ABD AL-RAHIM, Fathi (1992) Report on programmes and methods of care for disabled persons in Oman. In: Proceedings of the Conference on the Capabilities and Needs of Disabled Persons in the ESCWA Region: 20-28 November, 1989, Amman, Jordan, pp. 443453. United Nations, Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia. E/ESCWA/SD/1992/2. ABD AL-RAHIM, F (1992) Report on programmes and methods of care for disabled persons in the State of Qatar. In: Proceedings of the Conference on the Capabilities and Needs of Disabled Persons in the ESCWA Region: 20-28 November, 1989, Amman, Jordan, pp. 482501. United Nations, Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia. E/ESCWA/SD/1992/2. ABD AL-RAHIM, F (1992) Report on programmes and methods of care for disabled persons in the United Arab Emirates. In: Proceedings of the Conference on the Capabilities and Needs of Disabled Persons in the ESCWA Region: 20-28 November, 1989, Amman, Jordan, pp. 576-587. United Nations, Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia. E/ESCWA/SD/1992/2. ABDEL-FATTAH, Mahmoud A (2005) Arabic Sign Language: a perspective. J. Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 10 (2) 212-221. Discussion of Arabic Sign Languages (ARSL) from a comparative linguistic point of view, illuminating some of the unity and diversity currently found in perceptions of ARSL and their everyday practice across the Arab world. ABDELGADIR, Muzamil H; BEYARI, Talal H; AL AMRI, Aladin H; QURESHI, Naseem A; ABUZEID, Abdel NA; & ZAAZAA, Khadiga (1996) An epidemiological and interventional study of children under 9 years of age with disabilities in Al-Qassim Region. Saudi Medical J. 17: 333-338. Study of 190 children with disabilities attending urban Primary Health Care centres. ABDEL-KHALEK AM (1996) Factorial structure of the Arabic Children's Depression Inventory among Kuwaiti subjects. Psychological Reports 78 (3, Pt 1): 963-967. Study of 1,981 girls and boys aged 10-16. ABD EL-KHALEK, Amira (2002) The cultural construction of disability. An ethnographic approach to women with disability in Egypt. Master's thesis, American University in Cairo. ABD EL-KHALEK A (2004) The cultural construction of women with disability in Egypt: an ethnographic approach. MIT Electronic J. Middle East Studies 4: 91-106. The daily lives are described of four physically disabled women, across the socio-economic

spectrum in Egypt, living in widely different communities. ABDELNOOR J (1992) What are the risks of having a child with congenital dislocation of the hip after having had an affected one? Lebanese Medical J. 40: 229. ABDEL-WAHAB MS, SYAM M, ABOUL-ELA M & SAMIR A (2004) Arabic Sign Language recognition using pulse-coupled neural networks and discrete Fourier transforms. Egyptian Computer Science J. 26 (1). ABDERRAHMAN Ibn Abdelkhaleq (2005) Le statut de l'Handicapé en Islam. Al Andalous. 62 pp. [Not seen. On the web, the author states (in French) that he has summarised the instructions from Allah concerning disabled people, and hopes that this will enlighten them and their families and carers, about the teachings of Islam in their case.] ABDI S, KHALESSI MH, KHORSANDI M & GHOLAMI B (2001) Introducing music as a means of habilitation for children with cochlear implants. International J. Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 59: 105-113. "ABDOLAH, Kader" (2006) My Father's Notebook. Translated by Susan Massotty. HarperCollins. From Dutch original, Spijkerschrift, Breda: Uitgverij De Geus, 2000. This remarkable book by an Iranian emigré is built around a deaf character, Aga Akbar, who was a carpet weaver in a village of Persia, and later moved to the modern world of Teheran. Aga Akbar is the father of the narrator, and together they communicate by 'home sign', which the son interprets to his father's rural world. Reflections on the culture, religion and history of Persia / Iran are cast in the format of a novel about various kinds of communication. The tale is imbued with the Qur'anic verses, Persian poetry and ceremonies of rural Muslim life, in a world that begins to change rapidly under political and religious pressures. AL-ABDULGHAFOOR, Muhammad M (1988) Special educational needs in the State of Kuwait. PhD thesis, University of Exeter, UK. 412 pp. AL-ABDUL-JABBAR, Jawahir & AL-ISSA, Ihsan (2002) Psychotherapy in Islamic society. In: I Al-Issa (ed) Al-Junun: mental illness in the Islamic world, 277-293. Madison, CT: International Universities Press, Inc. Addresses issues concerning some different principles and techniques of psychotherapy as practised in Arab-Muslim nations and cultures. ABDULKHEBIR, Amina (1991) Action plan for CBR in Taiz City, Republic of Yemen. London: Institute of Child Health. Plan for Community Based Rehabilitation. ABDULLAH, Ahmad Abbas (1982) Developmental differences in WISC subtests among children with learning problems in Kuwait. PhD thesis, Univ Southern California. ABDULLAH, Mohamed A; SALMAN, Hussain; AL-HABIB, Sulaiman; GHAREEB, Abdulrahman; & ABANAMY, Ahmed (1994) Antithyroid antibodies and thyroid 2

