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The PhD in the Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences

7 March 2008

CONTENTS

Welcome by CHASS President, Professor Stuart Cunningham Program Speakers Abstracts List of delegates CHASS Board Members Useful Contacts Restaurant Venue UNSW Venue

WELCOME by Professor Stuart Cunningham

The PhD increasingly has come to be regarded as the base qualification for an academic or research career as the university system has expanded rapidly over the last 20 years. Questions of its value as a preparation for such a career have been regularly revisited over the years. What gives this well-rehearsed subject fresh topicality is the role of the PhD in contributing to innovation and research capacity for innovation. This context will form the basis for much public debate this year as the new government seeks to review, rationalise and refresh Australia's innovation system. The Productivity Commission very recently reviewed Australia's `Public Support for Science and Innovation'. The question of a qualified workforce was never far from prominence in that inquiry. One of the most pressing `sleeper' issues facing the university sector is the imminent retirement of a good proportion of academics of the `baby boomer' generation. Adequate PhD training to fill, what in some disciplines may be a yawning gap, is a critical medium-term planning and investment strategy. While there is inevitable variation across the academic workforce, some disciplines in the humanities, arts and social sciences (HASS) will face this in particularly acute ways. Then there are issues of support for those undertaking the PhD. The government has made a public commitment to a significant enhancement of the scholarship offer at a time when the market for higher degree scholarships is being affected by the strong economy and jobs growth. Minister Carr has spoken of revitalizing stagnating Australian Postgraduate Awards. There is no greater contributor to stagnation than in the amount given for these Awards. The crude high cost-low cost differentiator used in calculating returns to universities in the Research Training Scheme, when compared to the highly calibrated relative funding formula used to fund teaching in undergraduate disciplines, might also be in line for a refresh. There is also the question of the specificity of the PhD in HASS. We know that about 45% of those who are awarded a PhD in the HASS disciplines go on to work outside the university sector. What is known about the work of this highly trained cohort? What might it tell us about the nature of HASS-sourced innovation capacity? The HASS sector is highly diverse in its approach to the PhD. For some, it is the traditional `training wheels' necessary for entry into an academic career. For others, it might be seen more as a consolidation of an established professional career. What we do know is that the average age of the PhD award in HASS is a good deal higher than in the natural sciences. What implications does this have in providing adequate support for those undertaking the HASS PhD? CHASS is pleased to host this one-day workshop on future of the PhD in HASS, and I extend a warm welcome all those attending. I trust that together we may make progress in helping to position the HASS PhD as a valuable resource for the nation.

Stuart Cunningham President CHASS

Friday March 7, 2008

Time 8.30-8.34 8.35-9.15 Speaker Stuart Cunningham, QUT Mandy Thomas, ANU Stuart Cunningham, QUT Alan Lawson, UQ Ilana Snyder, Monash 10.00-10.30 Morning tea 10.30-11.10 11.10-11.50 11.50-12.30 Topic Welcome Canvassing the issues. Identification of possibilities, areas for action Chair New data: the relevance and attributes of graduates from Go8 universities, 5-7 years after completion Chair

9.15-10.00

Graeme Hugo, Adelaide Zlatko Skrbis, UQ Terry Evans, Deakin Nigel Palmer, CAPA Denise Cuthbert, Monash Sid Bourke, Newcastle

Demographics: The need for renewal Chair Selected trends in Australian PhDs Chair Tackling low completion rates and long completions times: an overview of post-RTS strategies in one large HASS faculty Chair

12.30-1.15 Lunch 1.15-2.05

Max King, Monash and: Krishna Sen ARC

2.05-2.45

Christina Slade Macquarie Professor David Boud, UTS Angela O'Brien, Melbourne

The international scene. What's going on overseas that we could learn and borrow from? Can we attract more students to Australia? Should we be trying? ARC and Research Training in Australia. An outline of ARC funding for post-graduate research: policies, trends and disciplinary differences, with some reference to p-g research funding by overseas research agencies, such as NSF and UKRC. Chair Reconceptualising the PhD: an emphasis on generic capabilities and transferable skills. Chair

2.45 Afternoon tea 3.10-3.58 Sharon Bell Canberra Susan Broomhall UWA Stuart Cunningham

Pulling the threads together. Are there actions the meeting wants to endorse? Points to make in a letter to the Ministers? What areas are uncertain and require more research? Chair Thanks and farewell

3.58-4.00

SPEAKERS

Professor Stuart Cunninghan Queensland University of Technology

Stuart Cunningham is Professor of Media and Communications, Queensland University of Technology, and Director of the Australian Research Council (ARC) Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation. He is President of the Council of Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences (CHASS). He is well known for his contributions to media, communications and cultural studies and to their relevance to industry practice and government policy. A key figure in cultural policy studies and creative industries, he wrote Featuring Australia (1991), a study of the career of pioneering Australian filmmaker Charles Chauvel, and Framing Culture (1992), an influential critique of the limits of cultural studies as applied to cultural policy. With Toby Miller, he wrote Contemporary Australian Television (1993). He co-wrote or co-edited a number of studies of the global dimensions of audiovisual culture with John Sinclair and Elizabeth Jacka: New Patterns in Global Television (1996), Australian Television and International Mediascapes (1996), and Floating Lives: The Media and Asian Diasporas (2001). He co-edited two textbooks with Graeme Turner, The Australian TV Book (2001) and The Media and Communications in Australia (2006); the second has gone into four editions and is the standard text in the field in Australia. His most recent work is an essay in the Platform Paper series, titled What Price a Creative Economy? (July 2006). He is an appointed member of the Australian Research Council's College of Experts 20057, Adjunct Professor of the Australian National University 2006-8 and Node Convenor, Cultural Technologies, for the ARC Cultural Research Network (CRN). He has coauthored several major reports for bodies such as UNCTAD, the federal departments of education and communications, the Australian Broadcasting Authority, Queensland state government and Brisbane City Council.

Professor Mandy Thomas Pro Vice-Chancellor ­ Research Australian National University

Professor Thomas has broad research and higher degree education responsibilities that include Higher Degree Research (HDR) and Research Integrity, as well as Academic Programs for residential halls and colleges. With an oversight role for the ANU Colleges of Arts and Social Sciences, Business and Economics, Asia and the Pacific, and Law, Professor Thomas also currently holds the position of Convener of the ANU College of Arts and Social Sciences. Professor Thomas is a member of both the University's Education and Research Committees, and works closely together with Pro Vice-Chancellor, Professor Robin Stanton, and the Deputy Vice-Chancellor, Professor Lawrence Cram, in developing the University's strategic approach to Research and Education. Mandy Thomas took up the position of Pro Vice-Chancellor at ANU in November 2006. Prior to this she worked for the Australian Research Council as Executive Director, Humanities and Creative Arts and as the co-ordinator of the Discovery Projects scheme.

An anthropologist by training, she has published widely on Asian cultural production, migration and regional cultural traffic, and has also more recently researched AsianAustralian creative arts.

Professor Alan Lawson Dean of Graduate School University of Queensland

Professor Alan Lawson's role is to undertake strategic activities to position UQ distinctively as a world-class graduate destination of the highest academic quality. Professor Lawson ensures also that the Graduate School achieves its aim of enhancing graduate students' experiences at UQ. He was appointed to the Graduate School in March 1998. Prior to that, he was a Reader in the Department of English where he has taught since 1975. Professor Lawson served as the Department of English's Postgraduate Coordinator from 1994-1997, and has taken a keen interest in graduate student issues since he first became a member of the University of Queensland's Postgraduate Studies Committee in 1987. His focused research areas include postcolonial theory and critical practice, especially in relation to 'settler cultures,' literary institutions, national cultural policy in Australia-Canada comparative studies, and Australian and Canadian fiction. He is a member of the Association for the Study of Australian Literature (ASAL), the Association for Canadian Studies in Australia and New Zealand (ACSANZ), and the Brisbane Post-colonial Discussion group at UQ. An author or editor of 10 books, more than 40 articles and chapters, and 30 conference papers, he has been successful in gaining over $712,500 in research grants. His most recent article--on PhD funding policy debates--appeared in Campus Review, April 1999. His interest in the analysis of national directions in higher educational funding policy is a development from his earlier academic work on cultural policy and discourse analysis. He has spoken on these issues to graduate student groups and at national forums.

Professor Mark Western Director, Social Research Centre University of Queensland

Marks' research spans a number of areas including social inequality, political behaviour, education, families and households, and developments in quantitative methodology, especially longitudinal data analysis. He is Professor of Sociology in the School of Social Science and Director of the University of Queensland Social Research Centre. He previously worked at the University of Tasmania and the Australian National University, and was a Visiting Fellow in the Department of Sociology at the University of WisconsinMadison.

Professor Max King Pro Vice-Chancellor (Research and Training) Monash University and Convenor Australian Council of Deans and Directors

Professor Maxwell King was appointed to the position of Pro Vice-Chancellor (Research and Research Training) in September 2004. His responsibilities include: being director of the Monash Research Graduate School, preparing the University for the Research Quality Framework and Grantsmanship.

He is internationally recognised as a distinguished researcher in the field of econometrics. He has been a professor at Monash University since 1986 and is currently Pro ViceChancellor (Research and Research Training) and Director of the Monash Research Graduate School. Professor King has a B.Sc. (First Class Honours) in Mathematics, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 1972, M.Com (First Class Honours) in Economics, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 1974 and Ph.D. in Economics, University of Canterbury, New Zealand, 1980. He was made a Fellow of the Academy of Social Sciences in 1997 and a Fellow of the Journal of Econometrics in 1989. He has held visiting professorships at the University of Auckland and the University of California, San Diego. Professor King has been a member or has held a leadership role in nineteen external organisations related to his academic disciplines and is currently a member of the Econometric Society and the Royal Statistical Society. In recent years, Professor King has made highly significant contributions to the university, both personally and through administrative leadership of research and research training at Monash. Despite a significant administrative load, he remains an active researcher with a number of papers currently under review. He has received more than 26 competitive research grants and supervised over 40 PhD students. He received the Vice-Chancellor's award for postgraduate supervision in 1996 and was appointed a Sir John Monash Distinguished Professor in 2003.

