹Ò¤µ â´Â¨Ð»ÃÒ¡¯·Õè¼ÔÇ´Ô¹ä´ã¹ÃÑÈÁÕ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 60-80 àÁµÃ

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

53

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

The Efficiency of Leachate treatment by Septic-Anaerobic Filter system

ÊÒªŠÁ×͢ع·´ (Saichon Meukhuntod)*

¡ÒÃÇԨѤÃÑ駹ÕéÁÕÇѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤à¾×èÍÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ- ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ·ÕèÁÕÃÐÂÐ àÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çºµÒ§¡Ñ¹ ÇÔ¸Õ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ໹¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂàªÔ§·´Åͧ㹾×é¹·Õ轧¡ÅºÁÙŽÍ¢ͧà·ÈºÒŹ¤Ã¹¤ÃÃÒªÊÕÁÒ ÃкººÓºÑ´¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ »ÃСͺ´Ç¶ѧà¡ÃÍÐáÅжѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ÊÓËÃѺ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁَ;ԨÒóҨҡ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁÊ¡»Ã¡·Õà»ÅÕ¹á»Å§ è è ã¹ÃÙ»«ÕâÍ´ÕáÅÐÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ â´Âầ¡Ò÷´Åͧ Í͡໹ 2 ªØ´ ¤×Í ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 1 ÁÕÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂã¹Ãкº ºÓºÑ´ÃÇÁ 36 ªÑÇâÁ§ (ÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çºã¹¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ 24 ªÑÇâÁ§ áÅÐÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çºã¹¶Ñ§¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ 12 ªÑÇâÁ§) ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè è è è 2 ÁÕÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂã¹ÃкººÓºÑ´ÃÇÁ 72 ªÑèÇâÁ§ (ÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çºã¹¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ 48 ªÑèÇâÁ§ áÅÐÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çºã¹¶Ñ§ ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ 24 ªÑèÇâÁ§) «Öè§áµÅЪش¡Ò÷´ÅͧÁնѧà¡ÃÍÐáÅжѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«ÔਹÍÂÒ§ÅÐ 1 ¶Ñ§ ¼Å¡Ò÷´Åͧ ¾ºÇÒàÁ×èÍÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çºà¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹Ãкº¨ÐÁÕ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴà¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹ ¡ÅÒǤ×Í·ÕèÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº¹éÓ ªÐÁÙŽÍ¢ͧÃкºà·Ò¡Ñº 36 ªÑÇâÁ§ ÁÕ͵ÃÒ¡ÒÃÃѺÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃÕÂà¢ÒÃкº 0.60 ¡¡.«ÕâÍ´Õ/Á3/Çѹ ÁÕ¤Ò«ÕâÍ´ÕÍÂ㹪ǧ 688-960.02 è Ñ Ù Á¡./Å. à©ÅÕè 845.02 ± SD 70.51 Á¡./Å.áÅÐÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍÂÍÂÙ㹪ǧ 157-179 Á¡./Å. à©ÅÕè 167.13 ± SD 5.90 Á¡./Å. µÒÁÅӴѺ àÁ×è͹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂÍÍ¡¨Ò¡ÃкºÁÕ¤Ò«ÕâÍ´ÕÍÂÙ㹪ǧ 306.50-403.50 Á¡./Å. à©ÅÕè 365.72 Á¡./Å. áÅÐÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ ÍÂÙ㹪ǧ 47-59 Á¡./Å. à©ÅÕè 53.87 Á¡./Å. µÒÁÅӴѺ »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ«ÕâÍ´ÕáÅÐÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ à©ÅÕèÂÃÍÂÅÐ 56.65 áÅÐ 67.74 µÒÁÅӴѺáÅзÕèÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ¢ͧÃкºà·Ò¡Ñº 72 ªÑèÇâÁ§ ÁÕÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃÃѺÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃÕÂà¢ÒÃкº 0.31 ¡¡.«ÕâÍ ´Õ/Á3/ Çѹ ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂà¢ÒÃкºÁÕ¤Ò«ÕâÍ´ÕÍÂÙ㹪ǧ 782.75-912.00 Á¡./Å. à©ÅÕè 874.90 Á¡./Å.áÅÐÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍÂÍÂÙ㹪ǧ 155 -197 Á¡./Å.à©ÅÕè 174.53 Á¡./Å. µÒÁÅӴѺ àÁ×è͹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂÍÍ¡¨Ò¡ÃкºÁÕ¤Ò«ÕâÍ´ÕÍÂÙ㹪ǧ 230.00-329.50 Á¡./Å. à©ÅÕè 282.78 Á¡./Å. áÅÐÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍÂÍÂÙ㹪ǧ 20- 50 Á¡./Å. à©ÅÕè 34.73± SD 9.36 Á¡./Å. µÒÁÅӴѺ »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ ¡ÒúӺѴ«ÕâÍ´ÕáÅÐÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ à©ÅÕèÂÃÍÂÅÐ 67.66 áÅÐ 79.96 µÒÁÅӴѺ ÃкººÓºÑ´¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Ñé§ÊͧªØ´¡Ò÷´ÅͧÊÒÁÒö Å´¤Ò«ÕâÍ´ÕáÅÐÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍÂä´ÍÂÒ§ÁÕ¹ÑÂÊÓ¤Ñ·Ò§Ê¶ÔµÔ (P value < 0.001) áÅÐàÁ×èÍà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒÃÅ´¤Ò«ÕâÍ´ÕáÅÐ ÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ¢ͧÃкººÓºÑ´¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ·ÕèÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº 36 ªÑèÇâÁ§áÅÐ 72 ªÑèÇâÁ§ ¾ºÇÒÁÕ¤ÇÒÁᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ ÍÂÒ§ÁÕ¹ÑÂÊÓ¤Ñ·Ò§Ê¶ÔµÔ (P value < 0.001) ÊÓËÃѺ¤Ò¾Õàͪ ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§ ¤Ò¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·Å ÍѵÃÒÊǹ¢Í§¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·ÅµÍÊÀÒ¾ ¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§ áÅÐÍسËÀÙÁÔ «Öè§à»¹»¨¨Ñ·ÕèÍÒ¨ÁռšÃзºµÍÃкº ¾ºÇÒÍÂÙ㹪ǧ·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁµÍ¡Ò÷ӧҹ¢Í§áº¤·ÕàÃÕÂã¹Ãкº ¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¹ÕéªÕéãËàËç¹ÇÒÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«ÔਹÊÒÁÒö¹ÓÁÒ㪺ӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂä´ã¹ÃдѺ˹Öè§ «Ö觨Ó໹ µÍ§à¾ÔèÁÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çºã¹ÃкºãËÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ 72 ªÑèÇâÁ§ ËÃ×͵ͧÁÕ¡ÒúӺѴà¾ÔèÁàµÔÁÍÕ¡ The objective of this research was to investigate the efficiency of the leachate treatment by septic-anaerobic filter system. A field experimental study was performed at a selected Nakhonratchasima municipal sanitary landfill. The system comprised of a series of a septic tank and an anaerobic filter tank. The organic removal efficiency was determined by the percentage change of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and suspended solid (SS). The experiment comprised of 2 sets of experiment. Set 1, with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 36 hours (24 hours in septic tank and 12 hours in anaerobic filter tank). Set 2, septic-anaerobic filter system had hydraulic retention time 72 hours (48 hours in septic tank and 24 hours in anaerobic filter tank).

*

º·¤Ñ´ÂÍ

Abstract

¹Ñ¡ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃÊØ¢ÒÀÔºÒÅ 8 (Ç) ËÑÇ˹ҡÅØÁ§Ò¹Ê§àÊÃÔÁÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ Êӹѡ¡ÒÃÊÒ¸ÒóÊØ¢áÅÐÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ à·ÈºÒŹ¤Ã¹¤ÃÃÒªÊÕÁÒ

54

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

The results showed that HRT effected the efficiency of the leachate treatment by septic-anaerobic filter system. The more HRT, the more efficiency of leachate treatment was beached. System had HRT 36 hours, with organic loading rate was 0.60 kg COD /m3/day,leachate influence had range of COD 688-960.02 mg/l, average 845.02 mg/l and range of SS 157-179 mg/l, average 167.13 mg/l, respectively. Leachate effluence had range of COD 306.50-403.50 mg/l, average 365.72 mg/l and range of SS 47-59 mg/l, average 53.87 mg/l,respectively. It was found that the efficiency of leachate treatment by septic-anaerobic filter system in removal of COD and SS were 56.65 % and 67.74 %, respectively. And System had HRT 72 hours, with organic loading rate was 0.31 kg COD /m3/day, leachate influence had range of COD 782.75-912.00 mg/l, average 874.90 mg/l and range of SS 155-197 mg/l, average 174.53 mg/l respectively. Leachate effluence had range of COD 230.00-329.50 mg/l,average 282.78 mg/l and range of SS 20-50 mg/l, average 34.73 mg/l, respectively. It was found that the efficiency of leachate treatment by septic-anaerobic filter system in removal of COD and SS were 67.66 % and 79.96 %,respectively. Each set was significant, organic removal of leachate treatment tested in terms of COD and SS (P value < 0.001). When compared the efficiency of both sets ,there were significant too, (P value < 0.001). In addition pH, alkalinity, volatile acid, ratio of alkalinity & volatile acid and temperature were suitable for septic-anaerobic filter system. The results suggest that the leachate is able to be treatment by septic-anaerobic filter system but the final effluent quality is not suitable for direct discharge and needs to be hydraulic retention time more than 72 hours or to be further treated.

¤ÓÊÓ¤Ñ : KeyWords :

¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ Ãкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ Leachate treatment, Septic-Anaerabic Filter system ¨Ó໹ÍÂÒ§ÂÔè§ã¹¡ÒèÐÅ´ÊÒ÷Õè໹¾ÔÉ·ÕèÍÒ¨à¡Ô´¨Ò¡ ¡Òû¹à»Í¹¢Í§¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ ¡ÒÃÍ͡ẺÃкººÓºÑ´ ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´Â·ÑèÇä»ã¹¢³Ð¹ÕéÊǹãËÁÑ¡¨ÐÁÕ¡Òà Í͡ẺÃкººÓºÑ ´ â´Â㪠à кººÓºÑ ´ Ẻº Í ¼Öè § (Stabilization Ponds) Êǹ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¹ÓÃкººÓºÑ´ ẺÍ×è¹ æ હÃкººÓºÑ´¹éÓàÊÕÂẺ¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡Ãͧ äÃÍÍ¡«ÔਹÁÒ㪺ӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂÂѧäÁ¤ÍÂÁÕ¡Òà ÈÖ¡ÉÒáÅйÓÁÒ㪡ѹá¾ÃËÅÒ ·Ñ駷ÕèÃкººÓºÑ´¶Ñ§ à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁàËÁÒÐÊÁÊÓËÃѺºÓºÑ´ ¹éÓàÊÕ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ÊÙ§áÅÐ໹¡Ãкǹ¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓ àÊÕ·ҧªÕÇÇÔ·ÂÒã¹ÊÀÒÇзÕäÁÁÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ã¹Êǹ¢Í§¶Ñ§ è Õ à¡ÃÍШзӡÒúӺѴ¹éÓàÊÕÂã¹¢Ñé¹»°ÁÀÙÁÔâ´Â¡ÒÃÂÍ ÊÅÒÂÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃÕÂã¹¹éÓàÊÕÂáÅзÓ˹ҷÕèà¡çº¡Ñ¡ÊÅÑ´¨ (Sludge) áÅСҡ¿Í§ (Scum) ¡Í¹·Õè¨Ðʧ仺ӺѴ µ Í ã¹¶Ñ § ¡ÃͧäÃ Í Í¡«Ô à ¨¹ â´Â·Ñè Ç ä»¶Ñ § à¡ÃÍШÐÁÕ ÅѡɳÐ໹¶Ñ§¡ÅÁËÃ×ͶѧÊÕàËÅÕÂÁ»´ÁÔ´ªÔ´ à¾×ÍãËÍÂÙ è è è ã¹ÊÀÒÇÐäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ã¹Êǹ¢Í§¶Ñ§¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

»¨¨ØºÑ¹»ËÒÁÙŽÍÂ໹»ËÒ·Õè¡ÍãËà¡Ô´ ÁÅ¾Ô É ·Õè ÊÓ¤Ñ »ÃСÒÃ˹Öè § «Öè § ¹Ñ º ÇÑ ¹ ¡ç ÂÔè § ÁÕ » ÃÔ Á Ò³ à¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹ÍÂÒ§ÃÇ´àÃçÇ µÒÁÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃà¾ÔèÁ¢Ö鹢ͧ¨Ó¹Ç¹ »ÃЪҡà áÅТÂÒµÑǢͧ¡ÒþѲ¹ÒàÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨áÅÐ ÍصÊÒË¡ÃÃÁ â´ÂÍѵÃÒ¡ÒüÅÔµÁÙŽÍ¢ͧ»ÃЪҡà à©ÅÕè 0.4-1.0 ¡ÔâÅ¡ÃÑÁµÍ¤¹µÍÇѹ áÅÐÁÙŽÍ àËÅÒ¹Õé ÁÕá¹Çâ¹Á¨Ðà¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹·Ø¡»à©ÅÕè ÃÍÂÅÐ 8-10 µÍ» (ÊØ³Õ »Âоѹ¸Ø¾§È, 2535) ¡ÒáӨѴÁÙŽÍ ¢Í§»ÃÐà·Èä·Â äÁÇÒ¨Ð໹à·ÈºÒÅ ÊØ¢ÒÀÔºÒÅËÃ×Í Í§¤¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃÊǹµÓºÅ Êǹã˨ÐãªÇÔ¸Õ¡Òáͧ º¹¾×é¹´Ô¹áÅÇà¼Ò໹¤ÃÑ駤ÃÒÇ áÅСÒáӨѴẺ ½§¡Åº «Ö§¡ÒáӨѴÁÙŽÍÂÂѧ»¯Ôºµä´äÁ¶¡µÍ§µÒÁ è Ñ Ô Ù ËÅÑ¡¡ÒÃÊØ¢ÒÀÔºÒŹѡ ·ÓãËà¡Ô´»ËÒà¡ÕÂǡѺ¹éÓàÊÕ·Õè è à¡Ô´¨Ò¡»¯Ô¡ÃÔÂÒ¡ÒÃÂÍÂÊÅÒ¢ͧÁÙŽÍÂáÅйéÓàÊÕ ¨Ò¡ÀÒ¹͡·ÕèäËÅÁÒ»¹à»Í¹ «Öè§ÃÇÁàÃÕ¡ÇÒ ¹éÓªÐÁÙÅ ½Í ( leachate ) ¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁَ֧ͨ໹ÊÔ觷Õè

º·¹Ó

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

55

¡ç¨ÐÁÕšɳÐ໹¶Ñ§¡ÅÁËÃ×ͶѧÊÕàËÅÕÂÁ»´ÁÔ´ªÔ´ હ Ñ è è ¡Ñ¹ ÀÒÂ㹨кÃèشǵÑÇ¡Ãͧ ·ÕèÁժͧÇÒ§¾ÍÊÁ¤Çà ¤§·¹ äÁ¼Ø¡Ã͹§Ò હ ¾ÅÒʵԡ ¾ÕÇÕ«Õ ËÔ¹º´ ¡ÃÇ´ ËÃ×ÍÇÑÊ´ØÊѧà¤ÃÒÐË ¡ÒÃäËŢͧ¹éÓàÊÕÂà¢ÒÃкºà»¹ Ẻ Plug Flow «Ö觨зÓã˹éÓ·ÇÁ àµçÁ¶Ñ§µÅÍ´àÇÅÒ µÑÇ¡Ãͧ·ÕèºÃèØÀÒÂã¹à¤Ã×èͧ¡Ãͧ¨ÐªÇ¡ÃШÒ¡Òà äËŢͧ¹éÓà¢ÒÃкºáÅÐàÁ×͹éÓäËżҹµÒÁªÍ§ÇÒ§¢Í§ è µÑÇ¡Ãͧ «Öè§ä´¡Ñ¡à¡çºµÐ¡Í¹áº¤·ÕàÃÕÂàÍÒäÇ ¨Ð·ÓãË áº¤·ÕàÃÕÂÁÕâÍ¡ÒÊÊÑÁ¼ÑʡѺ¹éÓàÊÕÂä´ÍÂÒ§·ÑǶ֧ µÐ¡Í¹ è Ấ·ÕàÃÕ·Õèà¡ÒÐËÅÇÁæ ÍÂÙµÒÁ¼ÔÇáÅÐÍÂÙµÒÁªÍ§ÇÒ§ ¢Í§µÑÇ¡Ãͧ¨Ð·Ó¡ÒÃÂÍÂÊÅÒÂÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃÕµҧæ·ÓãË ¼Å¼ÅÔµÊØ´·ÒÂ໹¡Ò«ÁÕà·¹áÅФÒú͹ä´ÍÍ¡ä«´«§ Öè ¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓàÊÕ´ÇÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ - ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ¹Õ໹Ãкº·ÕÁ¤ÇÒÁ¤§µÑǤ͹¢Ò§ÊÙ§ ÁÕÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº é è Õ µÐ¡Í¹¹Ò¹áÅÐ໹Ãкº·Õèãªà¤Ã×èͧÁ×͹Í àËÁÒÐ ÊÓËÃѺºÓºÑ´¹éÓàÊÕ·ÕÁ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ÊÙ§ (à¾çªÃ¾Ã àªÒÇè Õ ¡Ô ¨ à¨ÃÔ , 2538)¼Å¡ÒÃÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ¤ÃÑé § ¹Õé ¨ зÓãË à ¡Ô ´ »ÃÐ⪹㹡ÒûÃÐÂØ¡µãªÃкººÓºÑ´¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Õè àËÁÒÐÊÁµÍä»

2. µÑÇá»ÃµÒÁ·Õèãªã¹¡ÒÃÇԨѤ×ͤҤÇÒÁà¢Á ¢¹¢Í§¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ 1. ¤Ò«ÕâÍ´Õ ÁÕ˹ÇÂ໹ Á¡./Å. 2. ¤Ò»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ ÁÕ˹ÇÂ໹ Á¡./Å. 3. µÑÇá»ÃÀÒ¹͡·Õè·Ó¡ÒÃÇÑ´´Ç ¤×Í 1. ¾Õàͪ¢Í§¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ 2. ¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§( Alkalinity) ÁÕ˹ÇÂ໹ Á¡./Å.ã¹ÃÙ»á¤Åà«ÕÂÁ¤ÒúÍ๵ 3. ¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·Å (Volatile acid) ÁÕ˹Ç ໹ Á¡./Å. ã¹ÃÙ»¡Ã´ÍЫԵԡ 4. ÍѵÃÒÊǹ¢Í§¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·ÅµÍÊÀÒ¾ ¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§ 5. ÍسËÀÙÁԢͧ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂÀÒÂã¹Ãкº áÅÐÀÒ¹͡ ÁÕ˹ÇÂ໹ͧÈÒà«Åà«ÕÂÊ

Çѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤¢Í§¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂ

1. Çѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤·Çä» Ñè à¾×ÍÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂ è ´ÇÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ 2 Çѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤à©¾ÒÐ 1. à¾×èÍÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒÃÅ´»ÃÔÁÒ³ ¢Í§«ÕâÍ´Õ(COD)㹡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ¢ͧÃкº¶Ñ§ à¡ÃÍÐ - ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹã¹ÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº·ÕµÒ§¡Ñ¹ è 2. à¾×èÍÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒÃÅ´»ÃÔÁÒ³ ¢Í§á¢ç§á¢Ç¹ÅÍ (SS) 㹡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ¢ͧ Ãкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ - ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹã¹ÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº ·ÕèµÒ§¡Ñ¹ 1.µÑÇá»ÃÍÔÊÃзÕãªã¹¡ÒÃÇԨ¤×ͤÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ è Ñ ¢Í§¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂÇÑ´ã¹ÃÙ»¢Í§ «ÕâÍ´ÕáÅлÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà á¢Ç¹ÅÍ ÁÕ˹ÇÂ໹ Á¡./Å

¡ÒÃÇԨ¤Ãѧ¹Õ໹¡Ò÷´ÅͧãªÃкºà¡ÃÍÐÑ é é ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ 㹡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Õèà¡Ô´¨Ò¡ ¡Òý§¡ÅºÁÙŽÍ¢ͧà·ÈºÒŹ¤Ã¹¤ÃÃÒªÊÕÁÒ ³ µÓºÅ⤡¡ÃÇ´ ÍÓàÀÍàÁ×ͧ ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¹¤ÃÃÒªÊÕÁÒ «Öè§ãª ÇÔ¸¡ÒáӨѴÁÙŽÍÂẺ¢Ø´à»¹Ãͧ â´Â·Ó¡ÒáÍÊÃÒ§ Õ Ãкºà¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ µ¹áºº ( pilot scale ) «Ö§»ÃСͺ´Ç¶ѧà¡ÃÍÐ áÅжѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«ÔਹÁÕµÇ è Ñ ¡Ãͧ㹶ѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ໹¾ÕÇÕ«Õ (rigid PVC) ¡Ò÷´Åͧ¨ÐÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ¶Ö § » ¨ ¨Ñ  ·Õè Í Ò¨ÁÕ ¼ Å¡Ãзºµ Í »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀҾ㹡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ ä´á¡ ÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ ¡Ñ¡à¡çº¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ (Hydraulic Retention Time; HRT) ´ Ç Â¡ÒÃÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ»ÃÐÊÔ · ¸Ô À Ò¾¡ÒÃŴŧ¢Í§ ÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃÕÂã¹ÃÙ»¢Í§¤Ò«ÕâÍ´ÕáÅÐÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍÂã¹¹éÓ ªÐÁÙŽÍÂ

¢Íºà¢µ¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂ

µÑÇá»Ã·Õèãªã¹¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂ

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÇԨѤÃÑ駹Õé໹¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂàªÔ§·´Åͧ (Experimental Research) â´ÂãªÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡Ãͧ

ÇÔ¸´Óà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃÇÔ¨Â Õ Ñ

56

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

äÃÍÍ¡«ÔਹºÓºÑ´¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Õèà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡Òý§¡Åº ÁÙ Å ½Í¢ͧà·ÈºÒŹ¤Ã¹¤ÃÃÒªÊÕ Á Òà¾×è Í ÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒÃÅ´»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃÕÂã¹ÃÙ»¢Í§¤Ò «ÕâÍ´ÕáÅÐÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ ·ÕÁÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çºã¹Ãкº·Õè è Õ µ Ò §¡Ñ ¹ â´Â·Ó¡Òá Í ÊÃ Ò §Ãкº¶Ñ § à¡ÃÍÐ-¡Ãͧ äÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ µ¹áºº ³ ʶҹ·Õ轧¡ÅºÁÙŽÍ¢ͧ à·ÈºÒŹ¤Ã¹¤ÃÃÒªÊÕÁÒ »ÃСͺ´Ç¶ѧà¡ÃÍÐáÅжѧ ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ÁյǡÃͧ㹶ѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ໹ Ñ ¾ÕÇÕ«Õ ÅѡɳФÅÒÂÃǧ¼Öé§ ´Óà¹Ô¹¡Ò÷´Åͧ㹪ǧ Ä´ÙÃ͹ÃÐËÇÒ§à´×͹àÁÉÒ¹ ¶Ö§¡Ã¡®Ò¤Á ¾.È. 2543 ÃÙ » Ẻ¡Ò÷´ÅÍ§ä´ á º § à» ¹ 2 ªØ ´ ¡Ò÷´Åͧ ªØ´·Õè 1 ÁÕÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çºã¹Ãкºà·Ò¡Ñº 36 ªÑÇâÁ§ (ÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº¢Í§¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·ն§à¡ÃÍÐ è èÑ áÅжѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹà·Ò¡Ñº 24 ªÑèÇâÁ§áÅÐ 12 ªÑèÇâÁ§ µÒÁÅӴѺ ) áÅЪش·Õè 2 ÁÕÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çºã¹ Ãкºà·Ò¡Ñº 72 ªÑÇâÁ§ (ÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂ è ·Õ¶§à¡ÃÍÐ áÅжѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ à·Ò¡Ñº 48 ªÑÇâÁ§ èÑ è áÅÐ 24 ªÑèÇâÁ§ µÒÁÅӴѺ ) (´Ñ§ÀÒ¾·Õè 1)

ÅÑ ¡ ɳСÒÃµÔ ´ µÑé § ÍØ » ¡Ã³ ·Õè ã ª ã ¹¡Òà ·´ÅͧáÊ´§äÇã¹ÀÒ¾·Õè 3 «Ö觻ÃСͺ´Ç 1. ºÍÃǺÃÇÁ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ ãªÃǺÃÇÁ¹éÓ ªÐÁÙ Å ½ÍÂâ´Â¢Ø ´ º Í ÅÖ ¡ »ÃÐÁÒ³ 2 àÁµÃ ¡Ç Ò § »ÃÐÁÒ³ 3 àÁµÃ ÂÒÇ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 4 àÁµÃ ·Ò§´Ò¹·ÕèÁÕ ¤ÇÒÁÅÒ´ªÑ¹¢Í§Ãͧ´Ô¹µèÓ à¾×èÍã˹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂäËŠŧºÍ·ÕèàµÃÕÂÁäÇ 2. ¶Ñ§¾Ñ¡¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂ( Storage Tank) ໹ ¶Ñ§àËÅç¡ ÁÕ»ÃÔÁҵà 200 ÅԵà ·Õ衹¶Ñ§µÍ·ÍàËÅç¡àʹ ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§ 3/4 ¹ÔéÇ ¾ÃÍÁµÔ´ÇÒÅǹéÓà¾×èͤǺ¤ØÁ ÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃäËÅ ¢Í§¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ¡͹»ÅÍÂà¢ÒÊٶѧ à¡ÃÍÐ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹ÕéáÅÇÍÒ¨ãªà»¹¶Ñ§»ÃѺÊÀÒ¾¹éÓªÐÁÙÅ ½Í´Ç ( ¡Ã³Õ¨Ó໹ ) 3. ¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ( Septic Tank ) ÁÕ»ÃÔÁҵöѧ 0.65 ź.Á. ÊÃÒ§´ÇÂǧ¢Íº¤Í¹¡ÃÕµ àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§

