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SUCCESSFUL PRIVATE SECTOR EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT STRATEGIES

A SCOPING REVIEW

DATE: MARCH 3, 2008

PREPARED BY: MELISSA SEXSMITH, JUNIOR RESEARCHER, CROSS GOVERNMENT RESEARCH, POLICY AND PRACTICE BRANCH, OFFICE OF THE CHIEF INFORMATION OFFICER, MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND CITIZENS` SERVICES SHYLA W ARNER, JUNIOR RESEARCHER, CROSS GOVERNMENT RESEARCH, POLICY AND PRACTICE BRANCH, OFFICE OF THE CHIEF INFORMATION OFFICER, MINISTRY OF LABOUR AND CITIZENS` SERVICES

TABLE OF CONTENTS:

Introduction ....................................................................................... 1 Context and Scope ............................................................................ 1 Definitions ......................................................................................... 3 Discussion ......................................................................................... 3

Measures of Employee Engagement ................................................................ 3 ABC Supply ....................................................................................................... 4 Having a Best Friend at Work ........................................................................ 5 Having Opportunities to Learn and Grow ....................................................... 6 Knowing Your Opinions Count ....................................................................... 6 Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work ................................. 7 B&Q ................................................................................................................... 7 Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right ................................................................. 8 Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow.................................................... 8 Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work ................................. 9 Knowing Your Opinions Count ....................................................................... 9 Talking with Someone about your Progress ................................................ 10 Boeing ............................................................................................................. 10 Knowing Your Opinions Count ..................................................................... 11 Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work ............................... 11 Having a Supervisor or Someone at Work Care about You as a Person .... 12 Campbell Soup Company................................................................................ 12 Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow.................................................. 13 Having a Supervisor or Someone at Work Care about You as a Person .... 13 Hendrick Health System .................................................................................. 14 Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right ............................................................... 14 Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow.................................................. 15 Having a Supervisor or Someone at Work Care about You as a Person .... 16 Knowing Your Opinions Count ..................................................................... 16 Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work ............................... 16 Marriott Vacation Club International ................................................................ 17 Having the Opportunity to do what you do Best at Work ............................. 18 Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right ............................................................... 18 Having a Supervisor or Someone at Work Care about You as a Person .... 18 Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work ............................... 18 Talking with Someone about your Progress ................................................ 19

Starbucks Corporation ..................................................................................... 19 Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right ............................................................... 19 Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow.................................................. 20 Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work ............................... 20 Stryker ............................................................................................................. 20 Having the Opportunity to do what you do Best at Work ............................. 21 Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right ............................................................... 22 Talking with Someone about your Progress ................................................ 22 Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow.................................................. 22 Wells Fargo ..................................................................................................... 23 Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right ............................................................... 23 Having a Supervisor or Someone at Work Care about You as a Person .... 24 Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow.................................................. 24 Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work ............................... 24 WestJet ........................................................................................................... 25 Having the Opportunity to do what you do Best at Work ............................. 25 Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right ............................................................... 26 Having a Supervisor or Someone at Work Care about You as a Person .... 26 Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work ............................... 26 Knowing Your Opinions Count ..................................................................... 27 Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow.................................................. 27 Feeling Connected to the Mission or Purpose of Your Company ................ 27 Other Gallup Great Workplace Winners .......................................................... 28

Summary ......................................................................................... 29 Appendix A ­ The Gallup Q12 ......................................................... 32 Appendix B ­ Interview Questions Sent to Representatives of Each of the Companies Mentioned in this Report ......................................... 33 Appendix C ­ Search Terms and Databases ................................... 34 Works Consulted ............................................................................. 29

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INTRODUCTION

Employee engagement has been receiving a significant amount of attention in the private sector for several years, and government has also increasingly become interested in measures of and strategies to encourage employee engagement. The reasons for this are clear: engaged employees have been shown to be more productive (thus increasing profits and decreasing costs related to lost productivity), to relate more effectively to their customers (thus also increasing customer engagement), to take more pride in their work and the achievements of their companies, and to remain with an organization for a longer period of time. Given the current pressures on both the public and private sectors to attract and retain talented and motivated employees, the identification and implementation of successful, innovative, and empowering employee engagement strategies are paramount. According to the findings of a working group that was comprised of representatives from 24 US companies, employee engagement involves the interplay of three factors: cognitive commitment, emotional attachment, and the behavioral outcomes that result from an employee`s connection with their company (Conference Board, 2006). Engaged employees believe that they can make a difference in the organizations they work for. Confidence in the knowledge, skills, and abilities that people possess is a powerful predictor of behaviour and of subsequent performance (Seijts & Crim, 2006). Gallup Consulting has identified three levels of employee engagement: Engaged, Not Engaged, and Actively Disengaged (see Definitions). Ensuring that high levels of employee engagement are maintained leads to numerous benefits for a company, while permitting employee engagement levels to fall can lead to significant costs.

CONTEXT AND SCOPE

The purpose of this Scoping Review is to examine and outline innovative program models and strategies for employee engagement currently being successfully implemented in leading private sector organizations. This Scoping Review comprises a companion piece to the previous CGRPP Scoping Review by Kenneth McLean, Promising Practices Related to Models of Employee Engagement, which focussed on models of employee engagement in the public sector. The research for the present Review had the following methodology: after identifying several lists of top-performing companies ­ in measures of employee

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engagement and satisfaction ­we explored the particular strategies, models, and actions by which these top employers attain, and maintain, high levels of employee engagement. This research involved a review of corporate websites, business magazines, and academic journals, as well as personal communications (through telephone interviews and e-mail) with personnel at many of the identified top-performing companies. The results of this research are presented in the Discussion section, which is divided according to examples of companies that employ successful, innovative engagement strategies. Each section highlights the types of strategies that each company makes use of. Hewitt Associates, the consulting firm which undertakes the research for The Globe and Mail`s annual 50 Best Employers list, suggests that to improve engagement, organizations should focus their efforts on the one or two drivers that will have the most impact on engagement for their workforce (Hewitt, n.d.). Our research has identified that in fact the majority of top-ranking companies do focus on a certain few of the fundamental drivers of employee engagement. Their respective initiatives are outlined below and organized according to these elements. Appendix A includes information regarding the Gallup Q12, a survey tool designed by Gallup Consulting to determine relative levels of employee engagement based on twelve key drivers of engagement, and which is integral to the system of measurement upon which Gallup bases their decisions to award Gallup Great Workplace awards to companies worldwide that show particular devotion to fostering high levels of employee engagement. Twelve of the companies highlighted in this Review are the winners of the 2007 Gallup Great Workplace award. The Gallup Q12 has also been used as the basis for the headings used in this Scoping Review. Each of the twelve questions outlined in the Q12 suggest a correlative driver of engagement, and those drivers are used here to highlight the strengths of each successful engagement initiative. The reader should note that much of the research for this Scoping Review required direct contact with representatives from numerous corporations both across Canada and around the world. Many contacts have not yet responded fully to our requests for information. Due to the nature of this type of research, this document has the potential to become a living document, with the possibility of further updates to many of the following sections.

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DEFINITIONS

Engaged: Engaged employees work with passion and feel a profound connection to their company. They drive innovation and move the organization forward. Not-Engaged: Not-Engaged employees are essentially checked out. They are sleepwalking through their workday, putting time ­ but not energy or passion ­ into their work. Actively Disengaged: Actively disengaged employees are not just unhappy at work; they are busy acting out their unhappiness. Every day, these workers undermine what their engaged coworkers accomplish. (Adapted from Gallup Study: Engaged Employees Inspire Company Innovation, (2006)).

DISCUSSION

Measures of Employee Engagement

The Gallup Great Workplace awards are one of many initiatives to recognize and rate global corporations in terms of their status as employers of choice. However, what sets the Gallup Great Workplace awards apart from other lists of top corporate employers is the fact that their evaluation criteria are based solely on measures of employee engagement. The awards recognize the organizations that best engage their employees based on a best practices portfolio that includes: A one-page description that explains how the organization has linked engagement to business outcomes; A strategic plan that highlights building engagement within the organization; Two or three organization-wide best practice initiatives; 20 workgroup-level best practice action plans; and One example of a tool, program, or process that has been created or used to increase or promote employee engagement within the organization (Gallup, 2008).

Once the data are collected, Gallup consultants use a process called Business Impact Analysis to correlate engagement scores with customer feedback and with metrics such as turnover, absenteeism, shrinkage, and sales (Tritch, 2003).

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Based on what Gallup calls the most rigorous workplace research ever conducted, benchmarking companies against data collected in 45 languages, from 5.16 million employees, in 455 organizations and 15 major industries, and from 124 countries, the Gallup Great Workplace awards recognized the following twelve companies worldwide as being the world's most engaged and productive workforces in 2007 (Gallup, 2008): ABC Supply B&Q Blue Care Network of Michigan Campbell Soup Company Hendrick Health System Marriott Vacation Club International Starbucks Corporation St. Joseph Health System Stryker The Park Hotels Wells Fargo Winegardner & Hammons, Inc.

The employee engagement initiatives undertaken by each of these companies will be discussed in varying levels of detail below. Although each of the above companies was contacted to request participation in this research, not all were able to provide information about their employee engagement strategies. Also included here is detailed information about WestJet ­ the winner of several awards related to employee engagement ­ and Boeing, which has also been identified as a leader in employee engagement.