dysfunction in Saudi children with Down Syndrome. Annals of Saudi Medicine 14: 283-285. Thyroid study of 50 children with Down Syndrome and matched control group. ABDULRAHAM, Ali H (1987) Principals' attitudes toward the inclusion of handicapped students in regular schools in the State of Kuwait. EdD thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University. 142 pp. ABDULWAHAB SS & AL-GAIN SI (2003) Attitudes of Saudi Arabian health care professionals towards people with physical disabilities. Asia Pacific Disability Rehabilitation J., 14 (1) 63-70. ABDUR-RAHIM, Fath El-Aleem, AL-HAMAD, Abdur-Razzak, CHALEBY, Kutaiba, & AL-SUBAIE, Abdullah (1995) A survey of a child psychiatry clinic in a teaching hospital in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical J. 17: 36-41. Epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in 199 children aged 0-15, from 1/1988 to 12/1993. ABEDI, Rashida (1988) From Sound to Silence. London: Hobo Press. 45 pp. Deaf biography. ABOLFOTOUH, Mostafa A & TELMESANI A (1993) A study of some psycho-social characteristics of blind and deaf male students in Abha City, Asir region, Saudi Arabia. Public Health 107: 261-269. ABOLFOTOUH MA, GHIETH, Mostafa M & BADAWI, Ibrahim A (1995) Hearing loss and other ear problems among schoolboys in Abha, Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine. 15: 323-326. In a study of 974 schoolboys, aged 6 to 12 years, 2.7% had moderate to severe hearing loss; 26.9% had some ear problem. ABO MELHA, Abdullah M, & AL-RAJEH, Saad (1987) The pattern and type of seizure disorders among a selected group of Saudi Arabian children. Saudi Medical J. 8: 583-591. Study of 461 children aged 0-12 years with seizures. Patterns were similar to those in European studies. ABRAMS JZ & GAVENTA W (eds) (2006) Jewish Perspectives on Theology and the Human Experience of Disability. Haworth Pastoral Press. (Also published as J. Religion, Disability & Health 10 (double issue 3/4). This book (and journal double-issue) embraces a wide field of scholarly and personal approaches to theology, practical applications, community undertakings, and first-hand accounts, bringing in viewpoints on disability from Orthodox, Conservative and Reformed teaching, with 16 named contributors from four continents, a 'Responsa Committa' of American rabbis, and other group contributions. The various articles have many points of confluence and some of disagreement, as they draw evidence and enter into debate at different moments across 3000 years of slowly evolving social attitudes and religious practices. Some present the highest ideals that Judaism can offer; others are more concerned with the gap between ideal and practice, in the several countries represented. 3

ABU-AL-HUMOS N (1990) The reality of educational institutions for people with disability in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Hebron, West Bank, Research Centre: Association of University Graduates. [Author appears elsewhere as: ABU HOMMOS.] ABU GHAZALEH, Hatem; ABU GHAZALEH, Kawthar A; & OAKLAND, Thomas (1990) Primary and secondary prevention services provided to mentally handicapped infants, children and youth in the Gaza Strip. International J. Special Education 5: 21-27. ABU HABIB, Lina (1995) 'Women and disability don't mix!': double discrimination and disabled women's rights. Gender & Development 3: 49-53. ABU-HABIB L (ed) (1997) Gender and Disability. Women's experiences in the Middle East. Oxford: Oxfam. vi + 97 pp. Includes several case studies from Lebanon. See below: BOUKHARI; FAHD et al.; LAKKIS. ABU NAHLEH, Lamis (2003) Promoting the Status of Gender: the Community Rehabilitation Program in Palestine. Jerusalem: Diakonia, and NAD (Norwegian Association of the Disabled). ABU NASR, Julinda (1976) Perceptual-cognitive development in infancy. In: CE Walters (ed) Mother-Infant Interaction. New York: Human Sciences Press. ABU NASR J; MAKHOULI, Mary & LORFING, Irini (1980) The Development of Three to Six Year-Old Lebanese Children and Their Environment. Beirut Institute for Women's Studies in the Arab World, Monograph No. 3. University of Beirut. x + 147 + 5 pp. Pilot studies on national sample in 1975, by interviews with questionnaire. Cognitive development was tested with a developmental scale standardised at Beirut University College Preschool Laboratory. ABU-RABIA S (1997) Reading in Arabic orthography: the effect of vowels and context on reading accuracy of poor and skilled native Arabic readers in reading paragraphs, sentences, and isolated words. J. Psycholinguistic Research 26: 465-482. AL-ADAWI S; DORVLO AS; AL-ISMAILY SS; AL-GHAFRY DA; AL-NOOBI BZ; ALSALMI A; BURKE DT; SHAH MK; GHASSANY H; & CHAND SP (2002) Perception of and attitude toward mental illness in Oman. International J. Social Psychiatry 48: 305-317. AL-ADAWI S; AL-ISMAILY S; MARTIN R; AL-NAAMANI A; AL-RIYAMY K; ALMASKARI M & AL-HUSSAINI A (2001) Psychosocial aspects of epilepsy in Oman: attitudes of health personnel. Epilepsia 42 (11) 1476-1481. ADI, Helen (1971) A comparison between blind and sighted children in terms of conservation of natural numbers. MS thesis, American University of Beirut. vii + 58 pp. AFIFI IA, LAROCCA JM, & SANBER SR (1988) Evaluation of the Home Based Rehabilitation Programs for Disabled Children in the West Bank and Gaza strip. Washington DC: USAID. 4