à¤Ã×èͧÁ×ÍáÅÐÍØ»¡Ã³·Õèãªã¹¡Ò÷´Åͧ

0.80 Á. ÊÙ§ 40 «Á. ¨Ó¹Ç¹ 4 㺠䴤ÇÒÁÅÖ¡à·Ò¡Ñº 1.60 Á. ·ÕèÃдѺ 0.20 Á. ¨Ò¡»Ò¡¶Ñ§µÍ·Í¢¹Ò´ àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§ 3/4 ¹ÔéÇ àª×èÍÁ¡Ñº¶Ñ§¾Ñ¡¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ ÂÒÃ͵͵ҧ æ äÁã˹éÓËÃ×ͧ͢àËÅǼҹà¢ÒÍÍ¡ä´ ´Ò¹º¹¢Í§¶Ñ§ÁÕ½Ò»´«Öè§Áժͧǧ¡ÅÁ½Ò·Í§àËÅ×ͧ ¢¹Ò´ 6 ¹ÔÇ áÅÐà¨ÒÐÃÙµ´µÑ§·ÍÃкÒÂÍÒ¡ÒÈ ¢¹Ò´ é Ô é àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§ 3/4 ¹ÔéÇ ÊÙ§ 0.5 àÁµÃ ·Õè»ÅÒÂ·Í ÃкÒÂÍÒ¡ÒȵԴµÑé§ÊÒÁ·Ò§ ·ÕèÃдѺ 1.30 àÁµÃ ¨Ò¡ ¡¹¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ (0.30 àÁµÃ¨Ò¡»Ò¡¶Ñ§) à¨ÒЪͧà¾×ÍÇÒ§ è ·Í¾ÕÇÕ«Õ ¢¹Ò´àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§ 3/4 ¹ÔéÇ à¾×èÍàª×èÍÁ ¶Ñ § à¡ÃÍÐáÅÐ¶Ñ § ¡ÃͧäÃ Í Ò¡ÒÈ ºÃÔ à dz¡Öè § ¡ÅÒ§· Í ÃÐËÇÒ§¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐáÅжѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÒ¡ÒÈ µÍ·Í¾ÕÇ«¢¹Ò´ ÕÕ àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§ 3/4 ¹ÔÇ ¢Ö¹ÁÒ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 10 «Á. »ÅÒ é é ·ÍÁըء»´-à»´ ÊÓËÃѺà¡çº¹éÓµÑÇÍÂÒ§·ÕèäËÅÍÍ¡¨Ò¡ ¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ 4. ¶Ñ§¡ÃͧäÃÍÒ¡ÒÈ (Anaerobic Filter Tank) ÊÃÒ§´ÇÂǧ¢Íº¤Í¹¡ÃÕµ àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§ 0.80 Á. ÊÙ§ 40 «Á. ¨Ó¹Ç¹ 4 㺠·ÕÃдѺ 0.30 àÁµÃ¨Ò¡»Ò¡¶Ñ§ è 㪷;ÕÇÕ«Õ¢¹Ò´àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§ 3/4 ¹ÔéÇ µÍ¨Ò¡¶Ñ§ à¡ÃÍÐ â´ÂµÍ»ÅÒ·Íà¢Òä»·Ò§´Ò¹ÅÒ§¢Í§¡¹¶Ñ§¡Ãͧ äÃÍÒ¡ÒÈ à¾×èÍã˹éÓäËÅà¢ÒÊٶѧã¹ÅѡɳÐÅÒ§¢Öé¹ÊÙº¹ (Up flow) àª×èÍÁÃ͵͵ҧ æ äÁã˹éÓËÃ×ͧ͢àËÅÇ ¼Ò¹à¢ÒÍÍ¡ä´ ¨Ò¡»Ò¡¶Ñ§ ·ÕèÃдѺ 0.35 àÁµÃ µÍ·Í ¾ÕÇÕ«Õ¢¹Ò´àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§ 3/4 ¹ÔéÇ à»¹·Í¹éÓÍÍ¡ ´Ò¹º¹¢Í§¶Ñ§ÁÕ½Ò»´«Öè§Áժͧǧ¡ÅÁ¢¹Ò´ 6 ¹ÔéÇ »´ ½Ò·Í§àËÅ×ͧ ·ÕÃдѺ 0.50 àÁµÃ à¨ÒÐÃÙµ´µÑ§·ÍÃкÒ è Ô é ÍÒ¡ÒÈ ¢¹Ò´àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§ 3/4 ¹ÔéÇ ÊÙ§ 0.5 àÁµÃ ·Õ»ÅÒ·ÍÃкÒÂÍÒ¡ÒȵԴµÑ§ÊÒÁ·Ò áÅзÕÃдѺ 0.15 è é è àÁµÃ ¨Ò¡¡¹¶Ñ§µÔ´µÒ¢Ò¡Ѻ¶Ñ§¡ÃͧäÃÍÒ¡ÒÈà¾×èÍ ÃͧÃѺµÑÇ¡Ãͧ 5. µÑÇ¡Ãͧ (Filter media) 㪾ÕÇÕ«ÕÁÕÃÙ»ÃÒ§ ÅѡɳФÅÒÂÃǧ¼Ö§ÇÒ§àÃÕ§¡Ñ¹à¾×ÍãËẤ·ÕàÃÕÂà¡ÒÐ ÁÕ é è ¾×é¹·Õè¼ÔÇ ÁժͧÇÒ§ à¾×èÍã˹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂäËÅ¼Ò¹ä´ Êдǡ 㹡ÒÃÇԨ¹յǡÃͧÁÕ¾¹·Õ¼Ç ( surface area) Ñ é Ñ ×é è Ô 90 µ Ã.Á./ź.Á. ÁժͧÇÒ§ ( void ratio ) 91.5% ÊÙ§ 1 àÁµÃ (´Ñ§ÀÒ¾·Õè 2)

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

57

1. ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Õèãªã¹¡Ò÷´Åͧ ໹¹éÓ ªÐÁَͨҡ¾×¹·Õ½§¡Åº¢Í§à·ÈºÒŹ¤Ã¹¤ÃÃÒªÊÕÁÒ é è â´Âà¡çº¨Ò¡Ãͧ½§¡ÅºÁÙŽÍ·ÕèÁÕÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ½§¡Åº ÍÂÒ§ÊÁºÙóÁÒáÅÇäÁà¡Ô¹ 1 » à¾ÃÒл¯Ô¡ÃÔÂÒ¡ÒÃÂÍ ÊÅÒ·Õà¡Ô´¢Ö¹ÀÒÂã¹ÁَͨÐ໹ä»ä´ªÒáÅСÒÃÂÍ è é ÊÅÒ¨ÐÊÔé¹ÊØ´ÀÒÂã¹ 12 à´×͹ ¡Ã³Õ·ÕèÁÕ¢ÂÐà¹Òà»Í à¾Õ§ 15 % ËÃ×͹Í¡ÇÒ (ÈÙ¹Â͹ÒÁÑÂÊÔ§áÇ´ÅÍÁ ࢵ è 2 ªÅºØÃÕ, 2530) ËÅѧ¨Ò¡¹Ñé¹ãªà¤Ã×èͧÊÙº¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ à¢Ò¶Ñ§¾Ñ¡ 2. ¨Ñ´ÊÃÒ§ÃкººÓºÑ´¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ «Ö§»ÃСͺ è ´Ç¶ѧà¡ÃÍÐáÅжѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«ÔਹµÍ͹ءÃÁ¡Ñ¹ ÍÂÒ§ÅÐ 1 ¶Ñ§ 3. ¡ÒÃàÃÔèÁµ¹àÅÕé§Ấ·ÕàÃÕ (Start up) ã¹ ¡Ò÷´Åͧ¤Ãѧ¹Õ¨ÐãªÁÅÊѵǪ¹Ô´à»Â¡à»¹ËÑÇàª×Í ¼ÊÁ é é Ù é ¡Ñº¹éÓà»ÅÒãÊ㹶ѧà¡ÃÍÐ - ¶Ñ§¡ÃͧäÃÍÒ¡ÒȤÃÖ觶ѧ㹠ªÇ§àÃÔÁµ¹ ËÅѧ¨Ò¡¹Ñ¹àÃÔÁ»Å͹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂà¢ÒÃкº è é è à¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹·ÕÅÐ 10 % ·Ø¡ 3 Çѹ ¨¹à»¹ 100 % µÃǨÇÑ´ ¤Ò«ÕâÍ´Õ ¨¹ÁÕ¤Ò¤§·Õè«Öè§à»¹ÊÔ觺§ªÕéÇÒÃкºà¢ÒÊÙÊÀÒ¾ ÊÁ´ØÅ (Soung áÅÐ Young, 1986) 4. ầ¡Ò÷´Åͧ໹ 2 ªØ´·´Åͧ â´Â ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 1 ÁÕÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çºã¹Ãкºà·Ò¡Ñº 36 ªÑèÇâÁ§ (HRT ·Õè¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐáÅжѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ à·Ò¡Ñº 24 ªÑèÇâÁ§ áÅÐ 12 ªÑèÇâÁ§ µÒÁÅӴѺ) «Ö觻ÃѺ ÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃäËÅà·Ò¡Ñº 450 ÁÅ./¹Ò·Õ (650 ÅÔµÃ/Çѹ) áÅЪش¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 2 ÁÕÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çºã¹Ãкº à·Ò¡Ñº 72 ªÑèÇâÁ§ (HRT ·Õè¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ áÅжѧ¡Ãͧ äÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ à·Ò¡Ñº 48 ªÑèÇâÁ§ áÅÐ 24 ªÑèÇâÁ§ µÒÁ ÅӴѺ) «Ö觻ÃѺÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃäËÅà·Ò¡Ñº 225 ÁÅ./¹Ò·Õ (325 ÅÔµÃ/Çѹ) ·Ó¡ÒÃà¡çºµÑÇÍÂÒ§¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ¡͹à¢Ò ÃкºáÅÐÍÍ¡¨Ò¡Ãкº µÃǨÇÔà¤ÃÒÐˤسÀÒ¾·Ñé§Êͧ ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ à¾×ÍÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒÃŴŧ¢Í§ÊÒà è ÍÔ¹·ÃÕ ã¹ÃÙ»¢Í§¤Ò COD, SS áÅеÃǨÇÑ´¤Ò¾ÕàÍ ª ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§ ¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·Å ËÒÍѵÃÒÊǹ¡Ã´ âÇÅÒä·ÅµÍÊÀÒ¾¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§áÅÐÍسËÀÙÁÔÀÒ¹͡ áÅÐÀÒÂã¹Ãкº à¾×è͵ÃǨÊͺ»¨¨Ñ·ÕèÁռŵ͡Òà ·Ó§Ò¹¢Í§Ãкº

ÇÔ¸Õ´Óà¹Ô¹¡Ò÷´Åͧ

5. ¡Ã³Õ·Õè¤Ò¾Õàͪ¢Í§¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ¢ͧ ÃкºµèÓ¡ÇÒ 6 «Ö§à»¹ÊÀÒÇзÕ໹¡Ã´¨Ð໹ÍѹµÃÒ è è µ Í áº¤·Õ à ÃÕ Â ·Õè Ê Ã Ò §ÁÕ à ·¹ ÁÕ ¡ ôâÇÅÒä·Å ã ¹Ãкº »ÃÐÁÒ³ 8,000-10,000 Á¡./ Å. ã¹ÃÙ»¡Ã´ÍЫԵԡ «Ö觻ÃÔÁÒ³¡Ã´·ÕèÊÙ§ÃдѺ¹Õé¨Ð໹¾ÔɵÍÃкº áÅзÕè ÊÓ¤ÑÍѵÃÒÊǹ¢Í§¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹¢Í§¡Ã´ÇÒÅÒä·ÅµÍ ÊÀÒ¾´Ò§äº¤ÒúÍÃ๵ ÊÙ§¡ÇÒ 0.8 «Öè§à»¹ÊÀÒ¾·Õè Ãкº¡ÓÅѧÍÂ㹢ѹ·Õ¾àͪ¨ÐŴŧÍÂÒ§ÃÇ´àÃçÇ áÁ¨ÐÁÕ Ù é è Õ ¡ÒÃà¾ÔÁ¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·Åà¾Õ§àÅ硹Í ¨Ð·Ó¡ÒûÃѺÊÀÒ¾ è ¡Ò÷ӧҹ¢Í§Ãкº´Ç¡ÒÃàµÔÁ ÊÒûÃѺÊÀÒ¾¤×Í »Ù¹¢ÒÇ ¡ÒÃà¡çºµÑÇÍÂÒ§¹éÓáÅÐÇÔ¸¡ÒõÃǨÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË Õ 1. ¡ÒÃà¡çºµÑÇÍÂÒ§¹éÓ ¡ÒÃà¡çºµÑÇÍÂÒ§¹éÓã¹ áµÅЪش¡Ò÷´Åͧà¡çº¨Ó¹Ç¹ 15 µÑÇÍÂÒ§ ·Ó¡ÒÃà¡çº 3 ¨Ø´¤×͹éӡ͹à¢Ò¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ¹éӡ͹à¢Ò¶Ñ§¡Ãͧäà ÍÒ¡ÒÈ áÅйéÓ ·Õè Í Í¡¨Ò¡¶Ñ § ¡Ãͧ¡ÃͧäÃ Í Ò¡ÒÈ »ÃÔ Á ҵ÷Õè à ¡ç º ¤ÃÑé § ÅÐ 250 ÁÅ. áÅзӡÒõÃǨ ÇÔà¤ÃÒÐ˷ѹ·Õã¹áµÅФÃÑé§â´Â¨ÐµÃǨÇѹàǹÇѹ ËÒ¡ äÁ Ê ÒÁÒöµÃǨÇÔ à ¤ÃÒÐË ä ´ ¨ Ðà¡ç º ·Õè ÍØ ³ ËÀÙ ÁÔ 4-5 ͧÈÒà«Åà«ÕÂÊ µÑÇÍÂÒ§¹éÓ·Õà¡çº·Ñ§ 3 ¨Ø´¨Ð·Ó¡ÒõÃǨ è é ÇÑ´¤Ò«ÕâÍ´Õ »ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ ¤Ò¾Õàͪ »ÃÔÁÒ³¡Ã´ âÇÅÒä·Å ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§ áÅÐÍسËÀÙÁÔ (ÇÑ´·Ñ§ÍسËÀÙÁÔ é ÀÒÂã¹áÅÐÍسËÀÙÁÔÀÒ¹͡) 2. ÇÔ¸ÕµÃǨÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË ¡Ã³ÕÇÑ´¾Õàͪ áÅÐ ÍسËÀÙÁ¨Ð·Ó¡ÒõÃǨÇÑ´·Ñ¹·Õ ³ ʶҹ·Õà¡çºµÑÇÍÂÒ§ Ô è Êǹ¤ÒÍ×è¹æ ¹ÓÁÒÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË·ÕèËͧ»¯ÔºÑµÔ¡ÒÃÊÓËÃѺÇÔ¸Õ ¡ÒõÃǨÇÔ à ¤ÃÒÐË à » ¹ 仵ÒÁÇÔ ¸Õ ¡ ÒÃÁҵðҹ¡Òà ÇÔ à ¤ÃÒÐË ¹éÓ áÅйéÓ àÊÕ Â ã¹ APHA.AWWA.WPCF (1992) ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË¢ÍÁÙÅ·Ò§Ê¶ÔµÔ - ãªÊ¶Ôµ¾ÃóһÃÐàÀ·ÃÍÂÅÐ ¤Òà©ÅÕÂ Ô è ¤ÒàºÕè§ູÁҵðҹ à¾×èÍÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË»¨¨Ñ·ÑèÇä» - 㪠paired-t- test ·´Êͺ¤Òà©ÅÕè COD áÅÐ SS ¡Í¹¡ÒúӺѴáÅÐËÅѧ¡ÒúӺѴ´Ç Ãкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ - 㪠t-test à»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾

58

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

¡ÒúӺѴ COD áÅÐ SS ¢Í§Ãкºáºº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍСÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ㹡Ò÷´Åͧ·Ñé§ 2 ªØ´

1. ¡ÒÃàÃÔèÁµ¹¡Ò÷´Åͧ (start up) 㹡Ò÷´Åͧ¤ÃÑ駹ÕéãªàÇÅÒ start up 29 Çѹ ¨Ò¡ÃÒ§ҹ¢Í§ Roman áÅÐ Chakladar (1986) ¾ºÇÒ ¶ÒäÁÁÕ¡ÒÃàµÔÁËÑÇàª×éÍãËÃкºµÍ§ãªàÇÅÒ»ÃÐÁÒ³ 3 à´×͹¨Ö§¨Ðà¢ÒÊÙÊÁ´ØÅ 2. ¤Ø³ÅѡɳТͧ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Õèà¢ÒÊÙÃкº ºÓºÑ´ ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 1 ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂäËÅà¢ÒÃкº à©ÅÕèÂÇѹÅÐ 650 ÅԵà ÁÕ»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃÕÂÇÑ´ã¹ÃÙ» «ÕâÍ´Õ à¢ÒÃкº à©ÅÕè 0.60 ¡¡./Á3/Çѹ ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 2 ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂäËÅà¢ÒÃкº à©ÅÕèÂÇѹÅÐ 325 ÅԵà ÁÕ»ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃÕÂÇÑ´ã¹ÃÙ» «ÕâÍ´Õ à¢ÒÃкº à©ÅÕ 0.31 ¡¡./Á3/Çѹ ´Ñ§ÃÒÂÅÐàÍÕ´ è ã¹µÒÃÒ§ ·Õè 1 áÅÐ 2 ¨Ò¡¤Ø³ÅѡɳТͧ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Õèà¢ÒÃкº ¨ÐàËç¹ÇÒ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹¢Í§«ÕâÍ´ÕáÅÐÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍÂäÁ ÊÙ§¹Ñ¡ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡ªÇ§·Õè·Ó¡ÒõÃǨÇÔà¤ÃÒÐˤسÀÒ¾¹éÓ ªÐÁÙ Å ½ÍÂà» ¹ ª Ç §·Õè ÁÕ ½ ¹µ¡ã¹ºÃÔ à dz¾×é ¹ ·Õè ½ § ¡Åº ÁÙŽÍ¢ͧà·ÈºÒŹ¤Ã¹¤ÃÃÒªÊÕÁÒ·Ø¡Çѹ Êǹ¤Ò¾Õàͪ ¢Í§¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Õà¢ÒÃкºÁդҤ͹¢Ò§à»¹¡ÅÒ§ «Ö§äÁ è è µÒ§¨Ò¡¹éÓàÊÕ·ÑèÇä»·Õèà¢ÒÃкºáÅÐ໹ªÇ§·Õè¤Ò¾Õàͪ àËÁÒÐÊÁÊÓËÃѺẤ·ÕàÃÕ´Ç ¤×Í 6.6-7.8 (Gray, 1989) Êǹ¤Òà©ÅÕè¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§ ¨ÐàËç¹ÇÒµèÓ¡ÇÒ¤Ò·Õè àËÁÒÐÊÁ¢Í§Ãкº¤×Í 1,500-2,000 Á¡./Å. (ã¹ÃÙ» á¤Åà«ÕÂÁ¤ÒúÍÃ๵) (¸§ªÑÂ,2530) Êǹ¡Ã´âÇÅÒ ä·Å¢Í§¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Õèà¢ÒÃкºà»¹ªÇ§·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁ ÊÓËÃÑ º Ãкº¶Ñ § à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃ Í Í¡«Ô à ¨¹ à¾ÃÒÐ »¡µÔáÅÇÃкººÓºÑ´áººäÁãªÍÍ¡«Ôਹ¤ÇÃÁÕ»ÃÔÁÒ³ ¡Ã´ÃÐàË »ÃÐÁÒ³ 50 -500 Á¡./Å. (ÇÑ´ã¹ÃÙ»¡Ã´ ÍЫԵԡ) (¸§ªÑÂ, 2530) áµ»¨¨Ñ·ÕèÊӤѡÇÒÊÀÒ¾ ¤ÇÒÁà» ¹ ´ Ò §áÅСôÃÐàËÂ¡ç ¤× Í ÍÑ µ ÃÒÊ Ç ¹¢Í§ ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ÃÐËÇÒ§¡Ã´ÃÐàË¡ѺÊÀÒ¾¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§

¼Å¡Ò÷´Åͧ

交ÒúÍÃ๵ ¶ÒÁÕ͵ÃÒÊǹ¹Í¡ÇÒ 0.4 ¨Ñ´ÇÒ¡ÓÅѧ Ñ ºÑ¿à¿ÍÃÊÙ§ ᵶÒÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ 0.8 áÊ´§ÇÒ Ãкº¨ÐÍÂÙã¹ ¢Ñé¹·Õè ¾Õàͪ¨ÐŴŧÍÂÒ§ÃÇ´àÃçÇ ã¹¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¤ÃÑ駹Õé ¾ºÇÒÍѵÃÒÊǹ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ÃÐËÇÒ§¡Ã´ÃÐàË¡ѺÊÀÒ¾ ¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§äº¤ÒúÍÃ๵¢Í§¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Õèà¢Ò ÃкºÍÂ㹪ǧ·ÕàËÁÒÐÊÁ ¨Ò¡¤Ø³ÅѡɳТͧ¹éÓªÐÁÙÅ Ù è ½Í·Õèà¢ÒÃкººÓºÑ´¤ÃÑ駹Õé·ÓãËäÁµÍ§ÁÕ¡ÒäǺ¤ØÁ ËÃ×ÍàµÔÁÊÒÃà¤ÁÕà¾×èÍ»ÃѺÊÀÒ¾áµÍÂҧ㴠3. »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¢Í§Ãкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡Ãͧäà ÍÍ¡«Ôਹ 㹡ÒÃÅ´¤Ò«ÕâÍ´Õ ã¹ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 1 «Öè§ à»¹¤Ò HRT ·Õè¡Ó˹´äÇ㹡ÒÃÍ͡Ẻ¢Í§Ãкº ¢Ñ¹µèÓ ¤×ÍÁÕ¤Ò HRT 㹶ѧà¡ÃÍÐ 24 ªÑÇâÁ§áÅÐ ¤Ò HRT é è 㹶ѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ 12 ªÑÇâÁ§ (¾Ôªµ Ê¡ØžÃÒËÁ³, è Ô 2531) ÊÒÁÒöŴ¤Ò«Õâʹբͧ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Õà¢ÒÃкº è ¨Ò¡ 845.02 Á¡./Å. ໹ 365.72 Á¡./Å. ¤Ô´à»¹ ÃÍÂÅÐ 56.65 «Ö§àÁ×;ԨÒóһÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¢Í§¶Ñ§ÂÍ è è ã¹Ãкº¾ºÇҶѧà¡ÃÍÐÊÒÁÒöŴ¤Ò«ÕâÍ´Õ¨Ò¡ 845.02 Á¡./Å. ໹ 533.40 Á¡./Å. ¤Ô´à»¹ÃÍÂÅÐ 36.95 áÅÐ¶Ñ § ¡ÃͧäÃ Í Í¡«Ô à ¨¹ÊÒÁÒöŴ¤ Ò «Õ â Í´Õ ¨Ò¡ 533.40 Á¡./Å. ໹ 365.72 Á¡./Å. ¤Ô´à»¹ÃÍÂÅÐ 30.43 áÅСÒÃŴŧ¢Í§¤Òà©ÅÕè«ÕâÍ´Õ㹶ѧºÓºÑ´ÁÕ ¤ÇÒÁᵡµ Ò §¡Ñ ¹ ÍÂ Ò §ÁÕ ¹Ñ  ÊÓ¤Ñ ·Ò§Ê¶Ô µÔ (P value<0.001) Êǹ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¢Í§Ãкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍСÃͧẺäÃ Í Í¡«Ô à ¨¹ 㹡ÒÃÅ´«Õ â Í´Õ ã¹ªØ ´ ¡Òà ·´Åͧ·Õè 2 «Öè§à»¹¤Ò HRT ·Õè¡Ó˹´äÇ໹Êͧà·Ò ¢Í§¡Ò÷´ÅͧªØ´áá ÊÒÁÒöŴ¤Ò«Õâʹբͧ¹éÓªÐÁÙÅ ½Í·Õàè ¢ÒÃкº¨Ò¡ 874.90 Á¡./Å. ໹ 282.78 Á¡./ Å. ¤Ô´à»¹ÃÍÂÅÐ 67.66 «Ö§àÁ×;ԨÒóһÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ è è ¢Í§¶Ñ§ÂÍÂã¹Ãкº¾ºÇÒ ¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐÊÒÁÒöŴ¤Ò«ÕâÍ´Õ ¨Ò¡ 874.90 Á¡./Å. ໹ 484.72 Á¡./Å. ¤Ô´à»¹ ÃÍÂÅÐ 44.65 áÅжѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«ÔਹÊÒÁÒöŴ¤Ò «ÕâÍ´Õ ¨Ò¡ 484.72 Á¡./Å. ໹ 282.78 Á¡./Å. ¤Ô´à»¹ÃÍÂÅÐ 41.36 ´Ñ§µÒÃÒ§·Õè 3 áÅСÒÃŴŧ¢Í§ ¤Òà©ÅÕè«ÕâÍ´Õ㹶ѧºÓºÑ´ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ÍÂÒ§ÁչѠÊÓ¤Ñ·Ò§Ê¶ÔµÔ (P value<0.001) ¨Ò¡¡Ò÷´Åͧ¨Ð àËç¹ÇÒÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº·ÕµÒ§¡Ñ¹¨ÐÁռŵͻÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ è

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

59

¡ÒÃÅ´¤Ò COD ¢Í§Ãкº 4. »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¢Í§Ãкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡Ãͧ ẺäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ 㹡ÒÃÅ´¤ÒÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ 㹪ش¡Òà ·´Åͧ·Õè 1 ÊÒÁÒöŴ¤ÒÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ¢ͧ¹éÓªÐÁÙÅ ½Í·Õàè ¢ÒÃкº ¨Ò¡ 167.13 Á¡./Å. ໹ 67.74 Á¡./ Å. ¤Ô´à»¹ÃÍÂÅÐ 40.95 «Öè§àÁ×è;ԨÒóһÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ ¢Í§¶Ñ§ÂÍÂã¹Ãкº¾ºÇÒ ¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐÊÒÁÒöŴ¤ÒÊÒà á¢Ç¹ÅÍ ¨Ò¡ 167.13 Á¡./Å. ໹ 91.26 Á¡./Å. ¤Ô´à»¹ÃÍÂÅÐ 45.37 áÅжѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«ÔਹÊÒÁÒö Å´¤ÒÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ ¨Ò¡ 91.26 Á¡./Å. ໹ 53.87 Á¡./Å. ¤Ô ´ à» ¹ Ã Í ÂÅÐ 40.95 áÅСÒÃŴŧ¢Í§ ¤Òà©ÅÕèÂÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍÂ㹶ѧºÓºÑ´ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ ÍÂ Ò §ÁÕ ¹Ñ  ÊÓ¤Ñ ·Ò§Ê¶Ô µÔ (P value<0.001) Ê Ç ¹ »ÃÐÊÔ · ¸Ô À Ò¾¢Í§Ãкº¶Ñ § à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧẺäà ÍÍ¡«Ô à ¨¹ 㹡ÒÃÅ´¤ Ò ÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍÂ ã¹ªØ ´ ¡Òà ·´Åͧ·Õè 2 ÊÒÁÒöŴ¤ÒÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ¢ͧ¹éÓªÐÁÙÅ ½Í·Õàè ¢ÒÃкº ¨Ò¡ 174.53 Á¡./Å. ໹ 34.73 Á¡./Å. ¤Ô´à»¹ÃÍÂÅÐ 79.96 «Ö§àÁ×;ԨÒóһÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¢Í§ è è ¶Ñ§ÂÍÂã¹Ãкº¾ºÇÒ ¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐÊÒÁÒöŴ¤ÒÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ ÅÍ ¨Ò¡ 174.53 Á¡./Å. ໹ 78.33 Á¡./Å. ¤Ô´à»¹ÃÍÂÅÐ 55.08 áÅжѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«ÔਹÊÒÁÒö Å´¤ÒÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ ¨Ò¡ 78.33 Á¡./Å. ໹ 34.73 Á¡./Å. ¤Ô´à»¹ÃÍÂÅÐ 54.82 ´Ñ§µÒÃÒ§·Õè 4 áÅСÒà Ŵŧ¢Í§¤ Ò à©ÅÕè  ÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍÂã¹¶Ñ § ºÓºÑ ´ ÁÕ ¤ ÇÒÁ ᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ÍÂÒ§ÁÕ¹ÂÊÓ¤Ñ·Ò§Ê¶ÔµÔ (P value<0.001) Ñ ¨Ò¡¼Å¡Ò÷´Åͧ ¨ÐàËç¹ÇҶѧà¡ÃÍÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¨Ó໹ ÍÂÒ§ÂÔ§ã¹ÃкººÓºÑ´¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂẺ¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡Ãͧ è äÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹà¾ÃÒÐ໹Êǹ·Õèᡢͧá¢ç§·ÕèÁÕ¹éÓ˹ѡ ÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ¹éÓã˵¡µÐ¡Í¹Å§¡¹¶Ñ§ »ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ Ŵŧ «Ö§¨ÐªÇÂÅ´»ËÒÍØ´µÑ¹·Õ¶§¡ÃÍ§ä´ áÅÐÂѧªÇ è èÑ ÂÍÂÊÅÒÂÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃÕÂã¹¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ¡͹à¢Ò¶Ñ§¡Ãͧäà ÍÍ¡«Ô à ¨¹ »ÃÐÊÔ · ¸Ô À Ò¾·Õè ¶Ñ § à¡ÃÍзÑé § 2 ªØ ´ ¡Òà ·´Åͧ¨ÐÊÙ§¡ÇҶѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡ÁÕ HRT áÅлÃÔÁҵöѧÁÒ¡¡ÇÒáÅÐ »ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃÕµèÓ¡ÇÒ áÅÐÂÔ觺ӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Õè¶Ñ§¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«ÔਹµÍÍÕ¡ ¡çÂÔ觷ÓãË»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀҾ㹡ÒáӨѴ COD ¢Í§Ãкº