Professor Graeme Hugo University of Adelaide

Professor Hugo is University Professorial Research Fellow, Professor of the Department of Geographical and Environmental Studies and Director of the National Centre for Social Applications of Geographic Information Systems at the University of Adelaide. His research interests are in population issues in Australia and South East Asia, especially migration. His books include Australia's Changing Population (Oxford University Press), The Demographic Dimension in Indonesian Development (with T. H. Hull, V. J. Hull and G. W. Jones, Oxford University Press), International Migration Statistics: Guidelines for Improving Data Collection Systems (with A.S. Oberai, H. Zlotnik and R. Bilsborrow, International Labour Office), Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at Century's End (with D. S. Massey, J. Arango, A Kouaouci, A. Pellegrino and J. E. Taylor, Oxford University Press), several of the 1986, 1991 and 1996 census based Atlas of the Australian People Series (AGPS), Australian Immigration: A Survey of the Issues (with M. Wooden, R. Holton and J. Sloan, AGPS), New Forms of Urbanisation: Beyond the UrbanRural Dichotomy (with A. Champion, Ashgate) and Australian Census Analytic Program: Australia's Most Recent Immigrants (Australian Bureau of Statistics). In 2002 he secured an ARC Federation Fellowship over five years for his research project, "The new paradigm of international migration to and from Australia: dimensions, causes and implications". He is currently working on reports on Migration and Development for the Australian Government and for the Asian Development Bank.

Professor Terry Evans

School of Education Deakin University Terry Evans is a Professor in the School of Education at Deakin University, Geelong, Australia. His current research and publication focuses on doctoral education, although he also has a longstanding record in open and distance education. He is a CI on two current ARC Discovery Grants: Research capacity-building: the development of the Australian PhD programs in national and emerging global contexts. (with M Pearson & P Macauley); Australian doctoral graduates' publication, professional and community outcomes (with P Macauley) and on two recent ARC grants: The Impact of Risk Management on Higher Degree Research Policy and Pedagogy in Australian Universities (with E McWilliam, P Taylor & A Lawson); and Working students: reconceptualising the doctoral experience (with M Pearson & P Macauley, and APA(I)s Jim Cumming and Kevin Ryland). He is a co-editor, with Carey Denholm, of Doctorates Downunder: Keys to successful doctoral study in Australia and New Zealand (Melbourne, ACER, 2006) and Supervising doctorates downunder: Keys to effective supervision in Australia and New Zealand (Melbourne, ACER, 2007).

Professor Denise Cuthbert

Associate Dean (Graduate Research) Faculty of Arts Monash University Professor Cuthbert is a member of the School of Political & Social Inquiry at Monash University. From 2000-06, she was Associate Dean (Graduate Research) in the Faculty of Arts at Monash and introduced policies and procedures designed to shift the culture of graduate research education in the faculty, to improve completion rates, reduce completion times, and to ensure a better research education for all candidates. The success of her strategies in significantly improving graduate research student outcomes and as a supervisor in her own right have been recognised in a ViceChancellor's Award (2007) and in a Carrick Citation for Outstanding Contribution to Student Learning (2007).

Dr Krishna Sen

Executive Director, Human and Creative Arts Australian Research Council

Professor Krishna Sen became Executive Director for Humanities and Creative Arts at the ARC in April 2007. Before joining the ARC, she was Dean, Research and Creative Production and Graduate Studies in Humanities at Curtin University of Technology. Professor Sen is the ARC's first ever WA executive director appointment. Internationally recognised as one of the most significant scholars of Indonesian media and culture, Professor Sen has expertise across a diverse range of disciplines, including Asian studies, media history and sociology, cinema studies, cultural studies, and gender studies. Professor Sen's background in western theory and her regional perspectives on contemporary global culture and media have informed her extensive writing during the past decade on media, gender-politics, human rights in Indonesia and other issues. Her works include Indonesian Cinema: Framing the New Order (1994), Gender and Power in Affluent Asia (co-edited with Maila Stivens, 1998), Media, Culture and Politics in Indonesia

and The Internet in Indonesia's New Democracy (co-authored with David Hill 2000 and 2005) and more than 50 book chapters and journal articles. She is a Fellow of the Australian Academy of the Humanities, a member of the International Advisory Board of Murdoch University's Asia Research Centre, and on the editorial boards of the Southeast Asia publications series of the Asian Studies Association of Australia and several other international journals and publication series. She has also been a member of the ARC's Asia Pacific Futures Network and Cultural Research Networks, a long-standing international reader for the ARC and a member of the ARC College of Experts. Professor Sen has a PhD in politics from Monash University, an MA in International Relations from Jadavpur University in Calcutta, and a BA History Honours from Calcutta University. She has held senior research positions at Curtin University of Technology, and was a Senior Lecturer and International Coordinator in the Media Communication and Culture Department at Murdoch University.

Professor David Boud

Dean of Graduate Studies University of Technology, Sydney Professor Boud has been involved in research and teaching development in adult, higher and professional education for over 30 years and has contributed extensively to the literature. Previously he held the positions of Head of the School of Adult and Language Education and he was Associate Dean (Research and Development) in the Faculty of Education. Prior to his appointment at UTS he was Professor and Foundation Director of the Professional Development Centre at the University of New South Wales. Currently he is Dean of the University Graduate School. Most of Professor Boud's teaching has been in the postgraduate area. It has included: experience-based learning, adult learning and program development, Researching educational practice, analysing professional practice, dissertation design and development. He has also supervised many research students. He is interested in how people learn and what can be done to foster their learning. This has taken him to a variety of settings in adult, higher and professional education and prompted an examination of many practices and processes. This has ranged from new forms of curriculum design (problem-based learning, negotiated learning and work-based learning) to learning practices (use of reflection, reciprocal peer learning) and assessment (self-assessment, sustainable assessment). A continuing theme of these explorations has been the role of the learner and how learning might be fostered. This has taken Professor Boud to developing models for learning from experience and the role of reflection in learning, and to examining the role of those who intervene in learning whether or not they are identified as teachers.

Professor Rod Wissler

Dean of Graduate Studies Queensland University of Technology Rod Wissler is Dean of Graduate Studies at QUT. Following completion of his PhD in German Drama, he built a distinguished career as an award-winning actor, director, translator and producer, culminating in a seven-year stint as CEO and Artistic Director of the Twelfth Night Theatre (Inc). Relocating to academia in 1988, he founded the multi- disciplinary Centre for Innovation in the Arts at QUT to focus on arts and technology research. He directed Australia's first live performance event on the Internet and built a further strand of research in Asian-Australian

live events. He also founded Catalyst Youth Arts (Inc) in 1997 to undertake communitybased youth development work using visual and performing arts methods in the outernorthern Brisbane region. His professional and research work has been supported by the Australia Council, State Government departments and the Australian Research Council, for which he has recently completed two Linkage projects in arts festival management and regional arts delivery. His report on the groundbreaking ATN LEAP project was published by DEST in 2003 as "Postgraduate Research Students and Generic Capabilities: Online Directions". As a result the Council of Deans commissioned him and Directors of Graduate Studies to write national guidelines for the development of research graduate generic capabilities. His latest publication on this topic will appear mid-year in Denholm C & Evans T 2007 Supervising doctorates downunder: Keys to effective supervision in Australia and New Zealand ACER Press, Melbourne. He is the project director for the CASR-funded e-Grad School project.

Professor Sharon Bell

Deputy Vice-Chancellor and Vice-President University of Canberra Professor Sharon Bell, Deputy Vice-Chancellor took up her position at the University of Canberra in May 2006. Professor Bell came to the role with a background ideally suited to the University's professional orientation and innovative outlook. Throughout her career she has melded creative and academic interests: specifically filmmaking, research (in the fields of Anthropology and Ethnographic Film) and tertiary teaching and administration. After completing undergraduate degrees in Geography and Anthropology at Sydney University, Professor Bell undertook two years field research in Sri Lanka as part of her Doctoral program. During this time she made her first documentary films and, at the completion of her doctorate went on to work at the Ethnographic Film Unit at Film Australia. In 1989 Professor Bell produced and directed the influential film `88.9: Radio Redfern', and she has recently produced `The Fall of the House'. During her early film-making career Professor Bell also held a number of synergistic academic leadership positions. She was Head of Studies at the Australian Film, Television & Radio School and, from 1994 to 2003, Dean of the Faculties of Creative Arts, later Arts at the University of Wollongong. Since then she has held the position of ProVice Chancellor (Equity and Community Partnerships) at Griffith University. She has major leadership achievements in these roles.

ABSTRACTS

Professor Mandy Thomas

Pro Vice Chancellor ­ Research Australian National University

Canvassing the issues, identifying the possibilities and areas for action

The formation of scholars through the PhD is in numerous ways a radical project for Australia in the 21st century. The national importance of the PhD for Australia's society, environment and economy cannot be overestimated. Australia has one of the lowest numbers of PhDs in the workforce of any OECD country, and there has been a slowly growing recognition from both sides of government that the PhD is a critical element of the innovation economy. More than 50% of PhD graduates do not become academics but join the workforce often to become leaders and agents of change in the sectors they enter. Looking at successful economies around the world, the key to driving innovation in business and government is having a highly creative skilled workforce, particularly PhD trained graduates. Ministers in the new Australian Government have shown their interest in research, education and knowledge transfer and have emphasised the enhancement of the PhD as a key to the innovation agenda. How will the humanities, arts and social sciences (HASS) respond to the new Government's policies and to the wider trends? 1. Outlining the wider context and trends for PhDs in Australia · The political context with a new Labor government; Carr and Gillard portfolios; research and research training; compacts; hub and spokes models; HASS within the innovation agenda; quality focus; need for policy development. · The global trends in PhDs; acknowledgement that PhDs are constantly changing as are the contexts in wider society, nationally and globally. Changes include - focus on entry standards; quality academic training; transferable skills; teacher training; other professional skills development; international opportunities for PhD candidates; commercialisation and industry focus; new technologies for training. 2. Issues for HASS PhD training · For institutions ­ entry standards, completion rates, quality of outcomes, research skills development, cross-disciplinary exposure. · On completion of the PhD ­ valuing the HASS PhD, career destinations, industry and government engagement, upskilling the Australian Public Service and other sectors, professional doctorates. 3. Areas for action · Universities ­ setting standards, raising quality, increasing flexibility, addressing completion rates, sector-wide benchmarking; preparing for increase in student number. · Extensive national data collection, across all fields on HASS PhD enrolments, training and outcomes is needed. Is there a need for national office for PhD entry, evaluation and analysis? · A coherent approach by the HASS sector, including Deans of Graduate Studies, to engage with the Government influencing policy debates; industry sector analysis and engagement strategy. · Raising the awareness of HASS academics about shifts in the PhD and Government policy through outreach strategy, engagement with the academies, and industry workshops. Is this a workshop outcome?