AFROOZ, Gholam Ali (1987) Attitude assessment of Iranian regular school teachers toward handicapped individuals. PhD dissertation, College of Education, Michigan State University, East Lansing. AFROOZ GA (1990) Development of special education in the Islamic Republic of Iran. International J. Special Education 10: 392-400. AFROOZ GA (1993) Education and special education in cross-cultural perspective: the Islamic Republic of Iran. In: SJ Peters (ed) Education and Disability in Cross-Cultural Perspective, 93-125. New York: Garland. Detailed overview of the background, development and present status of special education in Iran. AFROOZ GA (1994) Islamic Republic of Iran. In: K Mazurek & M Winzer (eds) Comparative Studies in Special Education, 88-99. Washington DC: Gallaudet University Press. AHMAD, Abdulbaghi & MOHAMAD, Kirmanj (1996) The socioemotional development of orphans in orphanages and traditional foster care in Iraqi Kurdistan. Child Abuse and Neglect 20: 1161-1173. AHMED AA; AL-ALAWI E; FATEHA BED; & SIBAI AM (2002) Population-basd visual disability impairment survey in Bahrain. Saudi J. Ophthalmology 16 (4) 279-287. AHY, Homa (1977) Iran. In: Integration of Technical and Vocational Education into Special Education. Austria, Colombia, Iran, Tunisia, 129-142. Paris: UNESCO. Review by (then) Director-General of Special Education (department established in 1969). Suggests that Iranian policy always favoured integration of disabled children. Discusses the employment picture. Appends school curricula for children with various disabilities. AKBARLOO N & GHADAMI M (2000) The study of psycho-educational variables affect[ing] educational achievement of included hearing impaired students in Iran -2001. In: Proceedings of 5th International Special Education Congress, University of Manchester, July 2000. (CD-Rom). AKCAMETE G (1999) Improving question skills for students with hearing impairment. European J. Special Needs Education 14: 171-177. Special needs education in Turkey. AKHDAR, Fathi Muhammad Hasan (1994) Childhood disability in Saudi Arabia: parents' perceptions and experiences. PhD thesis, Instt. Child Health, University of London. 291 pp. With some background data, the study reports a series of 20-25 hour-long interviews with 31 families having a child with severe impairment, and associated key informants, and describes key processes in families' recognition, reactions, acceptance and coping with their child's impairment. AKHLAGHI-KOHPAI, Hossein (1989) Die sonderschulische Förderung im Iran: eine 5