à¾ÔÁ¢Ö¹´Ç à¾ÃÒÐ໹¡ÒÃà¾ÔÁÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ㹡Òáѡà¡çº è é è ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂãˡѺÃкº «Öè§ÊÍ´¤Åͧ¡ÑºÃÒ§ҹ¢Í§ Young áÅÐ Dehab (1982) ·Õ¡ÅÒÇÇÒÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº è ¹éÓ àÊÕ Â ã¹¶Ñ § ¡ÃͧäÁ ã ª Í Í¡«Ô à ¨¹ ¨ÐÊÑ Á ¾Ñ ¹ ¸ ¡Ñ º »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒáӨѴ«ÕâÍ´Õ 5. àÁ×Íà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒÃÅ´¤Ò«ÕâÍ´Õ è 㹡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ´ÇÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡Ãͧ äÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ·Õè ·Õè HRT µÒ§¡Ñ¹ ¾ºÇҪش¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 1 ÁÕÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ¢ͧÃкº 36 ªÑèÇâÁ§ ÁÕ¤Òà©ÅÕè»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ ÃÍÂÅÐ 56.65 áÅЪش¡Òà ·´Åͧ·Õè 2 ÁÕÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ¢ͧÃкº 72 ªÑèÇâÁ§ ÁÕ¤Òà©ÅÕè»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ ÃÍÂÅÐ 67.66 «Öè§ »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒÃÅ´¤Ò«Õâʹժش¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 2 ¨ÐÁÒ¡ ¡ÇÒ ªØ´·Õè 1 ÍÂÙ ÃÍÂÅÐ 11.01 áÅÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ ÍÂÒ§ÁÕ¹ÑÂÊÓ¤Ñ·Ò§Ê¶ÔµÔ (P value<0.001) 6. àÁ×Íà»ÃÕºà·Õº»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒÃÅ´¤ÒÊÒà è á¢Ç¹ÅÍÂ㹡Ò̼ ´ ¹éÓ ªÐÁÙ Å ½Í´ Ç ÂÃкº¶Ñ § à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ·Õè ·Õè HRT µÒ§¡Ñ¹ ¾ºÇÒ ªØ´ ¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 1 ÁÕÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ¢ͧ Ãкº 36 ªÑÇâÁ§ ÁÕ¤Òà©ÅÕ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ ÃÍÂÅÐ 67.74 è è áÅЪش¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 2 ÁÕÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ ¢Í§Ãкº 72 ªÑèÇâÁ§ ÁÕ¤Òà©ÅÕè»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ ÃÍÂÅÐ 79.96 «Ö§»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒÃÅ´¤Ò«ÕâÍ´Õª´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè è Ø 2 ÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ ªØ´·Õè 1 ÍÂÙÃÍÂÅÐ 12.22 áÅÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ ᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ÍÂÒ§ÁÕ¹ÂÊÓ¤Ñ·Ò§Ê¶ÔµÔ (P value<0.001) Ñ 7. ÊÓËÃѺ»¨¨Ñ·ÕèÁÕÍÔ·¸Ô¾ÅµÍÃкººÓºÑ´¹éÓ ªÐÁÙ Å ½Í´ Ç ÂÃкº¶Ñ § à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃ Í Í¡«Ô à ¨¹·Õè ·Ó¡ÒõÃǨÇѴ㹡ÒÃÇԨѤÃÑ駹Õé ¤×Í ¤Ò¾Õàͪ ÊÀÒ¾ ¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§ ¡Ã´ âÇÅÒä·Å ÍѵÃÒÊǹ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹ ¢Í§¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·Å µ Í ÊÀÒ¾´ Ò §äº¤Òà º Í๵ áÅÐ ÍسËÀÙÁÔ ·Ø¡»¨¨ÑÂäÁÁ¼Å¡ÃзºµÍ¡Ò÷ӧҹ¢Í§Ãкº Õ ¡ÅÒǤ×ÍÁÕÊÀÒ¾·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁ¡Ñº¡Ò÷ӧҹ¢Í§Ãкº ºÓºÑ´ ¡àǹÊÀÒ¾¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§äº¤ÒúÍ๵·ÕèÁÕ »ÃÔ Á Ò³µèÓ ¡Ç Ò ·Õè ¡Ó˹´ áµ ·Ñé § ¹Õé à кºÁÕ ¤ Ò ¾Õ à ͪ ÍسËÀÙÁÔáÅСôâÇÅä·Å·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁáÅзÕèÊӤѤ×Í¤Ò ÍѵÃÒÊǹ¤ÇÒÁà¢Á¢¹¢Í§¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·ÅµÍÊÀÒ¾¤ÇÒÁ

60

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

à» ¹ ´ Ò §ÁÕ ¤ Ò ¹ Í Â¡Ç Ò 0.4 «Öè § ¶× Í Ç Ò ÃкºÁÕ ¡ÓÅÑ § ºÑ¿à¿ÍÃÊÙ§ÁÒ¡ Ãкº¨Ö§·Ó§Ò¹ä´´Õ ´Ñ§µÒÃÒ§·Õè 5-7 1. ¢ÍàʹÍá¹Ð㹡ÒùÓÃкººÓºÑ´¹éÓªÐÁÙÅ ½Í´ÇÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ä»ãª - ¤ÇÃÁÕ Ã ÐºººÓºÑ ´ ·Õè µ Í ¨Ò¡Ãкº¶Ñ § à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹà¾ÔèÁÍÕ¡ à¾×èÍãˤҫÕâÍ´ÕáÅÐ ÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍÂä´µÒÁÁҵðҹ¹éÓ·Ô§·ÕÊÒÁÒöÂÍÁÃÑºä´ é è - ¤ÇÃà¾ÔèÁÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ¡Ñ¡à¡çº¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ ã¹ÃкººÓºÑ´áºº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«ÔਹÁÒ¡¢Ö¹ é ¡Ç Ò 72ªÑè Ç âÁ§ ¾ÃÒШҡ¡Ò÷´Åͧ»ÃÐÊÔ · ¸Ô À Ò¾ ¡ÒÃÅ´¤Ò«ÕâÍ´ÕÂѧäÁ´Õà·Ò·Õè¤Çà - ¤ÇÃÁÕ¡ÒáӨѴâÅËÐ˹ѡ¡Í¹»Å͹éÓ ªÐÁÙŽÍÂà¢ÒÃкººÓºÑ´¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡âÅËÐ˹ѡËÃ×ÍÊÒþÔɨТѴ¢ÇÒ§¡Ò÷ӧҹ ¢Í§áº¤·ÕàÃÕÂã¹Ãкº·ÓãË»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡Ò÷ӧҹ ¢Í§ÃкººÓºÑ´Å´Å§

¢ÍàʹÍá¹Ð

¡ÔµµÔ¡ÃÃÁ»ÃСÒÈ

¡ÒÃÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¤ÃÑé § ¹Õé ÊÓàÃç ¨ ÅØ Å Ç §ä»´ Ç Â´Õ ´ Ç Â ¤ÇÒÁ¡ÃسҢͧÁÙŹԸԪԹ âÊÀ³¾³Ôª ·ÕèʹѺʹعà§Ô¹ ·Ø¹ÇԨѠÃÇÁ·Ñ駺ÃÔÉÑ·¡ÐÃѵÊØ¢Àѳ± ¨Ó¡Ñ´ (ÁËÒª¹) ·ÕèʹѺʹعµÑÇ¡Ãͧ㹶ѧ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹà¾×èÍ·Ó¡Òà ·´ÅͧÇԨѠáÅÐà·ÈºÒŹ¤Ã¹¤ÃÃÒªÊÕÁÒ ·Õè͹ØÒµ ã˼ǨÂä´È¡ÉÒÇÔ¨Â㹤Ãѧ¹Õé ¼Ç¨Â¢Í¢Íº¤Ø³·Ø¡·Ò¹ Ù Ô Ñ Ö Ñ é ÙÔÑ ·ÕÁÊǹà¡ÕÂǢͧáÅÐ˹ǧҹ·Õä´¡ÅÒǹÒÁÁÒ¢Ò§µ¹ è Õ è è

àÍ¡ÊÒÃÍÒ§ÍÔ§

¸§ªÑ ¾ÃóÊÇÑÊ´Ôì. 2530. à·¤â¹âÅÂÕ¹éÓáÅйéÓàÊÕÂ. ã¹ ÃÒ§ҹ»ÃСͺ¡ÒÃÊÑÁÁ¹Ò·Ò§ÇÔªÒ¡Òà ÃÐ´Ñ º ªÒµÔ à·¤â¹âÅÂÕ ¹éÓ áÅйéÓ àÊÕ Â . 12 - 13 ÁÕ¹Ò¤Á 2530. ¡ÃØ§à·¾Ï : ¨ØÌÒŧ¡Ã³ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ .

¾Ôªµ Ê¡ØžÃÒËÁ³. 2531. ¡ÒÃÊØ¢ÒÀÔºÒÅÊÔ§áÇ´ÅÍÁ. Ô è ¾ÔÁ¾¤ÃÑ駷Õè 4. ¡Ãا෾ÁËÒ¹¤Ã: ¸¹Ð¡Òà ¾ÔÁ¾ à¾çªÃ¾Ã àªÒÇ¡Ô¨à¨ÃÔ. 2538. ¡ÒäǺ¤ØÁ´ÙáÅ ÃкººÓºÑ´¹éÓàÊÕÂ. ¡ÃØ§à·¾Ï : ¤³ÐÇÔÈÇ¡ÃÃÁ ÈÒʵà ¨ØÌÒŧ¡Ã³ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑÂ. ÈÙ¹Â͹ÒÁÑÂÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ ࢵ 2. 2530. »¯Ô¡ÃÔÂÒ¡Òà ÂÍÂÊÅÒ·Õà¡Ô´¢Ö¹ã¹ªÑ¹¢ÂÐ. ªÅºØÃÕ : Èٹ è é é ͹ÒÁÑÂÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ ࢵ 2. ÊØ³Õ »Âоѹ¸Ø¾§È. 2535. »ËÒáÅÐá¹Ç·Ò§¡Òà á¡ä¢»ËÒ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃÁÙŽÍÂáÅÐÊÔ§»¯Ô¡Å è Ù ã¹ ÃÒ§ҹ¡ÒûÃЪØÁÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃÊØ¢ÒÀÔºÒÅÊÔ§ è áÇ´ÅÍÁá˧ªÒµÔ¤Ãѧ·Õè 2 àÃ×èͧ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃ é ¤Ø³ÀÒ¾ ÊÔè§áÇ´ÅÍÁ : ¹éÓ ÍÒËÒà ÍÒ¡ÒÈ áÅТͧàÊÕÂ. ¡Ãا෾. APHA. AWWA. WPCF, 1992. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. 18 th ed. New York : APHA. Inc. Gray, N. F. 1989. Biology of wastewater treatment. New York : Oxford University. Roman and Chaklader, 1986. Leachate from domestic Waste : Generation, Composition, and Treatment, Water Research Center, Technical Report TR108 Song, Ki-Ho and J. C. Young 1986. Media design factors for fixed-bed filters, J. WPCF, 58(2) :115 - 121. Young, J.C. and M.F. Dehab. 1982. Effect of media design and the performance of fixed-bed anaerobic Reactor. Water Sci tech. 15(369).

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

61

¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ (Leachte)

ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 1 (HRT 36 ªÁ.)

»ÃѺÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃäËÅ 450 ÁÅ./¹Ò·Õ

ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 2 (HRT 72 ªÁ.)

»ÃѺÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃäËÅ 225 ÁÅ./¹Ò·Õ

¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ HRT 24 ªÁ.

¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ HRT 48 ªÁ.

¶Ñ§¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ HRT 12 ªÁ.

¶Ñ§¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ HRT 24 ªÁ.

à¡çºµÑÇÍÂÒ§µÃǨÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË

à¡çºµÑÇÍÂÒ§µÃǨÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË

ÀÒ¾·Õè 1 ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ ·Õè 1 áÅЪش¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 2 ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË¢ÍÁÙÅ·Ò§Ê¶ÔµÔ - ãªÊ¶ÔµÔ¾Ãó¹Ò»ÃÐàÀ·ÃÍÂÅÐ ¤Òà©ÅÕè ¤ÒàºÕè§ູÁҵðҹ à¾×èÍÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË»¨¨Ñ·ÑèÇä»

ÀÒ¾·Õè 2 µÑÇ¡Ãͧ·Õèãªã¹¶Ñ§¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

62

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

ÀÒ¾·Õè 3 ÃкººÓºÑ´·Õèãªã¹¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂ

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1 ¤Ø³ÅѡɳТͧ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Õèà¢ÒÊÙÃкººÓºÑ´

¾ÒÃÒÁÔàµÍà «ÕâÍ´Õ(Á¡./Å.) ÊÒÃá¢Ç¹ÅÍ (Á¡./Å.) ¾Õàͪ ÊÀÒ¾¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§(Á¡./Å.ã¹ÃÙ»¢Í§á¤Åà«ÕÂÁ¤ÒúÍ๵) ¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·Å(Á¡./Å.ã¹ÃÙ»¢Í§¡Ã´ÍЫԵԡ) ¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·Å/ÊÀÒ¾¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§ ÍسËÀÙÁÔ (ͧÈÒà«Åà«ÕÂÊ) ¤Òà©ÅÕè (¤ÒàºÕè§ູÁҵðҹ)* ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 1 2 851.27(71.70) 861.93(56.93) 167.13(5.90) 174.53(13.60) 7.74(0.24) 7.65(0.32) 428.53(31.24) 414.46(27.53) 67.73(15.17) 60.40(11.23) 0.160(0.046) 0.145(0.024) 27.40(3.60) 27.86(3.22)

* ÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒà¡çºµÑÇÍÂÒ§µÃǨÇÔà¤ÃÒÐˤ×Í 5 ¾ÄÉÀÒ¤Á 2542 ¶Ö§ 12 ¡Ã¡®Ò¤Á 2543

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

63

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 2 »ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒÃÍÔ¹·ÃÕ¢ͧ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ·Õè¼Ò¹áµÅжѧáÅÐÃкººÓºÑ´

ª¹Ô´¶Ñ§

¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ¶Ñ§¡Ãͧäà ÍÍ¡«Ôਹ Ãкº¶Ñ§ à¡ÃÍÐ-¡Ãͧ äÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 1 ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 2 »ÃÔÁҵà ÍѵÃÒ ¤Ò«ÕâÍ »ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà »ÃÔÁҵà ÍѵÃÒ ¤Ò«ÕâÍ »ÃÔÁÒ³ÊÒà ¶Ñ§ (Å.) ¡Òà ¶Ñ§ (Å.) ¡ÒÃäËÅ ´Õ ´Õ ÍÔ¹·ÃÕ ÍÔ¹·ÃÕ äËÅ (Á¡./Å.) (¡¡.«ÕâÍ´Õ/ (Å./Çѹ) (Á¡./Å.) (¡¡.«ÕâÍ´Õ/ 3 (Å./Çѹ) Á /Çѹ) Á3/Çѹ) 650 650 845.02 0.85 650 325 874.90 0.43 258 650 533.40 1.34 258 325 511.38 0.64 908 650 845.02 0.60 908 325 874.90 0.31

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 3 ¤Òà©ÅÕè»ÃÔÁÒ³«ÕâÍ´Õ áÅлÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒÃÅ´¤Ò COD ã¹¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ¢ͧÃкº

¤Òà©ÅÕ»ÃÔÁÒ³«ÕâÍ´Õ áÅлÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒÃÅ´¤Ò COD ã¹¹íéÒªÐÁÙŽÍ¢ͧÃкº è ªØ´·´ Åͧ·Õè ¹íÒªÐÁÙÅ é ½ÍÂà¢Ò ¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ( S1) (Á¡./Å.) 845.02 874.90 ¹íÒªÐ é ¹íҪРé ÁÙŽÍ ÁÙŽÍÂÍÍ¡ ÍÍ¡¨Ò¡ ¨Ò¡¶Ñ§¡Ãͧäà ¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ( S2) ( S3) (Á¡./Å) (Á¡./Å.) 533.40 365.72 484.72 282.78 »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ ¡ÒúíҺѴàÁ×èÍ ¼Ò¹¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ( %) 36.95* 44.65* »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ ¡ÒúíҺѴàÁ×èÍ ¡ÒúíҺѴàÁ×èÍ ¼Ò¹¶Ñ§¡Ãͧäà ¼Ò¹Ãкº¶Ñ§ ÍÍ¡«Ôਹ à¡ÃÍÐ- ¡Ãͧäà ( %) ÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ( %) 30.43* 56.65* 41.36* 67.66*

1 2

* ŴŧÍÂÒ§ÁÕ¹ÑÂÊÓ¤Ñ·Ò§Ê¶ÔµÔ ·ÕèÃдѺ 0.05 â´Â paired t- test

64

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 4 ¤Òà©ÅÕè»ÃÔÁÒ³ SS áÅлÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒÃÅ´¤Ò SS ã¹¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ¢ͧÃкººÓºÑ´

¤Òà©ÅÕ»ÃÔÁÒ³ SS áÅлÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒÃÅ´¤Ò SS ã¹¹íÒªÐÁÙŽÍ¢ͧÃкººíҺѴ è é ªØ´ ·´Åͧ ·Õè ¹íÒªÐÁÙÅ é ½ÍÂà¢Ò¶Ñ§ à¡ÃÍÐ ( S1) (Á¡./Å.) 167.13 174.53 ¹íÒªÐÁÙÅ é ½ÍÂÍÍ¡ ¨Ò¡¶Ñ§ à¡ÃÍÐ ( S2) (Á¡./Å) 91.26 78.33 ¹íÒªÐÁÙŽÍ é ÍÍ¡¨Ò¡¶Ñ§ ¡Ãͧäà ÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ( S3) (Á¡./Å.) 53.87 34.73 »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ ¡ÒúíҺѴàÁ×Í è ¼Ò¹¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ( %) »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ ¡ÒúíҺѴàÁ×Í ¡ÒúíҺѴàÁ×Í è è ¼Ò¹¶Ñ§¡Ãͧäà ¼Ò¹Ãкº¶Ñ§ ÍÍ¡«Ôਹ à¡ÃÍÐ- ¡Ãͧäà ( %) ÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ( %) 40.95* 67.74* 54.82* 79.96*

1 2

45.37* 55.08*

* ŴŧÍÂÒ§ÁÕ¹ÑÂÊӤѷҧʶԵԷÕè ÃдѺ 0.05 â´Â paired t- test

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 5 ¤Ò¾Õàͪ ¢Í§Ãкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ- ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ¢Í§¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂ

ªØ´·´Åͧ·Õè 1 2 à¢Ò¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ( S1) 7.74 7.65 ¤Ò¾Õàͪ¢Í§¹íéÒªÐÁÙŽÍ ÍÍ¡¨Ò¡¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ( S2) ÍÍ¡¨Ò¡¶Ñ§¡Ãͧ ( S3) 7.81 7.73 7.84 7.80

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 6 ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§ ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁ໹¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·Å áÅÐÍѵÃÒÊǹ¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·ÅµÍÊÀÒ¾¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§¢Í§ ÃкººÓºÑ´¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

ªØ´¡Òà ·´Åͧ ·Õè 1 2

¤Ò¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§ ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁ໹¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·Å áÅÐÍѵÃÒÊǹ¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·ÅµÍÊÀÒ¾¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§ ¢Í§¹íéÒªÐÁÙŽÍ ¹íÒªÐÁÙŽÍÂà¢Ò¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ é ( S1) alk* 428.53 414.46 vol * 67.73 60.40 v/a* 0.160 0.145 ¹íÒªÐÁÙŽÍÂÍÍ¡¨Ò¡ é ¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ( S2) alk* vol * 423 76.33 418.07 58.26 v/a* 0.183 0.139 ¹íÒªÐÁÙŽÍÂÍÍ¡¨Ò¡¶Ñ§¡Ãͧäà é ÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ( S3) alk* 423.26 420.20 vol * 72.93 59.0 v/a* 0.174 0.139

* alk : ¤ÒÍÑŤÒäŹԵÕé (Á¡./Å.ã¹ÃÙ»á¤Åà«ÕÂÁ¤ÒúÍÃ๵) * vol : ¤Ò¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·Å (Á¡./Å.ã¹ÃÙ»¡Ã´ÍЫԵԡ) * v/a : ÍѵÃÒÊǹ¡Ã´âÇÅÒä·ÅµÍÊÀÒ¾¤ÇÒÁ໹´Ò§

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾¡ÒúӺѴ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂâ´ÂÃкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ

65

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 7 à»ÃÕºà·Õº¤Òà©ÅÕèÂÍسËÀÙÁԢͧ¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍÂã¹Ãкº¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ-¡ÃͧäÃÍÍ¡«Ôਹ ¢Í§¹éÓªÐÁÙŽÍ¡͹à¢ÒáÅÐÍÍ¡¨Ò¡Ãкº

ÍسËÀÙÁÔ ÍÒ¡ÒÈ (ͧÈÒ à«Åà«ÕÂÊ) 27.40 ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 1 ÍسËÀÙÁÔ¹íéÒã¹ ÍسËÀÙÁÔ¹íéÒã¹ ¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ¶Ñ§¡Ãͧ (ͧÈÒ (ͧÈÒ à«Åà«ÕÂÊ) à«Åà«ÕÂÊ) 31.60 31.83 ÍسËÀÙÁÔ ÍÒ¡ÒÈ (ͧÈÒ à«Åà«ÕÂÊ) 27.86 ªØ´¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õè 1 ÍسËÀÙÁÔ¹íéÒã¹ ÍسËÀÙÁÔ¹íéÒã¹ ¶Ñ§à¡ÃÍÐ ¶Ñ§¡Ãͧ (ͧÈÒ (ͧÈÒ à«Åà«ÕÂÊ) à«Åà«ÕÂÊ) 31.73 32.10

66

¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹㹷ͷÕèÁÕ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇÊÍ´ÍÂÙÀÒÂã¹

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

Convection Heat Transfer in a Circular Tube with Helical Coils Inserted

͹ØÊó ªÔ¹ÊØÇÃó (Anusorn Chinsuwan)*

¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹㹷ͷÕèÁÕ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇÊÍ´ÍÂÙÀÒÂã¹

º·¤Ñ´ÂÍ

¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂ㹤ÃÑ駹ÕéÁÕÇѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤à¾×èÍ·Õè¨ÐËÒÊÁ¡ÒäÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¢Í§¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹ÊÓËÃѺ·Í·ÕèÁÕ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇ˹ҵѴ¡ÅÁ·Õè ໹©¹Ç¹·Ò§¤ÇÒÁÃ͹ÊÍ´ÍÂÙÀÒÂã¹ â´ÂÁըӹǹ¤Ãպ໹ 4, 6 áÅÐ 8 ¤ÃÕº áÅÐÃÐÂЪǧ¤ÃÕº (pitch) ໹ 2, 3 áÅÐ 5 à·Ò¢Í§ ¢¹Ò´àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§¢Í§·Í ¡ÒÃãˤÇÒÁÃ͹·Õè¼ÔÇ·Í໹ẺÍسËÀÙÁÔ¤§·Õè ¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Ó㹪ǧ 4000 < Re < 20000 â´Â㪠ÍÒ¡ÒÈ໹µÑÇ¡ÅÒ§¤ÇÒÁÃ͹ ¼Å¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Õèä´áÊ´§ãËàËç¹ÇÒ ·Ñ駨ӹǹ¤ÃÕºáÅÐÃÐÂЪǧ¤ÃÕº (pitch) ÁÕÍÔ·¸Ô¾ÅµÍ¡ÒÃ¾Ò ¤ÇÒÁÃ͹·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ ¨Ò¡¼Å´Ñ§¡ÅÒÇä´¹ÓÁÒÊÃÒ§¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¢Í§¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹·ÕèÍÂÙã¹ÃÙ»¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¢Í§¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ· Nu (Nusselt Number) ¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢àÃÂâ¹Å´ Re (Reynolds Number) ¨Ó¹Ç¹¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇ áÅÐÍѵÃÒÊǹÃÐËÇÒ§ÃÐÂЪǧ¤ÃÕº (pitch) ¡Ñº ¢¹Ò´àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§¢Í§·Í

The purpose of this research was to develop the correlation of convection heat transfer in a circular tube with helical coils inserted. The coils had a circular cross section and were thermal insulation. The number of inserted coils was 4, 6 and 8 and the coil pitches were 2, 3 and 5 times of tube diameter. Constant wall temperature was the thermal condition at tubes surface. The experiments were conducted in the region 4000 < Re < 20000 with using atmospheric air as a heat transfer media. The experimental results show that both number of coils and coil pitch have the effects on the heat transfer coefficient. Correlation of convection heat transfer was developed in the correlation of Nusselt number (Nu), Reynolds number (Re), number of coil and the ratio of coil pitch to tube diameter.