Professor Alan Lawson Dean of the Graduate School AND Professor Mark Western Director, Social Research Centre University of Queensland The characteristics, experiences and attributes of HASS PhD graduates from the Group of 8 universities ­ results of a study Based on studies by DEST and the Group of Eight Universities (Go8). Original Study A national survey of graduates with PhDs awarded by Go8 universities, 1999-2001: the 1,996 respondents are representative of Go8 and Australian PhD graduates on gender, age, discipline, and residency status. Discipline HASS 34% of sample, Other Graduates 66%. Sample Characteristics Gender: HASS graduates are more likely to be female than are graduates from other disciplines. Discipline HASS Other n= 667 1299 % Female 57 41 % Male 43 59 Total 100 100

Age in years at time of survey: HASS graduates were older than graduates from other disciplines, and also older than other graduates (on average) when their degrees are awarded. Discipline HASS Other n= 666 1296 Mean age 47 41

Primary Enrolment Status during PhD: HASS Graduates are less likely to be enrolled fulltime than graduates in other discipline areas, and more likely to be enrolled part-time. Discipline HASS Other n= 638 1229 % Full-time 54 74 % Part-time 36 18 50-50 10 8 Total 100 100

Average Time in Years to Submission of Thesis: within each enrolment status group, HASS graduates take slightly longer than other graduates to submit their theses (about 2.5 months). Discipline HASS Other n=1819 Full-time 4.48 4.29 Part-time 6.30 6.11 50-50 6.52 6.33

Average Time in Years to Award of Degree: within enrolment status groups, HASS students take slightly longer to have their degrees awarded: c.3 months for full time students; about 3.5 months for part-timers. Discipline HASS Other n=1861 Full-time 5.28 5.02 Part-time 7.12 6.86 50-50 7.24 6.99

DEST funded programs - Higher Education Innovation (HEIP) and Collaboration & Structural Reform (CASR) Western, M., Boreham, P., Kubler, M., Laffan, W., Western, J., Lawson, A., and Clague D., 2006. "PhD Graduates 5 to 7 Years Out: Employment Outcomes, Job Attributes and the Quality of Research Training involving Go8 Universities." Commissioned Report Prepared for Department of Education, Science and Training. The University of Queensland Social Research Centre. The University of Queensland.

Professor Graeme Hugo

University Professorial Research Fellow Director of the National Centre for Social Applications of GIS University of Adelaide

Demographics ­ the need for renewal

Introduction In 1962 Australia's leading demographer of the time W.D. Borrie wrote: `simple statistics are fundamental to an understanding of the present and immediate future problems of Australian universities ...' He pointed to the approaching tidal wave of baby boomers about to enter universities on the one hand and the meagre numbers of graduates of the last decade who were available to provide the tertiary staff required on the other. The argument here is that over the next decade or so, Australian universities face a staffing challenge of similar dimensions to that of the time when Borrie wrote. However, this challenge is not so much one created by the baby boomers increasing the number of students so much as large scale retirement of those baby boomers who became university staff in the late 1960s and 1970s. Moreover, whereas the pressure of the 1960s and 1970s was partly relieved by extraordinary efforts to recruit teaching staff from foreign nations, especially the United Kingdom, the contemporary global labour market in academics presents a quite different context. This paper first outlines the age structure of Australia's university academic employees, which is a significantly older one than that of the total population. It then and finally discusses some implications of the changing demography of the academic workforce. Some Data Considerations There are two main sources of data on the Australian academic workforce. Each university maintains detailed data on its academic and general workforces and reports regularly on this to the Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST). These data are maintained for predominantly administrative purposes and often are not maintained in a way which is amenable to demographic analysis. Their detail on the tenure, rank, length of service, fraction of time, etc. permit detailed analyses of trends and emerging issues and problems but there are difficulties in deriving a definitive national overview from these data. It is hoped that over time this will be possible. The second source of information and the one which is employed here is that collected in the quinquennial national censuses of population and housing. The Census (ABS 2006) collects data on industry and occupation of all persons in the workforce. In this paper, people employed in the Higher Education Sector are examined and their occupation characteristics are used to identify the academic part of that workforce. In this study we distinguish between two types of academics ­ those involved in teaching and non teaching academics (who are predominantly researchers since administrators are given separate occupational categories). The census data are useful because they are national in their coverage and consistent in the definitions used from census to census. Moreover, the Australian census is one of the most accurate in the world and also one of the most comprehensive with a 1.8 percent undercount being estimated from the 2001 census (ABS 2003). However it does not have the nuances of detail such as tenure, fraction of time, level, etc., that is available in individual university data. Nevertheless, they give a realistic indication of the main demographic trends in the Australian academic workforce. The Changing Size of the Australian Academic Workforce Measuring changes in the academic workforce over time is made difficult by inconsistencies in the data collection but also different practices in the appointment conditions and time commitment of staff in universities. Perhaps the most consistent data are those collected from universities by DEST and although the data presented below take no account of the balance between part and full time employees, Table 1 indicates the growth which occurred in the total academic workforce of Australian universities according

to the DEST data since 1991. This indicates that over the 1991-2006 period, the academic staff of Australian universities increased by 18.5 percent although the increase among contract staff (29.4 percent) was significantly higher than among tenured staff (12.1 percent). It will be noted however, that the increase in staff was considerably faster in the early part of the period. Table 1: Source: Number of Academic Staff in Australian Universities, 1991-2006 DEST unpublished data Tenured Year 1991 1996 2001 2006 Table 2: 1976-2006 Source: No. 18,852 19,320 20,271 21,138 Annual Rate of Change 0.49 0.97 0.84 Contracted Annual Rate of No. Change 10,982 14,112 5.14 13,209 -1.31 14,210 1.47 Total No. 29,834 33,432 33,480 35,348 Annual Rate of Change 2.30 0.03 1.09

Australia: Number of University Academic and Professional Staff, ABS Australian Censuses of Population and Housing Teaching Academics Annual % No. Growth Rate 13,935 22,707 5.0 29,008 5.0 32,210 2.1 32,217 0.0 35,980 2.2 Total Professional Staff Annual % No. Growth Rate na na na 44,871 52,098 3.0

Year 1976 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006

Turning to Australian population census data, Table 2 indicates the changes which have occurred in the numbers of university staff. There are problems over time in obtaining comparable data. However, the patterns depicted are interesting. There was very rapid growth in the 1960s and early 1970s and this was continued in the 1970s and 1980s. Accordingly, Table 2 shows that Australian university teaching staff increased from 13,935 in 1976 to 22,707 a decade later. This is consistent with the rapid growth in student numbers evident in Figure 1. The growth in both students and teaching staff increased in the 1986-91 intercensal period but while the number of students continued to grow apace that of academic staff slowed down considerably. This has been a period of substantial change in the way the university system has operated. It has seen the introduction of a managerial model of administering the universities, which has seen an expansion of the administrative staff and an emphasis on increasing the number of students taught per staff member. The former trend is evident in Table 2, which indicates that the total professional staff of universities increased considerably faster than the teaching academics. Of course the total professional staff includes full time researchers but it does point to the expansion of the administrative staff of universities.

Figure 1: Source:

Australia: Higher Education Students, 1949 to 2006 DEST Students, Selected Higher Education Statistics, various issues

1,000,000

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Number of Students

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Figures for 1949 to 1964 are for universities only and are based on Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) Universities Bulletins. Figures for 1965 to 1989 include universities and Colleges of Advanced Education (CAEs) and are based on the statistics collected by Commonwealth Bureau of Census and Statistics (CBCS), Commonwealth Tertiary Education Commission (CTEC), and Department of Employment, Education and Training (DEET). Data on CAEs for 1965 to 1973 are for the first time included in this bulletin based on the major findings of a Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs (DEETYA) commissioned project. Includes government Teachers Colleges from 1973 onwards. Includes non-government Teachers Colleges from 1974 onwards. Figures for years from 1985 to 1993 progressively include State-funded basic nursing students who would previously have been trained in hospitals. In 2001 the scope used to define the data changed to include students enrolled at anytime within the 12-month period 1 September to 31 August. Previously, published data referred to students enrolled at 31 March of the stated year.

2006

There is little doubt from both sets of data examined here that there was a levelling off in the numbers of academic staff in Australian universities, especially those involved in teaching in the late 1990s. Table 2 shows that after two decades of growth, the number of university teachers failed to increase in the 1996-2001 intercensal period. On the other hand, the number of doctors increased by 8.4 percent, lawyers by 22.9 percent, schoolteachers by 8.7 percent. Growth resumed in the 2001-06 period. Table 3 indicates that using DEST data on the numbers of students and staff there was an increase of 46.5 percent in the student staff ratio between 1993 and 2003, but a levelling off since then. Table 3: Source: Ratio of Students to Academic Staff, 1993-2005 DEST data from Australian Vice Chancellors' Committee http://www.avcc.edu.au/documents/publications/stats/Staff.pdf Year 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Students per Academic Staff 14.2 14.2 14.6 15.6 17.2 17.9 18.3 18.5 19.1 20.2 20.8 20.6 20.3

In summary, there was a period of very rapid increase in the number of academic staff in Australian universities, especially in the late 1960s and 1970s and early 1980s. The staff recruited were overwhelmingly young and in the early stages of their careers. However, the last 15 years has seen a considerable slow down not only in the growth but also in recruitment of academic staff. To some extent the current level of zero net growth is masking the effect of substantial redundancy programs which have seen the replacement of older staff with younger staff but the reality has been that the increase of teaching workloads by a third in the 1996-2006 was the main factor which explains the lack of net growth in the academic workforce.

Ageing of the Academic Workforce

Ageing of the Australian population has become an issue of substantial national significance especially with the Federal Treasurer's Intergenerational Report (Costello 2002; 2004) drawing attention to the closing gap in the ratio of working age to retiree populations. One dimension of this is the ageing of the national workforce and Error! Not a valid bookmark self-reference. shows the massive changes, which have occurred in the age and gender structure of the Australian workforce over the last four decades. It has not only grown by 112.3 percent between 1961 and 2006 but in 1961 only 25.1 percent of the workforce were women whereas in 2006 they made up 46.2 percent. At the end of World War II, Australia's workforce was a relatively mature one with a median age of 37.1, but 60.3 percent were aged below 40 years of age. The post war baby boom and high levels of immigration saw the median age of the workforce decline to 34.1 in 1981 but it then began to increase and rose to 40.0 in 2006 and it will continue to increase. Turning to the academic workforce, the rapid expansion of universities in the 1960s and 1970s involved a significant recruitment of young academics aged in their twenties and thirties, many of them recruited from overseas, especially the United Kingdom. Accordingly, the Australian academic workforce in the 1970s was an extremely young one

as is evident in Figure 3, which shows the age structure of Australian university lecturers and tutors at the 1976 population census. Figure 2: Source: Australia: Age-Sex Structure of the Workforce 1971 and 2006 ABS 1971 and 2006 Censuses

1971 (shaded) and 2006 Males Females

65+ 60-64 55-59 50-54

Age group

45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 800000 600000 400000 200000 0

Number

200000

400000

600000

800000

Figure 3: Source:

Australia: Age-Sex Structure of University Lecturers and Tutors, 1976 ABS 1976 Census

Age 75+ 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 1500

Males

Females

1000

500

0

Number

500

1000

1500

Figure 4: Source:

Age-Sex Structures of Academic Staff and the Australian Workforce and Academic Staff and Professionals, 2006 ABS 2001 Census

Total Workforce (shaded) and Lecturers & Tutors Males Females

65+ 60-64 55-59 50-54

Age group

45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10 8 6 4 2 0 Percent 2 4 6 8 10

Professionals (shaded) and Lecturers & Tutors Males Females

65+ 60-64 55-59 50-54

Age group

45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10 8 6 4 2 0 Percent 2 4 6 8 10

The rapid influx of young academics into the Australian university system in the 1960s and 1970s followed by a period of slow growth in the number of academic jobs due to demographic and management shifts has produced a high degree of `age heaping'3 in the Australian university teacher workforce. Accordingly, Figure 4 shows that the Australian university teaching workforce is concentrated in the older age groups more than not only the total workforce but also the total professional workforce. Despite an improvement over earlier years, it is still evident that women are still under-represented in the workforce.