ABC Supply

ABC Supply is a family owned and operated business that opened in 1982. Since then it has grown to include 350 locations in 45 states, and is now the largest wholesale distributor of roofing in the United States. Furthermore, it is one of the primary distributors of siding, windows, and other exterior building products in the country (ABC Supply, 2007a). In 2006, ABC Supply reached almost 3 billion dollars in sales and opened an average of one new store every one to two weeks, while still maintaining employee and customer satisfaction (ABC Supply, 2007c). With a mission that focuses on increasing customer engagement through increased employee engagement, ABC Supply continues to thrive today (ABC Supply, 2007d).

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As one of the 12 winners of the Gallup Great Workplace award, ABC Supply has proven that they take employee engagement very seriously. With the philosophy that by putting [their] people first, [their people] will put the customer first, the company has implemented various innovative programs to encourage employee engagement (Cullen, 2007). Each of their initiatives correlates directly to one or more of the twelve drivers of employee engagement identified by Gallup.

Having a Best Friend at Work

President and chief operating officer of ABC Supply, David Luck, states that ABC Supply is a people business built on relationships (Cullen, 2007). The late Ken Hendricks, founder and CEO, stated of his employees in a 2007 interview, They're my friends. I ain't any better than them (Skernivitz, 2007). The relationships both between employees and between employees and customers are fundamental to the company`s success, and ABC Supply supports various friendship-building activities. One such activity is ABC`s involvement in the ABC Supply A.J. Foyt 225 Indy Car Series Race (Cullen, 2007). Furthermore, before his death in December 2007, Hendricks began printing year books for each employee (Caggiano, 1997). Although giving books, complete with photos, employee lists, and each office`s goals for the upcoming year, may not intuitively come to mind when contemplating how best to engage employees, Hendricks discovered that these books were a valuable tool in promoting engagement. Not only did they foster inter-office friendships, as people would sign each others books, but as Hendricks noted, with a company that has stores spread throughout a nation, it`s nice for [employees] to have faces to put to the phone voices (Caggiano, 1997). Hendricks was known to disdain the formality and rigid social conventions often followed in national corporations of the same size and scope as ABC Supply. One business reporter wrote in 2005 of the neighborly atmosphere among ABC's employees. Here, people address each other and Hendricks on a firstname basis, with warm familiarity (Shepard, 2005). Finally, Hendricks reinforced his belief that relationships are fundamental to a workforce when he built his new home with his employees in mind. The Hendricks` home has a fishing pond, which Hendricks rarely used himself. Instead, ABC workers by the hundreds did so at weekly parties. "I was thinking about my employees when I built my house," he said. "I love when other people are having a good time. When they aren't catching enough fish, I throw more in the pond"(Skernivitz, 2007).

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Having Opportunities to Learn and Grow

To ensure that new employees have a clear understanding of what is expected of them before they begin working, ABC Supply has created its own training facility, referred to as the ABC University. ABC University is a special five-classroom training facility at which an average of 60 employees per week receive training in sales, customer service, marketing, safety, respect in the workplace, and other topics (Shepard, 2005). Employees who have regular contact with customers ­ from salespeople to truckers ­ even learn how to install roofing so that they are able to give accurate and helpful advice to customers (Shepard, 2005). Once employees have finished the initial training at ABC University, they are encouraged to continue to learn and grow with [the company] (Cullen, 2007). Associates are challeng[ed]...to set goals for themselves with the promise that ABC Supply will crea[te] an environment that helps [the associates] realize those dreams (ABC Supply, 2007). In particular, the company boasts that more than 50 percent of managers graduated from entry-level positions (Skernivitz, 2007). According to Hendricks, We have people here who started at the company answering the phone downstairs...Today they're making $60,000 or $70,000 a year (Shepard 2005). With a commitment to hiring internally, ABC Supply is continually building a strong bench` of good people preparing to become branch managers (Cullen, 2007). Moreover, they realize that in order to avoid high turnover rates it`s...important [to] offer a wide range of training and educational opportunities (Cullen, 2007). Before his death, Hendricks had a habit of spending at least an hour every day talking directly to managers (Fenn, 1996). This allowed managers to ask questions and gain valuable advice from a CEO who had a lot of experience successfully engaging employees.

Knowing Your Opinions Count

Part of what makes ABC Supply so unique is the fact that Hendricks considered his employees friends and equals (Skernivitz, 2007). Unlike many managers, Hendricks had an open-door policy and employees were encouraged to come talk to him or to call him on his cell phone (each employee had Hendricks` cell phone number) (Skernivitz, 2007). As a result of this approach to managing, employees inevitably feel more comfortable posing questions, or sharing concerns and ideas. Perhaps the single most important initiative ABC Supply has taken, in regards to employee engagement, is the care the company puts into the process of hiring and training its managers. In addition to selecting the majority of its managers

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from inside the company, ABC Supply hosts an annual five-day training session, for which trainers from Domino`s Pizza and Marriott International are invited (Fenn, 1996). Each store manager is treated as though he or she runs his or her own business, and not simply a single branch of a national chain. ABC Supply`s style of training empowers store managers to make decisions and to undertake initiatives on their own. Managers are given the psychic and financial rewards they need to run their individual businesses which includes teaching them how to read and interpret the numbers on their stores` monthly financial statements (Fenn, 1996). Store mangers are responsible for constantly improving the employee engagement levels in their branches (Cullen, 2007).

Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work

In order to recognize employees for excellent work, ABC Supply distributes 25% of its pre-tax profits among employees according to the profitability of individual stores (Fenn, 1996). Bonuses are handed out to all levels of staff at the company. For example, truck drivers and warehouse staff are given bonuses that can range from $3,000 to $8,000 dollars (Fenn, 1996). In addition, ABC Supply`s commitment to promoting from within serves as further recognition and reward for hard-working employees (Cullen, 2007).

B&Q

B&Q opened its first store in 1969 in the UK and since then has grown into the number one DIY (do it yourself) retailer in Europe and the third largest in the world, with over 39,000 employees and more than 60 stores internationally (B&Q, n.d.). As of 1990, B&Q introduced social responsibility into their company goals, and has since undertaken several initiatives to ensure that the products they are buying and selling are socially and environmentally responsible (B&Q, 2007). Furthermore, B&Q`s goal to look after its people and its customers has served it well, as the company`s profit for 2007 reached 162.9 million (B&Q, n.d.). As one of the Gallup Great workplace Award winners, B&Q has been determined to improve employee engagement since discovering statistically valid proof that engaged employees are key to greater productivity and customer engagement (Tritch, 2003). Their determination to increase engagement is paying off; their score on Gallup`s Employee Engagement Survey went up from 3.59 (on a fivepoint scale) in 2006 to 4.16 in 2007 (Brockett, 2007). Additionally, 59% of B&Q`s workforce is considered to be actively engaged, compared to a global average of just 28% (B&Q, 2007).

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Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right

In 1998, after realizing that much of their workforce was not engaged, B&Q launched a nine-month Q12 pilot program with Gallup (Tritch, 2003). More importantly, they spent a lot of time unpacking the results and devis[ing] action plans to boost engagement in specific areas (Tritch, 2003). In particular, B&Q discovered that some employees didn`t feel they had the materials they needed to do their jobs well; therefore, the company asked managers to ask their staff to identify what was lacking and adopted ways to systematically ensure an adequate supply (Tritch, 2003). Additionally, B&Q has developed a unique Learning and Development Framework which aims to improve customer service by giving the team the confidence and knowledge to perform the job. This means that various training methods, such as e-learning modules, face-to-face workshops, and individual learning modules are used to keep employees informed (B&Q, n.d.).

Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow

Part of this initiative to provide employees with the tools they need to do their work includes ensuring that every associate has a job specific Learning Programme. In other words, B&Q guarantees that each employee has the necessary tools and support to reach their potential (B&Q, n.d.). In 2004 alone, more than a million hours of training was delivered [through] workshops (B&Q, n.d.). B&Q also focuses on teaching staff to perform tasks such as laying floors and hanging wallpaper, which in turn improves the associates` ability to aid customers (Crabb, 2007). Additionally, learning boxes` are present in every store, and include interactive lessons, DVDs, games, and case studies to help keep every kind of learner informed about policy changes at B&Q (Hjul, 2007). After any training, associates are asked to perform the task that they have just learned about, so as to ensure that they are clear about what is expected of them (Hjul, 2007). As the number of skills an employee is able to demonstrate increases, so does their pay (Hjul, 2007). The company also offers its employees a program called Fast Track, which is designed to help those people that want a career in retail management develop the necessary skills (B&Q, n.d.). This course is believed to be an important factor in supporting internal career progression (B&Q, n.d.). Further, to ensure that associates feel valued by their store managers, B&Q is carefully identifying managerial situations that impede engagement (Tritch,

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2003). Manager training includes Q12 training, and a video in which top managers explain their ideas and practices (Tritch, 2003). Furthermore, managers are instruct[ed] ... to share information with one another about what has worked to boost engagement in their stores (Tritch, 2003). Between 2003 and 2005, over 250 of management team members in store will have attended B&Q`s award winning Management Academy programme (B&Q, n.d.). This program focuses on teaching managers the most effective leadership strategies (B&Q, n.d.). Additionally, the company offers a series of nationwide roadshows four times a year which serve both to teach managers people-managing skills, and to answer any questions that they may have (Hjul, 2007). After the event, managers are sent back to their stores with DVDs and interactive games outlining what they have learned, so that they can share the information with their employees (Hjul, 2007). Managers are responsible and held accountable for maintaining high levels of employee engagement in their stores (Hjul, 2007).

Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work

Realizing that managers play an important role in determining the engagement level of employees through leadership and recognition, B&Q bases manager bonuses in part on their success in raising employee engagement scores (Tritch, 2003). To further ensure that associates feel valued, they are guaranteed a 6% company profit share payment every year and 25 days holiday (B&Q, n.d.). Moreover, B&Q has decided to reward exemplary employees at all levels of the company by allocating about $750,000 (USD) toward...B&Q sponsored home renovations (Tritch, 2003). Finally, not only do B&Q directors and managers praise their employees when exceptional work has been done, but employees are also encouraged to praise each other for the work they do. The initiative Stars in Their Aisles is a peer recognition scheme in which associates can nominate their co-workers to win prizes ranging from a meal to a holiday (Crabb, 2007).

Knowing Your Opinions Count

Store managers at B&Q are encouraged to ask their staff to raise any issues or concerns they would like to discuss during morning staff meetings (Tritch, 2003). To ensure that associates know that they are being listened to, managers are required to report back to employees about how the issue [is] being addressed (Tritch, 2003). Managers also take part in what is called the Orange Room, which is a bi-weekly conference call with all store managers and a Board member. It is during this time that managers can pose questions, share ideas, and listen to and act on feedback (Employers Forum on Age, 2007). Additionally,

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B&Q directors recently sent workers at a Southampton store ten-pin bowling for the day while they stepped in (Brockett, 2007). For ten hours the directors ran the store on their own, which gave them a chance to learn more about the business (Brockett, 2007).

Talking with Someone about your Progress

B&Q tries to ensure that each employee receives regular feedback on their progress. According to the company, 70% of customer advisors have received a performance review with their line manager in the last three months (B&Q, n.d.). In addition, the company advocates one-to-one meetings between managers and their direct reports in order to discuss how well the manager is doing, and to set new goals and targets (Hjul, 2007). Finally, B&Q has recently introduced a new initiative in which employees are appraised on a five-point scale. Associates achieve two points for what they`ve achieved and two points for how they`ve achieved it. A last point is given for showing they`ve grown and developed over the appraisal period (Hjul, 2007).

Boeing

Boeing is the world`s leading aerospace company and the largest manufacturer of commercial jetliners and military aircraft combined (Boeing, 2008). Moreover, Boeing designs and manufactures rotorcraft, electronic and defense systems, missiles, satellites, launch vehicles, and advanced information and communication systems (Boeing, 2008). The company is also a service provider to NASA, the American military, and numerous other commercial airlines (Boeing, 2008). What started out as an extremely small company in 1917, is now one of the largest U.S. exporters (in terms of sales), with $61.5 billion in revenues in 2006 alone (Boeing, 2007). Furthermore, Boeing employs 150,000 people worldwide, and provides services to customers in over 90 countries (Boeing, 2008). Boeing continues to succeed in all areas of business, including customer and employee engagement. Although Boeing was not a recipient of the Gallup Great Workplace award, the company is aware that the difference between winning and losing a big deal often comes down to people (Whitehead, 2006). They also note that employees don`t quit their companies; they quit their managers, and understand the need to implement initiatives that encourage employee engagement (Whitehead, 2006). Despite the fact that Boeing is an extremely large company with associates scattered throughout the world, it is considered a leader in how it treats its human assets (Whitehead, 2006).

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Knowing Your Opinions Count

Only three days after a 2001 earthquake destroyed the entire Boeing site in Renton, Washington, employees were back at work (Proctor, 2004). More importantly, this quick response to disaster was due in most part to the employees who worked together in self-formed teams, big and small... [and]...made decisions for themselves (Proctor, 2004). According to the Vice President of the 757 Program in Renton at the time, it was at that point that she realized the management had potentially been holding everyone back (Proctor, 2004). The Boeing site in Renton now encourages what they call Employee Involvement, which, simply put, means that people have the opportunity to be involved in the decisions that affect their work, including ways to improve their workflow and processes (Proctor, 2004). Teams of workers are encouraged to collaborate and to take responsibility for managing, performing and improving the processes and projects they control (Proctor, 2004). Teams are provided clear expectations of what they need to produce, and then are given control over all the necessary resources and access to any data needed to perform the work (Proctor, 2004). Additionally, at the Boeing site in Wichita, Kansas, the employees at the 767 Struts Shop are given the information, resources, training and responsibility to manage their own shop as if they were a self-contained business (Proctor, 2004). Although Boeing sites throughout the world integrate employees` opinions to varying degrees, Boeing`s president and CEO notes that the more decisions that get made lower in your organization, the stronger your organization (Proctor, 2004). Because of this, and because Employee Involvement is one of the most high-potential, cost-effective strategies Boeing has, the company is beginning to include sessions on Employee Involvement in their Executive Program courses in order to determine whether a unified company-wide EI strategy is needed (Proctor, 2004).

Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work

Until 2006, Boeing had a three-part recognition program in place that used two separate contractors ­ one for long-term service and another for performance, and was found to be complex, confusing, difficult to use, expensive (Whitehead, 2006). Complications of having a large and diverse international workforce, as well as an uncomfortable union between two corporate cultures (Boeing and McDonnell Douglas after their 1997 merger) hindered the effectiveness of this program (Testa, 2006). After realizing that the program was neither helping to engage employees nor helping to bridge the divide between them, Boeing decided to rethink this complicated and expensive system (Testa, 2006). With the

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launch of a new, web-based version known as [email protected]ng, thousands of employees and managers are making use of the awards system (Testa, 2006). The new [email protected] program has four elements, which include: formal appreciation, instant appreciation, service awards and cash awards (Testa, 2006). Formal appreciation is based on activity and behavior, and both managers and employees can nominate employees for this award (Testa, 2006). Instant appreciation involves small items like mugs, bags and pens that managers have on hand and can give to employees at any time to reward some specific behavior, event or accomplishment (Testa, 2006). Service awards recognize length of employment in five-year increments, while cash rewards (allocated in amounts ranging from $250 to $5,000) are give to employees for extraordinary performance and can only be issued by a manager (Testa, 2006). In the past, an associate might have had to wait for up to a month to receive their award (despite the fact that the company believes that recognition must be timely [and] immediate); however, awards are now delivered within days (Testa, 2006). Furthermore, Boeing has updated the awards system so that it is now an egalitarian system, meaning that it is equally user-friendly for all employees and takes into account both cultural differences and salary differences worldwide (Testa, 2006).

Having a Supervisor or Someone at Work Care about You as a Person

At Boeing, managers are expected to create [an] environment where every employee feels valued and included and is engaged (Boeing Frontiers, 2003). This includes promot[ing] an inclusive environment that encourages diversity of thought (Boeing Frontiers, 2003). Overall, Boeing expects its leaders to do everything in their power to encourage engagement (Boeing Frontiers, 2003).This not only means that leaders must encourage associates to share their opinions without fear of being ridiculed or having an idea dismissed without consideration, but they must also share information, provide training and challenging assignments, and finally, be willing to give up some of the control [they have] had in the past (Boeing Frontiers, 2003).

Campbell Soup Company

In 1869, the Campbell Soup Company was founded and began producing canned tomatoes, vegetables, jellies, condiments and minced meats (Campbell`s, 2005). By 1897, Campbell`s succeeded in making the first ever condensed soup, which revolutionized the way they did business, as it made shipping their products feasible (Campbell`s, 2005). Today, in addition to being

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the words largest soup manufacturer, the company is a leading producer of juice beverages, sauces, biscuits, and confectionery products (Campbell`s, 2008). Furthermore, not only did the company increase its profits by 7% in 2007 to reach a total net sale of 7.9 billion dollars, but they have also succeeded in continuously improving their employee engagement scores for the past five years (Campbell Soup Company, 2007). Despite having one of the worst employee engagement levels of a Fortune 500 company that Gallup had ever seen in 2001, Campbell Soup Company is now one of only twelve companies to have won a Gallup Great workplace Award (Irons, 2007). As an international employer, the company has implemented various initiatives designed to encourage employee engagement in all of their offices. Since 2003, the level of engagement at the Campbell Soup Company has continued to increase (Campbell Soup Company, 2007). Although only 51% of employees were considered fully engaged in 2003, as of 2007 this percentage had increased to 76% (Campbell Soup Company, 2007).

Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow

With a continuous desire to improve engagement levels, Campbell Soup Company world headquarters, located in Camden, New Jersey, is in the process of building an employee service building that will include things such as; a fitness centre, a café, a company store, and a credit union; however, more importantly, the new building will house an innovative training and learning center called Campbell University (Campbell Soup Company, n.d.). This university` will be the place in which employees learn the things that they need to know to succeed in the company. This includes creating a platform that will allow employees [to] grow and learn in a meaningful way, make them feel valued, and enable them to make a difference (Campbell Soup Company, 2007). Courses at the training center will focus on things such as building manager quality and developing skills in strategic planning, problem solving, leading change, and influencing others (Campbell Soup Company, 2007).

Having a Supervisor or Someone at Work Care about You as a Person

In addition to providing employees with a number of facilities that will increase their comfort at work, Campbell Soup Company includes programs in diversity aimed at creating an environment of inclusion for all employees in their university` training sessions (Campbell Soup Company, 2007). The CEO of the company confirms the importance of employees, noting that companies need to be passionate about their people if they want their people to be passionate

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about their work (Irons, 2007). He also points out the need to make deposits in the emotional bank account of your company and to celebrate employees` successes (Zinger, 2007).