Abstract

¤ÓÊÓ¤Ñ : ¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹ÀÒÂã¹·Í ·Í¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇ Keywords : Convection in a Tube, Tube with Helical Coil inserted

* ¼ªÇÂÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒÃÂÀÒ¤ÇÔªÒÇÔÈÇ¡ÃÃÁà¤Ã×ͧ¡Å ¤³ÐÇÔÈÇ¡ÃÃÁÈҵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ Ù è

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹㹷ͷÕèÁÕ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇÊÍ´ÍÂÙÀÒÂã¹

67

à¾ÕèÍ·Õè¨Ð·ÓãËà¤Ã×èͧáÅ¡à»ÅÕ蹤ÇÒÁÃ͹ÁÕ ¹éÓ˹ѡàºÒ ¢¹Ò´àÅç¡Å§ áÅÐÁÕÍѵÃÒÊǹ¢Í§ÍѵÃÒ¡Òà áÅ¡à»ÅÕ蹤ÇÒÁÃ͹µÍ¾×é¹áÅ¡à»ÅÕ蹤ÇÒÁÃ͹ÊÙ§ áÅÇ ·Í·Õè¹ÓÁÒãªã¹à¤Ã×èͧáÅ¡à»ÅÕ蹤ÇÒÁÃ͹¹Ñé¹ ¨ÐµÍ§ãËÊÑÁ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸Ôì¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹ (heat transfer coefficient) ÊÙ§ «Ö§¼ÅµÒÁÁÒ¡ç¤Í ¨Ð·ÓãËä´à¤Ã×ͧáÅ¡ è × è à»ÅÕ¹¤ÇÒÁÃ͹ÁÕ¹éÓ˹ѡàºÒ ¢¹Ò´àÅç¡Å§ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Ñ¹ è é áÅÇÂѧʧ¼Å·Óã˵¹·Ø¹ã¹¡ÒüÅÔµà¤Ã×èͧáÅ¡à»ÅÕè¹ ¤ÇÒÁÃ͹ŴŧÍÕ¡´Ç 㹻¨¨ØºÑ¹¹Ñé¹ä´ÁÕ¡ÒÃÇԨѡѹÍÂÒ§¡ÇÒ§¢ÇÒ§ à¾×èÍËÒ·Í·ÕèÁÕÅѡɳзÕèÊÒÁÒöãËÊÑÁ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸Ôì¡ÒÃ¾Ò ¤ÇÒÁÃ͹·ÕèÊÙ§¢Öé¹ Â¡µÑÇÍÂҧહ ·ÍÁÕÁÕ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇ ÀÒÂã¹ ·Í·ÕÁ¤ÃÕºÀÒ¹͡ ÍÂÒ§äáçµÒÁ·Í´Ñ§¡ÅÒǹѹ è Õ é ÁÕÃÒ¤Ò·ÕèÊÙ§ÁÒ¡áÅÐäÁÊÒÁÒö¼ÅÔµä´ã¹»ÃÐà·Èä·Â ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ §Ò¹ÇÔ¨ÑÂ㹤ÃÑ駹Õé¨Ö§ä´·Ó¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁ ¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ Í ¹·Õè à ¡Ô ´ ¢Öé ¹ â´ÂÇÔ ¸Õ ¡ ÒùÓÍØ » ¡Ã³ ·Õè ÁÕ ÅѡɳÐ໹¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇ·ÕÁ˹ҵѴǧ¡ÅÁáÅÐ໹©¹Ç¹ è Õ ·Ò§¤ÇÒÁÃ͹ÊÍ´à¢ÒÀÒÂ㹷ͼÔÇàÃÕº¸ÃÃÁ´Ò ·Ñ駹Õé à¾×͵ͧ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉҶ֧੾ÒмŢͧ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇ·ÕÁ¼ÅµÍ è è Õ ¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹·Õà¡Ô´¢Ö¹â´ÂäÁÁÍ·¸Ô¾Å¢Í§¡ÒöÒÂà· è é ÕÔ ¤ÇÒÁÃ͹·Õè¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇÁÒà¡ÕèÂǢͧ Kakac at al. [1990] ä´·Ó¡ÒÃÊÓÃǨà¾×èÍ ÃǺÃÇÁ§Ò¹¢Íº¢Ò§ҹÇԨ·Õàè ¡ÕÂǢͧ¡Ñº¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹ Ñ è ÀÒÂã¹· Í ·Õè ÁÕ ¤ ÃÕ º à¡ÅÕ Â ÇÍÂÙ À ÒÂã¹äÇ ´Ñ § ¹Õé A.P. Watkinson ä´·Ó¡Ò÷´Åͧà¾×èÍËÒ¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ· (Nusselt Number) Nu ¢Í§¡ÒÃäËÅÀÒÂã¹·Í·ÕèÁÕ¤ÃÕº à¡ÅÕÂÇÍÂÀÒÂã¹ (internally finned tubes) â´Â㪹éÓÁѹ Ù ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢á¾Ã¹´ÑÅ (Prandtl Number) Pr 㹪ǧ 180 < Pr < 350 ໹µÑÇ¡Åҧ㹡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹ ·Ó¡Ò÷´Åͧ㹪ǧ¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢àÃÂâ¹Å´ (Reynolds Number) Re 㹪ǧ 50 < Re < 3000 áÅСÒÃãˤÇÒÁ Ã Í ¹·Õè ¼Ô Ç à» ¹ ẺÍØ ³ ËÀÙ ÁÔ ¤ §·Õè (constant wall temperature) W.J. Marner and A.E. Bergles ä´·Ó¡Òà ·´ÅͧËÒ¤Ò Nu ¢Í§¡ÒÃäËÅÀÒÂã¹·Í·Õè¤ÃÕºµÃ§µÒÁ á¹Ç᡹·Í¨Ó¹Ç¹ 16 ¤ÃÕº â´Â·ÕèµÑÇ¡Åҧ㹡ÒþÒ

º·¹Ó

¤ÇÒÁÃ͹ áÅСÒÃäËÅÁÕ¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢á¾Ã¹´ÑÅ (Prandtl Number) Pr áÅФ Ò µÑ Ç àÅ¢àà⠹Ŵ (Reynolds Number) Re ÍÂÙ㹪ǧ 24 < Pr < 85 áÅеÒÁÅӴѺ ¡Ò÷´Åͧ·Ó·Ñé § ÊÀÒ¾¡ÒÃãË ¤ ÇÒÁÃ Í ¹áÅСÒÃãË ¤ÇÒÁàÂç¹ M.H. Soliman ä´·Ó¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË¡ÒþҤÇÒÁ Ã͹㹷Íà¡ÅÕÂÇ·ÕÁ¡ÒÃäËÅẺÅÒÁÔ¹Òà (laminar) ã¹ è Õ ªÇ§·ÕûÃÒ§¡ÒÃᨡᨧ¤ÇÒÁàÃçÇáÅÐÍسËÀÙÁ¤§µÑÇáÅÇ èÙ Ô (fully developed laminar flow) â´ÂÁÕÁØÁàÍÕ§¢Í§ à¡ÅÕÂÇ (helix angle) 㹪ǧ 1.5 í< 0 < 3 í T.C. Carnavos ä´·Ó¡Ò÷´ÅͧáÅÐà¡çº¢ÍÁÙÅà¾×ÍËÒÊÁ¡ÒÃ è ·Ó¹Ò¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ÃÐËÇÒ§¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ· (Nusselt Number) Nu ¡Ñº ¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢àÃÂâ¹Å´ (Reynolds Number) Re â´Â·ÕèµÑÇ¡Åҧ㹡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹ÁÕ¤ÒµÑÇ àÅ¢á¾Ã¹´ÑÅ (Prandtl Number) Pr 㹪ǧ 0.6 < pr < 30 áÅÐ ¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢àÃÂâ¹Å´ (Reynolds Number) Re 㹪ǧ 10000 < Re < 60000 Yampolsky ä´·Ó¡Òà ·´Åͧ¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ Í ¹ÀÒÂã¹· Í ·Õè ÁÕ ¼Ô Ç à» ¹ Å͹(corrugate) ·ÕèÁÕÁØÁàÍÕ§¢Í§Å͹໹ 30 í ¡ÒÃÇÔ ¨Ñ  㹤ÃÑé § ¹Õé ÁÕ ÇÑ µ ¶Ø » ÃÐʧ¤ à ¾×è Í ¨Ðä´ ÊÁ¡ÒäÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ÃÐËÇÒ§¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ· (Nusselt Number) Nu áÅФ Ò µÑ Ç àÅ¢àà⠹Ŵ (Reynolds Number) Re ÊÓËÃѺ·Õ·Í·ÕÁ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇ·Õ໹©¹Ç¹·Ò§ è è Õ è ¤ÇÒÁÃ͹ÊÍ´ÍÂÀÒÂã¹ â´ÂÁըӹǹ¤ÃÕº n ໹ 4, 6 Ù áÅÐ 8 ¤ÃÕº áÅÐÃÐÂЪǧ¤ÃÕº (pitch) F ໹ 2, 3 áÅÐ 5 à·Ò¢Í§¢¹Ò´àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§¢Í§·Í ¡ÒÃãË ¤ÇÒÁÃ͹·Õ¼Ç·Í໹ẺÍسËÀÙÁÔ ¡ÒÃÇԨ¨зÓ㹪ǧ è Ô Ñ 4000 < Re < 20000 áÅÐãªÍÒ¡ÒÈ໹µÑÇ¡ÅÒ§ ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËÁµÔ Ô ËÒ¡¡Ó˹´ãË h , , µ , k , u , c , d , p áÅÐ n á·¹ÊÑÁ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸Ôì¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹ (heat transfer coefficient) ¤ÇÒÁ˹Òá¹¹¢Í§¢Í§äËÅ·ÕèäËÅÀÒÂã¹ ·Í ¤ÇÒÁ˹״¢Í§¢Í§äËÅ ÊÑÁ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸Ôì¡ÒùӤÇÒÁ Ã͹¢Í§¢Í§äËÅ (thermal conductivity) ¤ÇÒÁàÃçÇ à©ÅÕè¢ͧ¢Í§äËÅ·ÕèäËÅã¹·Í ¤ÇÒÁÃ͹¨Óà¾ÒТͧ

m p

·Äɮշà¡ÕÂǢͧ Õè è

68

¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹㹷ͷÕèÁÕ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇÊÍ´ÍÂÙÀÒÂã¹

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

T -T um dc p ln s a ,i Ts - Ta , o h= 4L

¢Í§äËÅ·Õè ä ËÅã¹· Í ¢¹Ò´àÊ ¹ ¼ Ò ÈÙ ¹  ¡ ÅÒ§¢Í§· Í ÃÐÂЪǧ¤ÃÕº áÅШӹǹ¢Í§¤ÃÕº µÒÁÅӴѺáÅÇ ¾ºÇÒ h = f [ , µ , k , um , d , p , n ] (1) ¨Ò¡ÊÁ¡Ò÷Õè (1) ÊÒÁÒö¹ÓÁÒ·Ó¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËÁÔµÔáÅÇ (Webb, 1994) ¨Ðä´

p Nu = f Re, Pr, , n d

´Ñ§¹Ñé¹

(5)

ËÃ×Í

T -T um d 2 c p ln s a ,i Ts - Ta , o hd = Nu = 4kL k

(6)

(2)

àÁ×Í Nu = hd k , Pr = µ c p k áÅÐ Re = um D / µ è «Ö§µÑÇá»Ã´Ñ§¡ÅÒǶ١àÃÕ¡ÇÒ ¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ· (Nusselt è Number) Nu áÅФҵÑÇàÅ¢á¾Ã¹´ÑÅ (Prandtl Number) Pr áÅФҵÑÇàÅ¢àÃÂâ¹Å´ (Reynolds Number) µÒÁ ÅӴѺ ÍÂÒ§äáçµÒÁ 㹡ÒÃÇÔ¨Â㹤Ãѧ¹Õ¨ÐÈÖ¡ÉÒã¹¡Ã³Õ Ñ é é ·Õè¢Í§äËÅã¹·Í໹ÍÒ¡ÒÈÍÂÒ§à´ÕÂÇà·Ò¹Ñé¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ ¨Ö§ÊÒÁÒöà¢Õ¹ÊÁ¡Ò÷Õè (2) ä´à»¹

p Nu = f Re, , n d

ÍØ»¡Ã³áÅÐÇԸǨ ÕÔÑ

ÍØ»¡Ã³·Õèãªã¹¡ÒÃÇԨѤÃÑ駹ÕéÁÕ¡ÒèѴàÃÕ§ ໹´Ñ§ÃÙ»·Õè 1

Inclined Manometer

Test Tube

Valve

Mixing Chamber

Blower Flow Meter

(3)

Hot Water Circulating

¨Ò¡¼Å¢Í§¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËÁµ·ä´´§ÊÁ¡Ò÷Õè (3) ¹Õé ¨Ðʧ Ô Ô Õè Ñ ¼Å·ÓãËÊÒÁÒöÍ͡ẺÍØ»¡Ã³·Õèãªã¹¡Ò÷´Êͺ à¾×ÍËÒ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ÃÐËÇÒ§¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ· (Nusselt è Number) Nu áÅФҵÑÇàÅ¢àÃÂâ¹Å´ (Reynolds Number) Re ä´ «Ö觨СÅÒÇã¹ËÑǢ͵Í仹Õé ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¢Í§·ÄɮաѺ¡Ò÷´Åͧ àÁ×è;ԨÒóҡÒöÒÂà·¤ÇÒÁÃ͹·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ÀÒÂã¹·Í ·´Êͺ ËÒ¡¡Ó˹´ãË L, Ta ,i , Ta ,o áÅÐ Ts ໹ ¤ÇÒÁÂÒǢͧ·Í·´Êͺ ÍسËÀÙÁÔà©ÅÕè¢ͧÍÒ¡ÒÈ·Õèà¢Ò ·Í·´Êͺ ÍسËÀÙÁÔà©ÅÕè¢ͧÍÒ¡ÒÈ·ÕèÍÍ¡¨Ò¡·Í ·´Êͺ áÅÐÍسËÀÙÁÔà©ÅÕè¢ͧ¼ÔÇ·Í µÒÁÅӴѺáÅÇ

h dLTln = u m

Electric Heater

ÃÙ»·Õè 1 ¡ÒèѴàÃÕ§ÍØ»¡Ã³·Õèãªã¹¡ÒÃÇԨѠÍÒ¡ÒȨÐäËżҹ·Í·´Êͺä´â´ÂÍÒÈÑ¡Òà ·Ó§Ò¹¢Í§¾Ñ´ÅÁ (blower) ·ÕèµÔ´µÑé§ÍÂÙã¹Êǹ·Ò¢ͧ ÍØ»¡Ã³·Õè㪷´Åͧ à¾×èÍÅ´¡Òû¹»Ç¹·ÕèÍÒ¨à¡Ô´¢Öé¹ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃËÁعǹ¢Í§ãº¾Ñ´¢Í§¾Ñ´ÅÁ ·Í·´Êͺ¨Ö§ ·Ó¡ÒõԴµÑé§â´ÂµÍà¢Ò¡Ñº´Ò¹´Ù´¢Í§¾Ñ´ÅÁ ·Í»Ò¡ áµÃä´¹ÓÁÒµÔ´µÑé§äǺÃÔàdz»Ò¡·Ò§à¢Ò¢Í§·Í·´Êͺ ·Ñ駹Õéà¾×èÍËÅÕ¡àÅÕ觤ÇÒÁäÁÊÁèÓàÊÁͧ͢¤ÇÒÁàÃçǢͧ ÍÒ¡ÒÈ·ÕèºÃÔàdz»Ò¡·Ò§à¢Ò¢Í§·Í·´Êͺ ÍÒ¡ÒÈ·Õè äËżҹ·Í·´Êͺ¨ÐÁÕ¡ÒÃáÅ¡à»ÅÕ蹤ÇÒÁÃ͹¡Ñº ¼ÔǢͧ·Í·´Êͺ·Õè·Ó´Ç·ͧᴧ·ÕèáªÍÂÙã¹¹éÓ·ÕèÁÕ ÍسËÀÙÁÔ 70 íC ¨Ò¡¹Ñ鹨ÐäËÅà¢Ò¡Åͧ¼ÊÁ(mixing chamber) ÍÍ¡ÊÁÒµÃÇÑ´ÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃäËÅ ¼Ò¹ÊÇÒÅÇ»ÃѺ Ù Ù ÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃäËÅ áÅÐà¢ÒÊپѴÅÁã¹·ÕèÊØ´ ÃÒÂÅÐàÍÕ´¢Í§ áµÅÐÍØ»¡Ã³à»¹´Ñ§¹Õé

2 d c p Ta , o - Ta ,i 4

Ta ,o - Ta ,i T -T ln s a ,i Ts - Ta ,o

(4)

àÁ×Í è

Tln =

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹㹷ͷÕèÁÕ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇÊÍ´ÍÂÙÀÒÂã¹

69

·Í·´Êͺ໹·Í·Í§á´§¢¹Ò´àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§ 27.3 ÁÔÅÅÔàÁµÃ ¤ÇÒÁ˹ҵÒÁÁҵðҹ¢Í§·Í·Í§á´§ª¹Ô´ L (type L) ÂÒÇ 125 ૹµÔàÁµÃ â´ÂÁÕÊÒÂä¿¿Ò·ÕèÁÕ ©¹Ç¹ËØÁ¢¹Ò´àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§ 0.9 ÁÔÅÅÔàÁµÃ ·Ó໹ à¡ÅÕÂÇâ´Â¾Ñ¹Ãͺ¡Ñºáºº·Õè໹·Í·ÕèÁÕ¢¹Ò´àʹ¼Ò Èٹ¡ÅÒ§àÅç¡¡ÇÒ¢¹Ò´àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§ÀÒÂ㹷ͷͧ á´§ 3 ÁÔÅÅÔàÁµÃ (22 ÁÔÅÅÔàÁµÃ) áÅÇÊÍ´ÅÇ´à¡ÅÕÂÇ ÊÃÒ§¢Öé¹à¢ÒÀÒÂã¹·Í·´Êͺ ËÅѧ¨Ò¡¹Ñ鹨֧´Ö§áºº·Õè ໹·ÍÍÍ¡ ÅѡɳТͧ·Í·´Êͺ·ÕàÊÃç¨áÅÇ໹´Ñ§ÃÙ» è ·Õè 2 áÅÐ ÃÙ»·Õè 3

0.9mm Diameter Electrical Wires Cupper Tube 27.3 mm Diameter

ÊÒÁÒöËÒä´¨Ò¡¤Òà©ÅÕè¢ͧÍسËÀÙÁÔ·Õè¼ÔÇ´Ò¹¹Í¡·Í ·´Êͺ·ÕèºÃÔàdz·Ò§à¢Ò ¡Ö觡ÅÒ§ áÅзÕè·Ò§ÍÍ¡¢Í§·Í ·´Êͺ à¹×è Í §¨Ò¡ÍØ ³ ËÀÙ ÁÔ ¢ ͧÍÒ¡ÒÈ·Õè Í Í¡¨Ò¡· Í ·´Êͺ·ÕºÃÔàdzã¡Åæ¡Ñº¼ÔÇ·ÍáÅкÃÔàdz·ÕÍÂä¡Å¨Ò¡ è è Ù ¼ÔÇ·ÍÍÍ¡ÁÒµÒÁá¹ÇÃÑÈÁÕ¹¹ÁÕ¤ÒµÒ§¡Ñ¹ÁÒ¡ ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹ ¨Ö§ Ñé é ¨Óà» ¹ µ Í §ãË ÍØ ³ ËÀÙ ÁÔ ´Ñ § ¡Å Ò Çà¡Ô ´ ¡ÒüÊÁ¡Ñ ¹ ¡ Í ¹ ·Ó¡ÒÃÇÑ´ËÒ¤ÒÍسËÀÙÁà©ÅÕ 㹡ÒÃÇԨ¤Ãѧ¹Õ¨§ãª¡Åͧ Ô è Ñ é éÖ ¼ÊÁ (mixing chamber) ·Ó´ÇÂäÁÍ´Ë¹Ò 10 ÁÔÅÅÔàÁµÃ Ñ ÁÕ¢¹Ò´¤ÇÒÁ¡ÇÒ§ ÂÒÇ áÅÐÊ٧໹ 15, 30 áÅÐ 10 à«ç¹µÔàÁµÃ µÒÁÅӴѺ ÀÒ¹͡ËÁ´Ç©¹Ç¹ãÂá¡ÇË¹Ò Ø 2 ¹ÔéÇ ÁÕµÐá¡Ã§ÅÇ´¢¹Ò´¤ÇÒÁ¡ÇÒ§¢Í§ªÍ§ 10 ÁÔÅÅÔàÁµÃ µÔ´µÑ駢ÇÒ§¡ÒÃäËŢͧÍÒ¡ÒÈ·ÕèºÃÔàdzªÍ§ ·Ò§à¢Ò ºÃÔàdzá¹Ç¡Ö觡ÅÒ§¢Í§¡Åͧ áÅТÇÒ§ã¹á¹Ç ·Ð᧨ҡ¢Íºº¹¢Í§¡Å Í §´ Ò ¹·Ò§à¢ Ò ÊÙ ¾×é ¹ ´ Ò ¹ ÅÒ§ºÃÔàdz¡Ö觡ÅÒ§¢Í§¡Åͧ ´Ñ§ÃÙ»·Õè 4

T h erm o co u p le W ire M e sh

ÃÙ»·Õè 2 ÀÒ¾µÑ´µÒÁ¢ÇÒ§¢Í§·Í·´Êͺ

d

A ir In let

A ir O u tlet

p

ÃÙ»·Õè 3 ÀÒ¾µÑ´µÒÁÂÒǢͧ·Í·´Êͺ (áÊ´§¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇà¾Õ§Êͧàʹà·Ò¹Ñé¹) ¢´ÅÇ´¤ÇÒÁÃ͹俿Ң¹Ò´ 6000W ¶Ù¡ãª ໹áËŧãˤÇÒÁÃ͹᡹éÓã¹ÍÒ§¼ÅÔµ¹éÓÃ͹ ¹éÓÃ͹ ·Õè¼ÅÔµ¶Ù¡¤Çº¤ØÁãËÁÕÍسËÀÙÁÔ¤§·Õè·Õè 70 íC ´Ç¡Òà ·Ó§Ò¹¢Í§à·ÍÃâÁʵÒ÷ ¹éÓÃ͹¨ÐäËÅǹ¨Ò¡ÍÒ§¼ÅÔµ ¹éÓÃ͹ä»ÂѧÍÒ§¹éÓÃ͹·Õ᪷ͷ´ÊͺáÅÇäËÅǹ¡ÅѺ è ´Ç¡Ò÷ӧҹ¢Í§à¤Ã×èͧÊÙº¹éÓ¢¹Ò´ 1/2 hp ·Í§á´§à» ¹ ÇÑ Ê ´Ø ·Õè ÁÕ ¤ Ò ÊÑ Á »ÃÐÊÔ · ¸Ôì ¡ Òà ¹Ó¤ÇÒÁÃ Í ¹·Õè ÊÙ § áÅз Í ·Õè ã ª º Ò§ÁÒ¡ ¨Ö § ÊÒÁÒö »ÃÐÁÒ³ä´ÇÒÍسËÀÙÁ¢Í§¼ÔÇ·Í´Ò¹ã¹ÁÕ¤Òã¡Åà¤Õ§¡Ñº Ô ¼ÔÇ´Ò¹¹Í¡ÁÒ¡ ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹ ÍسËÀÙÁà©ÅÕ¢ͧ¼ÔÇ´Ò¹ã¹·Í é Ô è

ÃÙ»·Õè 4 ¡Åͧ¼ÊÁ ¡ÒÃÇÑ ´ ÍÑ µ ÃÒ¡ÒÃäËŢͧÍÒ¡ÒÈ·Õè ¼ Ò ¹· Í ·´Êͺ㹡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂ㹤ÃÑ駹Õéãªá¼¹ÍÍÃÔ¿Ê (orifice plate) ẺÇÑ´¼ÅµÒ§¤ÇÒÁ´Ñ¹·Õè D áÅÐ D/2 «Öè§ÊÃÒ§ ¢Öé ¹ µÒÁÁҵðҹ ISO 5167-1 (International Organization for Standardization, 1991) ËÅѧ¨Ò¡µÃǨ¤ÇÒÁàÃÕºÃÍ¢ͧà¤Ã×èͧÁ×Í áÅÇ ´Óà¹Ô¹¡Ò÷´ÅͧµÒÁ¢Ñ¹µÍ¹´Ñ§µÍ仹Õé à»´à¤Ã×ͧ é è ÊÙº¹éÓ »ÃѺÇÒÅǷմҹʧ¢Í§à¤Ã×ͧÊÙºáÅÐÇÒÅÇ·ÕÃкÒ è è è ¹éÓÍÍ¡¨Ò¡ÍÒ§¹éÓ·Õ·Í·´ÊͺáªÍ¨¹¡ÃÐзѧÃдѺ㹠è Ù è ÍÒ§´Ñ§¡ÅÒÇÍÂÙÊÙ§¡ÇÒ¼ÔÇ·Í»ÃÐÁÒ³ 2 ¹ÔéÇ à»´¢´ÅÇ´ ·Ó¤ÇÒÁÃ͹ â´ÂµÑé§ÍسËÀÙÁÔ·Õèà·ÍÃâÁʵѷäÇ·Õè 70 íC

70

¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹㹷ͷÕèÁÕ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇÊÍ´ÍÂÙÀÒÂã¹

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

Ãͨ¹¡ÃзÑè§ÍسËÀÙÁÔ·Õè¼ÔÇ·Í·Ø¡¨Ø´¤§·Õè «Ö觨ÐãªàÇÅÒ »ÃÐÁÒ³ 2 ªÑèÇâÁ§ à»´¾Ñ´ÅÁâ´ÂÇÒÅǤǺ¤ØÁ¡ÒÃäËÅ ¢Í§ÍÒ¡ÒÈÍ·µÓá˹§à»´ÊØ´ áÅÇ»ÃѺãËä´ÍµÃÒ¡Òà ٠Õè Ñ äËŵÒÁµÍ§¡Òà Ãͨ¹¡ÃзÑè§ÍسËÀÙÁԢͧ¼ÔÇ·Í áÅÐ ÍسËÀÙÁÔ·Õè¡Åͧ¼ÊÁÁÕ¤Ò¤§·Õè ºÑ¹·Ö¡¼ÅµÒ§¤ÇÒÁ´Ñ¹·Õè ¤Å Í Áá¼ ¹ ÍÍÃÔ ¿ Ê ¼Åµ Ò §¤ÇÒÁ´Ñ ¹ ·Õè · Í ·´Êͺ ÍسËÀÙÁԢͧ¼ÔÇ·Í ÍسËÀÙÁÔ·Õè¡Åͧ¼ÊÁ áÅÐÍسËÀÙÁÔ·Õè ·Ò§à¢Ò·Í·´Êͺ Å´ÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃäËŢͧÍÒ¡ÒÈ·Õèà¢Ò·Í ·´Êͺŧâ´Â¡ÒûÃѺÇÒÅǤǺ¤ØÁ¡ÒÃäËŢͧÍÒ¡ÒÈ µÒÁ·ÕµÍ§¡Òà Ãͨ¹¡ÃзѧÍسËÀÙÁ·¡¨Ø´ÁÕ¤Ò¤§·Õè áÅÇ è è Ô Ø ·Ó¡Òúѹ·Ö¡¼Å·Õè¤ÒÍѵÃÒ¡ÒÃäËÅµÒ§æ ·ÕèµÍ§¡Òà ¡ÒÃÇԨѹÑé¹ä´·Ó¡Ò÷´Åͧà¾×èÍËÒ¢ÍÁÙŢͧ ¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹ÀÒÂã¹·Í·Ñ駷ÍàÃÕºáÅзͷÕèÁÕ¤ÃÕº à¡ÅÕÂÇÊÍ´ÍÂÙÀÒÂã¹ ¼Å¢Í§¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹¢Í§·ÍàÃÕº·Õèä´¨Ò¡ ¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÂàÁ×Íà·Õº¡ÑºÊÁ¡Ò÷ӹÒ¼ŤҵÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ· Ñ è (Nusselt Number) Nu ¢Í§ Colburn (Ozisik, 1985) «Öè§ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸à»¹ (7) Nu = 0.023Re0.8 Pr1/ 3 ໹´Ñ§ÃÙ»·Õè 5 ¨Ò¡¢ÍÁÙÅ·Õèä´¾ºÇÒ ¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ· ÁÕ¤Ò¤ÇÒÁ¤ÅÒ´à¤Å×è͹ÊÙ§ÊØ´áÅÐà©ÅÕèÂ໹ -16.3% áÅÐ 17% µÒÁÅӴѺ ¼Å¢Í§¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ Í ¹ÀÒÂã¹· Í ·Õè ÁÕ ¤ ÃÕ º à¡ÅÕÂÇÊÍ´ÍÂÙÀÒÂã¹·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÂÒǢͧÃÐÂЪǧ¤ÃÕº (pitch) p ໹ 2, 3 áÅÐ 5 à·Ò¢Í§¢¹Ò´àʹ¼ÒÈٹ Áըӹǹ¢Í§¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇ n ໹ 4, 6 áÅÐ 8 àʹ â´ÂÁÕ ¡ÒÃÃÑ ¡ ÉÒÍØ ³ ËÀÙ ÁÔ ·Õè ¼Ô Ç · Í ãË ¤ §·Õè á ÅÐãª Í Ò¡ÒÈà» ¹ µÑÇ¡Åҧ㹡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹ ໹仴ѧÃÙ»·Õè 5 ¶Ö§ÃÙ»·Õè 7 â´Â·Õè µÑ Ç àÅ¢µÒÁËÅÑ § N áÅÐ P ¢Í§¤ÓÍ¸Ô º Ò ÊÑÅѡɳ㹡ÃÒ¿áÊ´§¼Å ໹µÑÇàÅ¢Ãкبӹǹ¤ÃÕº à¡ÅÕÂÇã¹·Í áÅÐÃÐÂЪǧ¢Í§à¡ÅÕÂǵÒÁÅӴѺ હ N4P2D ËÁÒ¶֧ ÀÒÂã¹·ÍÁÕ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂǨӹǹ 4 àʹ áÅÐÁÕ Ã ÐÂЪ Ç §à¡ÅÕ Â Çà» ¹ 2 à· Ò ¢Í§¢¹Ò´àÊ ¹ ¼ Ò Èٹ¡ÅÒ§ ËÒ¡¹Ó¼Å·Õèä´¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂä»à»ÃÕºà·Õº