The differences are apparent in Table 4, which shows that only a third of lecturers and tutors were aged under 40 in 2001 compared to half of the total workforce and half of professionals. Even 40 percent of doctors were aged under 40 years and doctors are the next oldest group to university lecturers among professionals. It will be noted in Table 4, that among Information Technology professionals, more than two thirds are aged under 40 years. The table also indicates that the total academic workforce is significantly younger than the lecturer/tutor workforce reflecting the growth of the fulltime and other research staff in Australian universities. There are also some substantial gender differences as Table 5 indicates. Among the older lecturing staff, there are four men for every woman aged over 55. The improvement in gender balance, with decreasing age, is evident in the fact that among lecturers aged less than forty, the sex ratio was 110.8. The gender ratios are lower among the total academic workforce. The improving gender balance over time is evident in all professions so that there are more female professionals aged less than 40 than males. Even among doctors and IT professionals, where the sex ratios are most imbalanced, there has been an improvement over time. Table 4: Source: Australia: Percentage of the Workforce by Age Groups, 2006 ABS 2006 Census University Lecturers and Tutors 24.7 54.2 32.7 Total Workforce 15.0 37.8 49.9 Computing Professionals 5.8 23.8 62.2

Professionals 14.9 40.0 47.4

Doctors 22.4 48.6 37.0

% Aged 55+ years % Aged 45+ years % Less than 40 years

Table 5: Source:

Australia: Sex Ratio of the Workforce by Age Groups, 2006 ABS 2006 Census University Lecturers and Tutors 192.1 140.9 98.7 Total Workforce 146.7 122.8 113.2 Computing Professionals 543.7 414.4 414.4

Professionals 119.5 93.1 79.1

Doctors 459.0 277.8 119.2

55 years and over 45 years and over Under 40 years

Figure 5: Source:

Australia: Age-Sex Structure of Lecturers and Tutors, 2001 and 2006 ABS 2001 and 2006 Censuses

2001 (shaded) and 2006

65+ 60-64 55-59 50-54

Age group

Males

Females

45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

Number

1000

2000

3000

4000

The last decade has seen an unprecedented effort by universities to offer redundancy packages to older academic staff in a push to increase student/staff ratios, reduce the number of higher level academic staff and to reduce the overall costs of the academic teaching workforce. Nevertheless, between the 2001 and 2006 censuses, there was an increase in the ageing of the academic workforce. This is apparent in Figure 5 where the 2001 and 2006 age pyramids of lecturers and tutors have been overlain. It will be noted that there was a higher proportion aged 25-29 in 2006 than in 2001 reflecting some increased recruitment as well as gains of women in most ages. The major increase was in the proportion aged over 50 as the ageing of the academic workforce continued. The same patterns of ageing in the academic workforce reflected in the census data examined above are evident in DEST data. Hence, Figure 6 overlays the age-sex structure of the Australian academic workforce in 1991 with that of 2006. It is clear that there has been an ageing of the academic workforce. Over the 15 years there was an increase of over 80 percent in the academic workforce aged over 50 while the numbers aged under 50 decreased by 4 percent.1. The percentage of the workforce aged over 50 increased from 26 percent in 1991 to 39.8 percent in 2006. Figure 7 and Figure 8 compare the patterns for the tenured and contract staff. It is apparent that the tenured staff is somewhat older than the contract staff although both have aged over the period. The percentage of the tenured staff aged over 50 has increased from 34.9 in 1991 to 49.0 in 2006 while among contract staff the increase was from 10.8 to 26.2 percent. Figure 6: Source: Australia: Academic Staff, Age Sex Structure, 1991 and 2006 DEST, unpublished data

1991 (shaded) and 2006

65+ 60-64 55-59 50-54 Males Females

Age group

1

45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34

Decreasing from 22,078 to 21,262.

<24 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

Number

25-29

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

Figure 7: Source:

Australia: Academic Tenured Staff, Age Sex Structure, 1991 and 2006 DEST, unpublished data

1991 (shaded) and 2006 Males Females

65+ 60-64 55-59 50-54

Age group

45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 <24 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

Number

1000

2000

3000

4000

Figure 8: Source:

Australia: Academic Contract Staff, Age Sex Structure, 1991 and 2006 DEST, unpublished data

1991 (shaded) and 2006 Males Females

65+ 60-64 55-59 50-54

Age group

45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 <24 1500 1000 500 0

Number

500

1000

1500

Source:

DEST, unpublished data

In summary there are four defining elements of the contemporary Australian academic workforce ­ slow growth, age heaping, a mature age structure and an imbalanced gender ratio. It is growing at a substantially slower rate than other professions. Age heaping can be a problem in any workforce since it produces problems of succession and continuity in a workforce. The academic workforce in Australia has a more pronounced heaping than almost any major group in the national workforce. Clearly too, the academic workforce is older than most other groups and this, in itself, means that it is likely to experience a period of substantial loss of workers through retirement over the next decade. Thirdly, despite improvements in the balance between genders, the Australian academic workforce is still one of the least balanced between males and females Discussion Australian universities face many challenges over the next decade, but that presented by academic staffing must rank as one of the greatest. The fact that universities are likely to lose between a fifth and a third of their staff in the next decade or so means that there are major opportunities for restructuring and changing the balance between courses, subjects and teaching and research programs without resorting to large numbers of redundancies. On the other hand, there are real challenges in being able to attract high quality staff members to replace those being lost. It would seem from the age pyramids presented here that there has been a `lost generation' of potential university academics, those currently aged in their 20s and 30s. A comparison of the age pyramids shows that Australian academics aged in their 40s and 50s outnumber those in their 20s and 30s by 31.1 percent. There is no extant research as to why this younger generation of academics have been lost and the extent to which it has been due to factors such as a decline of attractiveness of academic positions, salary, conditions, etc. and the extent to which alternative sectors have been more attractive. Moreover there is an international dimension. In the last decade there has been an unprecedented internationalisation of the academic labour market. International competition for highly skilled professionals including academics has never been more competitive. Australia must compete not only for potential academic staff from other countries but also for Australian graduates who are increasingly examining options in foreign universities. It has never been easier for highly skilled Australians to move to positions in foreign countries, especially other OECD nations. Countries have modified immigration regulations to facilitate the recruiting of the highly skilled, researchers, scientists and technologists. The academic labour market is truly internationalised. Elsewhere we have examined the movement of academics to and from Australia (Hugo 2005). While we have concentrated here on the demography of university academic staff it is important to point out that there is no demographic reason to anticipate a decline in the numbers of students in universities over the next two decades. Putting aside important issues of increasing participation in tertiary education, increasing mature age entry and the fact that Australia takes more foreign fee paying students pro rata local university students than any other OECD nation, there will be no major decline in Australians in the 18-24 ages over the next two decades. Indeed, Figure indicates that these prime university age groups has increased sharply between 2001 and 2006 and will continue to grow until 2016. This is the impact of the children of the younger postwar baby boom cohort entering these age groups. In the last decade redundancy programs have been a major element in the human resource policies of several Australian universities. However, it could be argued that the policies of the next two decades will need to concentrate on three other `R's' ­ Retention, Recruitment and Return. A clear implication of the trends examined here is that Australian universities need to look at ways to retain high quality staff. This applies cross the board but one group

undoubtedly are productive older staff in their 50s. Most universities know little about the retirement intentions of this group. It is clearly in the interest of universities to extend the age at retirement of many of its staff, in particular, those who continue to achieve at a high level. Figure 9: Source: Australia: Population Aged 18-24, Actual 1961 to 2006 and Projected 2011 to 2021 ABS Censuses, 1961 to 2006 and ABS Projections, Series B

2,500,000

2,000,000

1,500,000

Number

1,000,000

500,000

0

1961

1966

1971

1986

2006

1981

1996

2001

2011

2016

1976

Year

In universities as in many areas there is often a prevailing view that younger staff purely by virtue of age are more productive, innovative and more up to date with current developments in their disciplines. However, it is clear that while it is highly desirable in any academic group to have a balance between staff with respect to age it could prove just as problematical to have age heaping in younger groups as in older age groups. This is true in both the teaching and research endeavors of universities. One feature of Australian universities in recent years has been the substantial increase in average teaching loads. It may well be that this has been possible because of the highly experienced teaching workforce in Australian universities over this period. It could also be that replacing the teaching contribution of a retiree with decades of experience with a recent graduate may present difficulties. In short, a great deal of care needs to be taken with respect to developing policies in relation to the retirement of older staff. In Australia there has, in the past, been a focus on moving older staff out of the mainstream of universities although mentoring and emeritus positions are certainly increasing. Universities should be identifying their older staff who are high performers in research and/or teaching and ensuring that they do not leave the workforce prematurely. The Australian government has recently moved to encourage older workers to stay in the workforce and universities need to move in innovative ways in areas of retention of high quality staff of all ages and in phasing of retirement. Gender is another important issue in consideration of Australia's future academic staff. Although there have been improvements in gender ratios in Australian universities women are still under-represented, especially at higher levels in the university. This issue has been investigated in some detail in Australian universities and the disadvantages facing women in academic jobs are well known. (Probert 1999a, b, c and d). Nevertheless, despite special initiatives in many universities, inequalities remain. The