kritische Analyse und der Versuch eines Entwicklungskonzepts. PhD thesis, PhilippsUniversität Marburg/Lahn. v + 143 pp. Critical study of the development of special education in Iran. AKIKI, Issam (1981) Les handicapés au Liban. Beirut: CARITAS. Statistical study. [Also may be listed under IKIKI] AKKÖK, Füsun (1994) An overview of parent training and counselling with the parents of children with mental disabilities and autism in Turkey. International J. Advancement of Counselling 17: 129-138. AKKÖK F (1997) The role of various social support variables on Turkish children's anxiety level. Mediterranean J. Educational Studies 2: 71-77. AKKÖK F (2000) Reflections from the Turkish parents of children with disabilities. In: Proceedings of 5th International Special Education Congress, University of Manchester, July 2000. (CD-Rom). AKKÖK F (2000) Special education research: a Turkish perspective. Exceptionality 8: 273279. Brief historical perspective. Notes the centrally controlled context for educational research, and the available research in special education from the 1990s. Qualitative studies, public awareness and attitude change, and involvement of parents and NGOs are growth areas. AKKOK F, et al. (1996) The relationship between stress and causal attributions of mothers and fathers of children with mental disabilities and autism. 15 pp. ERIC ED404815. AKSOY, Sahin (2005) Making regulations and drawing up legislation in Islamic countries under conditions of uncertainty, with special reference to embryonic stem cell research. J. Medical Ethics 31: 399-403. Gives a succinct description of the sources of authority and methods by which moral and ethical issues are discussed among Muslim jurists and scholars, and a consensus may be reached for legal rulings on new issues. As a professional bioethicist, Aksoy examines the Qur'anic basis and some hadiths (reported sayings of the prophet Muhammad), for understanding the status of the human embryo and fetal development, upon which ethical decisions may be taken. Among the most important Qur'anic references are: 32 (as-Sajdah): 8-9; 23 (al-Mu'minun): 13-14. Two hadiths in al-Buhkari's collection explain how the embryo is formed and established. The available texts may suggest either that 'ensoulment' of the embryo takes place 120 days after conception, or between 49 and 55 after conception, with some consequences for issues of stem cell use, and others for questions of abortion. AKYUZ G; KUGU N; AKYUZ A; & DOGAN O (2004) Dissociation and childhood abuse history in epileptic and pseudoseizure patients. Epileptic Disorders 6: 187-192. Study of 63 patients at a psychiatric hospital in Turkey. AL-ALAWI KI (1990) Vocational guidance for mildly mentally handicapped adolescents in Britain and its possible relevance to Bahrain. PhD thesis, University of Manchester. 6

ALDEEB Abu-Sahlieh SA (1994) Les Musulmans face aux droits de l'homme. Bochum: Verlag Dr Deiter Winkler. [Note: Author spells his own name as above in his reference list. The title page gives Abu-Salieh] Detailed, wide-ranging and well referenced work on historical understandings of human rights in Islam and current interpretations and legal practice across the Arab world. In a chapter on Abortion and Birth Control (pp. 42-52), the classical Jurists are shown to have had different positions on abortion, from total prohibition, to permission up to the 40th or the 120th day of pregnancy, or at any time in a special case, e.g. serious risk to the mother. Current Arab laws are mostly prohibitive, but Tunisian law reportedly permits termination in the first trimester. A source states that South Yemen permits abortion when a family with three children has no means to raise further children, or in case of fetal malformation (p. 47). A fatwa of the Academy of Muslim Law, of the World Muslim League, based on legal advice of Muhammad `Ali Al-Bar, issued in 1990, reportedly permits abortion of a deformed fetus in the first 120 days of pregnancy, but no later unless the mother's life is at risk. ALGHAMDI MAA; OLNEY S & COSTIGAN P (2004) Exercise treatment for Osteoarthritis disability. Annals of Saudi Medicine 24 (5) 326-331. ALGHAZO EM & GAAD EN (2004) General education teachers in the United Arab Emirates and their acceptance of the inclusion of students with disabilities. British J. Special Education 31: 94-99. ALIZADEH, Hamid & ANDRIES, Caroline (2002) Interaction of parenting styles and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Iranian parents. Child & Family Behavior Therapy 24: 37-52. ALLEN, Louise F (1989) The Situation of Children in Upper Egypt. Cairo: UNICEF. 156 pp. ALSHUBALI AF; AWADALLA AW; OHAERI JU & MABROUK AA (2007) Relationship of depression, disability and caregiver attitudes to the quality of life of Kuwaiti persons with multiple sclerosis: a controlled study. BMC Neurology (18 Sept. 2007) 7:31. ANGELIDES, Panayiotis; CHARALAMBOUS, Charis; & CHARALAMBOUS, Vrasidas (2004) Reflections on policy and practice of inclusive education in pre-primary schools in Cyprus. European J. Special Needs Education 19: 211-223. ANON (1975) National Organisation For the Protection of Children (NOPC), Iran. In: Report. 2nd Asian Conference on Mental Retardation, 68-71. Tokyo: Japan League for the Mentally Retarded. Activities of NOPC, including residential centres for mentally retarded children. AL-ANSARI, Ahmed (1987) Trends of psychiatric disorders among children and adolescents in Bahrain. International J. Social Psychiatry 33: 46-49. AL-ANSARI A (1989) Prevalence estimates of physical disability in Bahrain: a household survey. International Disability Studies 11: 21-24. 7