¼Å¡ÒÃÇԨ Ñ

¼Å·Õèä´¨Ò¡ÊÁ¡Ò÷Õè (7) áÅÇ ¨Ð໹仴ѧÃÙ»·Õè 6 «Öè§ áÊ´§ãËàËç¹ÇÒ ·Í·ÕÁ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇÊÍ´ÍÂÀÒÂ㹨ÐãË¤Ò è Õ Ù µÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ· (Nusselt Number) Nu ·Õʧ¡ÇÒ·ÍàÃÕº èÙ àÊÁÍÊÓËÃѺ¡ÒÃäËÅ㹪ǧ 4000 < Re < 20000 â´Â ·Ñé§ÃÐÂЪǧ¤ÃÕº (pitch) p áÅШӹǹ¤ÃÕº n ¹Ñé¹ÁÕ ÍÔ·¸Ô¡Ñº¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹â´Â¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹ ¨ÐÁÕá¹Çâ¹Áà¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹àÁ×èÍÃÐÂЪǧ¤ÃÕº (pitch) p áÅÐ ¨Ó¹Ç¹¤ÃÕº n ¹ÍÂæ àÁ×ÍËÒ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ÃÐËÇÒ§¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ· è (Nusselt Number) Nu ¡Ñ º ¤ Ò µÑ Ç àÅ¢àà⠹Ŵ (Reynolds Number) Re ·Õä´¨Ò¡¡Ò÷´ÅͧáÅÇ ¾ºÇÒ è ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸´Ñ§¡ÅÒÇ à»¹ä»µÒÁÊÁ¡ÒôѧµÍ仹Õé

Nu = 0.00314 Re1.074

(8)

¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸´§ÊÁ¡Ò÷Õè (8) àÁ×͹ÓÁÒà»ÃÕºà·Õº¡Ñº Ñ è ¼Å¡Ò÷´ÅͧáÅÇ ¨Ð໹´Ñ§ÃÙ»·Õè 7 «Öè§áÊ´§ãËàËç¹ÇÒ ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¹Á¤ÇÒÁÊÍ´¤Åͧ¡Ñº¼Å¡Ò÷´Åͧ¤Í¹ Õé Õ ¢Ò§´Õ ÍÂÒ§äáçµÒÁ ËÒ¡¤Ó¹Ö§¶Ö§ÍÔ·¸Ô¾Å¢Í§¨Ó¹Ç¹¤ÃÕº à¡ÅÕÂÇ áÅÐÍѵÃÒÊǹ¢Í§ÃÐÂТͧªÇ§¤ÃÕº(pitch) µÍ ¢¹Ò´àʹ¼ÒÈٹ¡ÅÒ§¢Í§·Í p/d ·ÕèÁռŵͤҵÑÇàÅ¢ ¹ÑÊàÊÅ· (Nusselt Number) Nu áÅÇ ¨Ðä´¤ÇÒÁ ÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ ´Ñ§µÍ仹Õé

Nu = 0.0071Re1.071 n -0.285 ( p / d ) -0.254

(9)

àÁ×è͹ӤÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸´Ñ§ÊÁ¡Ò÷Õè (9) ¹Õéä»à»ÃÕºà·Õº ¡Ñº¼Å·Õèä´¨Ò¡¡Ò÷´Åͧ ´Ñ§ÃÙ»·Õè 8 ¾ºÇÒ ¤ÇÒÁ ÊÑ Á ¾Ñ ¹ ¸ ¹Õé ÁÕ ¤ ÇÒÁÊÍ´¤Å Í §¡Ñ º ¼Å·Õè ä ´ ¨ Ò¡¡Òà ·´ÅͧÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸µÒÁÊÁ¡Ò÷Õè (8)

㹡ÒÃÇԨѤÃÑ駹Õé ¾ºÇÒ ·Ñ駨ӹǹ¤ÃÕºáÅÐ ÃÐÂЪǧ¤ÃÕº (pitch) p ¢Í§¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇ·Õè໹©¹Ç¹·Õè ÊÍ´à¢Òã¹·ÍàÃÕº¹Ñ¹Áռŵ͡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹·Õà¡Ô´¢Ö¹ é è é ÀÒÂã¹· Í â´ÂÁÕ ¤ ÇÒÁÊÑ Á ¾Ñ ¹ ¸ ¢ ͧ¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ Í ¹ ໹仵ÒÁÊÁ¡Ò÷Õè (9) «Ö§à»¹¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸·ÊÒÁÒö è Õè ¹Óä»»ÃÐÂØ ¡ µ ã ª ¡Ñ º µÑ Ç ¡ÅÒ§¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ Í ¹·Õè à » ¹

ÊÃØ»áÅÐÇÔ¨Òó¼Å

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹㹷ͷÕèÁÕ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇÊÍ´ÍÂÙÀÒÂã¹

71

ÍÒ¡ÒÈ·Õè¡ÒÃäËÅÍÂÙ㹪ǧ â´ÂÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¤ÅÒ´à¤Å×è͹ÊÙ§ ÊØ´áÅÐà©ÅÕèÂ໹ -16.3% áÅÐ 17% µÒÁÅӴѺ ¼Å¢Í§¡ÒÃÇԨѹÕé ÊÒÁÒö¹Óä»»ÃÐÂØ¡µãªã¹ ¡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁ¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹ÀÒÂã¹·ÍàÃÕºä´â´Âà¾Õ§ ÊÍ´¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇ·Õ໹©¹Ç¹à¢Òä»ã¹·Í «Ö§¤ÃÕº´Ñ§¡ÅÒÇ è è ÍÒ¨¨Ð·ÓÁÒ¨Ò¡ÇÑÊ´Ø·ËÒä´·Çä»·ÕÊÒÁÒö·¹¤ÇÒÁÃ͹ Õè Ñè è ä´ ÍÂҧહ ÇÑÊ´Ø·Õè໹à¤Ã×èͧ»¹´Ô¹à¼Ò ໹µ¹ ͹Öè§ ¡ÒÃÊÍ´¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇà¢Òä»ã¹·ÍàÃÕº¹Õé ¨Ð·ÓãËà¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁ´Ñ¹Å´à¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ ã¹¡ÒùӡÒà ʧàÊÃÔÁ¾Ò¤ÇÒÁÃ͹ÇÔ¸Õ¹Õéä»ãª ¨Ö§µÍ§ÁÕ¡ÒÃà¼×èÍ¡ÓÅѧ ¢Í§¾Ñ´ÅÁÊÓËÃѺ¤ÇÒÁ´Ñ¹Å´·Õèà¾ÔèÁã¹Êǹ¹Õé´ÇÂ

«Ö§ä´Ãº·Ø¹ÇԨ »ÃÐàÀ·Íش˹ع·ÑÇä» ¨Ò¡ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ è Ñ Ñ è ¢Í¹á¡¹ »ÃШӻ§º»ÃÐÁÒ³ 2543 ¼Ùà¢Õ¹¨Ö§¢Í¢Íº ¾ÃФسÁÒ ³ ·Õè¹Õé´ÇÂ

àÍ¡ÊÒÃÍÒ§ÍÔ§

¡ÔµµÔ¡ÃÃÁ»ÃСÒÈ

§Ò¹ÇÔ¨ÑÂ㹤ÃÑ駹Õé໹Êǹ˹Ö觢ͧ â¤Ã§¡Òà ÇԨ¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹ÀÒÂã¹·Í·ÕÁ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇÍÂÀÒÂã¹ Ñ è Õ Ù

100

Kakac, S., Shah R.K., and Aung W.. 1990. Hand Book of Single-Phase Heat Transfer. New York: John Wiley & Sons. International Organization for Standardization. 1991. Measurement of Fluid Flow by Means of Pressure differential devices, Part 1. Ozisik, M.N.. 1985. Heat Transfer. McGraw-Hill Webb, R.L., 1994. Principles of Enhanced Heat Transfer. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Nusselt Number, Nu

10

Plain Test Tube Colburn

1 1000

10000 Reynolds Number, Re

100000

ÃÙ»·Õè 5 ¡ÒÃà»ÃÕºà·Õº¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ÃÐËÇÒ§¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ· (Nusselt Number) Nu áÅФҵÑÇàÅ¢àÃÂâ¹Å´ (Reynolds Number) Re ·Õèä´¨Ò¡¡Ò÷´Åͧ¡Ñº¤Ò·Õèä´ ¨Ò¡ÊÁ¡Òâͧ Colburn

72

¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹㹷ͷÕèÁÕ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇÊÍ´ÍÂÙÀÒÂã¹

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

1000 N4P2D N4P3D N4P5D N6P2D N6P3D N6P5D N8P2D N8P3D N8P5D Colburn

Nuselt Number,Nu

100

10 1000

10000 Reynolds Number, Re

100000

ÃÙ»·Õè 6 ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ÃÐËÇÒ§¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ· (Nusselt Number) Nu áÅÐ

¤ÒµÑÇàÅ¢àÃÂâ¹Å´ (Reynolds Number) Re ·Õèä´¨Ò¡¡Ò÷´Åͧ

1000 N4P2D N4P3D N4P5D N6P2D N6P3D N6P5D N8P2D N8P3D N8P5D

Nuselt Number,Nu

N u = 0 .0 0 31 4 R e 1. 074

100

10 1000

10000 Reynolds Number, Re

100000

ÃÙ»·Õè 7 ¡ÒÃà»ÃÕºà·Õº¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ÃÐËÇÒ§¢ÍÁÙÅ·Õèä´¨Ò¡¡Ò÷´ÅͧáÅÐ ÊÁ¡Ò÷ӹÒ¤ҵÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ·(Nusselt Number) Nu ·Õèä´

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒþҤÇÒÁÃ͹㹷ͷÕèÁÕ¤ÃÕºà¡ÅÕÂÇÊÍ´ÍÂÙÀÒÂã¹

73

1000 N4P2D N4P3D N4P5D N6P2D N6P3D N6P5D N8P2D N8P3D N8P5D

n

-0 .285

Nu = 0.0 07 1 R e 1.0 71 p -0.2 54

Nu/n -0.285 p -0.253

100

10 1000

10000 Reynolds Number, Re

100000

ÃÙ»·Õè 8 ¡ÒÃà»ÃÕºà·Õºàʹ⤧¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¢Í§µÑÇàÅ¢¹ÑÊàÊÅ· (Nusselt Number) Nu ¡Ñº¢ÍÁÙÅ·Õèä´¨Ò¡¡Ò÷´Åͧâ´Â·Õè P = (p/d)

74

¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ã٨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

An Evaluation of Educational Reform in Khon Kaen Province.

à¾ç³Õ á¹ÃÍ·(Pennee Narat)* ¶¹ÍÁÇÃó »ÃÐàÊÃÔ°à¨ÃÔÊØ¢(Thanomwan Prasertcharoensuk)** ÊØÀÒÊÔ¹Õ ÊØÀ¸ÕÃÐ(Supasinee Supabhira) ** ·ÑȹÕ ºØàµÔÁ(Tassanee Bunterm)** ¨ØÁ¾Å ÃÒªÇÔ¨ÔµÃ(Jumpol Ratwijit)** ÍÃÔ¾à ¤ØâôÐ(Ariyaporn Kuroda)***

¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ã٨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

§Ò¹ÇԨѹÕéÁÕÇѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤ã¹¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ à¾×èÍ»ÃÐàÁÔ¹¤ÇÒÁÊÓàÃ稢ͧ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ µÒÁ ¾ÃÐÃÒªºÑѵԡÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ ¾.È.2542 â´ÂÈÖ¡ÉÒ¶Ö§ÊÀÒ¾¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§¢Í§¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙÀÒÂãµ»¨¨Ñµҧæ ÅѡɳР¢Í§¤ÇÒÁÊÓàÃç¨áÅСÒèѴ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅСÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§·ÕèÊÍ´¤Åͧ¡Ñº¾ÃÐÃÒªºÑѵԡÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ ¾.È. 2542 ໹¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒÃÒ¡óը§ËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹ à¡çºÃǺÃÇÁ¢ÍÁÙÅâ´Â¡ÒÃÊÁ¡ÅÁµÑÇÍÂÒ§ÍÂÒ§§Ò ¨Ò¡âçàÃÕ¹¨Ó¹Ç¹ 16 âçàÃÕ¹ à¤Ã×ͧÁ×Í Ñ Ø Ø è ·Õè㪻ÃСͺ´Ç ẺÊͺ¶ÒÁ»ÅÒÂà»´ ͹طԹ «Ö觺ѹ·Ö¡â´Â¼ÙÊ͹㹪ǧÃÐÂÐàÇÅÒ 3 à´×͹ áÅСÃͺ¤Ó¶ÒÁ»ÃСͺ¡ÒûÃЪØÁ ¡ÅØÁÂÍ ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË¢ÍÁÙŠ㪡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËàªÔ§à¹×éÍËÒ (Content Analysis) ¼Å¡ÒÃÇԨѾºÇÒ ÊÀÒ¾¤ÇÒÁà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§·ÕèᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ ¢Öé¹ÍÂ١ѺÊѧ¡Ñ´¢Í§âçàÃÕ¹ ¢¹Ò´¢Í§âçàÃÕ¹áÅÐÍÒÂآͧºØ¤ÅÒ¡Ã «Öè§Ê§¼ÅãËàËç¹ÅѡɳСÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§·ÕèᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ âçàÃÕ¹ ÁÕ¡ÒûÃѺà»ÅÕ蹡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙÍÂÒ§·ÑèǶ֧ ¼ÅÅѾ¸¨Ò¡¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙʧ¼ÅÊÓàÃ稶֧¼ÙàÃÕ¹»ÃÐÁÒ³ ÃÍÂÅÐ 20 ¤ÃÙ»ÃÐÁÒ³ ÃÍÂÅÐ 60 ÍÂÒ§äáçµÒÁÅѡɳСÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§â´ÂÃÇÁ໹ä»ã¹·Ò§ºÇ¡·Ñ駢ͧ¼ÙàÃÕ¹ ¼Ù»¡¤Ãͧ ¤ÃÙ áÅмٺÃÔËÒÃ

º·¤Ñ´ÂÍ

The objectives of this research were to evaluate the success of learning and teaching reform according to the 1999 Education Act . The evaluation emphasized on changing of situation in learning and teaching, administration and personnel development under various factors , including kind of success which corresponding to the 1999 Education Act. This is a case study of Khon Kaen province. The data were collected from 16 schools which were randomly selected. The research tools included a set of questionnaire, three-page diary which was kept by teachers during the three-month period and a frame of questions for focus group discussion .The data were analyzed by content analysis. It was found that the changing situations varied according to jurisdiction institutes, sizes of school and ages of teachers. The succeed rates of educational reform were about 20% for students and 60% for teachers. The overall changes involving students, teachers, administrators, parents and were in positive directions.

Abstract

¤ÓÊÓ¤Ñ : ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹ ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ Keywords : Evaluation, Educationnal Reform

ÃͧÈÒʵÃÒ¨Òà, ¤³ÐÈÖ¡ÉÒÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ ¼ÙªÇÂÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒÃÂ, ¤³ÐÈÖ¡ÉÒÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹ *** ÍÒ¨ÒÃÂ, ¤³ÐÈÖ¡ÉÒÈÒʵà ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¢͹᡹

* **

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»àÃÕ¹Ã٨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

75

¹Ñ º áµ ¡ ÒûÃСÒÈ㪠¾ ÃÐÃÒªºÑ Ñ µÔ ¡ Òà ÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ ¾.È. 2542 àÁ×èÍà´×͹ÊÔ§ËÒ¤Á 2542 ·ÓãËà¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁà¤Å×è͹äËÇã¹àÃ×èͧ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ ÍÂ Ò §¡Ç Ò §¢ÇÒ§ã¹Ê¶Ò¹ÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ·Ø ¡ ÊÑ § ¡Ñ ´ ·Ñè Ç »ÃÐà·È ¡Òû¯Ôû¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÁ¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¡º»¨¨Ñµҧæ ÁÒ¡ Ù Ù Õ Ñ ÁÒ ·Ñ駻¨¨ÑÂÀÒÂã¹áÅÐÀÒ¹͡¢Í§Ê¶Ò¹ÈÖ¡ÉÒ àª¹ ºØ¤ÅÒ¡Ã ËÅÑ¡Êٵà ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ áËŧàÃÕ¹ÃÙ ¡Òà ÇÑ´áÅлÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å ·ÃѾÂÒ¡Ã ¡ÒúÃÔËÒèѴ¡Òà ÊÀÒ¾ áÇ´Å Í Á áÅкÃÔ º ·¢Í§Ê¶Ò¹ÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ «Öè § ·ÓãË ¡ Òà »¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙã¹áµÅо×é¹·Õèã˼ŷÕèᵡµÒ§¡Ñ¹ ¢Í¤¹¾ºã¹Í´Õµ¨Ò¡ÃÒ§ҹ¡ÒÃÇԨ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡ÒÃ Ñ àÃÕ¹Ã٠໹§Ò¹ÇԨѷÕèÊӹѡ§Ò¹¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒáÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ á˧ªÒµÔ (2545) ´Óà¹Ô¹¡ÒõÍà¹×èͧ¨Ò¡¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹ ¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ¤ÃÑé§áá㹠¾.È. 2543 «Öè§à»¹ ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¤ÇÒÁÃÙ¤ÇÒÁà¢Òã¨áÅоĵԡÃÃÁ¡ÒÃÊ͹ ¢Í§¤ÃÙµÒÁá¹Ç¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ·Õè๹¼ÙàÃÕ¹໹ ÊÓ¤Ñ ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¤ÃÑ駷ÕèÊͧ¹Õé໹¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¡Òà ´Óà¹Ô¹§Ò¹¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙã¹Êǹ·Õè໹¡ÒÃŧÁ×Í »¯ÔºÑµÔ¨ÃÔ§ áÅÐã¹Êǹ¢Í§¼Å·Õè¼ÙàÃÕ¹ä´ÃѺ¨Ò¡¡Òà »¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ã٠໹¡ÒûÃÐàÁԹ㹪ǧ» ¾.È. 2544 ËÃ×ͪǧ 2 » ËÅѧ¨Ò¡àÃÔèÁÁÕ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ ã¹ÃдѺʶҹÈÖ¡ÉҼšÒûÃÐàÁԹ㹴ҹ ¤Ø³ÀÒ¾¡Òû¯Ôû¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ ¾ºÇÒ Ê¶Ò¹ÈÖ¡ÉÒ´Óà¹Ô¹ Ù ¡ÒÃä´ ¼ ÅÊÙ § ¡Ç Ò Ã Í ÂÅÐ 70 ã¹´ Ò ¹¡ÒÃÊÃ Ò §¤ÇÒÁ µÃÐ˹ѡ¶Ö§¤ÇÒÁÊӤѢͧ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ ¡Òà ¾Ñ²¹ÒºØ¤Åҡôҹ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ ¡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁ ¡ÒèѴ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹÷๹¼àÃÕ¹໹ÊÓ¤Ñ ¤ÇÒÁ Ù Õè Ù ¾Ã Í Á¢Í§Ê¶Ò¹ÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ㹡Òû¯Ô ÃÙ » ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ ¡Òà ºÃÔ Ë ÒÃâ´Â㪠â çàÃÕ Â ¹à» ¹ °Ò¹ áÅСÒÃÇÔ ¨Ñ  à¾×è Í ¾Ñ²¹Ò¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ áµÊ¶Ò¹ÈÖ¡ÉÒÂѧ´Óà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃ䴼ŹÍ ¡ÇÒÃÍÂÅÐ 70 ã¹´Ò¹¡ÒÃʹѺʹع·ÃѾÂÒ¡Ãà¾×èÍ »¯Ôû¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Åá¹ÇãËÁáÅСÒÃÁÕÊǹ Ù ÃÇÁ㹡ÒþѲ¹ÒªØÁª¹

º·¹Ó

ã¹ÃдѺ¤ÃÙÍÒ¨Òà¼Å¡ÒûÃÐàÁԹ㹴ҹ ¤Ø³ÀÒ¾¡Òû¯Ôû¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ ¾ºÇÒ ¤ÃÙÍÒ¨ÒôÓà¹Ô¹ Ù ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙä´¼ÅÊÙ§¡ÇÒÃÍÂÅÐ 70 ã¹´Ò¹ ¤ÇÒÁ¾ÃÍÁ㹡ÒþѲ¹Òµ¹àͧ¢Í§¤ÃÙÍÒ¨Òà¡Òà ´Óà¹Ô¹¡ÒèѴ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙµÒÁá¹Ç¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ» ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ áÅСÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Åá¹ÇãËÁ ÊÓËÃѺ´Ò¹¡Òà ÇÔ ¨Ñ  à¾×è Í ¾Ñ ² ¹Ò¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ ¤ÃÙ Í Ò¨ÒàÂÑ § ´Óà¹Ô ¹ ¡Òà 䴼ŹÍ¡ÇÒÃÍÂÅÐ 70 ã¹ÃдѺ¹Ñ¡àÃÕ¹¼Å¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹´Ò¹¤Ø³ÀÒ¾ ¡Òû¯Ôû¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ ¾ºÇҹѡàÃÕ¹»ÃÐàÁÔ¹µ¹àͧÇÒ Ù ä´¼ÅÊÙ§¡ÇÒÃÍÂÅÐ 70 ·Ø¡´Ò¹ ·Ñ駴ҹ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹ ¼Åá¹ÇãËÁ ¤ÇÒÁ¾ÃÍÁ¢Í§·ÃѾÂÒ¡Ã ¤ÇÒÁ¾ÃÍÁ¢Í§ ʶҹÈÖ¡ÉÒ ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅмšÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ ¨Ò¡¢ÍÊÃØ»¢Í§â¤Ã§¡ÒÃã¹»ÃÐà·Èä·ÂÈÖ¡ÉÒ ÀÒÂãµà§×è͹ä¢áÅл¨¨Ñ¢ͧ¤ÇÒÁÊÓàÃç¨ ä´á¡ Êѧ¡Ñ´ ¢¹Ò´ ºØ¤ÅÒ¡Ã ¤ÇÒÁ¾ÃÍÁ ¹Ñ¡àÃÕ¹ áÅСÒÃʹѺʹع ´Ò¹·ÃѾÂÒ¡Ã ÁÕ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ «Ö§ è ä´á¡ ¡ÒèѴ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹ ¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃẺ âçàÃÕ Â ¹à» ¹ °Ò¹ ÅѡɳСÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å ÅѡɳР¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÂàªÔ§»¯Ôºµ¡Òà ¡ÒÃÊÃÒ§¤ÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×͡ѺªØÁª¹áÅÐ Ñ Ñ Ô ¡ÒþѲ¹ÒºØ¤ÅÒ¡Ã ä´¢ÍÊÃØ»ÇÒ »¨¨ÑÂàËÅÒ¹Õʧ¼Å¶Ö§ é ÃÐ´Ñ º ¤ÇÒÁÊÓàÃç ¨ áÅÐÅÑ ¡ ɳСÒÃà»ÅÕè  ¹á»Å§¡Òà »¯Ôû¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ Ù ÊÓËÃѺ㹵ҧ»ÃÐà·È ¹§Åѡɳ ÇÔÃѪªÑ 䴷º·Ç¹ÇÃó¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹âçàÃÕ¹¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ» ·Ñ§âçàÃÕ¹ã¹â¤Ã§¡Òà Comprehensive School Reform é Demonstration (CSRD) Program«Öè§ÁÕÃٻẺ¡Òà »ÃÐàÁÔ ¹ ·Õè Northwest Regional Educational Laboratories (2000) ÊÃØ»äÇÃÇÁ 34 ÃٻẺ ¡Òà »ÃÐàÁÔ¹âçàÃÕ¹»¯ÔÃÙ»·Õè໹¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹ÀÒ¹͡¢Í§ Datnow (2000) Malico (2000) Bodily (2001) áÅÐ ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹âçàÃÕ¹»¯Ôû·Õ໹¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹ÀÒÂ㹢ͧ Ù è Kansas City Kansas Public School (¹§Åѡɳ ÇÔêªÑÂ, Ñ 2545) «Öè§ÁÕ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹µÔ´µÒÁ¼ÅÍÂÒ§µÍà¹×èͧ áÁÇÒ â¤Ã§¡ÒÃâçàÃÕ¹»¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙà¾×è;Ѳ¹Ò¤Ø³ÀÒ¾ ¼ÙàÃÕ¹àËÅÒ¹Õé ¨Ðä´ãªá¹Ç·Ò§¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¡ÒÃÊÃÒ§µÑÇ

76

¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ã٨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

º§ªÕéáÅÐࡳ±¡ÒûÃÐàÁԹ໹ÊǹãË áµ§Ò¹ÇÔ¨Âã¹ Ñ »ÃÐà·Èä·ÂäÁä´¹ÓµÑǺ§ªÕ¢Í§µÒ§»ÃÐà·ÈÁÒ㪠¤³Ð é ¼ÙàªÕèÂǪÒâ¤Ã§¡ÒêÒÇä·Â໹¼Ù¾Ñ²¹ÒµÑǺ§ªÕéÊÓËÃѺ ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹áÅÐÁÕ¡ÒÃÊÃÒ§à¤Ã×ͧÁ×Í·ÕÁ¤ÇÒÁàËÁÒÐÊÁ è è Õ ¡ÑººÃÔº·áÅÐÇÔ¶ÕÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁä·Â¢Öé¹ãªà»¹ÊǹãË à¾×Í໹¡ÒõԴµÒÁ»ÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃ è »¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒµÍà¹×èͧ¨Ò¡§Ò¹ÇԨѷÕè¼Ò¹ÁÒ à¾×èÍãË ä´·ÃÒº¶Ö§¤ÇÒÁÊÓàÃç¨áÅÐÅѡɳСÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ÇÒ ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ໹仵ÒÁਵ¹ÒÃÁ¢ͧ¾ÃÐÃÒª ºÑѵ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ ¾.È.2542 à¾Õ§㴠à¾×ͼŷÕè Ô è ä´¨Ð໹»ÃÐ⪹㹡ÒèѴÇÒ§¹âºÒÂʹѺʹع¡Òà »¯ÔÃÙ»ÍÂÒ§µÃ§µÒÁ»ÃÐà´ç¹ ¨Ø´à´¹ ¨Ø´´Í¢ͧ¡Òà ´Óà¹Ô ¹ §Ò¹ §Ò¹ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¹Õé ¨Ö § ÁØ § ÈÖ ¡ ÉÒµÔ ´ µÒÁ¼Å¡Òà »¯Ô ÃÙ » ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ â´ÂÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ¶Ö § ÊÀÒ¾» ¨ ¨Ñ  à§×è Í ¹ä¢ ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ áÅмÅÅÑ ¾ ¸ ·Õè á Ê´§ãË à Ëç ¹ ¶Ö § ÅѡɳТͧ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕ¹á»Å§ ·Õà¡Ô´¢Ö¹ã¹âçàÃÕ¹ã¹à¢µ è è é ¾×é¹·Õè¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