1991

2021

present demographic analysis would indicate that while the gender equity argument alone should be sufficient for universities to develop programs to ensure that women get equal access as men to all aspects of academic life, it is clear that impending labour market deficits make it even more imperative that universities involve women to a much greater extent than in the past purely from the perspective of the need to recruit sufficient high quality academics to replace the expected loss over the next decade. Retention of staff will be more difficult over the next decade or so than it has been in the past. With the tightening of the labour market, high quality early career academics will not only consider academic positions in the various Australian universities when weighing up their working futures but positions outside the academic sector and in overseas academic institutions where salaries, research funds and work conditions are often better. The second `R' refers to recruitment. A main strategy whereby Australian universities overcame academic staff shortfalls created by the rapid increase in student numbers in the 1960s and 1970s was to seek and recruit staff from overseas, especially the United Kingdom. Elsewhere (Hugo 2005), the current patterns of movement of academics to and from Australia are analysed. This indicates that while Australia experiences a net immigration of academics there are some issues of concern, which would suggest that Australia would not be able to compete as effectively for foreign academics as it did in the previous period of shortage of academics. Some of the main issues in this respect are as follows... · An analysis of incoming and outgoing academics over the 1993-04 and 2006-07 period showed that while there were significant numbers of academic permanent migrants coming to Australia from `traditional' nations such as the UK and the USA, there was also significant outmovement to these destinations so there was only a small net gain. On the other hand, the net gains from Asian nations such as India and China have been substantial. There are many more academics coming to Australia under the new temporary migration categories (Hugo 1999) than are arriving as permanent settlers indicating that much of the movement is to short term non tenured positions. Australia may be less able to compete for foreign academics in traditional European and North American nations than it was in the 1960s and 1970s because of salary levels, changing value of the $Australia, employment conditions and availability of research resources. While there is no doubt there is a net gain of academics to Australia through immigration, this is not just a numbers exercise. While we currently lack empirical verification, there would be concern if Australia was losing the `brightest and the best' of home grown academics and receiving those with lesser achievements (Wood et al. 2004). There is no doubt, recruits of overseas academics must be an important strategy for Australian universities over the next two decades but it will involve quite different approaches than those used previously.

·

·

·

·

A third, less obvious strategy relates to Australian universities benefiting from developing policies toward the national academic diaspora, particularly that part of it which includes their former students and staff. They represent an important part of Australian universities' social capital and an important source of potential future staff. Australia has a diaspora of around 1 million people and academics, researchers, scientists and technologists are an important part of it (Hugo, Rudd and Harris 2001; 2003). There has been an increasing flow of Australian academics to foreign universities and research institutions. This in many ways is a healthy part of our university system in a globalising world and international mobility between universities is a longstanding practice. The scale

of this mobility out of Australia is currently at record levels, although in numerical terms, it is more than counterbalanced by an inflow of immigrant academics (Hugo 2005). The Australian academic diaspora represents a potential source of recruits at a time when Australian universities are facing their greatest recruiting task for three decades. Some are not intending to return because of a perception of a lack of comparable opportunity in Australia (Hugo 2005). However, others are prepared to forgo this and are keen to return, largely for family and lifestyle reasons. However, research suggests that such intentions often do not result in people returning but that the intention can often be turned into action if people receive a specific job offer. There also undoubtedly are ways in which the life of Australian universities can be enriched by engaging the diaspora in research and teaching activities while they are still living overseas (Hugo, Rudd and Harris 2003). Conclusion Australian universities over the next decade will be faced by their largest recruitment task for three decades. This task will have to be addressed in a context of the most competitive international labour market for the skilled academics, scientists, technologists and researchers that has ever existed. If Australian universities are to maintain their current levels of excellence, let alone enhance them, a range of innovative human resource strategies will need to be initiated. This will include a judicious mix of strategies which might include among other things ­ new blood programmes, early recognition of new talent, family friendly policies (especially for women), `bringing them back' programs to repatriate former staff and students of the university, developing joint international exchanges in teaching and research, incentives to keep `high fliers' in the university, gradual retirement programs for selected staff and accelerated promotion for key staff. References

Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2003. Census of Population and Housing, Data Quality ­ Undercount, Information Paper, Catalogue No. 2940.0, ABS, Canberra. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), 2006. How Australia Takes a Census, Catalogue No. 2903.0, ABS, Canberra. Borrie, W.D., 1962. Schools and Universities and the Future : Some Observations Based on Statistics, Vestes, September, pp. 42-49. Department of Education, Science and Training (DEST). Students: Selected Higher Education Statistics, various issues, AGPS, Canberra. Hugo, G., 1999. A New Paradigm of International Migration in Australia , New Zealand Population Review, 25, 12, pp. 1-39. Hugo, G., 2005. Some Emerging Demographic Issues on Australia's Teaching Academic Workforce, in special issue of Higher Education Policy, 18, 3, pp.207-230. Hugo, G., Rudd, D. and Harris, K., 2001. Emigration from Australia: Economic Implications. Second Report on an ARC SPIRT Grant, CEDA Information Paper No. 77. Hugo, G., Rudd, D. and Harris, K., 2003. Australia's Diaspora: It's Size, Nature and Policy Implications. CEDA Information Paper No. 80. Probert, B., 1999a. `Gendered workers and gendered work: implications for women's learning', in D. Boud and J. Garrick (eds), Understanding Learning at Work, London, Routledge. Probert, B., 1999b. `Working in Australian universities: pay equity for men and women?' in D. Cohen et al (eds), Winds of Change: Women and the Culture of Universities Conference Proceedings, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney.

Probert, B., 1999c. `Gender pay equity in higher education' in Paul Fogelberg (ed.), Hard Work in the Academy: Research and Interventions on Gender Inequalities in Higher Education, Helsinki University Press. Probert, B., 1999d. `Men and women in Australian Higher Education', in Paul Fogelberg et al (eds), Hard Work in the Academy: Research and Interventions on Gender Inequalities in Higher Education, Helsinki University Press. Wood, F.Q. (ed.), 2004. `Beyond Brain Drain' : Mobility, Competitiveness and Scientific Excellence. Proceedings of a workshop held at the Queensland Bioscience Precinct. Distributed by the Federation of Australian Scientific and Technological Societies, Canberra.

Professor Terry Evans

School of Education Deakin University Trends and issues from PhDs arising from doctoral data and research This presentation draws on my work with Peter Macauley (RMIT) and Margot Pearson (ANU) on a 2003­6 ARC Linkage Grant Working students: reconceptualising the doctoral experience, and an ARC Discovery Grant Research capacity-building: the development of the Australian PhD programs in national and emerging global contexts. In particular, presentation draws on the work of Kevin Ryland, one of the PhD graduates from the Linkage Project. Tables 1-3 are sourced from Australian Government (DEST) data. They provide a useful background to what has occurred in the past decade in terms of PhD enrolments and graduations. Other data will be presented, particularly from a national survey of doctoral candidates in 2005 conducted as part of an ARC Linkage project. These data show a complex picture of the experience of candidature and the relationships with, for example, paid work, domestic work and types of candidature. A key theme that will be covered is diversity and how contemporary and future policy and practice needs to recognise, and even to value, in order to develop and sustain good doctoral programs. It seems important that Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences colleagues appreciate the national trends, both for their disciplines and in relation to others. The session will pose comments and questions for discussion such as: how do we understand and accommodate the diversity of doctoral candidates' needs, circumstances and goals? What are the best forms of doctorate for the contemporary social, political and economic climate?

Table 1 Australian doctoral enrolments 1998 and 2004 Male 2004 19,182 Female 2004 % change 18,503 50% Total 1998 2004 % change 28,416 37,685 33%

Number of doctoral students Doctoral students by registration status full-time part-time Domestic or international students

1998 16,040

% change 20%

1998 12,376

9,387 6,653

11,728 7,454

25% 12%

7,400 4,976

10,818 7,685

46% 54%

16,787 22,546 11,629 15,139

34% 30%

domestic 13,449 international 2,591 Doctoral students by discipline Art, Design, Architecture Education Business and Law Humanities Social and Behavioural Sciences Health Natural and Physical Sciences Engineering and Computing

15,335 3,847

14% 48%

11,193 1,183

15,914 2,589

42% 119%

24,642 31,249 3,774 6,436

27% 71%

634 1,205 1,817 1,449 1,125 1,581 5,121 3,101

905 1,332 2,708 2,208 1,098 1,793 4,967 4,171

43% 11% 49% 52% -2% 13% -3% 35%

613 1,431 974 1,597 1,553 2,166 3,257 776

1,072 2,096 1,779 2,765 2,168 3,228 4,210 1,185

75% 46% 83% 73% 40% 49% 29% 53%

1,247 2,636 2,791 3,046 2,678 3,747 8,378 3,877

1,977 3,428 4,487 4,973 3,266 5,021 9,177 5,356

59% 30% 61% 63% 22% 34% 10% 38%

Table 2 Australian doctoral graduates 1998 1998 Discipline Art, Design, Architecture Education Business and Law Humanities Social and Behavioural Sciences Health Natural and Physical Sciences Engineering and Computing Grand Total Gender Female Male 47 133 92 172 137 248 466 98 1393 60 116 163 184 112 220 780 455 2090 Age 40-49 39 116 84 103 84 79 150 78 733 Fee status Domestic International 93 14 121 28 184 71 300 56 225 24 412 56 1027 219 418 135 2880 603

20-29 11 3 29 58 41 161 550 197 1050

30-39 34 53 108 133 88 206 513 258 1393

50-59 20 64 30 38 31 17 29 18 247

60+ 3 13 4 24 5 5 4 2 60

Grand total 107 249 255 356 249 468 1246 553 3483

Table 3 Australian doctoral graduates 2004 2004 Discipline Art, Design, Architecture Education Business and Law Humanities Social and Behavioural Sciences Health Natural and Physical Sciences Engineering and Computing Grand Total Gender Female Male 136 243 200 336 253 428 678 140 2414 96 144 321 271 152 290 847 559 2680 Age 40-49 73 145 165 182 102 159 229 103 1158 Fee status Domestic International 183 49 308 79 360 161 533 74 357 48 635 83 1225 300 520 179 4121 973