AL-ANSARI A (1993) Etiology of mild mental retardation among Bahraini children: a community-based case control study. Mental Retardation 31: 140-143. AL-ANSARI A (1993) Teacher report versus Adaptive Behaviour Scale in assessment of mental retardation. Mental Retardation 31: 256-257. Study among Bahraini schoolchildren. ANSARI SA & AKHDAR F (1998) Prevalence of child disability in Saudi Arabia. Disability & Rehabilitation 20: 25-28. ANSARI S, AKHDAR F & MOUTAERY K (1999) Recognizing child disability. International J. Rehabilitation Research 22: 239-242. Survey-based discussion of problems in early identification of infant impairments in Saudi Arabia. AOUN A & NAFFAH J (1986) Malformations foetales à répétition. Lebanese Medical J. 36: 133-137. ARAB Declaration on Work with the Disabled (1981) Prepared at the Kuwait Regional Conference on the Disabled, April 1981. ARABIC Dictionary for deaf issued (2001, October 21) Bahrain Tribune. [Link no longer active] ARASIL, Tansu & KAYHAN, Önder (1997) The status of rehabilitation in Turkey. Disability and Rehabilitation 19: 379-381. Review of some 70 years of practice in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. In 1997 Turkey had about 800 specialist physiatrists and about 1300 trained physiotherapists. Several relevant journals are produced within the country. AL-ARFAJ AA; MAGBOOL GM; COREA JR; & KUTTY MS (1992) Upper limb deformities: results of school screening programme in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Medical J. 13: 147-150. Among 26,662 school children, 182 were found with upper limb disorders. ARKAR H & EKER D (1994) Effects of psychiatric labels on attitudes toward mental illness in a Turkish sample. International J. Social Psychiatry 40: 205-213. ARORA, Satish & UN Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia [ESCWA] (1992) Implementation of the World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons: a profile of the ESCWA region. In: Proceedings of the Conference on the Capabilities and Needs of Disabled Persons in the ESCWA Region: 20-28 November, 1989, Amman, Jordan, pp. 65-86. United Nations, Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia. E/ESCWA/SD/1992/2. ASINDI AA, AL HIFZI I, & BASSUNI WA (1997) Major congenital malformations among Saudi infants admitted to Asir Central Hospital. Annals of Saudi Medicine 17: 250-253. ASINDI A & AL-SHEHRI A (2001) Neural tube defects in the Asir region of Saudi Arabia. 8

Annals of Saudi Medicine 21 (1-2) 26-29. ASMAN, Oren (2004) Abortion in Islamic countries - legal and religious aspects. Medicine and Law (Haifa) 23 (1) 73-89. The legality of abortion, in countries where the Qur'an and the practice of the prophet Muhammad are dominant authorities, varies with the interpretations of religious scholars. Different views are shown (p. 79) on whether a deformity in the fetus, discovered before 120 days of pregnancy, may justify abortion. (This section relies on evidence collected by Rispler-Chaim 1999, q.v.) The author classifies current laws in various Muslim states as conservative, lenient or liberal. AL-ASMARI A; AL MOUTAERY K; AKHDAR F & AL-JADID M (2006) Cerebral palsy: incidence and clinical features in Saudi Arabia. Disability and Rehabilitation 28 (22) 13731377. ASSALEH, Khaled & AL-ROUSAN M (2005) Recognition of Arabic Sign Language alphabet using polynomial classifiers. EURASIP J. on Applied Signal Processing 13: 21362145. ASSEFI V (1982) La lèpre en Iran. Acta Leprologica 89: 53-60. ASSEFI V, GAULIER M & GAULIER A (1984) Contribution à l'étude de la lèpre et de la vaccination au BCG chez les enfants des lépreux et les contacts non familiaux en Iran. Acta Leprologica 2: 29-45. ASSOCIATION of Institutions for the Welfare of Special Categories and the Disabled (1988) Report discussing factors which limit the employment of newly rehabilitation disabled persons. [Cairo] AL-ATTAS, Omer & SULIMAN, Riyad A (1993) Iodine concentrations in Saudi staple foods. Saudi Medical J. 14: 322-324. EL-AWAD ME & SIVASANKARAN (1992) Neural tube defects in the Southwestern Region of Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi Medicine 12: 449-452. AYDIN R, YIGIT A, INANDI T & KIRPINAR I (2003) Attitudes of hospital staff toward mentally ill patients in a teaching hospital, Turkey. International J. Social Psychiatry 49: 1726. AZIZ, Hasan (1993) Epilepsy: prevalence, stigma, treatment, status and psychosocial problems; based on population studies in Pakistan and Turkey. In: D Kirbas & M Leonardi (eds) Reports of a WHO meeting; Neurology and Public Health. Istanbul BiTAM. AZIZI F, SARSHAR A, NAFARABADI M, GHAZI A, KIMIAGAR M, et al. (1993) Impairment of neuromotor and cognitive development in iodine-deficient schoolchildren with normal physical growth. Acta Endocrinologica 129: 501-504. Study in three areas of Iran with different levels of iodine deficiency. 9