ãË·ÃÒº¶Ö§»¨¨Ñ·ÕèʹѺʹعËÃ×Í໹ÍØ»ÊÃäµÍ¡Òà »¯Ô ÃÙ » ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ ÅÑ ¡ ɳСÃкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ áÅÐ ÅѡɳСÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§·Õèà¡Ô´¢Öé¹ 2. ´Óà¹Ô ¹ ¡ÒÃÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ੾ÒÐʶҹÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ¢Ñé ¹ ¾×¹°Ò¹ Êѧ¡Ñ´¡ÃÁÊÒÁÑÈÖ¡ÉÒ Êӹѡ§Ò¹¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃ é ¡ÒûÃжÁÈÖ¡ ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ Êӹѡ§Ò¹¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡Òà ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒàÍ¡ª¹ áÅÐÊӹѡ§Ò¹ºÃÔËÒáÒÃÈÖ¡Éҷͧ¶Ô¹ è

1. à¾×èÍ»ÃÐàÁÔ¹¤ÇÒÁÊÓàÃ稢ͧ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ» ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙµÒÁ¾ÃÐÃÒªºÑѵԡÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ ¾.È. 2542 â´ÂÈÖ¡ÉÒ¶Ö§ 1) ÊÀÒ¾¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè  ¹á»Å§´ Ò ¹¡Òà »¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ »ËÒáÅÐÍØ»ÊÃä¢Í§âçàÃÕ¹㹠´Ò¹¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ 2) ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ ·Õè à ¡Ô ´ ¨Ò¡¡Òà »¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ 3) ÅѡɳСÒÃà»ÅÕ¹á»Å§¢Í§âçàÃÕ¹ è ·Õè ÁÕ ¤ ÇÒÁÊÓàÃç ¨ 㹡Òû¯Ô ÃÙ » ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ µ ÒÁ¾ÃÐÃÒª ºÑѵԡÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ ¾.È. 2542

Çѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤

¢Íºà¢µ¡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹§Ò¹

1. §Ò¹ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¹Õé à » ¹ Ê Ç ¹Ë¹Öè § ¢Í§â¤Ã§¡Òà »ÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ·ÑèÇ»ÃÐà·È´Óà¹Ô¹¡Òà ÈÖ¡ÉÒÃÒ¡óÕâçàÃÕ¹ã¹ÀÒ¤µÐÇѹÍÍ¡à©Õ§à˹×Í à©¾ÒШѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹ ໹¡ÒÃà¨ÒÐÅÖ¡ÃÒÂÅÐàÍÕ´à¾×Í è

§Ò¹ÇԨ¹Õ໹Êǹ˹֧¢Í§â¤Ã§¡Òû¯Ôû¡ÒÃ Ñ é è Ù àÃÕ¹ÃÙ·ÑèÇ»ÃÐà·È ÈÖ¡ÉÒ໹ÃÒ¡óըѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹ áËÅ § ¢ Í ÁÙ Å ·Õè ÈÖ ¡ ÉÒä´ ¨ Ò¡¡ÒÃÊØ Á ¡ÅØ Á µÑ Ç ÍÂ Ò §¨Ò¡ Ê¶ÒºÑ ¹ ¡ÒÃÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ 16 áË § ã¹¨Ñ § ËÇÑ ´ ¢Í¹á¡ ¹ ¡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹¡Òà â´ÂÅÐàÍÕ´Áմѧ¹Õé 1) ÈÖ¡ÉÒÊÀÒ¾¡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹§Ò¹¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡Òà àÃÕ¹âͧâçàÃÕ¹´ÇÂÇÔ¸¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÂàªÔ§¤Ø³ÀÒ¾à¨ÒÐÅÖ¡ã¹ Ù Õ Ñ ÃÒÂÅÐàÍÕ´ ´ÇÂÇÔ¸¡ÒÃÊÑÁÀÒɳ ¡ÒÃÊѧࡵ¡ÒÃÊÍ¹ã¹ Õ ªÑé¹àÃÕ¹ ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ͹طԹ¢Í§¤ÃÙ/ÍÒ¨ÒÃÂ㹪ǧÃÐÂÐ àÇÅÒ 3 à´×͹ (¸Ñ¹ÇÒ¤Á 2545 ¡ØÁÀҾѹ¸ 2546) ¡ÒÃ¨Ñ ´ ¡ÅØ Á ʹ·¹Ò ¡ÒÃãª á ººÊͺ¶ÒÁ»ÅÒÂà» ´ â´ÂÍÍ¡ÀҤʹÒÁà¾×͵ÃǨàÂÕÂÁáÅÐà¡çºÃǺÃÇÁ¢ÍÁÙÅ è è ¨Ò¡âçàÃÕ¹»ÃÐÁÒ³ 3 ¤ÃÑé§µÍ 1 âçàÃÕ¹ ã¹ÃÐËÇÒ§ ¡ÒÃÍÍ¡ÀҤʹÒÁ¹Ñ¡ÇÔ¨ÑÂã¹¾×é¹·ÕèãªÃкº¡ÑÅÂÒ³ÁԵà ¹Ôà·È ãˤÇÒÁÃàÃ×ͧ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¡Òû¯Ôû¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ãá¡ Ù è Ù Ù ºØ¤ÅÒ¡Ãã¹âçàÃÕ¹µÒÁ¤ÇÒÁàËÁÒÐÊÁ 2) ¡ÒÃÇÔ à ¤ÃÒÐË á ÅÐÊÑ § à¤ÃÒÐË ¼ Å¡Òà »¯Ôû¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ãã¹ÀÒ¾ÃÇÁ â´Â¡ÒÃà¡çºÃǺÃÇÁ¢ÍÁÙŠ٠٠๹¢ÍÁÙÅàªÔ§¤Ø³ÀÒ¾ ÃǺÃÇÁÃÒ§ҹ¡Òúѹ·Ö¡Í¹Ø·¹ Ô áººÊͺ¶ÒÁ»ÅÒÂà»´ ÃÒ§ҹ¡ÒûÃЪØÁ¡ÅØÁÂÍ áÅÐÊѧࡵ¡ÒÃÊ͹·Õä´ÁÒÈÖ¡ÉÒÇÔà¤ÃÒÐËáÅÐÊѧà¤ÃÒÐË è à¾×͵ͺ¤Ó¶ÒÁÇÔ¨ÂáÅдÓà¹Ô¹¡ÒõÒÁÇѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤¡Òà è Ñ ÇԨ·աÓ˹´äÇ ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË¢ÍÁÙŵÒÁÇѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤¡ÒÃ Ñ è ÇԨѷÕèÊÓ¤Ñ ¤×Í ¡ÒûÃÐÁÇÅÅѡɳÐÊÀÒ¾¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹ á»Å§·Õèà¡Ô´¢Ö鹡Ѻ¼ÙàÃÕ¹ ¤ÃÙÍÒ¨ÒüÙÊ͹áÅмٺÃÔËÒà âçàÃÕ Â ¹ ÃÇÁ¶Ö § ¡ÒÃÊÑ § à¤ÃÒÐË à ¾×è Í ÊÃØ » ¶Ö § » ¨ ¨Ñ  ·Õè Ê¹Ñ º Ê¹Ø ¹ ËÃ× Í à» ¹ ÍØ » ÊÃäµ Í ¡Òû¯Ô ÃÙ » ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ

ÇÔ¸Õ´Óà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂ

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»àÃÕ¹Ã٨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

77

¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅмŷÕèä´¨Ò¡¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ à¾×èÍ໹Êǹ˹Öè§ã¹¡ÒÃÊÃØ»¢ÍàʹÍá¹ÐáÅÐá¹Ç·Ò§ ¡Òû¯Ôºµ·¹Óä»Ê¤ÇÒÁÊÓàÃ稢ͧ¡Òû¯Ôû¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ Ñ Ô Õè Ù Ù µÒÁਵ¹ÒÃÁ¢ͧ¾ÃÐÃÒªºÑѵԡÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ ¾.È. 2542 3) ¡ÅØÁµÑÇÍÂÒ§»ÃСͺ´ÇÂʶҹÈÖ¡ÉÒ·Õè ¨Ñ´¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉҢѹ¾×¹°Ò¹Êѧ¡Ñ´¡ÃÁÊÒÁÑÈÖ¡ÉÒ Êӹѡ§Ò¹ é é ¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒáÒûÃжÁÈÖ¡ÉÒ Êӹѡ§Ò¹¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡Òà ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒàÍ¡ª¹ áÅÐâçàÃÕ¹Êѧ¡Ñ´à·ÈºÒÅ µÒÁ¡ÅØÁ µÑÇÍÂÒ§·Õè¡Ó˹´äÇ áÅÐÊØÁÍÂÒ§§ÒµÒÁÊÑ´Êǹ¤×Íä´ âçàÃÕ¹¡ÅØÁµÑÇÍÂÒ§ 16 âçàÃÕ¹ 㹨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹ ´Ñ§ÃÒÂÅÐàÍÕ´¢¹Ò´áÅÐÊѧ¡Ñ´ã¹µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1 4) à¤Ã×èͧÁ×Í·Õèãªã¹¡ÒÃÇԨѠ»ÃСͺ´Ç (1) ẺÊͺ¶ÒÁ»ÅÒÂà»´ (Êͺ¶ÒÁ ¤ÃÙ/ÍÒ¨ÒÃÂ) »ÃСͺ´ÇÂà¹×éÍËÒ 4 µÍ¹ ¤×Í µÍ¹·Õè 1 ໹¢ÍÁÙÅ·ÑèÇä»à¡ÕèÂǡѺ¼ÙµÍº µÍ¹·Õè 2 ໹¢ÍÁÙÅ à¡ÕÂǡѺº·ºÒ·¢Í§¼µÍºã¹¡Òû¯Ôû¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ µÍ¹ è Ù Ù ·Õè 3 ໹¤ÇÒÁ¤Ô´àË繵ͼšÒôÓà¹Ô¹¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡Òà àÃÕ¹ÃÙ µÍ¹·Õè 4 ໹¢ÍÁÙÅà¡ÕÂǡѺἹ¡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹§Ò¹ è ã¹Í¹Ò¤µ¢Í§¼ÙµÍºáººÊͺ¶ÒÁ (2) Í¹Ø ·Ô ¹ 3 ˹ Ò »ÃСͺ´ Ç Â ÃÒÂÅÐàÍÕ´´Ñ§¹Õé ˹ҷÕè 1 ໹ºÑ¹·Ö¡à¡ÕèÂǡѺàÃ×èͧ ·ÑèÇ æ 仢ͧ¼ÙºÑ¹·Ö¡ ˹ Ò ·Õè 2 à» ¹ ¢ Í ÊÑ § ࡵà¡Õè Â Ç¡Ñ º ¼Ù à ÃÕ Â ¹áÅÐ¼Ù Ê Í¹ã¹¡ÒôÓà¹Ô ¹ ¡Ô ¨ ¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ ¡ÒÃÊ͹ ˹ҷÕè 3 ໹¡Òúѹ·Ö¡à¡ÕÂǡѺ¡Òà è á¡ä¢»ËҢͧ¤ÃÙ ¡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁ¼ÙàÃÕ¹ ËÃ×Í·´Åͧ㪠¹Çѵ¡ÃÃÁµÒ§ æ ¢Í§¤ÃÙ (3) ¡Ãͺ¡ÒÃÊÑ Á ÀÒɳ ¡ ÅØ Á Â Í Â ãª ÊÑÁÀÒɳ¤ÃÙ ¼ÙàÃÕ¹ ¼Ù»¡¤ÃͧáÅÐÊÑÁÀÒɳ¼ÙºÃÔËÒà (4) ¡Òúѹ·Ö¡¡ÒÃÊѧࡵ¡ÒÃÊ͹ 5) ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË¢ÍÁÙŠ໹¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË ¤ÇÒÁà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§·Õèà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ã٢ͧ ¼ÙàÃÕ¹ ¤ÃÙ/¼ÙÊ͹ ¼ÙºÃÔËÒÃâçàÃÕ¹ áÅСÒÃÃѺÃ٢ͧ

¼Ù»¡¤Ãͧ â´ÂÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË໹ÃÒÂâçàÃÕ¹ ໹¡Òà ÇÔ à ¤ÃÒÐË ¢ Í ÁÙ Å àªÔ § ¤Ø ³ ÀÒ¾áÅÐÇÔ à ¤ÃÒÐË à ªÔ § à¹×é Í ËÒ (content analysis) ä´¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÊÑÁÀÒɳº¤¤Å áÅСÅÁ Ø Ø ºØ¤¤Å ¡ÒÃÇÔà¤ÃÒÐË͹ط¹¢Í§¤ÃÙ/ÍÒ¨Òà¡ÒÃÊѧࡵ¡ÒÃ Ô Ê͹áÅШ´ºÑ¹·Ö¡ »ÃСͺ¡ÒÃÇÔ à ¤ÃÒÐË ¢ Í ÁÙ Å áÅÐ ÍÀÔ»ÃÒ¼šÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹áÅйÓàʹÍã¹ÃÙ»¤ÇÒÁàÃÕ§ 1. ÊÀÒ¾¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè  ¹á»Å§¢Í§¡Òà »®ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙµÒÁ¾ÃÐÃÒªºÑѵԡÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ ªÒµÔ ¾.È. 2542 ÊÃػ䴴ѧ¹Õé 1.1 ÊÑ § ¡Ñ ´ §Ò¹ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¾ºÇ Ò ÊÑ § ¡Ñ ´ à» ¹ »¨¨ÑÂ˹֧·Õ¹Ò¨ÐÁռŵ͡Òû¯Ôû¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ã㹧ҹÇԨ è è Ù Ù Ñ ¹Õ龺ÇÒâçàÃÕ¹Êѧ¡Ñ´à·ÈºÒŨÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¾ÃÍÁã¹ÃдѺ »Ò¹¡ÅÒ§ ÊÙ§ â´Â੾ÒÐÍÂÒ§ÂÔè§ âçàÃÕ¹à·ÈºÒÅ ¢¹Ò´ãË àÁ×Íà·Õº¡ÑºâçàÃÕ¹·Õʧ¡Ñ´ Ê»ª. ¨ÐàËç¹ è èÑ ¤ÇÒÁᵡµÒ§·Ñé§ã¹´Ò¹¤ÇÒÁµ×è¹µÑÇ (µÃÐ˹ѡ) ¢Í§ ºØ¤ÅÒ¡Ã ºØ¤ÅҡâͧâçàÃÕ¹à·ÈºÒŨÐä´ÃѺ¡Òà ͺÃÁ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹µÒÁá¹Ç»¯ÔÃÙ»à¡×ͺ ·Ñ§ËÁ´ ã¹ÊǹâçàÃÕ¹·Õʧ¡Ñ´¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒáÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ é èÑ àÍ¡ª¹·ÕèÍÂÙÀÒÂ㵡ÅØÁÈÒʹҤÃÔʵ¨ÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¾ÃÍÁ ÊÙ§¡ÇÒ 1.2 ¢¹Ò´ ÊÓËÃѺ¢¹Ò´¨ÐàË繤ÇÒÁ ᵡµ Ò §ªÑ ´ ਹã¹âçàÃÕ Â ¹ÊÑ § ¡Ñ ´ à·ÈºÒÅ âçàÃÕ Â ¹ à·ÈºÒÅ¢¹Ò´ã˨ÐãˤÇÒÁÊÓ¤Ñ㹡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹¡Òà »®ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒã¹·Ø¡´Ò¹ ¢³Ð·ÕèâçàÃÕ¹¢¹Ò´àÅç¡ ¨ÐàÅ×͡ʧàÊÃÔÁ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ¹Í¡ËÅÑ¡ÊÙµÃ໹ËÅÑ¡âçàÃÕ¹ ·Õè»ÃÐʺ¼ÅÊÓàÃç¨ ¨Ð໹âçàÃÕ¹¢¹Ò´ãË·Õèà¤Âà¢Ò â¤Ã§¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ·Ñé§âçàÃÕ¹ÁÒáÅÇ 1.3 ÃдѺ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ» ã¹´Ò¹ÃдѺ¡Òà »¯ÔÃÙ»¹Õé¨ÐàËç¹ä´ÇÒ âçàÃÕ¹à·ÈºÒÅ¢¹Ò´ãË·ÕèÁÕ ¤ÇÒÁ¾ÃÍÁÁÒ¡¡ÇÒáÅÐà¤Âà¢Òâ¤Ã§¡Òû¯Ôû¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ Ù ÃÙ·ÕèâçàÃÕ¹ÁÒáÅÇ ÁÕ¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃâçàÃÕ¹ã¹ÅѡɳСÒà ãªâçàÃÕ¹໹°Ò¹¨Ð´Óà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃä´ª´à¨¹ ÁÕ·È·Ò§áÅÐ Ñ Ô á¹Çâ¹Á·ÕèÁاä»ÊÙ¤ÇÒÁÁÕ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ ¡ÒûÃѺà»ÅÕè¹ ·ÕèÁÕâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§ÁÒ¡¡ÇÒâçàÃÕ¹Í×è¹

¼Å¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂ

78

¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ã٨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

1.4 ÅÑ ¡ ɳТͧºØ ¤ ÅÒ¡ÃáÅФÇÒÁ ¾ÃÍÁ ¢Í¤¹¾º»ÃСÒÃ˹Ö觨ҡ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òà »¯Ô ÃÙ » ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ ¤ ÃÑé § ¹Õé ä ´ ¾ ºÇ Ò ºØ ¤ ÅÒ¡Ã¤× Í ¤ÃÙ ã ¹ âçàÃÕ¹à¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁµÃÐ˹ѡáµã¹¤ÇÒÁµÃÐ˹ѡ¨ÐÁÕ 2 ÅѡɳР¤×Í 1) ¡ÅØÁ¤ÃÙ·Õèà¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁµÃÐ˹ѡ¨Ò¡¡Òà ÃѺ¿§ áÅеԴµÒÁ¢ÒÇÊÒâÍÁÙŴǵ¹àͧ áµÂѧäÁä´ ÃѺ¡Òà ͺÃÁ¨ÃÔ§¨Ñ§ 2) ¡ÅØÁ¤ÃÙ·Õèà¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁµÃÐ˹ѡ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃä´ÃѺ·ÃÒº¨Ò¡¢ÒÇÊÒâÍÁÙÅáÅÐÁÕâÍ¡ÒÊä´ÃѺ ¡ÒÃͺÃÁâ´ÂµÃ§ «Öè§à»¹¤ÃÙ»ÃÐÁÒ³70% §Ò¹ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¹Õé ä Á Ê ÒÁÒöà»ÃÕ Â ºà·Õ  º »ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀҾ㹡ÒûÃѺµÑÇáÅТѺà¤Å×è͹仵ÒÁºÃÔº· ¢Í§¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ä´ªÑ´ áµÊѧࡵä´ÇÒâçàÃÕ¹·Õè ºØ ¤ ÅÒ¡Ãä´ ÃÑ º ¡ÒÃͺÃÁà¡× Í º·Ñé § ËÁ´¨Ð·Ó§Ò¹à» ¹ Ãкº»ÃÐÊÒ¹§Ò¹¡Ñºà¾×͹ÃÇÁ§Ò¹áÅеԴµÒÁ§Ò¹´Ò¹ è ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹ÍÂÒ§µÍà¹×èͧ ã¹¢³Ð·ÕèâçàÃÕ¹·Õè ºØ ¤ ÅÒ¡Ãä´ ÃÑ º ¡ÒÃͺÃÁà¾Õ  §Ã Í ÂÅÐ 60 ¨Ð»ÃÑ º ¾ÄµÔ¡ÃÃÁ㹧ҹ´Ò¹àÍ¡ÊÒÃ໹ÊǹãË áµÇÔ¸Õ¡Òà Ê͹ÂѧàÅ×Í¡·Õ¨ÐãªÇ¸¡ÒÃẺà´ÔÁ ¤×Í ãË·ÓẺ½¡ËÑ´ è ÔÕ ËÃ×ͤѴÅÍ¡¢Í¤ÇÒÁ¨Ò¡Ë¹Ñ§Ê×Í ¹Í¡¨Ò¡¹Õ§Ò¹ÇԨ©ºÑº¹Õ§¾ºÇÒ ¤ÃÙ¼Ê͹ é Ñ éÑ Ù Ê¹ã¨ã¹¡ÒþѲ¹Ò»ÃѺà»ÅÕ¹¡ÒèѴ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ è ¡ÒÃÊ͹µÒÁá¹Ç»¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ áµÊǹã˾ºÇÒ µÍ§ãª¨Ò·ع·ÃѾÂÊǹµÑÇàÁ×ÍÁÕ¤Ò㪨ÒÂà¾ÔÁ¢Ö¹ã¹¡Òà è è é Ê͹ હ ¤ÒàÍ¡ÊÒà ¤ÒÍØ»¡Ã³¡ÒÃÊ͹ ·ÓãËà¡Ô´ ¤ÇÒÁ·Íá·ã¹¡Ò÷Õè¨ÐµÍ§à¾ÔèÁÀÒÃÐ ¤Ò㪨ÒÂ㹡Òà ͺÃÁ´Ò¹ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃà¾ÔèÁàµÔÁÍÕ¡ ·Ñé§æ ·Õè¤ÃÙÊǹÁÒ¡à¢Ò㨠´Õ Ç Ò ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ à ¾×è Í ¾Ñ ² ¹Òµ¹àͧ໠¹ ¡ÒÃŧ·Ø ¹ à¾×è Í âÍ¡ÒÊáÅФÇÒÁ¡ÒÇ˹Ңͧµ¹ ©Ð¹Ñ鹺ؤÅҡ÷ÕèÍÒÂØ ¹Í¨Ðʹã¨áÅзØÁ෡Ѻ¡ÒÃà¢ÒÃѺ¡ÒÃͺÃÁÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ ¡ÅØÁ¤ÃÙÍÒ¨ÒÃÂÊÙ§ÍÒÂØ ´Ñ§¹Ñ鹤ÃÙÍÒ¨Ò÷Õè¹ÑºÇÒ໹»¨¨Ñ·Õè¹Ò ʹ㨠ºØ¤Åҡ÷ÕÁÍÒÂØÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ 50 » ¨ÐäÁãˤÇÒÁʹ㨠è Õ ¡Ñº¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃã´æ ᵨÐãˤÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×Í੾ÒÐ㹧ҹ ·Õè ¼Ù º ÃÔ Ë ÒÃÁͺËÁÒÂÊÑè § ¡Òà áÅÐà» ¹ ¹âºÒ ÍÕ ¡ »ÃСÒÃ˹Öè§âçàÃÕ¹·ÕèÁÕ¡ÒÃâ͹ÂҺ͠ËÃ×ͤÃÙ·ÕèÂÒ ÁÒºÃèØà¾×èÍàµÃÕÂÁÃÍ¡ÒÃÂÒÂâ͹ä»Ê¶Ò¹ÈÖ¡ÉÒÍ×è¹

¡ç໹»¨¨ÑÂ˹Ö觷Õè·Óã˧ҹ»¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙäÁä´ÃѺ ¤ÇÒÁʹã¨à·Ò·Õè¤Çà 1.5 ¡ÒÃʹѺʹع´Ò¹·ÃѾÂÒ¡Ã ·Ø¡ âçàÃÕ¹¨ÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁàËç¹ÇÒ ÁÕ§º»ÃÐÁÒ³¨Ó¡Ñ´ ¡àǹ âçàÃÕ¹à·ÈºÒÅ¢¹Ò´ãË·Áà·ÈÁ¹µÃÕ´Ò¹¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ Õè Õ ·ÕèÁÕÇÔÊÑ·Ñȹ´Ò¹¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉҪѴਹãˤÇÒÁʹѺʹع ¢³Ðà´ÕÂǡѹ¡çä´ÃѺ¡ÒÃʹѺʹع¨Ò¡¼Ù»¡¤Ãͧ ©Ð¹Ñé¹ ¨Ö § ¹Ñ º ä´ Ç Ò Í§¤ ¡ ÷ Í §¶Ôè ¹ ä´ ÁÕ º ·ºÒ·ªÑ ´ ਹ㹡Òà ¡ÃеعʧàÊÃÔÁ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ ÊǹâçàÃÕ¹Êѧ¡Ñ´Í×è¹ ¡ÒÃʹѺʹع¨Ò¡ ͧ¤ ¡ ÃÊ Ç ¹· Í §¶Ôè ¹ ÂÑ § äÁ ªÑ ´ ਹ áÅСÒÃÃÑ º ¡Òà ʹѺʹعàÃ×èͧ·Ø¹·ÃѾ¨ҡ¼Ù»¡¤ÃͧÁÕ¹ÍÂÁÒ¡ ·ÃѾÂÒ¡ÃÊӤѷդÇÃä´Ãº¤ÇÒÁʹ㨤×Í è Ñ ¡ÒþѲ¹ÒáËŧ¤¹¤ÇÒ ·Ñé§ã¹Êǹ·Õè໹ËͧÊÁØ´áÅÐ ¡ÒèѴ¡ÒúÃÔ¡ÒÃà¤Ã×èͧ¤ÍÁ¾ÔÇàµÍÃà¾×èÍ¡Ò乤ÇÒäÇ ÊÓËÃѺ¹Ñ¡àÃÕ¹ 2. ¡ÒèѴ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ 2.1 ¡ÒÃ¨Ñ ´ ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹ âçàÃÕ¹â´ÂÃÇÁ ÁÕ¡ÒûÃѺáÅоÂÒÂÒÁ»ÃѺ¡Ãкǹ ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹ãËᵡµÒ§ä»¨Ò¡à´ÔÁ હ ÁÕ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ ·ÕËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ ä´á¡ ¡Ò÷ӡԨ¡ÃÃÁ¡ÅÁ ¡Ò÷Óâ¤Ã§§Ò¹ è Ø ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒʶҹ·Õ¨ÃÔ§ (ªØÁª¹) ÁÕ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹ËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ è ä´á¡ ¡ÒÃÊѧࡵ ¡ÒõÃǨ§Ò¹¹Ñ¡àÃÕ¹ ã˹ѡàÃÕ¹ÃÇÁ »ÃÐàÁÔ¹ ¡ÒÃãªáºº·´Êͺ ໹µ¹ ÍÂÒ§äáçµÒÁ §Ò¹ÇԨѠ¡çä´¾ºÇÒ ã¹¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹¡çÂѧÁÕ ËÅÒÂÊǹ·ÕèµÍ§¡ÒäÇÒÁªÇÂàËÅ×Í㹡ÒþѲ¹ÒãË ´Óà¹Ô¹ä»ã¹·ÔÈ·Ò§·Õ¶¡µÍ§ ¤ÃÙÍÒ¨ÒÃÂÊǹã˾ÃÍÁ è Ù ·Õè ¨ ÐÃÑ º ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè  ¹á»Å§â´Â੾ÒÐã¹ÃÐ´Ñ º »ÃжÁ ÈÖ¡ÉÒ áµã¹ÃдѺÁѸÂÁÈÖ¡ÉÒÂѧÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¡Ñ§ÇÅã¹´Ò¹ à¹×é Í ËÒÇÔ ª ÒáÅÐà§×è Í ¹ä¢¡ÒÃÈÖ ¡ ÉÒµ Í ¢Í§¹Ñ ¡ àÃÕ Â ¹ »ÃСͺ¡Ñ º ¼Ù Ê Í¹Ê Ç ¹Ë¹Öè § àËç ¹ Ç Ò ÇÔ ¸Õ ¡ ÒÃà´Ô Á ·Õè ä ´ »¯ÔºÑµÔµÍ¼ÙàÃÕ¹äÁä´Áբͺ¡¾Ãͧ¨¹¶Ö§¡ÑºµÍ§»¯ÔÃÙ» ãËÁ ¨Ö§·ÓãËâçàÃÕ¹ÁѸÂÁÈÖ¡ÉÒàËç¹ÇÒ äÁ¨Ó໹µÍ§ »ÃÑ º ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃ¨Ñ ´ ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹ ¹Í¡¨Ò¡ ¡ÒùӡÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹Ẻâ¤Ã§§Ò¹áÅСԨ¡ÃÃÁ¡ÅÁ Ø ÁÒ㪡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§Í×è¹æ ÂѧäÁàË繪Ѵਹ