20-29 31 11 74 94 104 215 689 271 1489

30-39 78 68 174 206 132 283 546 296 1783

50-59 39 133 90 48 56 50 29 21 527

60+ 11 30 18 35 19 5 11 8 137

Grand total 232 387 521 607 405 718 1525 699 5094

Professor Denise Cuthbert

Associate Dean (Graduate Research) Faculty of Arts Monash University

Tackling low completion rates and long completion times: a case study

Summary This presentation details initiatives and reforms in the area of graduate research education that have delivered significant improvements in completion rates and reduction in completion times of HASS graduate research students. Particular attention was given to the supervision culture within the faculty and initiatives to shift and improve this. A number of steps were taken to bring about significant change. These were: · A comprehensive review of all policies, procedures and resources allocated to Higher Degree by Research (HDR) education · Identification of major impediments to timely completions · Development of the Higher Degree by Research Management Plan (HDRMP) · Measurement of success Some of the improvements achieved include: · 38% improvement in the rate of 4 year completions when the 2003 cohort is compared with the combined 1994-96 cohorts · 52.2% of the 2003 cohort completed their PhD within four years. This exceeds the 48% of the 2000 cohort that completed within six years. Notably, this result at 4 years is better than the 47% completions at 5 years yielded in the study by Bourke et al (2004) from HASS PhD cohorts from several universities over the pre-RTS and post-RTS periods 1988-1999 and 2002-03 · Overall reduction in completion time from averages of well over 60 months to less than 48 months · 58 PhDs were completed in 2007 with an average candidature length of 45.2 months (full-time equivalent) and a median candidature length of 44.6 months, · Accelerated reductions in many disciplines in candidature length in the period 2004 to the present, e.g. decreases of over 10% in History and 20% in Music between 2005 and 2006 · Increased rate of publication by candidates as reported in the DEST audit. From less than 7% of enrolled candidates to 10% - 17% of enrolled candidates) in 2006 · Dramatic decrease in the number of new grievance files from Arts candidates dealt with by the Monash Postgraduate Association (MPA) between 2000 and 2006. However, being able to ensure that over 50% of commencing candidates go on to complete their research degrees in a timely fashion remains a necessary but insufficient measure of the overall quality of the graduate research education being delivered. With some promising signs that the HASS sector in Australia is successfully tackling completion rates and times, it is important that those of us involved in graduate research education, and doctoral education in particular address other issues. These are the full induction of candidates into relevant research and professional communities, post-graduation outcomes, and the kinds of research degrees being offered. The Monash Arts Experience Background The Research Training Scheme (Kemp 1999) re-focused attention to the question of poor rates of completion and long completion times of higher degree by HDR candidates in many fields in Australian higher education. Improvements were sought by linking funding to completions. This issue had long been of concern at the level of the

Federal government, as highlighted by successive reports: (Martin 1964; West 1998; Kemp 1999). The dual problem of low rates of completion and long completion times has historically characterised doctoral education in the humanities and, to a lesser extent, the social sciences both in Australia and elsewhere. (Bowen & Rudenstine 1992; Elgar 2003; Bourke et al 2004; HEFCE 2005; Macleod 2005; Siegel 2005). So much so that in many fields, a culture developed in which attrition of over 50% of candidates and PhD completion times of more than 6-7 years in some discipline areas was either not commented upon or taken as a marker of the rigour of the exercise that ensured the `survival of only the fittest' to graduation. (Elgar & Klein 2004; Kerlin 1995) The Situation in the Faculty of Arts at Monash in 1999 Prior to the introduction of the RTS, the Faculty of Arts at Monash was achieving well below 50% timely completions (i.e. completions within the then 5-year funded period for PhDs). The Faculty showed break-even results in PhD completions in relation to noncompletions only after 6-7 years from commencement of candidature. PhD completions within the proposed 4-year funded period (Kemp 1999) seemed a pipe dream with: · Only 14.3% of the combined 1994-1996 cohorts completing within 4 years; and · Only 37% of these combined cohorts completing within 5 years. Attrition was high. In some discipline areas, withdrawal and non-submission, i.e. lapse of candidature with no submission, stood at more than 60%. Corresponding with these figures, rates of satisfaction among graduate students were low and the incidence of grievances dealt with by the Monash Postgraduate Association (MPA) was high. These were mostly concerned with poor or inappropriate supervision relating to Arts research candidates. Financial modeling by external consultants in 1999 on the impact of the RTS funding model pointed to the negative impact of the RTS on the Faculty given its performance in the area of HDR retention and completion, timely or otherwise. Faculty response A comprehensive review within the Faculty of all policies, procedures and resources allocated to HDR education commenced in January 2000. Its purpose was to identify major impediments to timely completion and, more generally, to the provision of quality graduate research education. A number of factors were identified. These ranged from regulatory and administrative matters, to resource issues, but overwhelmingly, the review identified a complex of issues embedded in the institutional and academic cultures which tended to work against the successful completion of HDRs. A comprehensive Higher Degree by Research Management Plan (HDRMP) was formulated to address issues identified, and a very active process of dialogue within all nine schools was initiated to begin the necessary process of cultural change and change in academic and administrative practice. The plan was controversial and met with both passive and active resistance at several levels in the Faculty. Brokering it through the Faculty approval process proved difficult. It was finally approved, with minor revisions, towards the end of 2000 and adopted as Faculty policy for the commencement of the 2001 academic year. The Higher Degree by Research Management Plan (HDRMP) The principles which the plan sought to enshrine in all policies, procedures and practices related to HDR were visibility, transparency and accountability. These informed changes in the administration of candidature, supervision, resourcing, and overall management of research students in the faculty.

Graduate research was given a higher profile in the Faculty. The Graduate Research Office became a new entity, the Arts Research Graduate School (ARGS). This highlighted the shift in the Faculty's role from passive or reactive administration of higher degrees to active management and service delivery, including some academic services. Changes to administrative processes enabled the Faculty to monitor and intervene on a range of issues, eg appointment of supervisors that had previously been obscured from Faculty review. This assisted a significant shift in the HDR culture from the closed and non-accountable practices of the past to more open and accountable practices. Major reforms were made to the monitoring of progress and the Annual Progress Report. These included significant increases in the numbers of required Interim Progress Reports. This initiated a `trouble shooting' culture aimed at preventing difficulties in candidature from becoming entrenched and beyond remedy (Cuthbert 2003). Confirmation of Candidature requirements were formalized and standardized. All commencing PhD candidates were enrolled on a probationary basis. Confirmation materials were to include 7,000-10,000 words of good draft material, to be read and considered by a panel including at least one member not involved in the supervision. Frequently in large schools this member is external to the discipline. At every point in the reform process, the Faculty was hampered by lack of data and agreed methods for measuring performance in HDR. This confirmed the view that the `what you don't know can't hurt you' principle had long prevailed in graduate research management (Elgar & Klein 2004). Ready access to good data on progress and attrition remains a problem. Candidature Management and the Skills Base of Students The majority of our commencing candidates came to advanced higher degree work with little or no experience in research. Increasing numbers of our research student proceed directly to the PhD straight from Honours or via the Honours = route and do not hold Masters degrees. To address the research-skills base of candidates, research training seminars was mandatory for all commencing research candidates. Attendance at a minimum number was set as a condition of probationary candidature. The seminar series, called Tricks of the Trade has run fortnightly each semester since 2001. A parallel seminar series, Skills for Success, developed by ARGS in conjunction with the Language and Learning unit, was designed to meet the needs of commencing research students with English as a second language. In addition, an ad hoc series of seminars, Master Classes and half-day intensives was developed for more advanced candidates on topics such as field work, getting the most from interview data, working with theory, publishing their research. Since 2005 ARGS has increasingly withdrawn from this more advanced and discipline-specific research training. This role has been increasingly taken up at school and program level. The Faculty certainly played an important leadership role in embedding a culture of formal research training in the period from 2000. Also since 2005, ARGS has run the highly successful Graduate Researchers in Print (GRiP) Program, a facilitated and peer-supported program for assisting graduate research students publish their work. The success of this program has greatly boosted the publication profile of the HDR cohort in the faculty (Cuthbert & Spark 2008). The HDRMP also formulated PhD candidature as a `staged process' with clear goals and attainments for each of the stages of commencing or probationary candidature, middle candidature, and completing candidature. The mid-candidature review for all

candidates commencing on and after January 2007 was introduced in response to the 2006 recommendation of an external review committee. Changing Supervisory Culture It became clear in the course of 2001 that the robust and repeated articulation of the general principles of `accountable' supervision was not sufficient to bring about the changes needed. With strong support from the Dean, a number of other measures were introduced to improve the quality of supervision by all supervisors to research candidates across the Faculty The chief of these was the accreditation of all supervisors in the Faculty. Due to on-going issues with getting good data, the scheme, was not fully implemented until the commencement of the 2003 academic year. The development of the accreditation process involved an audit and review of all candidature outcomes, completions, withdrawals and lapsed candidates per supervisor. The results of the audit were confronting and further indicated how deeply entrenched and how far up the academic structure problems with supervision went. The overwhelming majority of staff performed marginally as supervisors when total completions and total non-completions were considered. The following measures were introduced: 1. Mandatory supervisor training for all new staff and all staff new to supervision 2. Supervisory staff to have produced DEST-reportable, or equivalent in disciplines such as Music, publications in last 3 years 3. Supervisors with very poor success rates, where attritions outnumbered completions by more than 3 to 1, were not accredited 4. Non-accredited staff could improve their position through training, or taking on associate roles in conjunction with fully accredited colleagues 5. Review of staff accreditation status if there were changes in eligibility The major lesson learned from this exercise is that the value of any so-called accreditation scheme resides in the capacity not to accredit in certain cases, and to remove accreditation in others. Both have been done under this scheme. Equally there must be avenues and incentives for staff that have performed less than optimally in this area to improve. The accreditation scheme and its efficacy were reviewed across the faculty in 2005; and Faculty committed to the continuation of the scheme, with some modifications, and further review in 2008. Making supervision visible and accountable (rewarding and rewarded) Data gathering for the development of the accreditation process revealed less than optimal performance in research supervision. The need to raise the status, visibility and accountability of research training performance and its weighting in the promotion and recruitment process was recognized This was addressed by amending the definition of research activity to included HDR activity. The Research Active Status was defined as equaling publication + grant activity + HDR load + HDR completions. Targets for staff achievements across this composite are set on a sliding scale keyed to level of appointment and to discipline-based research benchmarking data. Staff became aware that in order to be promoted, they would need to show research activity appropriate to their level of appointment across the composite measure.