AZIZI F, SHEIKHOLESLAM R, HEDAYATI M, MIRMIRAN P, MALEKAFZALI H, et al. (2002) Sustainable control of iodine deficiency in Iran: beneficial results of the implementation of the mandatory law on salt iodization. J. Endocrinological Investigation 25: 409-413. Study of 36,178 schoolchildren, two years after mandatory salt iodization (1994), suggests that Iran had achieved sustainable control of iodine deficiency disorders. AZOUNI, Rashika (1992) The situation of disabled persons in the Syrian Arab Republic. In: Proceedings of the Conference on the Capabilities and Needs of Disabled Persons in the ESCWA Region: 20-28 November, 1989, Amman, Jordan, pp. 528-575. United Nations, Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia. E/ESCWA/SD/1992/2. BAASHER, Taha (1976) Mental Health services in Eastern Mediterranean countries. World Health Organisation Chronicle 30: 234-239. BAASHER TA (1978) Mental health services for children in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. International J. Mental Health 7 (1-2) 49-64. BADR IA & QURESHI IH (1983) Causes of blindness in the Eastern Province blind schools. Saudi Medical J. 4: 331-338. BAFAQEEH SA, ZAKZOUK S, AL MUHAIMEID H, ESSA A (1994) Relevant demographic factors and hearing impairment in Saudi children: epidemiological study. J. Laryngology and Otology 108: 294-298. BAGCHI K & REJEB H (1987) Iodine deficiency disorders in the Eastern Mediterranean region - need for a regional strategy. Eastern Mediterranean Region Health Service J. 3: 2236. BAGHDASSARIAN, Sahag A & TABBARA, Khalid F (1975) Childhood blindness in Lebanon. American J. Ophthalmology 74: 538-542. BAHRAMI, Fariba [1998] Modeling and controlling the movement of paraplegic patients while they want to get up by muscle function of electrical stimulation. PhD thesis, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran. BAHRAMI F; RIENER R; JABEDAR-MARALANI P; & SCHMIDT G (2000) Biomechanical analysis of sit-to-stand transfer in healthy and paraplegic subjects. Clinical Biomechanics 15: 123-133. BAJOGHLI M; NAFICY AR; VAFAI A; & SHAFA G (1977) Paralytic poliomyelitis in Isfahan. J. Tropical Pediatrics & Environmental Child Health 23: 236-238. EL BAKARY, Waguida (1999) The education of the hearing impaired in Egypt. In: Brelje (ed) Global Perspectives (q.v.), 69-79. Notes on schools and their functioning, curriculum, teacher training, and innovations c. 1990, with 17 references (in transliterated Arabic). 10

BAKER GA; JACOBY A; GORRY J; DOUGHTY J; ELLINA V; et al. (2005) Quality of life of people with epilepsy in Iran, the Gulf, and Near East. Epilepsia 46: 132-140. BALDY-MOULINIER M; COVANIS A; D'URSO S; ESKAZAN E; FATTORE C; GATTI G; HERRANZ JL et al (1998) Therapeutic strategies against epilepsy in Mediterranean countries: a report from an international collaborative survey. Seizure 7: 513-520. AL-BALSHEH M (1994) Differences in behavioural and educational characteristics of autistic and mentally retarded children. Master's thesis, University of Jordan. AL-BANNA, Linah Habbab (1984) The educational attitudes of early childhood teachers in Lebanon. EdD thesis, Columbia University Teachers College. 210 pp. Study of 42 early childhood teachers, using Arabic translation of Minnesota Teacher Attitude Inventory. EL-BANNA M (1992) The situation of the disabled in Egypt. In: Proceedings of the Conference on the Capabilities and Needs of Disabled Persons in the ESCWA Region: 20-28 November, 1989, Amman, Jordan, pp. 338-365. United Nations, Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia. E/ESCWA/SD/1992/2. BARAKAT, Amin Y; ITANI, Usama; & ZAYTOUN, George M (1986) Cultural "iatrogenic" cleft palate. Pediatrics 78: 511. Problems following uvulectomy performed by a Lebanese village traditional 'specialist' on a 5 year old girl, to relieve upper respiratory tract infection. BARAKAT, Robert A (1973) Arabic gestures. J. Popular Culture 6: 749-793. Detailed discussion and references (749-71), followed by verbal description of each of 247 Arabic gestures (772-87), and small photographs of the author making most of these gestures (790-93). (Barakat notes on p. 769 his awareness of the limitations of these photographs). This seems to have been one of the earliest substantial published studies of gesture in the modern Middle East. (See also BOUSQUET, GOLDZIHER, under 'Antiquity'). BARGOUTHI M & AL DEAN H (1994) Family role in rehabilitation and taking care of the disabled. Amman: Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia. BARNARTT, Sharon & ROTMAN, Rachel (2007) Disability policies and protests in Israel. Disability Studies Quarterly 27 (4). BAROUDI, Hisham (1987) Rehabilitation of the disabled in Lebanon. Report to World Health Organisation, August 1987. BARR, James H (1983) Education for the handicapped in the Arabian peninsula: issues and trends. Ed.D. dissertation, Teachers College, Columbia University. Study of special education development in Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman and Qatar. BARSOUMIAN, Vergine (1968) Hearing impairment in elementary school children and its relation to academic achievement and personality traits. Unpublished MA thesis, American University of Beirut. 11