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»àÃÕ¹Ã٨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

79

2.2 ¡ÒúÃÔ Ë ÒÃẺâçàÃÕ Â ¹à» ¹ °Ò¹ ¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃẺâçàÃÕ¹໹°Ò¹ÁÕÀÒ¾ªÑ´à¨¹ÍÂÙã¹ âçàÃÕ¹à·ÈºÒÅÊǹʹءáÅÐ໹ÀÒ¾·ÕèªÑ´à¨¹ãËàËç¹ ¡ÒÃÁÕÊǹÃÇÁ¢Í§ºØ¤ÅÒ¡Ãã¹âçàÃÕ¹ ¹Ñºáµ¡ÒõѴÊԹ㨠áÅÐÇҧἹâ¤Ã§¡Òõҧæ áµã¹Êǹ¢Í§âçàÃÕ¹Í×è¹ áÁ¨ÐãªÃٻẺ¡ÒúÃÔËÒÃẺâçàÃÕ¹໹°Ò¹ áµ ¼Å¼ÅÔµ¡çäÁª´à¨¹ã¹Í§¤ÃÇÁ ·Ñ§¹Õàé Ëç¹ÇÒ¹Ò¨ÐÁҨҡͧ¤ Ñ é »ÃСͺËÅÑ¡¤×Í ¼ÙºÃÔËÒ÷Õè¡ÃШÒÂÍÓ¹Ò¨ ¶Ò¼ÙºÃÔËÒà ·ÕèÂÒÂÁÒà¾×èÍÃÍ¡ÒÃà¡ÉÕ³ÍÒÂبСÃШÒÂÍÓ¹Ò¨áÅÐ »ÅÍÂÇÒ§ äÁÁ¡ÒõԴµÒÁ§Ò¹ÍÂÒ§µÍà¹×ͧ ÃٻẺ¡ÒÃ Õ è ºÃÔËÒÃâ´ÂãªâçàÃÕ¹໹°Ò¹¡çäÁ¼ÅÑ¡´Ñ¹ãËà¡Ô´¡Òà à»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ã¹Í§¤¡Ãà·Ò㴹ѡ ÍÕ¡¹ÑÂ˹Ö觤×Í áÁÇÒÃٻẺ¡ÒúÃÔËÒà ¨Ð໹ẺâçàÃÕ¹໹°Ò¹ áµ»¨¨ÑÂàÍ×éÍËÅÑ¡ ¡ç¨ÐÍÂÙ ·Õè¼ÙºÃÔËÒà ¶Ò¼ÙºÃÔËÒÃãÊ㨧ҹÇÔªÒ¡Òà ºØ¤Åҡáç¨ÐãË ¤ÇÒÁʹã¨ÇÔªÒ¡Òà ¼ÙºÃÔËÒÃʹ㨧ҹªØÁª¹ÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸ âçàÃÕ Â ¹áÅÐºØ ¤ ÅÒ¡Ã¡ç ¨ ÐãË ¤ ÇÒÁÊÓ¤Ñ ¡Ñ º ªØ Á ª¹ ¶Ò¼ÙºÃÔËÒà ¡ÃШÒ§ҹáÅеԴµÒÁ§Ò¹ÍÂÒ§µÍà¹×èͧ ÀÒ¾¡ÒþѲ¹Ò¡ç¨ÐÍÍ¡ÁҪѴਹ·Ø¡§Ò¹ 2.3 ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¨Ò¡áººÊͺ¶ÒÁáÅÐ ¡ÒÃÊÑ § ࡵ ¾ºÇ Ò ¤ÃÙ Í Ò¨Òà㠪 ¡ ÒûÃÐàÁÔ ¹ ¼Å ËÅÒ¡ËÅÒÂÃٻẺ áµËÅѧ¨Ò¡·Õè㪡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹áµÅÐ á¼¹áÅÇ ¼ÙÊ͹Êǹ˹Öè§äÁã¤Ãà¢Òã¨Çѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤¢Í§ ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹ ¡Ò÷Óá¿ÁÊÐÊÁ§Ò¹¤ÃÙ¶×ÍÇÒ໹àÍ¡ÊÒà ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹·Ø¡ÇÔªÒ¨Ö§µÍ§ÁÕ㺧ҹ à¾×èͼÙÊ͹¨Ðä´ÃǺÃÇÁ àÂçºàÅÁ «Ö觻ÃÐà´ç¹¹Õ餧µÍ§ä´ÃѺ¡ÒÃá¡ä¢áÅлÃѺ ¤ÇÒÁà¢Ò㨡ѺºØ¤ÅҡäÃÙâ´Â·ÑèǶ֧¡Ñ¹ 2.4 ¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂàªÔ§»¯ÔºÑµÔ¡Òà âçàÃÕ¹ËÅÒ âçàÃÕ¹䴷ÓÇÔ¨ÂàªÔ§»¯Ôºµ¡Òà áµÂ§äÁä´¹ÓÁҾѲ¹Ò Ñ Ñ Ô Ñ ¼ÙàÃÕ¹ ã¹¢³Ð·ÕèºÒ§¤¹ä´ÊѧࡵáÅеԴµÒÁá¡»ËÒ ¹Ñ¡àÃÕ¹ ·Ñ駴ҹ¤ÇÒÁ»ÃоĵÔáÅÐÇÔªÒ¡Òà áµäÁà¤Â ºÑ¹·Ö¡ËÃ×Íà¢Õ¹ÃÒ§ҹÍÂҧ໹Ãкº ¨Ö§ÂѧäÁÁÕ§Ò¹ ÇԨѫÖè§ ÊÍ´¤Åͧ¡Ñº¢Í¤¹¾ºã¹¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òà àÃÕ¹Ã٢ͧ¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒáÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ (2545) áÅФÃÙËÅÒ¤¹ÂѧÁͧÇÒ§Ò¹ÇԨѻ¯ÔºÑµÔ¡ÒÃ໹ÀÒÃÐ §Ò¹·Õàè ¾ÔÁ¢Ö¹ ÂѧäÁÁàÕ ÇÅÒà¾Õ§¾Í ¨Ö§¹Ò¨ÐµÍ§ÁÕ¼ªÇÂàËÅ×Í è é Ù ã¹´Ò¹¹Õéહ¡Ñ¹

2.5 ¡ÒÃÊÃÒ§¤ÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×͡ѺªØÁª¹ ·Ø¡ âçàÃÕ¹䴴Óà¹Ô¹¡ÒÃã¹»ÃÐà´ç¹¹Õé ÁÒ¡¹Íµҧ¡Ñ¹ä» âçàÃÕ Â ¹à·ÈºÒÅ¢¹Ò´¡ÅÒ§áÅТ¹Ò´àÅç ¡ ¨Ðà¢ Ò ¶Ö § ªØÁª¹ä´·ÑèǶ֧¡ÇÒâçàÃÕ¹à·ÈºÒÅ¢¹Ò´ãË Êǹ âçàÃÕ¹Êѧ¡Ñ´¡ÒûÃжÁÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ¹¹à¢Ò¡ÑºªØÁª¹ Ñé ä´à»¹ÍÂÒ§´Õâ´Â੾ÒÐã¹´Ò¹¡ÒùÓÀÙÁ»Ò·Í§¶Ô¹ Ô è ÁÒªÇÂÊ͹áÅÐ໹áËŧàÃÕ¹Ã٢ͧâçàÃÕ¹ ÊÓËÃѺâçàÃÕ¹Êѧ¡Ñ´¡ÃÁÊÒÁÑÈÖ¡ÉÒ¨ÐÁÕ »ËÒã¹á§¢Í§¡ÒÃà¢Ò¶Ö§ªØÁª¹ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡ÊǹãË ¼Ù»¡¤ÃͧÍÂÙËÒ§ä¡ÅáÅÐäÁÁÕàÇÅÒãˡѺâçàÃÕ¹ µÍ§ ËÒàÅÕ§ªÕ¾ âçàÃÕ¹µÒ§ãª¤ÇÒÁ¾ÂÒÂÒÁÍÂÙ «Ö§¨Ò¡¡Òà é è ÊÑÁÀÒɳ¼Ù»¡¤Ãͧ¡çÂÍÁÃѺÇÒâçàÃÕ¹ãËÁÕÊǹÃÇÁ ÁÒ¡¡ÇÒà´ÔÁ áÁ¡ÃйÑé¹¼Ù»¡¤ÃͧºÒ§¤¹¡ç¨ÐÃÙÊÖ¡ÇÒ µ¹àͧäÁÊÒÁÒöÃÇÁÁ×ÍÍÐäáѺâçàÃÕÂ¹ä´ 3. ÅѡɳСÒÃà»ÅÕ¹á»Å§ è 3.1 ÃдѺ¤ÇÒÁÊÓàÃç¨ã¹ÀÒ¾ÃÇÁ ¨Ò¡áºº Êͺ¶ÒÁ·Õ¼Ê͹»ÃÐàÁÔ¹¤ÇÒÁÊÓàÃç¨ ÁͧÇÒ¤ÇÒÁÊÓàÃç¨ è ٠㹧ҹ»¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙÁÕ»ÃÐÁÒ³ÃÍÂÅÐ 20 Êǹ¤ÃÙÁÕ ¤ÇÒÁÃÙÊÖ¡ÇÒµ¹àͧ¾Ñ²¹ÒºØ¤ÅÔ¡ÀÒ¾ áÅлÃѺà»ÅÕè¹ ¾ÄµÔ¡ÃÃÁ»ÃÐÁÒ³ÃÍÂÅÐ 60 áÅÐàË繾ͧ¡Ñ¹ÇÒ§Ò¹ »¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ã٨лÃÐʺ¼ÅµÒÁÇѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤ã¹ÃÐÂÐ »ÃÐÁÒ³ÍÕ¡ 10 »¢Ò§Ë¹Ò 3.2 ÅѡɳТͧ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ 1) ¼àÃÕ¹ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÁѹ㨠¡ÅÒáÊ´§ÍÍ¡ ÁÕ Ù è ¤ÇÒÁ¤Ô´ÃÔàÃÔÁÊÃÒ§ÊÃäàªÔ§ÈÔŻРÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÃѺ¼Ô´ªÍºã¹ è §Ò¹·ÕèÁͺËÁÒ áÅÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊآʹء¡Ñº¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ 2) ¼Ù»¡¤Ãͧ ÁÕÊǹÃÇÁã¹ÀÒÃСԨ¢Í§ âçàÃÕ¹ÁÒ¡¢Öé¹ ãˤÇÒÁʹ㨺صÃËÅÒ¹ÁÒ¡¢Öé¹ 3) ¤ÃÙ ÁÕ ¤ ÇÒÁµ×è ¹ µÑ Ç ´ Ò ¹¡ÒÃ¾Ñ ² ¹Ò µ¹àͧ 㪤ÇÒÁ¾ÂÒÂÒÁ㹡ÒûÃѺ»Ãا¡Ãкǹ¡ÒèѴ àÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹ ãªÇÔ¸Õ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹ËÅÒ¡ËÅÒÂÇÔ¸Õ Ê¹ã¨ ªØÁª¹ÁÒ¡¢Ö¹ ·Ó§Ò¹à»¹Ãкº áÅÐÃÇÁ§Ò¹´Ò¹ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃ é ¡Ñºà¾×è͹¤ÃÙä´ÁÒ¡¢Öé¹ 4) ¼Ù º ÃÔ Ë Òà ÁÕ ÇÔ ÊÑ Â ·Ñ È ¹ ¡ Ç Ò §ä¡Å¢Öé ¹ ÊǹãË»ÃѺ»Ãاµ¹àͧáÅÐÇÔ¸Õ¡ÒúÃÔËÒçҹÁÕ¡Òà ¡ÃШÒ§ҹà¾ÔèÁ¢Öé¹

80

¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ã٨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

1) ÅѡɳТͧºØ¤ÅÒ¡ÃáÅФÇÒÁ¾ÃÍÁ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÇԨѾºÇÒ ¤ÃÙÃÍÂÅÐ 70 ÁÕâÍ¡ÒÊ ä´ ÃÑ º ¡ÒÃͺÃÁ·Õè à ¡Õè  Ǣ Í §¡Ñ º ¡Òû®Ô ÃÙ » ¡ÒÃÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ â´ÂµÃ§«Öè§à»¹¡ÒÃͺÃÁÃÐÂÐÊÑé¹ áÅÐʧ¼Åã¹´Ò¹ ¤ÇÒÁµÃÐ˹ѡ¢Í§¡Òû®ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¨Ö§¹Ñºä´ÇÒ໹ ¡ÒÃàÃÔèÁµ¹·Õè¶Ù¡·ÔÈ·Ò§ à¾ÃÒÐ㹡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»ã´æ¡çµÒÁ ¡ÒÃ¾Ñ ² ¹Ò ºØ ¤ ÅÒ¡Ã¶× Í ä´ Ç Ò à» ¹ » ¨ ¨Ñ  ÊÓ¤Ñ ÁÒ¡ Arnold, W.E áÅÐ Mc Clure, L.M. (1996) ä´ªÕé »ÃÐà´ç¹ãËàËç¹ÇÒ¡ÒÃÊÃÒ§¤ÇÒÁµÃÐ˹ѡ᡺¤ÅÒ¡ÃãË Ø à¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁà¢Òã¨ã¹º·ºÒ·áÅФÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸·¨Ðʧ¼Å¶Ö§ Õè ¡ÒþѲ¹Òͧ¤¡Ã¨Ð·Óã˺¤¤Åà¡Ô´¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃáÅлÃѺ Ø Ù µÑǢѺà¤Å×è͹仵ÒÁºÃÔº··Õèà»ÅÕè¹á»Å§ä»ä´¨ÃÔ§ÍÂÙ ¡ÒÃ¾Ñ ² ¹ÒºØ ¤ ÅÒ¡ÃÍÒ¨äÁ ã ª Ë ¹ Ò ·Õè ÃÑ º ¼Ô ´ ªÍº¢Í§ ͧ¤¡Ã㴠ͧ¤¡Ã˹Öè§â´Â੾ÒÐ à¾ÃÒФÇÒÁµÍ§¡Òà 㹡ÒþѲ¹Ò¢³Ð¹Õ໹¤ÇÒÁµÍ§¡ÒâͧÊѧ¤Áâ´ÂÃÇÁ é ä»áÅÇ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ËÅÒÂæ ͧ¤¡Ã¤ÇÃä´ÁÕÊǹÃÇÁáÅÐÁÕ º·ºÒ·ã¹¡ÒÃʧàÊÃÔÁáÅоѲ¹ÒºØ¤ÅÒ¡ÃÃÇÁ¡Ñ¹ áµã¹ ÃÐÂе¹¡ÒþѲ¹ÒºØ¤Åҡ÷վºã¹§Ò¹ÇԨ¹ըÐ໹¡Òà è Ñ é ´Óà¹Ô¹¡Òâͧͧ¤¡Ã·Õèà¡ÕèÂǢͧáµäÁä´ÁÒ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÁÕ ÊǹÃÇÁ¢Í§âçàÃÕ¹â´ÂµÃ§ »ÃÐà´ç¹ÊÓ¤ÑÍÕ¡»ÃСÒÃ˹Ö觤×Í ¡ÒþѲ¹Ò ºØ¤ÅÒ¡Ã ¶Ò໹¤ÇÒÁµÍ§¡ÒäÃÙÍÒ¨Ò÷Õèà¡Ô´¨Ò¡¡Òà »¯ÔºÑµÔ§Ò¹áÅФÇÒÁµÃÐ˹ѡ¶Ö§»ËÒ ¡ÒÃà¢ÒͺÃÁ ¨Ð໹ÇÔ¸¡ÒÃá¡»ËÒ·Õ¤ÃÙàÅ×Í¡àͧ ¨Ð·ÓãˤÇÒÁÃ·ä´ Õ è Ù Õè ÃѺ¶Ù¡¹ÓÁÒãªáÅÐ໹¡ÒþѲ¹Ò·ÕèÂÑè§Â×¹ ᵶҤÃٵͧ à¢ÒͺÃÁµÒÁ¹âºÒ¢ͧâçàÃÕ¹à¾Õ§ÍÂÒ§à´ÕÂÇ ¡Òà ¾Ñ²¹ÒºØ¤ÅҡèÐäÁä´»ÃÐ⪹ ©Ð¹Ñé ¹ ¡ÒÃ¾Ñ ² ¹ÒºØ ¤ ÅҡùÕé ¼Ù º ÃÔ Ë ÒÃʶҹ ÈÖ ¡ ÉÒ¨Ö § ¤ÇÃà¢ Ò ã¨¾×é ¹ °Ò¹¤ÇÒÁÊÓ¤Ñ ¢Í§¤ÇÒÁ µÃÐ˹ѡÀÒÂã¹µÑǺؤ¤Å໹àº×éͧµ¹ 2) ÅÑ ¡ ɳТͧ¹Ñ ¡ àÃÕ Â ¹ §Ò¹ÇÔ ¨Ñ  ¾ºÇ Ò âçàÃÕ¹·ÕèÍÂÙ㨡ÅÒ§àÁ×ͧ¨ÐÁչѡàÃÕ¹·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¾ÃÍÁ ÃѺ¡ÒÃà»ÅÕ¹á»Å§ä´´¡ÇÒ ÊÒà˵Ø˹֧·Õä´Ãº¤ÓºÍ¡àÅÒ è Õ è è Ñ ¨Ò¡¼ÙÊ͹¤×Í âçàÃÕ¹·ÕèÍÂÙ㨡ÅÒ§àÁ×ͧ¨Ð䴹ѡàÃÕ¹ ·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¾ÃÍÁÁÒ¡¡ÇÒ ·Ñé§ã¹´Ò¹°Ò¹Ð àÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨áÅÐ

ÍÀÔ»ÃÒ¼Å

¤Ãͺ¤ÃÑÇ ÃÇÁ¶Ö§ÃдѺ¤ÇÒÁÃÙ à¹×èͧ¨Ò¡ÁÕâçàÃÕ¹ ¡Ç´ÇÔ ª ÒáÅÐÁÕ ¡ ÒÃ¨Ñ ´ Ê͹¾Ô à ÈÉÍÂÙ ·Ñè Ç ä» ã¹¢³Ð·Õè âçàÃÕ¹·ÕèÍÂÙªÒ¹àÁ×ͧ¨Ðä´ÃѺ¹Ñ¡àÃÕ¹ÊǹãË·ÕèäÁ ÊÒÁÒöÊͺàÃÕ¹µÍã¹âçàÃÕ¹ãËã¹àÁ×Í§ä´ áÅÐ °Ò¹Ð·Ò§¤Ãͺ¤ÃÑ Ç ÍÂÙ ã ¹ÃÐ´Ñ º »Ò¹¡ÅÒ§¶Ö § ÂÒ¡¨¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñé¹ ¤ÃÙ¼ÙÊ͹¨ÐµÑ駢ÍÊѧࡵÇÒâçàÃÕ¹¢Í§µ¹ä´ ¹Ñ¡àÃÕ¹·Õè´Í¤سÀÒ¾ ¼ÙÇÔ¨ÑÂàËç¹ÇҹѡàÃÕ¹â´Â·ÑèÇä»ÁվѲ¹Ò¡Òà ·Õ´ã¹á§¢Í§¡ÒÃ衷ըлÃÐàÁÔ¹µ¹àͧ ÃÇÒÍÐäá稴´Õ è Õ ÙÑ è Ù Ø ¨Ø´´Í¢ͧµ¹àͧ ©Ð¹Ñ¹¶Ò¡Òû¯Ôû¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ´Óà¹Ô¹¡Òà é Ù ÍÂ Ò §µ Í à¹×è Í § áÅÐà¨ÒлÃÐà´ç ¹ » ËÒÍÂ Ò §¨ÃÔ § ¨Ñ § â¤Ã§¡ÒùҨкÃÃÅØÇѵ¶Ø»ÃÐʧ¤ä´ÍÂÒ§´Õ ·ÕèÊÓ¤Ñ ¹Ñ¡àÃÕ¹àÃÕ¹ÍÂÒ§ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊØ¢ «Ö§¡ç¶ÍÇÒ໹¤ÇÒÁÊÓàÃç¨ è × »ÃСÒÃ˹Ö觢ͧ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ ¤×Íã˼ÙàÃÕ¹ÁÕ ¤ÇÒÁÊØ¢áÅеͧ¶×ÍÇÒ¼ÙÊ͹໹¼ÙÁÕÊǹÊÓ¤Ñ à¾ÃÒÐ ¹Ñ¡àÃÕ¹ÃкتѴਹÇÒ ·ÕèàÃÕ¹ʹءáÅÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊØ¢à¾ÃÒÐ ¤ÃÙãËâÍ¡ÒÊ·Ó§Ò¹àͧ ¤ÃÙäÁ´Ø ã¹´Ò¹¡ÒÃáÊ´§ÍÍ¡¢Í§¼ÙàÃÕ¹ ¤ÃÙÍÒ¨ÒàÊǹ˹Öè§àËç¹ÇÒ¼ÙàÃÕ¹¡ÅÒáÊ´§Í͡㹷ҧź¹Ñé¹ ã¹ ÃÐÂÐÂÒÇÍÒ¨¨Ðá¡»ËÒä´ ¶Ò¼ÙÊ͹´Óà¹Ô¹§Ò¹µÒÁ ·ÕèÃÒ§ҹÇÒ»¯ÔºÑµÔÍÂÙ¤×Í ¡Ò÷ӤÇÒÁè¡à´ç¡ÃÒºؤ¤Å ÙÑ ¡ÒûÃÐÊÒ¹¡ÑººÒ¹áÅЪØÁª¹ à¾ÃÒжҤÃÙà»´âÍ¡ÒÊãËà´ç¡ ä´Á»¯ÔÊÁ¾Ñ¹¸ã¡Åª´¡Ñº¤ÃÙ ¼Å·ÕµÒÁÁÒ¨ÐäÁà¾Õ§·ÓãË Õ Ñ Ô è ¹Ñ¡àÃÕ¹ÁÕ¤ÇÒÁÊØ¢à·Ò¹Ñé¹áµ¼Å¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ç¨Ð´Õ¢Öé¹´Ç ᵠ¹Ñé ¹ Â Í ÁËÁÒÂÃÇÁ¶Ö § Ç Ò ¼Ù Ê Í¹ä´ à ¢ Ò ã¨ÇÔ ¸Õ ¡ ÒÃ¨Ñ ´ ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹ÍÂÒ§ªÑ´à¨¹ 3) ã¹ÀÒ¾ÃÇÁáÅÇ ´Ò¹ºØ¤ÅÒ¡Ãâ´Â੾ÒÐ ´ Ò ¹¤ÇÒÁµÃÐË¹Ñ ¡ ¨ÐÊÍ´¤Å Í §¡Ñ º ÊÓ¹Ñ ¡ §Ò¹ ¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒáÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ (2545) ·Õè¡ÅÒÇáÅÇ ¢Ò§µ¹ ´Ò¹¡ÒÃʹѺʹع·ÃѾÂÒ¡Ãà¾×èÍ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡Òà àÃÕ¹ÃÙ ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Åá¹ÇãËÁáÅСÒÃÁÕÊǹÃÇÁ㹡Òà ¾Ñ²¹ÒªØÁª¹ «Ö觧ҹÇԨѹÕé¡çä´¾ºÇÒ ¼Ù»¡¤ÃͧÂÍÁÃѺ ÇÒä´ÃºÃ´Ò¹¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¢Í§ºØµÃËÅÒ¹ÁÒ¡¢Ö¹ áÁ¨Ð¡ÅÒÇ Ñ Ù é ÇÒäÁÊÒÁÒöªÇÂàËÅ×ÍâçàÃÕ¹ä´ÁÒ¡¹Ñ¡ áµã¹·Ø¡¡ÅÁ Ø âçàÃÕ¹¨ÐÊÍ´¤Åͧ¡Ñ¹ã¹á§¢Í§¡ÒÃÁÕÊǹÃÇÁáÅРʹã¨âçàÃÕ¹ÁÒ¡¢Ö¹ ¡àǹâçàÃÕ¹ã¹Êѧ¡Ñ´¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ é

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»àÃÕ¹Ã٨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

