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Paddy Cultivation in Sri Lanka

By Mr. G.D.U Jayawardena

1

Origin of rice plant

Evidence says in China or in India

Species

22 species are documented in the world

- 20 wild species and 2 cultivated species

· 2 cultivated species are

» Orysa sativa (L.) Orysa glaberima (stedu)

2

Available species in Sri Lanka

5 wild rices

O. nivara O. ruffiphogon O. risomatics O. echingari

- Cultivated species · O. sativa Group indica

Distribution of rice in Sri Lanka

3

Rice Extent...

Sri Lanka 730,000 ha 610,000 ha 120,000 ha

Dry & Intermediate Wet Zone -

Agro Ecology

4

Districts

District Kalutara Colombo Galle Gampaha Rathnapura K'galle Matara Agro ecology WL1a, WL1b, WL2a WL1a, WL2a WL1a, WL2a WL1a,WL2b, WL1a, WL2a Av. Yield Bu/Ac 56 72 59 66 73

WL1a, WL1b, WL2a, WL3 63 WL1a, WL1b, WL2b, WL3 66

Until 1950 used Traditional methods

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Traditional methods

1. Traditional rice varieties 2. Conventional land preparation 3. Organic fertilizer 4. "Kem" methods for pest and Disease control 5. Traditional harvesting , processing and storing methods

6

Land preparation using mamoty

Rural Agricultural Community Affair

7

Traditional Rice Varieties 600 varieties were reported

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Gonabaru

9

Kahatawee

Sudu heenati

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Herath Banda

Sulai-Traditional Rice variety

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Due to scarcity of lands and increase of the population Agricultural Department take action to Develop the technology to increase the rice production

Varietal development

Breeding objectives:

Increase yield potential Incorporation of pest and disease resistance Semi dwarf plant type Response to fertilizer Better grain quality

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Breeding Commence 1950 First bred variety named as H4

H- Hybridized

There are four Breeding Stations

Station Batalagoda Bombuwala Labuduwa Ambalantota Abbreviation Bg Bw Ld At

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Rice Research & Development Institute

Rice researchers centers

Paranthan (RRS)

Polonnaruwa (ARU) Ampara (RRS)

RRDI (HQ) -Batalagoda

Bombuwela (RARDC)

Bentota (RRS) Labuduwa (RRS)

Ambalantota (RRS)

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Institution Mandate

Batalagoda (Varietal development &

technology generation)

Ambalantota (Varietal development &

technology generation)

Dry & Int. Zones High potential areas Bombuwela (Varietal development &

technology generation)

Wet zone Problem soils Red rice Bentota Labuduwa (Varietal development &

technology testing)

Salinity Red rice Ampara Bentota (Technology testing) Coastal salinity Floods and submergence Polonnaruwa (Technology testing) High potential areas Ampara (Technology testing) High potential areas

LCWZ Mineral soils

4 ½ Months

Bg 379-2 Bg 11-11 Bg 450 Bw 451 Bw 452 Bw 453

4 Months

Bw 400 Bg 401 At 402 Bg 403 Bg 405 Bg 407(H)

3 ½ Months

Bg 350 Bw 351 Bg 352 At 353 At 354 Ld 355 Ld 356 Bg 357 Bg 358 Bg 359 Bg 360 Bw 361 At 362 Bw 363 Bw 364

3 Months

Bg 300 Bg 301 Bw 302 At 303 Bg 304 Bg 305 At 306 At 307

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Inland valley system

Constraints ...

a)soil constraints (30 - 50%)

- Acidic - Fe, Mn and Al toxicities - Organic matter/Sandy - Deficiencies - Zn, Si - Salinity

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Fe Toxic soil

Fe Toxic Paddy field

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Fe Toxic symptom in Rice plant

Fe Toxic condition in Paddy filled

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Constraints

b) Climatic constraints High rainfall High temperature High humidity Low sunlight intensity High wind

Breeding Objectives...

General objectives:

Increase yield potential Pest and disease resistance Acceptable grain characteristics Short age (3 & 3.5 m) Medium plant height (100-110cm) / Non lodging

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Objectives...

Specific Objectives

High seedling vigor Tolerance to adverse soils - Fe toxicity Wide adaptability to diverse environment Red rice/red samba

On Going Activities

Rice varietal improvement through Conventional breeding techniques a) Hybridization b) Mutation

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Killing Pollan (using hot water)

Ready for the Hybridization

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Present new objectives

Improvement of nutritional status for promoting health

What are the Health Promoting Functional Properties of Rice?

I. Micronutrient deficiencies- iron deficiency anemia

- affect all age groups in the country - influence the productivity - economic loss estimated 1.1% of GDP per capita

***

Phytates and tannins reduced the bio availability of iron in grains Therefore important to identify high iron varieties with low phytates and tannings

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Cont .....

2. Diabetic condition High fiber content reduces the GI and reduces absorption of glucose by the body. Therefore important to identify low GI varieties

Cont .....

3. Cardio-vascular diseases Rice bran contain natural antioxidents such as oryzanol and tocotrienols. This property also reduces the cardio vascular diseases

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Tank, Village & Temple

Granary of the East

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Network of Irrigation Reservoirs

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Old New

Low yield Low fertilize Response

At present

Rehabilitation & Reconstruction of Irrigation Systems

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Old

New

Old

New

27

Old

New

The Present

Rehabilitation & Reconstruction of Irrigation Systems

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Statistics

Year Production 000 Mt 980 970 1242 1539 1748 1993 3000 Yield bu/ac 13 34 42 49 66 70 82

% Imports

1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2005

60 50 40 25 10 5 1

100 kg- Per capita rice consumption per year 45% carbohydrates 40% protein

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National production and yield

Yield t /ha

4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

86 82 80 84

Production m.t

Year

Cost of Production 2005

Inputs 29% Labour 51%

Power 20%

20 05

88

90

92

94

96

98

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Varietal spread according to the age group 2005

4-4.5 MonthOthers 3% 5%

3 Month 31%

3.5 Month 61%

National rice varietal spread %

Variety Bg 300 Bg 352 Bg 94-1 Bg 450 Bg 379/2 Bg 350 At 353 Ld 355 Bg 403 Bw 351 1995 19.7 7.7 12.5 6.5 6.8 8.0 6.1 6.0 1997 22.3 11.3 14.4 5.9 3.8 5.9 4.3 3.6 2000 20.58 12.86 10.12 5.21 5.74 5.42 6.40 4.75 4.81 2.83

31

Rice yield under rain and irrigated

Potential

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Potential Farmer yield Farmer yield

Irrigated

Rainfed

Thanks for your attention

32

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