AL-BARWANI T & AL-BEELY T (1994) Education and Care for the Disabled in the Sultanate of Oman. Muscat, Sultan Qaboos University. BASSILI A; OMAR T; ZAKI A; ABDEL-FATTAH M; TOGNONI G; et al. (2002) Pattern of diagnostic and therapeutic care of childhood epilepsy in Alexandria, Egypt. International J. for Quality in Health Care 14: 277-284. BATTAIN, Tiziana (1997) Le rituel du zar en Egypte. De la souffrance à l'accomplissement. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Paris: EHESS. BATTAIN T [2004] Zar. (2) In Egypt. Encyclopaedia of Islam, XII: 456-457. Leiden: Brill. BATU SE (1998) Teachers' perceptions of a mainstreaming program. Doctoral dissertation, Anadolu University, Eskisehir. BEKIROGLU N; OZKAN R; GÜSES C; ARPACI B; & DERVENT A (2004) A study on awareness and attitude of teachers on epilepsy in Istanbul. Seizure 13: 517-522.

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HARRIS NDC & MUSTAFA N (1986) Teaching hearing-impaired children in Iraq using a new teaching method. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology 23: 159-165. Briefly describes the state of schooling for hearing impaired children in Baghdad in the mid1980s. A resource-based learning approach resulted in improved language use. HARRISON A (1985) Handicapped individuals in Kuwait. Social Science & Medicine 20: 585-588. EL-HASSAN, Karma (1991) The development of a school readiness test for use with preschool children in Lebanon. PhD thesis. University of London. 437 pp. HASSAN, Nazira M (1958) An educational program for mentally retarded children in Egypt. Master's dissertation, University of Maryland. 99 pp. HASSAN, Nawal Ahmed (1983) Child-rearing practices of Palestinian mothers of five-yearold children in the refugee camps of Jordan. PhD thesis, University of Oregon. 234 pp. HASSANZADEH S & KAKOJOIBARI AA (2000) Exclusive and inclusive education in Islamic Republic of Iran. In: Proceedings of 5th International Special Education Congress, University of Manchester, July 2000. (CD-Rom). Abstract notes 70726 students with special needs in 816 special schools and 2029 such students in 219 special classes in ordinary schools. AL-HASSEN M (1992) Needs of parents of children with disabilities in Jordan. Masters dissertation, Amman: University of Jordan. HASSO MH (1985) The development of services for deaf children in Iraq. In: IG Taylor (ed) The Education of the Deaf. Current Perspectives, volume 4, pp. 2012-2017. London: Croom Helm. HATHOUT, Hassan (1991) Islamic concepts and bioethics. In: BA Brody, BA Lustig, HT Engelhardt, LB McCullough (eds) Bioethics Yearbook. Volume 1. Theological developments in bioethics: 1988-1990, pp. 103-117. While mostly silent on bioethical issues with disability involvement, this chapter illustrates Islamic principles and reasoning in the field. HATOUM, Rima J (1974) Effectiveness of a behavior modification approach to the management of disruptive classroom behavior of mentally retarded children. MA thesis, American University in Beirut. iii + 86 pp. AL-HAZMI, M (2000) Saudi National Survey of Children with Disability. Riyadh: Prince Salman Centre for Disability Research. EL-HAZMI, Mohsen AF & WARSY, Arjumand S (1996) Genetic disorders among Arab populations. Saudi Medical J. 17: 108-123. Heavily referenced biomedical review; geographical coverage from Morocco to Yemen. 28