It would appear that this measure, coupled with the accreditation process, in which research training performance is made to impact on the career trajectories of staff (which it had not done to this point) has been effective in bringing about the change in practice. Re-conceptualising the PhD The HASS PhD was reconceptualised to accommodate improved completion rates within reduced funded candidature time from five to four years. Old views, such as, `No PhD worth its salt can be produced in less than seven years...' or `Barbarians-at-thegates' responses to 4 year candidature as leading inevitably to the `dumbing down' of the PhD needed also to be countered with alternative visions. For example: What educational value is there in a doctoral hurdle set so high, with candidates so poorly supervised, that less than 50% of students can cross it in a reasonable time period? Or: Can we not use the reduced time-frame now imposed on us to re-think our approach to the PhD to ensure better outcomes for more students? As a result, candidates were more actively supervised in their topic selection and project design and formulation. Models from engineering and science that led to less intellectual isolation of students, high rates of candidate publications and better completion rates were investigated. (Sinclair 2005) In addition to the mandatory supervisor-training program, a series of HASS-specific Master Classes for research supervisors was designed to serve as fora in which these issues could be broached collegially. While schools have varied in the degree of commitment to the `re-conceptualised' PhD, there is evidence that this idea is taking hold and bringing better completion outcomes

What next? Future Challenges for the HASS PhD It is a somewhat regrettable measure of how bad things were that we can talk of achieving better than break even (timely) completion rates as a major achievement. In fact, being able to ensure that increasing numbers of commencing candidates go on to complete their research degrees in a timely fashion and receive excellent supervision along the way remains a necessary but insufficient measure of the overall quality of the graduate research education being delivered. Hopefully with the major challenges in candidature management, completion and attrition of doctoral candidates being addressed across the sector, those of us involved in the delivery of HASS doctoral education will be able to devote time and energy to other issues: the full and effective induction of PhD candidates into relevant research and professional communities, their post-graduation outcomes, and the kinds of research degrees being offered. References Bourke, Sid et al (2004) `Attrition, Completion and Completion Times of PhD Candidates' Paper presented at the Australian Associate of Research in Education Conference. Melbourne, December 2004. Bowen, William G and Neil L. Rudenstine (1992) In Pursuit of the PhD. Princeton Princeton University Press. Cuthbert, Denise (2004) `Quality in Research Training: A View from the Humanities and Social Sciences' in Sid Nair et al. eds. Quality in a Global Context. Melbourne: Universities' Quality Agency, 2004. pp. 117-121. Cuthbert, Denise and Ceridwen Spark (2008) `Getting a GRiP: Examining the outcomes of a pilot program to support Graduate Research Students in Writing for Publication' Studies in Higher Education, 33:1: 77-88.

Elgar, Frank J (2003) PhD Completion in Canadian Universities. Final Report. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Graduate Students' Association of Canada. Elgar, Frank J and Raymond M. Klein (2004) `What you don't know: Graduate Deans' Knowledge of Doctoral Completion Rates' Higher Education Policy 17: 325-336. Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) (2005) PhD Research Degrees: Entry and Completion. Issues Paper. Higher Education Funding Council for England. Kemp. D (1999) Knowledge and Innovation: A Policy Statement on Research and Research Training. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia Kerlin S. P. (1995) `Pursuit of the PhD: "Survival of the Fittest," or is it time for a New Approach?' Education Policy Analysis Archives 3.16: 1-30. Macleod, Donald (2005) `Study Reveal Low PhD Completion Rates' Guardian Unlimited 11 January accessed on 16 February 2008 at

http://education.guardian.co.uk/print/0,,5099918-111200,00.html

Martin, L (Chair) Committee on the Future of Tertiary Education in Australia (1964) Report of the Committee on the Future of Tertiary Education in Australia to the Australian Universities Commission (Martin Report). Canberra: Commonwealth Government Printer. Martin, Y.M et al (2001) Postgraduate Completion Rates. Occasional Paper Series. Canberra: Higher Education Division, DETYA. Siegel. Lewis (2005) `A Study of PhD Completions at Duke University' Council of Graduate Schools (CGS) Communicator XXXVIII.1. Sinclair, Mark (2005) The Pedagogy of `Good' PhD Supervision: a National CrossDisciplinary Investigation of PhD Supervision. Canberra: DEST, Research Evaluations Program West, R (Chair) (1998) Learning for Life ­ Final Report: Review of higher Education Financing and Policy (West Report). Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia

Sid Bourke, Allyson Holbrook, Terence Lovat & Peter Farley

Attrition, Completion And Completion Times Of Phd Candidates Abstract Attrition rates and time to completion of PhD candidates has internationally become a concern of governments, universities and the candidates themselves. Suggestions that attrition is too high and, for those candidates who do complete, enrolment times are too long were investigated. Two separate datasets were used, one based initially on all 1195 PhD enrolments between 1988 and 1999 recorded at one Australian university, the other based on 601 candidates submitting PhD theses during 2001-2003 at six Australian universities. Two measures of enrolment time were used ­ total elapsed time from first enrolment, and candidacy time in equivalent full-time semesters. It was found that 51% of 698 candidates who had the opportunity to be enrolled for at least four years successfully completed a PhD and that, after six years, 70% had successfully completed. For the one university included in both datasets, average candidacy time did not vary from 7.4 semesters over the time period of the mid 1990s to 2001. The median elapsed time was 4.4 years. A range of candidate, candidature, discipline and institution variables in multiple regression analyses including the six universities explained 39% of variation in elapsed time and 22% in candidacy time.

Paper presented at the AARE Annual Conference, Melbourne, 28 Nov ­ 2 Dec 2004 Accessible at http://www.aare.edu.au/04pap/bou04849.pdf

Professor Max King

Pro Vice-Chancellor, Research and Research Training Monash University

Useful lessons from overseas: a personal perspective

The humanities, arts and social sciences (HASS) cover a very wide range of disciplines with lots of different academic cultures. When you compare our disciplines with others, one striking feature is the significantly lower completion rates and longer average completion times, particularly for the arts and humanities. The American Council of Graduate Schools (2008) have just released a study on PhD completion and attrition based on data from 30 universities involving 330 programs and 49,113 students in 62 disciplines. After 7 years, only 29.3% of humanities students had completed, compared with 40.9% for social sciences, 48.2% for mathematics and physical sciences, 53.7% for life sciences and 56.8% for engineering. Ten years out, the rates had begun to converge with social sciences now being ahead of mathematics and physical sciences. It seems to me that this data is saying that the PhD in HASS is different and more difficult than the PhD in the science, mathematics and engineering. It takes much longer to complete and has, on average, a higher non-completion rate. Two years ago Harvard University announced a radical approach to this problem. For every five students in years eight and beyond of a PhD program, the department responsible would lose a PhD place for new students. Had this policy been applied in December 2005 when it was suggested, 16 humanities and social science departments would have lost a combined 33 PhD places. Two years later, only two places have been lost with completions in humanities going from 71 to 99 and from 95 to 110 in the social sciences. The spotlight has focussed on completion rates and times at a number of US universities resulting in a range of "interventions", the new Harvard policy being just one. I do not see a shortage of overseas students wanting to study for a PhD in Australia. In fact demand has never been higher with a range of countries setting up impressive scholarship schemes to send their nationals overseas. High fees and accommodation costs make this an expensive exercise. Some sponsors have expressed concerns about the length of time needed to complete a PhD. There are some reports of government agencies being reluctant to support PhD candidates in the humanities and some areas of the social sciences because of long completion times. In my view, increasing completion rates and lowering completion times is paramount to improving the health of HASS PhD programs. `PhD Completion and Attrition: Analysis of base line program data from the PhD Completion Project' Council of Graduate Schools Washington DC 2008

Professor Krishna Sen FAHA

Executive Director, Human and Creative Arts Australian Research Council

Title: ARC and Research Training in Australia. Summary: The paper provides an outline of ARC funding for post-graduate research, including policies, trends and disciplinary differences. It also makes some reference to post-graduate research funding by overseas research agencies, such as NSF and UKRC.

Professor Rod Wissler

Dean of Graduate Studies Queensland University of Technology Presented By

Professor David Boud

Queensland University of Technology

Generic capabilities and transferrable skills for the PhD

The PhD Landscape and generic capabilities to date From the mid 1990s onwards there has been increased scrutiny by government, employers, universities, and students of the quality and relevance of research education. This has led to initiatives focussed on broadening the PhD experience by including greater attention to generic capabilities, the transferable skills that have a link to graduate research students' employability and ability to meet workplace demands across the broad range of career paths taken up by PhD graduates. An example of such initiatives is available at http://www.egradschool.edu.au/ It is important to note that a DEST commissioned study in 2003 of generic capabilities activity and offerings across all Australian universities and subsequent Research and Research Training Management Reports indicated wide variation in what was available to research students. Universities registered a high level of agreement on which capabilities should be addressed. However, the DEST study demonstrated great variability in the extent of what was offered; who had access to it; and how it was delivered. Similarly, there was confusion about organisational responsibility for generic capabilities programs across graduate schools, human resource section, staff development or teaching and learning units. (Borthwick and Wissler, 2003) In 2005 the Australian Deans and Directors of Graduate Studies (DDoGS) commissioned the development of a framework for best practice in generic capabilities for research students in Australian universities (DDoGS, 2005). Including discussion of definitional issues around generic capabilities, transferable skills, the embedded nature of many of them within the traditional PhD, the Framework sought to fill a gap in Australian higher education policy. The Framework and its accompanying guidelines were widely circulated and subsequently endorsed by the DDoGS. Currently, these retain the status of guidelines and are left to universities (and the individual DDoGS) to activate. The Australian context ­ a comparison In the UK, the Research Councils have been active in promoting the inclusion of generic capabilities in their PhD training requirements and in acquiring the government funding stream necessary to support both the universities and the students in this enhancement of the candidature period. Notably, the UK approach to generic capabilities used "Profiting from Postgraduate Talent' as its rallying call and has followed that up with "Dedicated to Realising Postgraduate Talent", successively encapsulating the tremendous value these graduates have to contemporary societies and the industry innovation cycle. Details of this are at http://www.grad.ac.uk/cms/ShowPage/Home_page/p!eecddL Australia is yet to experience this level of emphasis and support for its PhD students in their acquisition of generic capabilities but there are promising signs of change ahead. The Rudd Government appears committed to identifying actions to ensure that PhD graduates are front and centre in supporting industry and social innovation, productivity gains and economic growth in their careers. The new Minister for Innovation, Industry, Science and Research Media has announced a review of Australia's national innovation system (media statement 21 November 2007). It emphasises research training

and the need for more PhD graduates in the workforce. Moreover, these comments support a macro view of the value of research output, explicit in their inclusion of the humanities, creative arts and social sciences. Generic Capabilities and HASS PhD students ­ some preliminary data The universities of the Australian Technology Network introduced the Learning Employment Aptitudes Program (ATN LEAP) for research students in 2000; the program was awarded the Carrick Award for Postgraduate Education in 2007. ATN LEAP gave rise to a Graduate Certificate in Research Commercialisation (GCRC) offered since semester one 2007. Some data is starting to emerge indicating the importance placed on this form of generic capabilities activity by HASS research students. Content areas for LEAP and the GCRC include project management, leadership/communication, entrepreneurship, knowledge transfer/research commercialisation, public policy and research, and global sustainability. Over 2500 research students have engaged with these resources for the purpose of certification ­ many others use the resources independently. Available data suggests that approximately 38% of the cohort seeking LEAP certification are students in the humanities, arts and social sciences (HASS), indicating a significant level of interest by comparison with the science, engineering and technology group (relative to the total sector populations of HASS and SET Higher Degree by Research students). Within the HASS group, uptake of the particular LEAP content areas is as follows: · Project management 27% · Leadership/communication 24% · Knowledge transfer/research commercialisation 16% · Entrepreneurship 13% · Public policy 10% · Global sustainability 10% The HASS cohort enrols more heavily then the SET group in public policy and global sustainability and marginally less in other content areas; but there is clearly strong HASS demand for all content areas. In the case of the ATN-wide GCRC, offered within the context of the Commercialisation Training Scheme, the level of interest amongst HASS students is also high. Some 22% of all enrolments (semester one 2007 to semester one 2008) are HASS students; in relative terms the unit most favoured by HASS students in the GCRC is Entrepreneurial Foundations. There is more work to do in order to explore the nuances of this cohort's uptake of these resources, but the information above and recent comments from HASS students (refer attachment) go some way to identifying the strength of a desire amongst many of them to graduate with (a) a set of transferable capabilities beyond those normally associated with the conduct of PhD research, and (b) a developed awareness of skills such as project management and communication which have arguably always been extended to some extent, even if unconsciously, during PhD study. Reconceptualising ­ moving towards policy recommendations Universities need to work in conjunction with Government and industry to ensure that PhDs in all disciplines and professions receive a more effective preparation to undertake the new roles that go with contemporary innovation systems thinking, contemporary workplaces, and contemporary career paths, including those in academia. The PhD in its more traditional form is likely to be increasingly at odds with expectations that have crystallised over the past decade, both amongst employers and research students themselves.