Hendrick Health System

Although Hendrick Health System opened the first unit of its hospital in 1924 with only 72 rooms, today it has expanded into the first healthcare network to establish a true system of service that boasts a 511-bed medical center, a women`s center, a rehabilitation hospital, a cancer center and numerous other services (Hendrick, 2007). Located in Texas, the Hendrick Health System employs 2,700 people and treats the ill, regardless of their ability to pay (Hendrick, 2007). With a desire to continually improve, the system has enjoyed many successes, including being ranked the number one hospital in its area, by the general public (Reporter News, 2006). Prior to 2005, Hendrick Health System had not conducted an employee survey in over ten years (K. Ivanhoe, Personal communication, February 29, 2008). According to Kolby Ivanhoe, the Talent Development Coordinator at Hendrick Health System, they only started to focus on employee engagement after reading a book in 2005 called First Break all the Rules by Marcus Buckingham and Curt Coffman. This book, about the world`s greatest managers, was the beginning of a new vision, in terms of engagement, for the health system (K. Ivanhoe, Personal communication, February 29, 2008). Only two years after beginning to implement employee engagement strategies, the company is now one of twelve companies worldwide to have won a Gallup Great Workplace Award.

Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right

Kolby Ivanhoe notes that having employees understand what is expected of them is the number one driver of employee engagement for the health system (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). In order to promote this philosophy, the Hendrick Health System strongly suggests that managers and supervisors conduct one-on-one conversations with employees to ensure that they are clear about what is expected of them (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). The health system recommends that those managers whose teams scored low on this Q12 question re-distribute each employee`s job description (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). Although this may seem obvious and redundant, Ivanhoe points out that it has worked to clear up many misunderstandings between associates and their managers (Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008).

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Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow

Growth is a requirement at the Hendrick Health System. Regular staff are encouraged to take part in the various programs offered by the system`s education department, including options for nurses to extend or increase their certifications (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). Many of these courses are taught by experienced nurses who no longer want to be working the floor and so opt to share their knowledge and expertise with other nurses in a classroom situation (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). While there are opportunities for all associates to grow and learn, leaders are encouraged ­ and in some cases required ­ to further their development (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). The health system offers a number of different leadership programs, such as Monday Morning Leadership, which consists of mentoring sessions and training for staff who are making the transition from staff to management, and Leadership Lunches, which is a quarterly event that includes guest speakers and exceptional leaders sharing best practices (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). Moreover, the health system not only requires its managers to read something pertaining to good management practice for ten minutes on the job every day, but also requires that they come together twice a year to discuss a pre-assigned book that pertains to good management practices (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). Finally, one of the health system`s most successful initiatives designed to train managers has been to break them down into three groups depending on their people managing ability (Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). Using the Q12 results, Ivanhoe and his team separate supervisors into top, middle, and low management groups (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). Once the groups have been determined, each group of managers is given monthly training sessions that meet their particular needs (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). To further help managers in the lowest group, members of this group are required to meet with managers from the top group in order to learn some of their best practice methods (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008).

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Having a Supervisor or Someone at Work Care about You as a Person

Although Ivanhoe notes that there are endless paths to engagement, especially where having employees feel valued is concerned, having associates feel cared for is essential (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). One of the ways in which the health system achieves this is by giving every new employee a Tell Us About You form, on which individuals are asked to share some information about their background, including such things as their favourite foods, some information about their families, and ­ most importantly ­ how they like to be recognized (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). This information is used when the health system wants to commend an employee for something, as well as to connect with each employee on a more personal level (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). An employee who has indicated that he or she does not want to be recognized for their achievements or successes in a public manner will be thanked privately, with a note left inside their locker, for example (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008).

Knowing Your Opinions Count

Supervisors and managers are encouraged to have frequent one-on-one conversations with employees in which they ask them questions about what they are expecting of both themselves and of their supervisors, and also such questions as where they see themselves in the next two to five years. (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). According to Ivanhoe, managers are free to design their own questions, though the health system does suggest a few, such as the ones previously mentioned (Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). Perhaps even more important than asking staff questions, Ivanhoe notes the importance of getting back to associates after they have made a suggestion or shared an opinion (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). Unless the associate is told what was done with their suggestion, they do not necessarily feel that they have been heard (Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008).

Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work

Hendrick Health System looks to the Tell Us About You form to determine how each individual would most like to be recognized for exceptional work (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). While, for example, some people like to be recognized in front of a crowd, others do not, so the company tries to incorporate these details into the way in which they deliver praise to each individual, in each situation (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication,

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February 29, 2008). In some cases, appreciative notes or cards may even be sent to the spouse or family member of an associate to thank them for sacrificing their time with that person so that they can do the valuable work that they do at Hendrick Health System (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). Hendrick Health System also offers a variety of special events throughout the year to say thank you to their employees. Some of these include bowling events, softball games, a talent show, and something they call Hendrick Fest (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). Hendrick Fest is a company picnic that takes place for a few hours during the day and then a for a few hours again at night so that as many associates as possible can enjoy the food and music on their lunch breaks (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). Lunch is delivered to those employees who work on offcampus sites (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008). Finally, the health system has a You`re a Keeper rewards program in which patients can nominate exceptional staff to be considered in a draw to win various awards (K. Ivanhoe, Personal Communication, February 29, 2008).

Marriott Vacation Club International

Marriott Vacation Club International is a provider of vacation and leisure experiences and is a global leader in development, operations, and sales of Vacation Ownership resorts (Marriott Vacation Club, 2007a). In 1984, Marriott became the first major hospitality company to enter the time share industry, which allows individuals to invest in the company and to own a piece of the resort. By 2006, the company had achieved over 10 billion dollars in cumulative contract sales, and had 330,000 owners internationally (Marriott Vacation Club, 2007b). In addition to monetary successes, Marriot Vacation Club International has achieved success in engaging both employees and customers and has received a number of engagement-related awards (Marriott Vacation Club, 2007b). Marriott Vacation Club International, as another one of the twelve companies that has won a Gallup Great Workplace award, has been working with Gallup since the early 1990s to develop a talent-based selection process for sales executives (Krueger, 2004). Although the company was fairly successful at identifying talent, they also realized that in order to continue to be a world leader they needed to get even closer to [their] associates and customers (Krueger, 2004). For this reason, in 2002, the company began collaborating with Gallup to develop initiatives that would further foster employee engagement (Krueger, 2004).

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Having the Opportunity to do what you do Best at Work

Marriott Vacation Club International has focused on selecting talented associates who are well suited to a specific job since the early 1990s (Krueger, 2004). Furthermore, the company has started to implement a strengths development program that emphasizes building organizational capacity by maximizing employees` greatest talents, not trying to fix employees` weaknesses (Krueger, 2004). This includes having associates complete Gallup`s Clifton StrengthsFinder, which is an online assessment that identifies a person`s top five talent themes (Krueger, 2004). Some associates have also taken part in a thorough human performance analysis designed to determine what tasks each individual is best suited to (Marriott Vacation Club International, 2006).

Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right

With Gallup`s help, Marriott Vacation Club International has certified 450 [of their] managers as Strength Performance Coaches (Krueger, 2004). Managers are now equipped with the necessary tools to communicate clear work expectations with other employees. The company has also built a Talent Experience Center where associates participate in learning labs and dissect the science of selling (American Business Awards, n.d.). Finally, Marriott Vacation Club International has introduced an internal leadership pipeline which will serve to keep associates even better informed (Welch, 2003).

Having a Supervisor or Someone at Work Care about You as a Person

Using Gallup`s twelve determinants of employee engagement as a guide, the company views building and sustaining one-to-one relationships with its sales associates as the central component of their engagement strategy (Krueger, 2004). To support this initiative, Marriott Vacation Club International has held a Sales Professional conference which brought top Sales Executives together to share their best practices (American Business Awards, n.d.). In addition, the company is expanding and enhancing its communication and recognition programs (Welch, 2003).

Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work

Another approach taken by Marriott Vacation Club International to improve employee engagement levels has been the implementation of several recognition programs. The company offers its associates a Sales Career Path program, which includes annual goals, awards and rewards and long-term incentives, as well as a Talent Rewards program (American Business Awards, n.d.). The Talent

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Rewards program is a points-based system that allows employees to exchange the points they`ve earned for merchandise (American Business Awards, n.d.). Lastly, as an additional incentive, the company has introduced two awards: the Award for Leadership Excellence in Marketing and Sales and the Coach of the Year award that recognizes exceptional mentors (American Business Awards, n.d.).

Talking with Someone about your Progress

To ensure that employees are happy and engaged in their positions, the Senior Vice President of Marriott Vacation Club International, Alan Cervasio, says they are sitting down with [associates] and talking about a plan that`s tailored to them and their strengths (Krueger, 2004). The need to report on individual progress was further enforced when the company hired Gallup to do an analysis that revealed that employees who received feedback on their strengths had much larger increases in their sales-closing percentages--and in sales volume per guest--than employees who didn`t receive strengths feedback (Krueger, 2004).

Starbucks Corporation

Although Starbucks started out as a single coffee shop in Seattle, Washington, it is now the world`s largest specialty coffee retailer. Starbucks produces a wide variety of specialty coffees, teas, and other merchandise, with a goal of being the premier purveyor of the finest coffee in the world (Starbucks, 2007). While the company employs almost 200,000 people worldwide, it has one of the lowest employee turnover rates in the industry (HRVoice, 2006) and has been the recipient of several best employer awards as a result of the company`s continual effort to make employees a priority (Fortune, 2008). Despite having been presented the Gallup Great Workplace award in 2007, Starbucks is continuing to strive for more (Gallo, 2008). They have focused on creating an inviting culture for employees and customers since the first store opened in Seattle, something that they believe has set them apart (Gallo, 2008). As the CEO of Starbucks points out, an engaged workforce is necessary for success, since the business is all about relationships... [and]...human connection (Gallo, 2008).

Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right

To ensure that employees know what is expected of them, Starbucks invests a large amount of time and money in training its associates (Lafayette, 2004). In 2006 alone, the company provided a total of 4.9 million hours of training for its

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employees ­ or partners,` as they are commonly referred to (Starbucks, 2008a). On February 26 of this year, in all Starbucks stores across the U.S., 135,000 partners took part in a 3-hour training session (Fox Business, 2008). Thousands of stores were closed for part of the day so that associates could learn how to perfect the creation of various drinks (Dowdy, 2008). They listened to presentations and watched training videos, all so that customers could be promised the perfect drink every time (Fox Business, 2008). Starbucks notes that this is just the beginning, as other Starbucks partners in other countries will also be undertaking extensive training in the near future (Fox Business, 2008).

Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow

Starbucks encourages its partners to explore various career options within the company. The company offers a number of training programs designed to help associates develop the skills they need in order to obtain the jobs they desire. Some of these include a coffee education course, which focuses on the Starbucks` passion for coffee and understanding [their] core product, a Learning to Lead course which is a three level program for baristas to develop leadership skills...[as well as] effective management practice training, and a Business and Communication program which offers a variety of courses ranging from basic computer skills to conflict resolution to management training (Starbucks, 2008b).

Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work

To thank their employees for their work, Starbucks gives each partner a pound of coffee each week (Starbucks, 2008b). Moreover, the company gives each partner a Total Pay package, which is a benefits package that allows employees to choose what kind of benefits they want (Starbucks, 2008b). Examples of these include: healthcare benefits, retirement savings plan, stock options, and a management bonus plan (Starbucks, 2008b).

Stryker

Founded in 1941, Stryker started out as a small company that aimed to improve the quality of medical products, so as to better meet the needs of patients. Today the company is global leader in medical technology, with a $28.6 billion worldwide orthopaedic market (Stryker, 2007a). The company not only provides the broadest range of products and services in the orthopaedic industry, but is also involved in a number of other health care specialties, including general surgery and patient handling equipment (Stryker, 2007b). With over 15,000 employees worldwide, Stryker continues to be recognized for its various

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accomplishments, including being ranked the third most admired company in the medical products and equipment sector (Stryker, 2007c). Creating an environment in which employees feel engaged is one of Stryker`s key goals. Having recently been awarded the Gallup Great Workplace award, the company has proven to be successful at developing a number of strategies that foster employee engagement. Stryker prides itself on always striving to achieve something better, and engaged associates play a fundamental role in the vision and success of Stryker.

Having the Opportunity to do what you do Best at Work

Stryker has one of the most intensive interviewing and hiring processes when compared to the other eleven companies selected by Gallup as being leaders in employee engagement. The company wants to ensure that they hire the right person for the job. Stryker points out that they can teach people to acquire skills, such as how to interview or be technically proficient in an area, but no one can teach someone to be enthusiastic or have integrity to be a good influencer. It is not possible to manufacture talent...you have to recruit it in the first place (Suff, 2005). With help from Gallup, Stryker has come up with a hiring process that is designed to select people that will fit into the company`s culture. In order to do this, Gallup first interviewed top managers and ran in-depth focus groups with high-achieving sales staff to pinpoint precisely the innate talents that differentiated the best performers from the rest (Suff, 2005). Through studying responses to questions regarding how people are motivated, what they like about their jobs, and how they relate to customers. Gallup was able to identify that around 80% of the talent themes` needed for the sales role were consistent across the different European countries falling within the scope of the project (Suff, 2005). Furthermore, the study revealed that the manner in which these qualities should be identified varied depending on the country (Suff, 2005). For example, in Holland, the sales associates felt that an essential part of building powerful customer relationships with surgeons was to be knowledgeable not just about the products...but in the medical procedures associated with them. In the United Kingdom, tenacity and determination were revealed as being bigger determinants of sales (Suff, 2005). Upon compilation of the results from Gallup`s study, Stryker introduced a new approach to hiring. After sifting through applications, Stryker conducts phone interviews with selected candidates (Suff, 2005). The next stage involves Stryker giving a list of any successful candidates to Gallup, who will have trained analysts ask identical talent-themed questions of the candidates (Suff, 2005).

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Finally, those people who are selected to participate in the last stage are involved in a number of face-to-face interviews with the HR director as well as the managing director, and will only [be] appoint[ed] if [they are] right for the role (Suff, 2005). Once hired, managers continue to ask associates what they do and do not like about their jobs, so as to determine what role the employee may be best suited to fill (Wagner and Harter, 2006). Realizing that what someone may excel at is not always what you saw in the resumé, Stryker tries to help its associates understand themselves so that they can be placed in a job that they enjoy. In fact, the Stryker team ranks in the top 15% of workgroups in Gallup`s global engagement database on the third question on the Gallup Q12 survey, which asks associates if they have the opportunity to do what [they] do best every day (Wagner and Harter, 2006).

Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right

In 2005, Stryker began developing an extended three-day program to ensure that new recruits are quickly familiarized with Stryker`s history and values (Suff, 2005). According to Gallup`s research, keeping employees well informed about what is expected of them is a key determinant of the level of employee engagement. Furthermore, engagement scores are used as one of the deciding factors when promoting managers (Kroll, 2005). In other words, managers are accountable for, among other things, ensuring that associates are clear about what is expected of them.

Talking with Someone about your Progress

At Stryker, one-on-one discussions between managers and employees generally happen every two or three months (Wagner and Harter, 2006). Not only is personal progress discussed at these sessions, but as previously mentioned, employees are encouraged to explore other areas that they might have more interest in or be better suited to (Wagner and Harter, 2006).

Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow

With the desire to hire and retire its employees, Stryker ensures that there are many opportunities for associates to move within the company (Suff, 2005). Both succession planning and provision of opportunities for employees to develop by taking on more diverse roles and greater responsibility are central focus areas for the company (Suff, 2005). Due to the size and rate of growth the

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company is experiencing, Stryker is able to offer employees a range of different career options over a lifetime (Suff, 2005).

Wells Fargo

Founded in 1852 in California to provide express banking services, Wells Fargo is now a diversified financial services company that provides banking, insurance, investments, mortgages, and consumer finance in almost 6,000 stores, on the internet, and through other distribution channels across North America and internationally (Wells Fargo, 2007). Wells Fargo is the 25th largest employer in the United States, with 158,800 employees (Wells Fargo, 2007), and is the recipient of several awards, including being ranked as one of the 50 best places to launch a career by BusinessWeek (Wells Fargo, 2007). Over 150 years after its inception and after merging with numerous other companies, Wells Fargo is still regarded as one of the most admired companies in the world (Wells Fargo, 2007). As a winner of the 2007 Gallup Great workplace Award, Wells Fargo notes that its associates are responsible for the company`s competitive advantage; therefore having an engaged workforce is a crucial component of their success (Wells Fargo, 2006). To ensure that associates are happy, as well as to encourage open, honest, two-way communication the company regularly requests that its team fill out engagement surveys (Wells Fargo, 2006). Due to the changes they have made and the programs they have introduced as a result, the employee engagement results continue to increase (Wells Fargo, 2006).

Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right

Upon becoming an employee at Wells Fargo, associates are offered access to programs to help them increase their knowledge, develop skills, network, find mentoring opportunities and expand their career options (Wells Fargo, 2006). Wells Fargo estimates that 20% of their workforce has taken part in a mentoring program (Wells Fargo, 2006). In 2006, the company not only invested 2.7 percent of total payroll dollars into training programs, including 11,000 different training courses, 36,000 classroom sessions and 6,000 virtual-classroom sessions, but also invested $19.3 million in tuition reimbursement for those employees who wanted to pursue formal education opportunities (Wells Fargo, 2006).

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Having a Supervisor or Someone at Work Care about You as a Person

Wells Fargo has implemented a rigorous process for identifying, developing, promoting and retaining current and future leaders (Wells Fargo, 2006). This leadership pipeline is an important way for the company to ensure that their managers are successful at making their employees feel valued and hence engaged. Additionally, to support a healthy work-life balance, the company encourages team members with special scheduling needs to talk with their managers about alternative work arrangements (Wells Fargo, 2006). For those associates who are either suffering from a chronic illness or have a dependant that is, there are both consumer health education and financial incentives available (Wells Fargo, 2006). While the company also offers various benefits, such as a medical pre-tax savings account and a partial reimbursement for joining Weight Watchers, their Employee Assistance Consulting program is perhaps the most innovative (Wells Fargo, 2006). This program employs professionals to confidentially help associates deal with emotional concerns, work difficulties, health-related issues and financial stress (Wells Fargo, 2006). Finally, Wells Fargo gives its associates both a number of financial products and services free or at a discounted rate, and free access to financial counsellors (Wells Fargo, 2006).

Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow

Wells Fargo promises its associates the best tools and resources to succeed professionally, financially, and personally (Wells Fargo, 2006). Moreover, the company tries to hire from within whenever possible, and therefore encourages associates to consider many career paths within the company (Wells Fargo, 2006). In order to help individuals develop necessary skills, Wells Fargo provides online development tools, workshops on skills such as resumé writing and interviewing, and career fairs showcasing new career opportunities (Wells Fargo, 2006). Additionally, the company hires approximately 200 undergraduate and graduate students to participate in one of 13 professional development training programs (Wells Fargo, 2006). These programs are designed to expose participants to a variety of projects and businesses, as well as to leadership development opportunities to help prepare them for future management positions (Wells Fargo, 2006).

Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work

While the company notes that team members are being recognized and celebrated publicly for their achievement on a daily basis, Wells Fargo offers a

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number of programs to praise their employees (Wells Fargo, 2006). These programs range from a simple thank you` to local or national recognition events (Wells Fargo, 2006). The Race for Recognition program is designed to help managers improve recognition and has succeeded in increasing the number of formal recognition awards by 45 percent (Wells Fargo, 2006).

WestJet

WestJet was founded in 1996 by four Calgary entrepreneurs. The low cost airline started out with only three Boeing 737-200 aircrafts and 220 employees, and offered travel between five western Canadian cities (WestJet, n.d.). In 1999, WestJet made the transition to a public company, and with the funds raised through this move and through their growing popularity, the company soon expanded its services into eastern Canada (WestJet, n.d.). Today the company employs over 6,000 people and provides services throughout Canada and to parts of the United States (WestJet, n.d.). The company continues to be recognized for its quality of service, and in January 2008, WestJet was honoured as the Most Admired Corporate Culture in Canada for the third year in a row (WestJet, 2008). Although WestJet was not one of the twelve companies to win a Gallup Great Workplace award, many of the initiatives used by the company to encourage employee engagement correlate with the initiatives presented by Gallup as being strong determinants of engaged employees. WestJet`s goal has always been to create a business that people really want to work with (Magnan, 2005). Their ability to engage their workforce is further illustrated by a turnover rate of 1215%, which is about 11% below the national average (Castaldo, 2006).

Having the Opportunity to do what you do Best at Work

WestJet focuses a lot of attention on its hiring process in order to ensure that it hires the right person for the job. In 2005, with the addition of a new Vice President of Talent Management, WestJet changed the way in which it recruits its associates (Brent, 2007). Previously the company used a panel interview process that subjected candidates to behavioural questions...[that did] not allow them to display their personalities despite the fact that having the right personality for the job was a crucial element for flight staff and other client-facing employees (Brent, 2007). Today WestJet approaches recruiting in a very different manner. Instead of individuals being interview by a panel, groups of 2030 potential hires are interviewed collectively to identify those who would thrive in the airline`s culture (Brent, 2007). In these three-hour long group interviews candidates engage in games, team and individual tasks and presentations,

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which allow both the employer and the potential employee to determine whether or not they are WestJet material (Brent, 2007).

Knowing What is Expected of You and Having the Necessary Materials and Equipment to do Your Work Right

Call centre agents at WestJet are randomly monitor[ed] [for the] rate [and] quality of calls (Castaldo, 2006). With up to ten calls monitored per month, employees receive feedback on their ability to take control of the calls (Castaldo, 2006). Those employees who constantly perform well are recognized with up to an $8 dollar an hour increase in pay, and those who perform poorly receive individual training so that they develop a clear understanding of what is expected of them (Castaldo, 2006). Moreover, in order to foster a healthy work environment for its call centre agents, WestJet designed its call centre in Calgary so that agents could enjoy the luxury of natural light from the windows (Castaldo, 2006).

Having a Supervisor or Someone at Work Care about You as a Person

Apart from allocating the best office space to its call-centre agents, WestJet executives have a number of initiatives in place to ensure that employees feel valued. For example, because the Calgary based company wants to embrace people`s personalities rather than turn them into robots associates are encouraged to contribute ideas about how the airline runs (Wahl, 2005). Furthermore, following the motto great culture starts by the actions of the leaders WestJet executives help pick up garbage at the end of a flight and facilitate an egalitarian environment by ensuring that management does not receive any perks over and above anyone else (Magnan, 2005). The executives at WestJet are even known to visit the call centre on Christmas Day to thank people for working (Magnan, 2005).

Receiving Recognition or Praise for Doing Good Work

WestJet makes a point of recognizing its associates for the work that they do, even stating that one of the biggest things you can do in a corporation ... [is to]...make sure you embrace, reward and recognize the right behaviours (Magnan, 2005). In 2006, Wesjet recognized its employees by giving bonuses that averaged $2,500 dollars (Kingston District Human Resources Professionals Association, 2007). Clive Beddoe, who in September 2007 transferred from CEO to Chariman of WestJet, ensures that when he is on a WestJet flight he not only introduces himself to the passengers, but that he also ask[s] [passengers] to give a round of applause to [the] employees (Profit, 2007). Furthermore, when

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thankful customers write in to praise an employee, management will often forward those messages to the individual concerned with a hand-written note of thanks and gift certificates for movies or restaurants (Magnan, 2005).

Knowing Your Opinions Count

In addition to encouraging employees to share their opinions about how the company should be operating, WestJet management holds a yearly session with employees to give them the occasion to voice concerns, ask questions and make suggestions (Magnan, 2005). As well, the company encourages flight attendants to have regular meetings to discuss everything from customer service to language and culture (Wahl, 2005). This includes a group of flight attendants that meet on a regular basis to write jokes to read to passengers as the plane is landing (Wahl, 2005). The company further empowers its employees by giv[ing] them the freedom to make judgment calls when dealing directly with customers, without having to check in with a supervisor (Magnan, 2005). This means that associates have the authority to waive fees and override fares in certain circumstances (Magnan, 2005). Utilizing the opinions and ideas of associates plays an important role in the company, as [m]anagers...believe that aligning the interests of [WestJet`s] people with its business interests fosters a great culture (Magnan, 2005).

Having the Opportunity to Learn and Grow

Personal development is encouraged at WestJet, as many of the people starting at entry level positions will have opportunities to move up in the company. Approximately 600 positions are filled internally each year, giving employees the opportunity to learn and try new things (Brent, 2007). The company also promises its associates the opportunity to develop their careers through continued education [and] shared learning (WestJet, n.d.).

Feeling Connected to the Mission or Purpose of Your Company

One of the most popular initiatives adopted by WestJet is its share-purchase matching program, in which associates can buy into the company and become partial owners. Employees can purchase up to 20% of [their] gross salary in WestJet shares and [the company] will match [the] contribution dollar for dollar (WestJet, n.d.). By 2006, 85% of employees were considered WestJet owners (Brent, 2007). According to Lisa Puchala, director of in-flight training standards, when you have a stake in the company, you want to do whatever it takes to make it work (Magnan, 2005).

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Other Gallup Great Workplace Winners

Unfortunately, many of the companies identified by Gallup as having exceptional levels of employee engagement were not able to provide us with specific information pertaining to their employee engagement strategies. Moreover, there was very little publicly available information concerning these companies` various employee engagement strategies. For this reason, we are unable to provide as comprehensive a review of the employee engagement initiatives of these companies as has been provided above. Below is information regarding some of the most innovative strategies in place in some of the other Gallup Great Workplace award-winning companies. St. Joseph Health System is a not for profit Catholic health care system that employs 19,364 people in fourteen hospitals, three home health agencies and multiple physician groups (St. Joseph Health System, n.d.). One of the ways in which this health care system maintains a high rate of employee engagement is by spending a great deal of time reviewing the Gallup Q12 survey results they compile each year (Capital Group, 2006). Once results have been compiled, findings are integrated into training sessions, impact plans are created, and each manager receives a scorecard for their workgroup (Capital Group, 2006). As a final component to the survey, the company has created a best practices video and website for effective survey follow-up and action (Capital Group, 2006). The Park hotels are a collection of premium boutique hotels` located throughout India that boast contemporary style and luxury in their accommodations (The Park Hotels, n.d.). As one of their employee engagement strategies, the management encourage [their] stewards to interact with [the] guests and don`t mind if they share a drink with [the guests] (Cherian, 2007). This kind of freedom is expected to lead to an increase in employee engagement and employees bonding with the company (Cerian, 2007). Additionally, employees enjoy working for one of the best paymasters in the domestic hospitality sector, flexible work schedules which take into account individual needs, and flexible work options which include the option to opt for retainerships with the hotel or employment based on agreements (Cherian, 2007). Winegardner & Hammons is one of the largest full-service independent hotel management companies in the United States (Winegardner & Hammons, 2008a). To encourage employee engagement, the management supports numerous award systems designed to recognize exceptional work (Winegardner & Hammons, 2005). In 2005, the company recognized its employees during an Associate Appreciation Week (Winegardner & Hammons, 2005). The activities that took place during this week included such events as a car wash at which

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managers washed associates` cars, and a number of carnival themed activities (Winegardner & Hammons, 2005). Furthermore, the company incorporates best practice ideas that have come out of the Gallup Q12 surveys into their company newsletter, so that all employees and managers can share their knowledge (Winegardner & Hammons, 2005). Knowledge transfer is also fostered through one-on-one conversations between associates and managers (Winegardner & Hammons, 2005). Finally, the company takes great care in hiring managers, as management methods are a significant determinant of the level of employee engagement (Wagner, 2005).