HENDRIKS B, with Maha Farajin & Ahlam Khreysat (2004) An Introduction to the Grammar of Jordanian Sign Language. Salt: Al-Balqa Applied University. HENDRIKS B & ZESHAN U (forthcoming) Sign languages in the Arab World. In: K Versteegh et al. (eds) Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics. Leiden: Brill. HERR, Stanley S (1992) Human rights and mental disability - perspectives in Israel. Israel Law Review 26: 142-194. HEGAZY Ibrahim S, AL-BEYARI, Talal H, AL-AMRI Aladin H, QURESHI Naseem A, & ABDELGADIR, Muzamil H (1995) Congenital malformations in primary health care in AlQassim Region. Annals of Saudi Medicine 15: 48-53. Epidemiological study of 1,736 people under 20 years with congenital malformations identified from medical records and door-to-door survey. HELANDER, Einar (1977) Assignment Report. Proposed disability prevention and rehabilitation programme with special reference to cerebral palsy victims, Jordan, 25 Aug. - 8 Sept. 1977. EM/REH/22. EL-HESSEN, Souraya S (2006) Disabilities. Arab States. In: S Joseph et al. (eds) Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures, III: 98-99. Brief outline of historical disability, and the social roles of disabled women in the modern Middle East. HILAL, Walid (1995) Legislation to ensure the rights of disabled persons in Western Asia. Population Bulletin of ESCWA 41-42 / 1993-1994, pp. 5-51. [UN Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia] [Eastern Arab countries] AL HILAWANI, Yasser A (2000) Cognitive behaviour modification: a technique for teaching subtraction skills to hearing and deaf/hard of hearing elementary students. International J. Rehabilitation Research 23: 271-275. AL-HILAWANI YA (2003) Clinical examination of three methods of teaching reading comprehension to deaf and hard-of-hearing students: from research to classroom applications. J. Deaf Studies and Deaf Education 8: 146-156. (Conducted in the United Arab Emirates) EL-HILU, SM (1990) Social aspects of epilepsy in Kuwait. International J. Social Psychiatry 36: 68-73. HINCHCLIFFE, Archie (1994) Exploratory report on the situation of disability in Jordan. HOLY Land Institute for the Deaf. Salt, Jordan, 1964 -1989. 28 pp. English-Arabic booklet detailing the work in first 25 years of this special education centre. HOODFAR, Homa (1995) Child care and child health in low-income neighbourhoods of Cairo. In: Fernea (ed) Children in the Muslim Middle East (q.v.) 146-167. 29

Based on two years of anthropological fieldwork among 70 families in the 1980s. HOSSEINI SA (1990) The first six months' conclusions of mental health programme in a region of 20,000 population in North East of Iran. Paper presented at the Eighth International Psychiatric Conference, 11-14 Dec. 1990, Islamabad. Pakistan Psychiatric Society. Among 126 cases treated in an Iranian rural-urban program to add a mental health component to Primary Health Care delivery, 49% were mentally retarded. HOVAV M & RAMOT A (1998) The development of welfare services for the mentally handicapped in Israel. Social Security 5: 142-162. HULME, Peter (1997) Support to training for inclusive education: Jordan. Assignment report, 4 July 1997. FMR/ED/BAS/97/223(SA). 22 pp. UNESCO. HUNT, Joseph M (1982) Towards equalizing the developmental opportunities of infants and preschool children. J. Social Issues 38: 163-191. Lengthy theoretical background, then reviews (pp. 180-188) a ten year program with orphanage children in Iran, with increasing levels of compensatory stimulation. AL-HUSNI, Hussein Ahmed (1992) Study of the disabled in Democratic Yemen. In: Proceedings of the Conference on the Capabilities and Needs of Disabled Persons in the ESCWA Region: 20-28 November, 1989, Amman, Jordan, 311-337. United Nations, Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia. E/ESCWA/SD/1992/2. AL-HUSNI HA (1992) Study of the disabled in the Yemen Arab Republic. In: Proceedings of the Conference on the Capabilities and Needs of Disabled Persons in the ESCWA Region: 20-28 November, 1989, Amman, Jordan, pp. 588-. United Nations, Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia. E/ESCWA/SD/1992/2. HUSSAIN MA (1999) Automatic recognition of sign language gestures. MS thesis, Jordan University of Science & Technology, Irbid, Jordan. EL-HUSSEINI, Basil (1992) Care of the disabled in Iraq. In: Proceedings of the Conference on the Capabilities and Needs of Disabled Persons in the ESCWA Region: 20-28 November, 1989, Amman, Jordan, 366-376. United Nations, Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia. E/ESCWA/SD/1992/2. AL-HUSSEINI, Hashem (1992) Disabled persons in Lebanon. In: Proceedings of the Conference on the Capabilities and Needs of Disabled Persons in the ESCWA Region: 20-28 November, 1989, Amman, Jordan, 422-442. United Nations, Economic & Social Commission for Western Asia. E/ESCWA/SD/1992/2. HUSSEINI, Hashim & HOURI, Marawan (1982) A summary report on preliminary study of disabled people in Lebanon. IBRAHAM HHA (1976) Existing mental health services in Syria and their development. EM/Ment/76. Alexandria: World Health Organisation / Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office. 30

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