A number of key structural, policy and practice changes are essential if we are to provide a core of generic capabilities experiences common to all PhDs, whatever their research area, and that are accessible to all. Propositions for further discussion Universities · Universities to base their generic skills for PhD programs on a sector-wide framework · Each university to formalise its implementation plan for generic capabilities as part of annual reporting on the Research Training Scheme A starting point for a sector-wide framework for universities to use in their programs is already to hand in the DDoGS Framework for best practice in generic capabilities for research students in Australian universities. This framework also provides instructive guidelines on the form of such programs and how these can be most effectively implemented at university level. Government Measures to be taken are dependent on the introduction of a Government policy framework with these features: · Mandatory inclusion of generic capabilities in research training, including 150 hours of generic capabilities development over each PhD student's period of candidacy · Revision of the Research Training Scheme guidelines to reflect this requirement (including requiring individual universities to submit implementation plans) · Provision of a 5% funding supplement to the Research Training Scheme dedicated to this additional support for PhD students (to be paid to universities following approval of their generic capabilities implementation plan). The potential impact on PhD students' completion times also needs to be addressed at Government level, leading to · Extension of the duration of all Commonwealth-funded HDR scholarships by 6 months, including those funded through ARC, NHMRC and all other national funding agencies or programs · Scholarship supplement increased in line with this extension.

References Borthwick, J. and Wissler, R. (2003). Postgraduate Research Students and Generic Capabilities: Online directions http://www.dest.gov.au/sectors/research_sector/publications_resources/profiles/po stgrad_students_workplace.htm. Council of Australian Deans and Directors of Graduate Studies (DDoGS) (2005) Framework for best practice in generic capabilities for research students in Australian universities http://www.ddogs.edu.au/files?folder_id=2123770849. The UK GRAD program ­ website http://www.grad.ac.uk/cms/ShowPage/Home_page/p!eecddL Media Statement from Kim Carr 21-11-07 http://www.alp.org.au/media/1107/msind211.php?mode=print Attachment: recent comments from HASS students on LEAP and GCRC Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship is something which scares me as I am a salaried worker. It has fascinated me how business opportunities are identified and capitalized on. I knew I could learn a lot from the unit and also found it an exciting challenge. Creative Media ­ Photography student ­ 2007

Global Sustainability The facilitator took up a water problem for us to consider in making a public policy, which is the current issue in Australia. In this regard, we could feel real about studying the module. Education student­ 2006 Leadership and Communication .....it allowed me to expand my knowledge and refresh my existing skills. Against the objectives of the module, I was able to identify some strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats to going forward in my study regarding leadership and communication. Social Work and Social Policy student­ 2007 It was really very good, and realistic ­ applicable to the workplace. The moderator was its other great strength: she had excellent capacity for, and knowledge of, feedback and encouragement. Communication student­ 2007 Research Commercialisation This subject has helped me to refine and develop my ideas and consider how to take knowledge and work out (potentially) how to make money from it!... This course has been like a springboard into where I need to go next. It's given me the business knowledge I didn't have, some fantastic resources (lots of great links that I've bookmarked for later use) and I've written my first comprehensive business plan! ... thanks to this course, I have also become aware of a lot more ideas which might be worth pursuing! Education student - 2007 Project Management I learned what instruments are used for project management and what they are called. My approach to project management is more structured now than before. It was also good to learn about the financing and recruitment plans because so far I hadn't used them. Global Studies, Social Science and Planning student ­ 2007 I feel more confident in my project management skills. The course work will definitely assist me in my current projects, and I think it will strengthen my CV. Visual Arts student ­ 2007 Public Policy Great insights, new technical insights, great skills and societal dynamics. Law student - 2006 Material allowed for own pace, and illustrated some key issues about public policy. International Studies ­ Sociology student­ 2007

List of Delegates

Dr Michael Anderson, University of Sydney, [email protected] Professor Lyndon Anderson, Swinburne University of Technology, [email protected] Ms Suzie Attiwill, School of Architecture and Design, [email protected] Dr Michael Azariadis, University of Western Australia, [email protected] Associate Professor Su Baker, VCA, [email protected] Professor Bobby Banerjee, University of Western Sydney, [email protected] Dr Deirdre Barron, Swinburne University of Technology, [email protected] Professor Sharon Bell, University of Canberra, [email protected] Professor David Boud, University of Technology Sydney, [email protected] Professor Sid Bourke, Newcastle University, [email protected] Associate Professor Susan Broomhall, University of W.A, [email protected] Dr Malcolm Brown, University of Southern Queensland, [email protected] Associate Professor Brad Buckley, Sydney College of the Arts, [email protected] Dr Sue Carson, Queensland University of Technology, [email protected] Dr Nathan Cassidy, Universities Australia, [email protected] Professor Janet Chan, University of New South Wales, [email protected] Ms Jennifer Coulls, Australian Technology Network of Universities, [email protected] Mrs Deborah Crossing, DASSH Deans, [email protected] Professor Joy Cumming, Griffith Graduate Research School, [email protected] Professor Stuart Cunningham, QUT Creative Industries, [email protected] Dr Denise Cuthbert, Monash University, [email protected] Professor Patrick Danaher, University of Southern Queensland, [email protected] Dr Louise D'Arcens, University of Wollongong, [email protected] Professor Desley Deacon, Australian Historical Association, [email protected] Professor Terry Evans, Deakin University, [email protected] Ms Merilyn Fairskye, Sydney College of the Arts, [email protected] Mr Toss Gascoigne, CHASS, [email protected] Dr John Golder, Currency House, [email protected] Professor Murray Goot, Macquarie University, [email protected] Dr Michele Grossman, Victoria University, [email protected] Dr Albert Haig, Melbourne College of Divinity, directorofr[email protected] Professor Margaret Harding, The University of NSW, [email protected] Professor Bernard Hoffert, Monash University, [email protected] Professor Allyson Holbrook, University of Newcastle, [email protected])

Ms Sarah Howard, University of Technology Sydney, [email protected] Ms Anne Howard, University of Canberra, [email protected] Dr John H Howard, CHASS, [email protected] Professor Graeme Hugo, University of Adelaide, [email protected] Associate Professor Kim Humphery, RMIT University, [email protected] Dr Nadine Kavanagh, University of Newcastle, [email protected] Professor Maxwell King, Monash University, [email protected] Dr Helen Lancaster, The Music Council of Australia, [email protected] Professor Alan Lawson, The University of Queensland, [email protected] Associate Professor Russell McGregor, James Cook University, [email protected] Dr Rob McIver, Avondale College, School of Theology, [email protected] Dr Colleen Morris, North Melburne Institute of TAFE, [email protected] Associate Professor John Murphy, The University of Melbourne, [email protected] Ms Jane Nicholls, Office of Hon. Senator Kim Carr, [email protected] Dr Mardie O'Sullivan, Edith Cowan University, [email protected] Professor Angela O'Brien, University of Melbourne, [email protected] Mr Nigel Palmer, CAPA, [email protected] Professor Brian Paltridge, University of Sydney, [email protected] Professor Anne Pauwels, The University of Western Australia, [email protected] Mr Tim Payne, Go8, [email protected] Dr Katrina Schlunke, UTS, [email protected] Professor Krishna Sen, Australian Research Council, [email protected] Professor Zlatko Skrbis, University of Queensland, [email protected] Professor Christina Slade, Macquarie University, [email protected] Professor Ilana Snyder, Monash University, [email protected] Dr Russell Staiff, UWS, [email protected] Dr Sue Starfield, University of New South Wales, [email protected] Professor Dick Strugnall, The University of Melbourne, [email protected] Ms Anne Thoeming, Macquarie University, [email protected] Professor Mandy Thomas, Australian National University, [email protected] Professor Joanne Tompkins, University of Queensland, [email protected] Professor Sue Willis, Monash University, [email protected] Professor Andrew Wells, University of Wollongong, [email protected] Dr Glenn Withers AO, Universities Australia, [email protected]

CHASS BOARD MEMBERS 2006 - 2007

President Vice-President Secretary Treasurer

Professor Stuart Cunningham Ms Helen O'Neil Mr Stuart Hamilton Ms Catrina Vignando -----------------------------------Professor Greg Craven Dr John Byron Professor Sharon Bell Professor Ross Homel Professor Kim Walker Professor Sue Willis Mr Toss Gascoigne (ex officio)

USEFUL CONTACTS

CHASS Office Canberra Phone: 02 6201 2740 or 02 6201 2559 Fax: 02 6201 2132 Toss Gascoigne CHASS Director director[at]chass.org.au Mob: 0408 704 442 02 6201 2704 Mel Lamprecht CHASS Events and Office Manager mel.lamprecht[at]chass.org.au 02 6201 2559

Dr John H. Howard CHASS Director, Research john.howard[at]chass.org.au 02 6201 5961 Gemma Black CHASS Membership Liaison Manager Gemma.black[at]chass.org.au 02 6201 5996 Paula Mills CHASS Finance Officer 02 6201 2132

VENUES

Thursday March 6 Pinocchio's Italian Seafood Restaurant 35 Perouse Road The Spot, Randwick, Sydney

VENUES

Friday March 7 Tyree Room The John Niland Scientia Building University of New South Wales

Enter

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Enter Gate 11 Botany Street

NOTES

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