SUMMARY

This Scoping Review has examined the employee engagement strategies implemented by thirteen private sector companies. Ten of these organizations were studied in greater detail. The information has been organized according to qualities that Gallup has identified as the key drivers and determinants of employee engagement. Although no company has been found to excel at all twelve of these, it is evident that each of these successful engagement methods reflect fulfillment of several the drivers outlined by Gallup. As a result of the research conducted, three things have surfaced as being the most often emphasized drivers of employee engagement. Firstly, despite having very different business agendas, each company noted that management played a fundamental role in both creating and maintaining high levels of engagement among employees. Secondly, another area on which almost all of the thirteen companies focused was the hiring process. Regardless of training, most companies agreed that in order to develop an engaged workforce it is necessary to hire the right people. Finally, listening to employees and valuing their opinions was an almost universally used engagement tool. Among all of the companies examined here, successful employee engagement initiatives typically share one important quality: successful, innovative, and egalitarian management styles. The companies achieving high levels of employee engagement are those that are investing time and money into training their managers to communicate effectively with associates. Many of the companies discussed have designed lengthy training sessions to teach managers how to encourage engagement. Furthermore, managers at many of these companies are held accountable for the engagement level of their subordinates. Although the managers with whom associates work on a daily basis play a larger role in determining an employee`s engagement level, executives can also have

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an impact. For example, Ken Hendricks, the late CEO and founder of ABC Supply, gave his cell phone number to all of his employees and encouraged them to either call or come into his office and talk to him if ever they had a question or concern. Hendricks also made connections with employees by inviting them over to his house to fish in his pond, and by considering his associates friends and equals. Additionally, the process of hiring the right person has proven to be fundamental in determining the level of engagement an associate will achieve. While most companies understand the importance of providing training for their associates, they have also discovered that hiring for talent dramatically increases the chances that an employee will be engaged. Where the hiring process is concerned, Stryker is perhaps the most rigorous of the companies examined. The company has collaborated with Gallup to develop a system that can identify people that will fit the company`s culture. A number of interviews consisting of multiple steps are now part of Stryker`s hiring process. Trained analysts from Gallup are also involved in helping Stryker determine which candidates to hire. A majority of the thirteen companies also agree that listening to associates` opinions is an invaluable measure in developing engaged employees. In order to feel engaged, people need to believe that they are valued and that their opinions matter. This means that managers and supervisors need to demonstrate to their associates that they are taking actions to put into place some of ideas that have been suggested by front line staff. Hendrick Health System indicates that one of their top drivers of employee engagement is listening to employee opinions and acting on them. While this does not always mean that an associate`s idea is going to be implemented, the health system managers are certain to discuss the issue, and to report back to the associate. Hendrick Health System states that one of the most important things it does is keep employees in the loop. In other words, supervisors have one-on-one discussions with all associates, listen to any of their concerns, and most importantly, keep them informed about what happens as a result of their suggestions. Interestingly, while these seem to be the three most important determinants of engagement, those companies reviewed focused on a variety of different strategies. Depending on the company`s individual business agenda and the nature of their work, some of the engagement areas revealed by Gallup were more pertinent than others. For example, while ABC Supply has implemented a

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number of initiatives which foster relationship-building within the office, Westjet focuses much attention on making employees feel connected to the company`s mission and purpose by introducing such things as the share-purchase matching program. Finally, while there are guidelines that companies can follow to achieve an engaged workforce, even Gallup points out that there isn`t a perfect route to employee engagement (Robison, 2008). Successful methods of increasing engagement not only vary from company to company, but also from manager to manager within a company (Robison, 2008). Gallup has revealed the drivers of employee engagement, though it is up to individual companies and managers to link these drivers to key visions, goals, and engagement issues specific to the company.

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APPENDIX A ­ THE GALLUP Q12

Initial research for this Scoping Review uncovered several scales of employee satisfaction with their employers and work environments. The Gallup Q12 employee engagement survey is one tool, designed to measure employee engagement, and which measures satisfaction of twelve key elements of worker engagement ­ identified by Gallup through hundreds of focus groups and thousands of interviews ­ that, when satisfied, form the foundation of strong feelings of engagement (Thackaray 2001). The Gallup Q12 comprises twelve questions, each related to one of the twelve identified elements of employee engagement, which respondents are asked to answer using a relative scale from 1 to 5, indicating their strong or weak agreement with the stated question. The questions are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Do you know what is expected of you at work? Do you have the materials and equipment to do your work right? At work, do you have the opportunity to do what you do best every day? In the last seven days, have you received recognition or praise for doing good work? 5. Does your supervisor, or someone at work, seem to care about you as a person? 6. Is there someone at work who encourages your development? 7. At work, do your opinions seem to count? 8. Does the mission/purpose of your company make you feel your job is important? 9. Are your associates (fellow employees) committed to doing quality work? 10. Do you have a best friend at work? 11. In the last six months, has someone at work talked to you about your progress? 12. In the last year, have you had opportunities to learn and grow?

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APPENDIX B ­ INTERVIEW QUESTIONS SENT TO REPRESENTATIVES OF EACH OF THE COMPANIES MENTIONED IN THIS REPORT

The 12 winners of the Gallup Great Workplace award, the top ten of Hewitt`s 50 Best Employers in Canada, and air travel providers WestJet and Boeing were contacted in the preliminary stages of research for this Scoping Review. Representatives from each company were sent information about the work of the Cross Government Research, Policy and Practice Branch, in addition to the following questionnaire. It was personalized with specific information for each company (see questions 1 and 2), whenever possible. Below is the version of the questionnaire which was sent to Boeing, included here as a representative illustration. 1. What are the strategies Boeing uses to promote employee engagement? a. What are the overarching, big picture strategies or initiatives Boeing uses? b. Boeing provides services to people in over 90 countries and has offices all over the globe. Are the strategies you use universal within your company ­ in other words, are the same strategies used effectively in all of your different branches? 2. One of the things that Boeing seems to emphasize in relation to employee engagement is Employee Involvement. Can you speak more to this concept? 3. What did your employee engagement scores look like before you implemented these strategies? a. Were there any other strategies that you used to use that were not overly successful and that you abandoned? b. Was there a catalyst that caused your company to start focussing on employee engagement?

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APPENDIX C ­ SEARCH TERMS AND DATABASES

The Following Search Terms Were Used:

ABC Supply B&Q Blue Care Network of Michigan Campbell Soup Company Employee engagement Employee engagement AND ABC Supply Employee engagement AND B&Q Employee engagement AND Blue Care Network of Michigan Employee engagement AND Boeing Employee engagement AND Campbell Soup Company Employee engagement AND Hendrick Health System Employee engagement AND Marriot Vacation Club Employee engagement AND St. Joseph Health System Employee engagement AND Starbucks Employee engagement AND Stryker Employee engagement AND The Park Hotels Employee engagement AND Wells Fargo Employee engagement AND WestJet Employee engagement AND Winegardner and Hammons Fortune magazine best employers Gallup Gallup AND ABC Supply Gallup AND B&Q Gallup AND Blue Care Network of Michigan Gallup AND Campbell Soup Company Gallup AND Hendrick Health System Gallup AND Marriot Vacation Club Gallup AND St. Joseph Health System Gallup AND Starbucks Gallup AND Stryker Gallup AND The Park Hotels Gallup AND Wells Fargo Gallup AND Winegardner and Hammons Gallup Q12 Great Place to Work Institute Hendrick Health System Marriot Vacation Club St. Joseph Health System Starbucks Stryker The Park Hotels United States and Employee engagement Wells Fargo Winegardner and Hammons

The Following Engines Were Used:

Google EbscoHost

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WORKS CONSULTED

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Boeing. (2007). Boeing in brief. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from: http://www.boeing.com/companyoffices/aboutus/brief.html Brent. P. (2007). WestJet culture gets employees on-board. Workopolis. Retrieved February 22, 2008, from: http://www.workopolis.com/work.aspx?action=Transfer&View=Content/Com mon/ArticlesDetailView&articleId=brent20071128File1Article1&lang=EN&art icleSource=Brent&OldUrl= Brockett, J. (2007). B&Q directors do it themselves. People Management. Vol. 13 (4). Retrieved February 19, 2008, from: Business Source. Caggiano, Christopher. (1997). I`m sorry. Do I know you? Inc, vol 19, Issue 12, 109. Retrieved February 19, 2008 from: ebscohost Campbell Soup Company. (2007a). Aspiring to be extraordinary. 1. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from: http://www.campbellsoupcompany.com/pdf/campbell_2007_annual_report.p df Campbell`s Soup Company. (2007b). Campbell Soup Company 2007 Annual Report. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from: http://www.docstoc.com/docs/392932/Campbell-Soup-Company-2007Annual-Report Campbell`s Soup Company. (n.d.a). Campbell to expand world headquarters facilities in Camden, NJ with $72 million investment. Retrieved on February 13, 2008, from: http://investor.shareholder.com/campbell/ReleaseDetail.cfm?ReleaseID=22 8966 Campbell`s Soup Company. (2005). History: Introduction. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from: http://www.campbellsoupcompany.com/history.asp Campbell`s Soup Company. (2008). Welcome. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from: http://www.campbellsoup.com/default.aspx Capital Group. (2006). Employee survey advantage: The rule of twos helps companies gain competitive edge. Retrieved February 22, 2008, from: http://www.capitalhgroup.com/pdf/inthenews/Rule_of_Twos_08_06.pdf

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Castaldo. J. (2006). Just be nice. Canadian Business 79 (20). Retrieved on February 19, 2008, from: Academic Search Premier. Cherian, T. (2007). Freedom at work forges employee engagement. Business Line. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from: http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/manager/2007/12/03/stories/2007120 350391100.htm Conference Board. (2006). Employee engagement: A review of current research and its implications. Retrieved February 15, 2008, from: http://sso.conferenceboard.ca/eLibrary/temp/BoardWise2LNHCNFHCLHKKJAJJGMOCJHNK20082151549 31/E-0010-06-RR.pdf Crab, S. (2007). Home improvement. People Management. Retrieved February 23, 2008, from: http://www.peoplemanagement.co.uk/pm/articles/homeimprovement.htm?na me=pmaward&type=section Cullen. C. (2007). ABC Supply finds its employee-focus translates into long-term customers and financial success. LBM Journal Retrieved February 18, 2008 from: http://www.lbmjournal.com/articles.pl?id=103 Dowdy, Z. (2008, February 27). Coffee fans adjust as Starbucks shuts to retrain. Newsday. Retrieved February 27, 2008, from: http://www.newsday.com/news/local/suffolk/nybzstar275593057feb27,0,432413.story Employers Forum on Age. (2007). Case study: B&Q. Retrieved on February 25, 2008, from: http://www.efa.org.uk/goodpractice/downloads/Employee%20engagement% 20-%20BQ.pdf Fenn. D. (1996). Higher ground. Inc (, Vol. 18), Iss 5, 92,. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from: Academic Search Premier. Gallo, C. (2008). Bringing passion to Starbucks. Business Week Online. Retrieved February 12, 2007, from: Academic Source Premier. Gallup Study: Engaged Employees Inspire Company Innovation. (October 2006). Gallup Management Journal. Retrieved February 27, 2008, from:

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http://gmj.gallup.com/content/24880/Gallup-Study-Engaged-EmployeesInspire-Company.aspx Gallup. (n.d.). Gallup great workplace award. Retrieved February 8, 2008, from: http://www.gallup.com/consulting/25312/Gallup-Great-WorkplaceAward.aspx Hendrick. (2007). About us. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from: http://www.ehendrick.org/mission.htm Hewitt Consulting. (n.d.). Employee Engagement. Retrieved February 27, 2008, from: http://was7.hewitt.com/bestemployers/canada/driving_engagement.htm Hjul, A. (2007). Chain reaction. Webster Buchanan Research. Retrieved February 18, 2008, from: http://www.websterb.com/articles.php?ID=7d1642e421cc627e&PHPSESSI D=0e41f305fc4642c53eee2f1ea086ff74 HRVoice. (2006). Creating a unique blend: Total rewards at Starbucks. Retrieved February 11, 2008, from: http://www.hrvoice.org/story.aspx?&storyid=2865&issueid=781 Ideas & Trends. (n.d.). Winegardner & Hammons: Professional hotel management. Retrieved February 12, 2008, from: http://www.hotelonline.com/Trends/WHIHotels/index.html Irons, C. (2007). How employee engagement is driving the bottom-line success at Campbell Soup. Development Dimensions International. Retrieved on February 14, 2008, from: http://www.ddiworld.com/podcasts/2007_talentmanagement_conant_campb ells.asp Kingston District Human Resources Professionals Association. (2007). Developing and implementing effective strategies to attract, engage and retain employees. Retrieved February 21, 2008, from: http://www.kdhrpa.com/files/April_2007_Newsletter.pdf Krueger, J. (2004). How Marriott Vacation Club International engages talent. The Gallup Management Journal. Retrieved February 11, 2008, from: http://gmj.gallup.com/content/13960/How-Marriott-Vacation-ClubInternational-Engages-Talent.aspx

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Lafayette, W. (2004). Purdue research links employee satisfaction, profits. Purdue University. Retrieved February 21, 2008, from: http://www.purdue.edu/UNS/html4ever/2004/040913.Oakley.sat.html Magnan, M. (2005). People power. Canadian Business. Retrieved February 19, 2008, from: Academic Source Premier. Marriott Vacation Club International. (2006). For the second time, Marriott Vacation Club International named country`s best sales organization by American Business Awards. The Timeshare. Retrieved February 19, 2008, from: http://www.thetimesharebeat.com/2006/june/0616-01t.htm Marriott Vacation Club. (2007a). Corporate information. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from: https://www.my-vacationclub.com/corporate/default.jsp Marriott Vacation Club. (2007b). History. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from: https://www.my-vacationclub.com/corporate/corporateHistory.jsp O`Neil, V. (2008). Starbucks espresso training delivers on the promise of the best customer experience. Fox Business. Retrieved February 27, 2008, from: http://www.foxbusiness.com/markets/industries/retail/article/starbucksespresso-training-delivers-promise-best-customerexperience_496307_7.html Proctor, P. (2004). Shared destiny. Boeing Frontiers. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from: http://www.boeing.com/news/frontiers/archive/2004/february/cover.html Q and A: Wanda Denson-Low, vice president of human resources for IDS. (2003). Boeing Frontiers. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from: http://www.boeing.com/news/frontiers/archive/2003/july/i_qa.html Reporter News. (2006). Readers' choice awards: Health and fitness. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from: http://stag.reporternews.com/readerschoice/health.htm\ Robison, J. (2008). Many paths to engagement. Gallup Management Journal. Retrieved February 29, 2008, from: http://gmj.gallup.com/content/103513/Many-Paths-Engagement.aspx Seijts, G. & Crim, D. (2006). What engages employees the most, or The Ten C`s of employee engagement. Ivey Business Journal. Retrieved February 15,

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2008, from: http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/view_article.asp?intArticle_ID=616 Shepard, B. (2005, September). At the peak of the roofing supply business. Corporate Report Wisconsin. Retrieved February 28, 2008, from: http://www.allbusiness.com/marketing/strategic-marketing/1141817-1.html Skernivitz, T. (2007). From roofs to riches. RSI Magazine. Retrieved on February 22, 2008, from: http://www.abcsupply.com/uploadedFiles/ABC/Media/0707%20RSI%20Profile.pdf St. Joseph Health System. (n.d.). SJHS at a glance. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from: http://www.stjhs.org/view/AboutUs/ataglance St. Joseph Health System. (2007). St. Joseph of Orange achieves Magnet status 4. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from: http://www.stjoe.org/view/AboutUs/Resources/2007sjhsannualreport2.pdf Starbucks. (2007). Company Fact Sheet. Retrieved February 12, 2008, from: http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/Company_Factsheet.pdf Starbucks. (2008). The Starbucks experience. Retrieved on February 27, 2008, from: http://www.starbucks.com/aboutus/jobcenter_thesbuxexperience.asp Starbucks: What makes it so great? (2008). Fortune. Retrieved February 12, 2008, from: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/bestcompanies/2008/snapshots/7. html Stryker. (2007 a). About Stryker. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from: http://www.stryker.com/en-us/corporate/AboutUs/index.htm Stryker. (2007 b). Stryker in the medical device industry. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from: http://www.stryker.com/en-us/corporate/PressNews/index.htm Stryker. (2007 c). Stryker awards. Retrieved February 14, 2008, from: http://www.stryker.com/en-us/corporate/AboutUs/Awards/index.htm Suff, R. (2005). Stryker selects top talent. Gallup Management Journal. Retrieved on February 14, 2008, from: http://gmj.gallup.com/content/19090/StrykerSelects-Top-Talent.aspx

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Testa, B. (2006). Boeing awards taking off in new direction. Workforce Management. Retrieved February 21, 2008, from: http://www.rideau.com/En/Articles.htm Thackaray, John. (2001). Feedback for real. Gallup Management Journal 1(1). 15. The Park Hotels. (n.d.). About us. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from: http://www.theparkhotels.com/park/abt%20us.html Tritch, T. (2003). B&Q boosts employee engagement...and profits. Gallup Management Journal. Retrieved February 19, 2008, from: http://gmj.gallup.com/content/1036/BQ-Boosts-Employee-EngagementProfits.aspx Wagner, R. & Harter, J. (2006). Assembling the right talents at Stryker. Gallup Management Journal. Retrieved February 20, 2007, from: http://gmj.gallup.com/content/24478/Assembling-Right-Talents-Stryker.aspx Wagner, R. (2005). Fixing a "sneaky broke hotel." Gallup Management Journal. Retrieved February 25, 2008, from: http://gmj.gallup.com/content/19093/Fixing-Sneaky-Broke-Hotel.aspx Wahl, A. (2005). Culture shock. Canadian Business. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from: Academic Source Premier. Welch, D. (2003). Marriott`s gamble keeps paying off. Gallup Management Journal. Retrieved February 11, 2008, from: http://gmj.gallup.com/content/979/Marriotts-Gamble-Keeps-Paying-Off.aspx Wells Fargo. (2006). Corporate Citizenship Report. Retrieved February 22, 2008, from: https://www.Wells Fargo.com/downloads/pdf/invest_relations/wf2006corporate_citizenship.pdf Wells Fargo. (2007). Wells Fargo today: company overview ­ 3rd quarter 2007. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from: https://www.Wells Fargo.com/about/today1 WestJet. (n.d.). Company info-history. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from: http://c3dsp.westjet.com/guest/about/historyTemplate.jsp

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WestJet. (2008). WestJet's culture success all about the people. Retrieved February 13, 2008, from: http://cnrp.ccnmatthews.com/client/westjet/releaseen.jsp?actionFor=811561 &year=2008&releaseSeq=5 WestJet. (n.d.). What`s in it for you? Retrieved February 24, 2008, from: http://www.westjet.com/pdffile/greatWestJetJobs.pdf Whitehead, J. (2006). Boeing`s recognition runway. HRO Today. Retrieved February 15, 2008, from: http://www.rideau.com/En/Articles.htm Winegardner & Hammons. (2005). Focus. Retrieved February 20, 2008, from: http://www.whihotels.com/media/FocFall05.pdf Winegardner & Hammons. (2008 a). Welcome to Winegardner & Hammons. Retrieved February 12, 2008, from: http://www.whihotels.com/ceowelcome.htm Winegardner & Hammons. (2008 b). Winegardner & Hammons History. Retrieved February 12, 2008, from: http://www.whihotels.com/history.htm Zinger, D. (2007). Making employee engagement Mmm, Mmm, Good again. Retrieved on February 12, 2008, from: http://davidzinger.wordpress.com/2007/07/09/making-employeeengagement-mmm-mmm-good-again-mmp-21/

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