Read WWI Posters & Cartoons (11-12) text version

Johnnie get your gun, get your gun, get your gun, Take it on the run, on the run, on the run, Hear them calling you and me, Ev'ry son of liberty. Hurry right away, no delay, go today, Make your daddy glad to have had such a lad, Tell your sweetheart not to pine, To be proud her boy's in line.

Over there over there Send the word, send the word over there That the Yanks are coming, the Yanks are coming, The drums rum-tumming ev'rywhere So prepare say a pray'r Send the word, send the word to beware We'll be over, we're coming over, And we won't come back till it's over, over there!

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The Spirit of '76'

1917 ­ Selective Service Act

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24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918. 4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

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Council of National Defense

· War Industries Board ­ Bernard Baruch · Food Administration ­ Herbert Hoover · Railroad Administration ­ William McAdoo · National War Labor Board ­ W.H.Taft

U. S. Food Administration

U. S. Food Administration

U. S. Food Administration

National War Garden Commission

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U. S. School Garden Army

U. S. Shipping Board

U. S. Fuel Administration

Results of This New Organization of the Economy?

1. 2. 3. 4. unemployment virtually disappeared expansion of "big government" excessive govt. regulations in econ. some gross mismanagement --> overlapping jurisdictions 5. close cooperation between public and private sectors 6. unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups

Liberty Loans

Liberty Loans

YWCA ­ The Blue Triangle

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Munitions Work

The Girls They Left Behind Do Their Bit!

Women Used In Recruitment

Even Grandma Buys Liberty Bonds

The Red Cross - Greatest Mother in the World

The Red Cross Nurse

National League for Woman's Service

How did women's groups differ on WWI support?

· NAWSA ? · NWP ?

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Opportunities for African-Americans in WW1

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True Sons of Freedom

For "Colored" Men in Service

"Great Migration" 1916 ­ 1919 70,000 War industries work Enlistment in segregated units

e e

What roles did AfricanAmericans play in the military?

Race Riots Continue

Lynching Continues

· general

decline during WWI (1917-18) · more than 70 blacks were lynched in 1919 alone including 10 black soldiers

· 239

more blacks were lynched by white mobs from 1919-22 no white person ever punished for these crimes responses: published Thirty Years of Lynching in the U. S. (1889-1918) paid for large antilynching ads in major newspapers

· NAACP

1917: 49 blacks/9 whites died in

East St. Louis 1919: 23 blacks/15 whites died in Chicago (520 injured)

"Rescuing a Negro During the Race Riots in Chicago" (1919)

The "Flag of Liberty" Represents All of Us!

We are ALL Americans!

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United War Work Campaign

American Committee for Relief in the Near East

The Committee of Public Information (George Creel)

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Creel Commission Film

America's "Propaganda Minister" selling American Culture and antiGermanism

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Nativism & Xenophobia

- German-Americans harassed and/or attacked - German language instruction banned in high schools and universities -William Harding (then-Governor of Iowa) demanded all public conversations occur in English

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Attacks on Civil Liberties

Espionage Act (1917)

obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military - ordered the Postmaster General to remove leftist materials from the mail - fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison

Attacks on Civil Liberties

Sedition Act (1918)

- it was a crime to speak against the purchase of war bonds or willfully

Attacks on Civil Liberties

- forbade actions that

utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about this form of US

Govt., the US Constitution, or the US armed forces

- it was a crime to willfully urge, incite,

or advocate any curtailment of production of things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war...with intent to cripple or hinder the US in the prosecution of the war

Attacks on Civil Liberties

Schenck v. US (1919)

- Charles Schenck arrested and prosecuted for distributing anti-war pamphlets - he challenged the arrest to the Sup. Ct, -"The most stringent protection of free

Post-War Labor Unrest

Seattle General Strike 1919

speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic."- Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes

"general strike"

- if an act of speech posed a clear and present danger, then Congress had the power to restrain such speech

Coal Miners' Strike - 1919

Steel Strike - 1919

Boston Police Strike - 1919

"Keeping Warm" ­ Los Angeles Times

"Coming Out of the Smoke" ­ New York World

"He gives aid & comfort to the enemies of society" ­ Chicago Tribune

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Boston Police Strike - 1919

Consequences of Labor Unrest

Anti-Labor

"Striking Back" ­ New York Evening World

"While We Rock the Boat" ­ Washington Times

"If Capital & Labor Don't Pull Together" ­ Chicago Tribune

Government Excess & Threats to Civil Liberties

Red Scare

1919 - 3rd International proclaimed its goal was to promote worldwide communism Att'y General, A. Mitchell Palmer (The Case Against the Reds) began Palmer Raids - 1920

The "Red Scare"

"What a Year Has Brought Forth" ­ NY World

"Red Scare" -- Anti-Bolshevism

"Red Scare" ­ Palmer Raids

"Red Scare" ­ Palmer Raids

"Put Them Out & Keep Them Out" ­

Philadelphia Inquirer

A. Mitchell Palmer's Home Bombed, 1920

Police Arrest "Suspected Reds' in Chicago, 1920

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American Protective League

- formed within the Dept. of Justice - had 250,000 members who investigated claims of disloyalty - publicly humiliated people for dodging the draft or not buying Liberty Loans

The American Legion

Prohibition (1920) 19th Amendment

"It is safe to say that never in its history has this country been so thoroughly policed."

- U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer (1918)

"The New National Figure" ­

Memphis Commercial Appeal

"Merry Christmas!" ­ The New York World

The 1920 Election

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WWI Posters & Cartoons (11-12)

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