81

àÍ¡ª¹ »ÃÐà´ç¹¡ÒÃÃÇÁÁ×ÍÃÐËÇÒ§âçàÃÕ¹áÅЪØÁª¹ Crozier, Gill (1999) ÈÖ¡ÉÒ¶Ö§ÁØÁÁͧ¢Í§¼Ù»¡¤Ãͧ ã¹á§¤ÇÒÁÊÑÁ¾Ñ¹¸¡Ñº¤ÃÙä´¢ÍÊÃØ»ÇÒ ÁÕËÅÒÂæ »¨¨Ñ ·Õ໹ÍØ»ÊÃä㹤ÇÒÁÃÇÁÁ×ÍÃÐËÇÒ§¤ÃÙáÅм»¡¤Ãͧ è Ù à¾ÃÒмٻ¡¤Ãͧ¨ÐàËç¹ÇÒ¤ÃÙ໹¼Ù·Õèà˹×Í¡ÇÒ·Ø¡àÃ×èͧ äÁÇÒ¨Ð໹ÍÒªÕ¾áÅÐÇÔªÒ¤ÇÒÁÃÙ ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹¼»¡¤Ãͧ¨Ö§àËç¹ é Ù ÇÒµ¹àͧªÇÂÍÐäÃäÁä´ÁÒ¡ ÍÂÒ§äáçµÒÁ Crozier ªÕãË é àËç¹¾ÍáÁÃдѺ¡ÅÒ§¨ÐãˤÇÒÁʹã¨áÅÐʹѺʹع ÃÇÁÁ×͡Ѻ¤ÃÙä´´Õ¡ÇÒ¾ÍáÁ·Õè໹ÃдѺ¤¹§Ò¹ ÊÓËÃѺ »ÃÐà·Èä·Âʶҹ¡Òó·Õè ËÅÑ¡ÊٵáÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¢Ñé¹ ¾×é¹°Ò¹ ¾.È .2544 «Öè§ä´à»´âÍ¡ÒÊãËÁÕËÅÑ¡Êٵà ·Í§¶Ô¹â´Âà»´âÍ¡ÒÊãË ¼»¡¤Ãͧ·ÕÁÍҪվ㹷ͧ¶Ô¹ è Ù è Õ è à¢ÒÁÒÁÕÊǹÃÇÁ¹Ò¨Ð´Õ¢¹ËÒ¡âçàÃÕ¹ÁÕá¼¹§Ò¹áÅÐÁÕ Öé ¡ÒûÃÐÊÒ¹§Ò¹·Õè·ÑèǶ֧ »ÃÐà´ç¹ã¹á§¢Í§ºØ¤ÅÒ¡ÃáÅФÇÒÁ¾ÃÍÁ ¡ç¤Í ¡ÒÃãË¡Òý¡ÍºÃÁµÍ§à¢Á¢¹áÅеÍà¹×ͧ à¾ÃÒÐ × è â´ÂÀÒ¾ÃÇÁáÅÇâçàÃÕ¹㹷ءÊѧ¡Ñ´àË繵ç¡Ñ¹ÇÒ ¤ÃÙ ÂѧäÁà¢Ò㨷ÔÈ·Ò§¢Í§¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹ã¹á¹Ç »¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ã٪Ѵਹ¾Í ÇÔ·ÂÒ¡ÃËÅÒÂ˹ǧҹãË ¤Ó͸ԺÒ·ÕèäÁÊÍ´¤Åͧ ¤ÃÙ¨Ö§ºÍ¡ÇÒ¡ÒÃÍÒÈÑ·ӵÒÁ à¾×è͹¡çäÁá¹ã¨ÇÒ¶Ù¡µÍ§ËÃ×ÍäÁ 㹡ÒÃÇԨѤÃÑ駹Õéä´¾ºÇÒ ÁÕ¤Ã٨ӹǹ˹Ö觷Õè µ×è¹µÑÇáÅÐÂÔ¹´Õà¢ÒÃÇÁâ¤Ã§¡Òõҧæ ÍÂÒ§ÊÁèÓàÊÁÍ áµàÁ×Íä´Ãº¡ÒÃàÂÕÂÁËͧàÃÕ¹¨Ò¡·ÕÁÇԨ¨оºÇÒ §Ò¹ è Ñ è Ñ Ê͹¨ÐäÁ໹仵ÒÁ»¡µÔ ¤ÃÙ¡ÅÒÇÇÒäÁÁàÇÅÒ·Á෡Ѻ Õ Ø ¡ÒèѴ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹à¾ÃÒÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁ¨Ó໹ µÍ§ÃѺ¼Ô´ªÍº§Ò¹¸ØáÒÃã¹âçàÃÕ¹ ¾ÃÍÁ·Ñ駧ҹ ¾Ñ²¹ÒµÒ§æ ·ÕÊÁѤÃã¨à¢ÒÃÇÁ હ â¤Ã§¡Òû¯Ôû¡Òà è Ù àÃÕ¹ÃÙ·Ñé§âçàÃÕ¹ â¤Ã§¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂ㹪Ñé¹àÃÕ¹·Ñé§âçàÃÕ¹ «Öè§á·¹·Õè¨Ð໹§Ò¹·ÕèàÊÃÔÁÈÑ¡ÂÀÒ¾¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹ â¤Ã§¡ÒþÔàÈɨ֧¡ÅÒÂ໹§Ò¹·Õà¾ÔÁàÇÅÒ㹡ÒÃàµÃÕÂÁ è è ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹áÅÐà¾ÔÁàÇÅÒ㹡ÒèѴÊÀÒ¾ è áÇ´ÅÍÁ㹡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ãËà¡Ô´»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹¹Ñ¡àÃÕ¹ é ·ÕèÍÂÙÀÒÂ㵢ͧºØ¤ÅҡáÅØÁ¹Õé ¨Ö§ä´ÃѺÁͺËÁÒÂãË ·ÓẺ½¡ËÑ´µÍ仨ҡ¤Ãѧ·ÕáÅÇ ËÃ×Í·Ó㺧ҹ «Ö§ºÒ§ é è è ¤ÃÑé§ãº§Ò¹¡ç¤×Í ¡ÒÃÊÑè§ã˹ѡàÃÕ¹¤Ñ´ÅÍ¡¢Í¤ÇÒÁ¨Ò¡

˹ѧÊ×ÍÁÒʧ¤ÃÙ¹Ñè¹àͧ ÀÒ¾·ÕèàË繡ç¤×Í ¤ÃÙ·Õè¼Ò¹¡Òà ͺÃÁ¨ÐËÒ¡Ô¨¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹䴹Òʹã¨áÅÐ ËÅÒ¡ËÅÒ ¢³Ð·Õè¤ÃÙ·ÕèàÃÕ¹ÃÙ¨Ò¡à¾×è͹¨Ðãªá¹Ç·Ò§ ¡ÒÃÊ͹Ẻà´ÔÁ໹ËÅÑ¡ 1. ¡ÒþѲ¹ÒºØ¤ÅҡäÇÃÁÕâ¤Ã§ÊÃÒ§ªÑ´à¨¹ áÅÐÁÕ¤ÇÒÁµÍà¹×ͧã¹ÅѡɳзÕÁ¡Òà µÔ´µÒÁ¼ÅËÅѧ è è Õ ¡Òý¡ÍºÃÁËÃ×ÍÁÕ¡ÒþѲ¹Òã¹ÊÀÒ¾¨ÃÔ§â´ÂÍÒÈÑ à¤Ã×Í¢Ò¤ÃÙµ¹áºº ¹Ñ¡ÈÖ¡ÉÒ½¡Ê͹áÅÐʶҺѹÍØ´Á ÈÖ¡ÉÒ໹¾ÕàÅÕ§ ¾ÃÍÁ·Ñ§Ê§àÊÃÔÁãËâçàÃÕ¹໹¼ÃàÃÔÁ è é é ÙÔ è â¤Ã§¡ÒþѲ¹ÒºØ¤Åҡ÷ÕÊÍ´¤Åͧ¡Ñº»ËÒáÅФÇÒÁ è µÍ§¡ÒâͧáµÅÐâçàÃÕ¹à¾×èÍãËà¡Ô´¡ÒþѲ¹ÒÍÂÒ§ ÂÑè§Â×¹ 2. ¡ÒûÃÐÊÒ¹§Ò¹¡Ñ º ªØ Á ª¹¤ÇÃÁÕ ¡ ÒÃãË ¤ÇÒÁẪØÁª¹ ¾ÍáÁ¼»¡¤ÃͧÍÂÒ§¨ÃÔ§¨Ñ§ã¹·ÔÈ·Ò§ ÙÑ Ù áÅÐÃٻẺ¢Í§¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙà¾×èÍã˼ٻ¡¤Ãͧ à¡Ô´¤ÇÒÁªÑ´à¨¹ÇÒà¢Ò¨Ðä´ÃѺÍÐäà ¨Ð¾ºÊÀÒ¾¡Òó à¾×è Í ª Ç ÂàËÅ× Í ºØ µ ÃËÅÒ¹ÍÂ Ò §ä÷Õè à » ¹ ¼Å¨Ò¡¡Òà »¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙáÅÐà¢Ò¨ÐÁÕÊǹÃÇÁä´ÍÂÒ§äà 3. ÁÕ ¡ ÒÃ¨Ñ ´ ÊÃ纻ÃÐÁÒ³áÅÐâ¤Ã§¡Òà ¾Ñ²¹ÒáËŧàÃÕ¹ÃÙã¹âçàÃÕ¹·ÕèªÑ´à¨¹áÅеÍà¹×èͧ ä´ á ¡ ¡ÒÃ¾Ñ ² ¹ÒË Í §ÊÁØ ´ âçàÃÕ Â ¹ãË ÁÕ ¤Ø ³ ÀÒ¾ ÁÕ Ë¹Ñ§Ê×Íà¾Õ§¾ÍµÍ¡Ò乤ÇÒËÒ¤ÇÒÁÃÙ ÊÍ´¤Åͧ¡Ñº ¡ÒèѴ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙã¹á¹Ç»¯ÔÃÙ» ÁÕà¨Ò˹ҷÕè ËͧÊÁØ´â´ÂµÃ§¨Ñ´àµÃÕÂÁ¤ÍÁ¾ÔÇàµÍÃãËà¾Õ§¾ÍáÅÐ ·ÑèǶ֧ÊÓËÃѺ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¤¹¤ÇҴǵ¹àͧ¢Í§¹Ñ¡àÃÕ¹ 4. ¡ÒþѲ¹ÒÊÀÒ¾¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹ ¤ÇÃãˤÃÙ/ÍÒ¨ÒÃÂä´ÁÊǹÃÇÁ㹡Òä¹ËÒ»ËҢͧ Õ µ¹àͧ¨Ò¡ÊÀÒ¾¨Ãԧ㹧ҹ·ÕèÃѺ¼Ô´ªÍºÍÂÙáÅÐÁÕ¡Òà ·ÓÇÔ¨ÂàªÔ§»¯Ôºµ¡Òà (action research) à¾×Íá¡»ËÒËÃ×Í Ñ Ñ Ô è ¾Ñ²¹ÒÇÔ¸¡ÒèѴ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹¡ÒÃÊ͹ãËÁ»ÃÐÊÔ·¸ÔÀÒ¾ÂÔ§¢Ö¹ Õ Õ è é â´ÂÁÕûẺ¢Í§¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÂẺÃÇÁÁ×͡ѹ (collaborative Ù Ñ research) ÃÐËÇÒ§¹Ñ¡ÇÔªÒ¡ÒÃÀÒ¹͡ ¼ÙºÃÔËÒà ¤ÃÙ/ ÍÒ¨ÒÃÂáÅйѡÈÖ¡ÉÒ½¡Ê͹ áÅм»¡¤Ãͧ «Ö§¨Ð·ÓãË Ù è ºØ¤ÅÒ¡Ãã¹âçàÃÕ¹·Ó§Ò¹à¾×èÍá¡»ËÒáÅоѲ¹Ò µ¹àͧÍÂÒ§ÁÕ·ÔÈ·Ò§áÅÐà¡Ô´¡ÒþѲ¹Ò·ÕèÂÑè§Â×¹

¢ÍàʹÍá¹Ð

82

¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹Ã٨ѧËÇÑ´¢Í¹á¡¹

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

¹§Åѡɳ ÇÔÃѪªÑÂ. (2545). á¹Ç·Ò§¡ÒÃÇÔ¨ÑÂâ¤Ã§¡Òà »ÃÐàÁÔ ¹ ¼Å¡Òû¯Ô ÃÙ » ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ . àÍ¡ÊÒà »ÃСͺ¡ÒûÃЪØÁ¡ÒôÓà¹Ô¹§Ò¹â¤Ã§¡Òà »ÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ 28 µØÅÒ¤Á 2545. Êӹѡ§Ò¹¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒáÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ. (2545). ÃÒ§ҹ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ¹¼Å¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ. ¡ÃØ § à·¾ÁËÒ¹¤Ã: ¡ÅØ Á §Ò¹»ÃÐàÁÔ ¹ ¼Å 1 ÊÓ¹Ñ ¡ §Ò¹¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒáÒÃÈÖ ¡ ÉÒáË § ªÒµÔ Êӹѡ¹Ò¡ÃÑ°Á¹µÃÕ. Êӹѡ§Ò¹¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒáÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ. (2545). ÃÒ§ҹ¼Å¡ÒôÓà¹Ô ¹ §Ò¹â¤Ã§¡ÒùÓÃ Í § ÃдѺªÒµÔ àÃ×èͧ¡Òû¯ÔÃÙ»¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ÃÙ ã¹âçàÃÕ Â ¹¹ÓÃ Í §: ÃÙ » Ẻ·Õè ¤Ñ ´ ÊÃÃ. ¡Ãا෾ÁËÒ¹¤Ã: Êӹѡ§Ò¹¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒáÒà ÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ Êӹѡ¹Ò¡ÃÑ°Á¹µÃÕ.

àÍ¡ÊÒÃÍÒ§ÍÔ§

Êӹѡ§Ò¹¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒáÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ. (2545). ¡Ãкǹ¡Òû¯Ôûà¾×;Ѳ¹Ò¤Ø³ÀÒ¾¡ÒÃàÃÕ¹ Ù è ÃÙ : ¡ÒûÃÐàÁÔ ¹ áÅСÒûÃÐ¡Ñ ¹ ¤Ø ³ ÀÒ¾. ¡Ãا෾ÁËÒ¹¤Ã: Êӹѡ§Ò¹¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡Òà ¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ Êӹѡ¹Ò¡ÃÑ°Á¹µÃÕ. Êӹѡ§Ò¹¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒáÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ. (2545). ʶҹÀÒ¾¡Òû¯Ô ÃÙ » ¡Ãкǹ¡ÒÃàÃÕ Â ¹ÃÙ ã¹âçàÃÕ¹¹ÓÃͧ: º·àÃÕ¹áÅТÍàʹÍá¹Ð àªÔ § ¹âºÒÂ. ¡ÃØ § à·¾ÁËÒ¹¤Ã: ÊÓ¹Ñ ¡ §Ò¹ ¤³Ð¡ÃÃÁ¡ÒáÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒá˧ªÒµÔ Êӹѡ¹Ò¡ ÃÑ°Á¹µÃÕ. Arnold, W.E. & Mc Clure, L.M 1996. Communication, Training and Development. Illinois : Pross Inc. Crozier, Gill 1999. Is it a case of We know when were not wanted ? The parents, perspective on parent-teacher roles and relationship. Educational Research Vol. 41, No.3, 315328.

¢¹Ò´ ãË àÅç¡ ãË ¡ÅÒ§ àÅç¡ ¡ÅÒ§ ¡ÅÒ§ ¡ÅÒ§ ¡ÅÒ§ ¡ÅÒ§ ãË ¡ÅÒ§ àÅç¡ àÅç¡ àÅç¡ ¡ÅÒ§ Êѧ¡Ñ´ à·ÈºÒÅ à·ÈºÒÅ à·ÈºÒÅ à·ÈºÒŠʪ. ʪ. ÊÒÁÑ ÊÒÁÑ ÊÒÁÑ ÊÒÁÑ ÊÒÁÑ Ê»ª. Ê»ª. Ê»ª. Ê»ª. Ê»ª.

µÒÃÒ§·Õè 1

ª×èÍâçàÃÕ¹ 1. à·ÈºÒÅÇÑ´¡ÅÒ§ 2. à·ÈºÒÅ⹹˹ͧÇÑ´ 3. à·ÈºÒÅÊǹʹء 4. à·ÈºÒŤØÁ˹ͧ¤Ù 5. 侺ÙÅÂÇÔ·ÂÒ 6. ÁËÒä¶ÈÖ¡ÉÒºÒ¹¹ÍÂÊÒÁàËÅÕèÂÁ 7. ·Ò¾ÃÐÇÔ·ÂÒ¹ 8. ⤡ÊÕ¾Ô·ÂÒÊÃþ 9. ¹íҾͧ¾Ñ²¹ÈÖ¡ÉÒÃѪÁѧ¤ÅÒÀÔàÉ¡ é 10. ¢Í¹á¡¹ÇÔ·ÂÒ¹ 2 11. ¹íéҾͧÈÖ¡ÉÒ 12. ºÒ¹·ØÁ 13. ºÒ¹Áǧ 14. ºÒ¹â¹¹Áǧ 15. ºÒ¹Ë¹Í§ËÔ¹ 16. ªØÁª¹Ë¹Í§¡Ø§ÇÔ·ÂÒ

KKU Res J 8 (2) : Jul - Dec 2003

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ËÒ¡ÒÃàÅÕ¹ẺÅÒ¼ҷ;×é¹àÁ×ͧÍÕÊÒ¹ áÅÐ âÁà´Å·Ò§¡®ËÁÒÂà¾×èͤØÁ¤ÃͧÀÙÁԻҷͧ¶Ôè¹

83

The Study of Problems in Imitation Northeastern Fabric Style and Model Law for Protection of Folklore

¸Ñ¸Ã ÍÔ¹Èà (Tuyatorn Insorn)1

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ËÒ¡ÒÃàÅÕ¹ẺÅÒ¼ҷ;׹àÁ×ͧÍÕÊÒ¹ é áÅÐâÁà´Å·Ò§¡®ËÁÒÂà¾×ͤÁ¤ÃͧÀÙÁ»Ò·Í§¶Ô¹ è Ø Ô è

§Ò¹ÇԨѹÕé ¡ÅÒǶ֧¤ÇÒÁÊӤѢͧ¤µÔ¾×鹺ҹÀÙÁԻҷͧ¶Ôè¹ (Folklore) Íѹ໹Áô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ¢Í§ªÒµÔä·Â áµ ÂѧäÁÁÕº·ºÑѵԡ®ËÁÒÂã´ä´ãˤÇÒÁ¤ØÁ¤ÃͧᡡóÕâ´ÂµÃ§ ·Ñ駹Õéà¾ÃÒÐâ´ÂÅѡɳо×é¹°Ò¹¢Í§ÀÙÁԻҷͧ¶Ôè¹ã¹ºÒ§¡Ã³ÕÍÒ¨ äÁÍÂÀÒÂ㵤ÇÒÁ¤Á¤ÃͧµÒÁ¡®ËÁÒ·ÃѾÂʹ·Ò§»Ò ËÃ×Í㹺ҧ¡Ã³ÕÍÒ¨¨ÐÁÕšɳÐ໹§Ò¹ÊÃÒ§ÊÃä͹໹ÊÒ¸ÒóР(Public Ù Ø Ô Ñ Ñ Domain) «Ö§à»¹§Ò¹·ÕÅǧàÅ¡Ó˹´ÍÒÂؤÇÒÁ¤Á¤ÃͧµÒÁ¡¯ËÁÒ·ÃѾÂʹ·Ò§»ÒáÅÇ ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹ºØ¤¤Åã´¡çµÒÁÂÍÁÊÒÁÒö¹Ó§Ò¹ è è Ø Ô é ¹Ñé¹ä»ãªä´â´ÂäÁ¶×ÍÇÒ໹¡ÒÃÅÐàÁÔ´·ÃѾÂÊÔ¹·Ò§»Ò «Ö觻ËҴѧ¡ÅÒÇÍÒ¨¹Óä»ÊÙ¡ÒÃà¡Å×è͹¡Å×¹ áÅЩ¡©ÇÂàÍÒ仫Öè§Áô¡·Ò§ ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁä·Ââ´ÂªÒǵҧªÒµÔä´ ¨Ò¡¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ¾ºÇÒ ·Ñ§¡ÅÁ»ÃÐà·È¡ÓÅѧ¾Ñ²¹ÒáÅлÃÐà·È·Õ¾²¹ÒáÅÇËÅÒ»ÃÐà·È µÒ§µÃÐ˹ѡáÅÐãˤÇÒÁÊÓ¤Ñá¡¡Ã³Õ é Ø è Ñ ´Ñ§¡ÅÒÇ «Ö§ã¹ÃÐÂÐàÃÔÁáá¨ÐãˤÇÒÁ¤Á¤Ãͧâ´Â㪺·ºÑѵ¡®ËÁÒÂÅÔ¢ÊÔ·¸Ôì ᵡ§äÁÊÒÁÒöãˤÇÒÁ¤Á¤Ãͧä´ÍÂÒ§¤Ãͺ¤ÅØÁ è è Ø Ô çÑ Ø áÅÐàËÁÒÐÊÁä´ ´Ñ§¹Ñ鹨֧ä´ÁÕá¹Ç¤Ô´·Õè¨Ð¡Ó˹´ÁҵáÒ÷ҧ¡®ËÁÒ·ÕèÁÕÅѡɳÐ੾ÒÐ (Sui generis) ¢Öé¹ÁҺѧ¤Ñºãªá¡¡Ã³Õ «Öè§ Í§¤¡Ã·ÃѾÂÊÔ¹·Ò§»ÒâÅ¡ (WIPO) 䴨Ѵ·ÓÃÒ§¡®ËÁÒµ¹áººà¾×èÍ¡ÒÃ͹ØÃÑ¡É áÅÐãˤÇÒÁ¤ØÁ¤ÃͧᡤµÔ¾×鹺ҹÀÙÁÔ»Ò ·Í§¶Ôè¹ «Ö觻ÃÐà·ÈµÒ§æ ÊÒÁÒö¹ÓÃٻẺáÅÐËÅÑ¡¡Òá®ËÁÒ´ѧ¡ÅÒÇ仺ÑѵÔ໹¡®ËÁÒÂÀÒÂã¹»ÃÐà·È áÅлÃÐÂØ¡µãªãË àËÁÒÐÊÁ¡ÑºÊÀÒ¾¡Òó¢Í§µ¹ä´ »ÃÐà·Èä·Â¹Ñºà»¹»ÃÐà·È˹֧·Õ¡ÓÅѧ»ÃÐʺ»ËÒ¡Òö١ÅǧÅÐàÁÔ´ÀÙÁ»Ò·Í§¶Ô¹â´ÂªÒǵҧªÒµÔ ©Ð¹Ñ¹à¾×Í໹¡Òà è è Ô è é è »¡»Í§áÅÐãˤÇÒÁ¤Á¤Ãͧá¡Áô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ¢Í§ªÒµÔ¨§¤ÇúÑѵ¡®ËÁÒ·ÕÁšɳÐ໹¡ÒÃ੾ÒТֹÁÒà¾×ÍãˤÇÒÁ¤Á¤ÃÍ§á¡ Ø Ö Ô è ÕÑ é è Ø ¡Ã³Õ´§¡ÅÒǹÕé Ñ This study scrutinized the inadequacies of legal protective measures for one of Thailands most important cultural heritages , Thai Folklore. The study shows that currently there is no law or copyright provision that directly protects the rights of those who created these legends. The reasons for this lack of protection can be traced to the fact that the nature or characteristic of Folklore does not fall under the laws of intellectual property. Folklore is often considered to be in the public Domain, and as such, it does not receive perpetual protection. The absence of these protective measures fosters fraud and infringement. This study found that the problem is not unique to Thailand. Developed and developing countries alike have expressed equal concern and given similar attention to this issue. In an effort to stem the problem some countries have begun the process of protection by applying provisions of existing copyright laws. Since these laws are inherently inadequate , some legal professionals have exhorted to resurrecting laws, Which have specific provisions (Sui generis) to apply to a particular case . The study also found that the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) has responded to growing international concern and prepared a new law that may be used by interested countries as a model for their own use . Thailand is one of many countries experiencing infringement by foreigners on the rights of creation of Folklore. This study encourages the prevention of such actions and advocates protection of our nations heritage . The study further supports the development of specific laws related to the protection of these national assets.

º·¤Ñ´ÂÍ

Abstract

¤ÓÊÓ¤Ñ : ¡®ËÁÒÂÀÙÁԻҷͧ¶Ôè¹ ÅÒ¼Ҿ×é¹àÁ×ͧÍÕÊÒ¹ Keywords : Law for Protection of Folklore, Northeastern Fabric Style

1

¼ÙªÇÂÈÒʵÃÒ¨ÒàÃдѺ 7, »ÃШÓÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑ¡ÒÃàÁ×ͧ¡Òû¡¤Ãͧ ÁËÒÇÔ·ÂÒÅÑÂÁËÒÊÒäÒÁ ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ÁËÒÊÒäÒÁ

84

¡ÒÃÈÖ¡ÉÒ»ËÒ¡ÒÃàÅÕ¹ẺÅÒ¼ҷ;×é¹àÁ×ͧÍÕÊÒ¹ áÅÐ âÁà´Å·Ò§¡®ËÁÒÂà¾×èͤØÁ¤ÃͧÀÙÁԻҷͧ¶Ôè¹

ÇÒÃÊÒÃÇԨѠÁ¢. 8 (2) : ¡.¤. - ¸.¤. 2546

»ÃÐà·Èä·Â¹Ñºà»¹»ÃÐà·È·ÕèÁÕ¤ÇÒÁà¨ÃÔ ÃØ § àÃ× Í §ã¹´ Ò ¹ÈÔ Å »ÐáÅÐÇÑ ² ¹¸ÃÃÁÁÒáµ ¤ ÃÑé § Í´Õ µ â´Â੾ÒÐÍÂÒ§ÂÔ§ÈÔÅ»ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ¾×鹺ҹ«Öè§ÁÕÍÂÙã¹·ÑèÇ è ·Ø¡ÀÒ¤¢Í§»ÃÐà·È ä´ÁÕ¡ÒÃÊ׺·Í´µÍ¡Ñ¹ÁÒËÅÒ ªÑÇÍÒÂؤ¹â´ÂäÁ»ÃÒ¡¯ÇÒ¼ã´à»¹¼ÊÃÒ§ÊÃ䢹¨Ö§¶×ÍÇÒ è Ù Ù Öé ໹§Ò¹ÊÒ¸ÒóÊÁºÑµ¢Í§á¼¹´Ô¹ ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹¨Ö§ÁÕ¼¹ÓÁô¡ Ô é Ù ·Ò§ÇÑ ² ¹¸ÃÃÁ¢Í§ªÒµÔ ä »ãª ä ´ â ´ÂäÁ ÁÕ ¡ ÒäǺ¤Ø Á à¾ÃÒж×ÍÇÒ໹ÊÁºÑµÔÊǹÃÇÁ¢Í§»ÃÐà·ÈªÒµÔ â´Â ੾ÒÐÍÂÒ§ÂÔè§ã¹»¨¨ØºÑ¹ä´ÁÕ¡ÒùÓàÍÒÈÔÅ»ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ ¾×鹺ҹä»ãªÍÂÒ§äÁàËÁÒÐÊÁ ·Ñ駹ÕéÍҨ໹¼Å¨Ò¡¡Òà à»ÅÕ¹á»Å§·Ò§´Ò¹àÈÃÉ°¡Ô¨ Êѧ¤Á µÅÍ´¨¹¤ÇÒÁà¨ÃÔ è ¡ÒÇ˹ҷҧÇÔ·ÂÒ¡ÒÃÊÁÑÂãËÁ ¨Ö§·ÓãËÁÕ¡ÒôѴá»Å§ §Ò¹ÈÔŻо׹ºÒ¹ã˼´ä»¨Ò¡áººá¼¹´Ñ§à´ÔÁ «Ö§ÍÒ¨ é Ô é è ·ÓãËÊÙàÊÕ¤س¤ÒáÅÐàÍ¡Åѡɳ¢Í§ªÒµÔä´ ÍÕ¡·Ñé§Âѧ à» ¹ ª Í §âÍ¡ÒÊãË µ Ò §ªÒµÔ Ê ÒÁÒöà¡Å×è Í ¹¡Å× ¹ áÅÐ ©¡©ÇÂàÍÒ仫Öè§Áô¡·Ò§ÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁ¢Í§ªÒµÔä´§Ò «Ö觨йÓä»ÊÙ¤ÇÒÁÊÙàÊÕ·ÕèäÁÍÒ¨»ÃÐÁÒ³¤Òä´ ÍÕ¡ »ÃСÒÃ˹֧´Ç ´Ñ§¹Ñ¹¨Ö§¤ÇÃËÒÁҵáÒ÷ҧ¡®ËÁÒ è é ·ÕèàËÁÒÐÊÁà¾×èÍãˤÇÒÁ¤ØÁ¤Ãͧᡡóմѧ¡ÅÒÇ 1. à¾×ÍÈÖ¡ÉÒÇѲ¹¸ÃÃÁáÅÐÇÔDz¹Ò¡Òà µÅÍ´¨¹ è Ñ ÊÀÒ¾»ËÒ¡ÒÃàÅÕ¹ẺÅÒ·ͼҾ׹àÁ×ͧÍÕÊÒ¹ áÅÐ é ¡ÒÃÅÑ¡Åͺ¹Óà¢Ò¼ÒàÅÕ¹ẺÅÒ¼ҷÍÍÕÊÒ¹ ã¹à¢µ¨Ñ§ËÇÑ´ ÍØ´Ã¸Ò¹Õ Ë¹Í§¤Ò ÁØ¡´ÒËÒà ¡ÒÌ&Eci