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Outline · Definition of pain

­ Limitations

Pain Behaviours in Extremely Low Gestational Age (ELGA) Infants

· Traditional Pain responses · Assessment & Measurement

­ What measures ­ What populations

· Evidence for ELGA infants · Implications & Future direction

Sharyn Gibbins, NNP,PhD January, 2008

Pain

"Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage" IASP

· Pain has been defined further as a subjective experience that is best understood through selfreports · Verbal communication and self-report are considered the "gold standard" for pain assessment

Challenges to the Pain Definition Infants do not speak...need surrogates

·Physiological ·Hormonal, ·Biochemical "Efforts should be directed towards increasing recognition of pain and developing broader sources of information to infer the subjective experience of pain in nonverbal neonates"

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Summary of Pain Responses

PHYSIOLOGICAL INDICATORS

Increased Heart Rate Changes in Respiratory rate Increased Intracranial Pressure Fluctuations in Blood Pressure Decreased Oxygen Saturation Changes in Heart Rate Variability Dilated Pupils Palmar Sweating

Difficulties with Interpretation of Individual Pain Responses

· Behavioral but not physiological indicators are predominant during painful procedures in preterm infants · Unpredictability of biomarkers · Biological Factors

­ gender differences

BEHAVIOURAL INDICATORS

Increased Facial Actions Cry Increased Body Movements Changes in State Fussiness/Sleeplessness Flexor withdrawal reflex Consolability/sleep patterns

BIOCHEMICAL/HORMONAL INDICATORS

Increased Cortisol Increased Epinephrine Increased norepinepherine Increased Growth Hormones Decreased Prolactin Decreased Insulin Protein Catabolism Decreased Immune Responses

· Responses are influenced by gestational age, behavioural state, neurological integrity and severity of illness

Difficulties with Interpretation of Individual Pain Responses

· Repeated pain affects pain response ­ preterm infants who were born at 28 weeks gestation and hospitalized in a NICU for 4 weeks (early preterm group) had significantly higher heart rates and lower oxygen saturation levels during heel lances than preterm infants born at 32 weeks (late preterm group) ­ the more recently a preterm infant had experienced a painful procedure, the less likely he/she would demonstrate behavioral pain responses to subsequent painful procedures

Psychometric Properties of Procedural Pain Measures

Measure & Author

N-PASS (Hummel & Puchalski, 2003)

Gestational Age 0-100 days

Pain Indicators

Heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, oxygen, crying, irritability, state, tone Crying, facial expression, sleeplessness

Pain Stimulus Ongoing & Acute Post op Pain Procedural Pain

Reliability None

Validity None

Clinical Utility & Feasibility None

CRIES (Krechel & Bildner, 1995)

32-36 weeks GA > 25 weeks GA

Inter & Intra rater Inter & Intra rater reliability Inter rater reliability Inter rater reliability Inter & Intra rater reliability

Construct

None

Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS) (Grunau & Craig, 1987, 1990) Infant Body Coding System (IBCS) (Craig, 1984) Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) (Lawrence, 1993) Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) (Stevens, 1996)

Facial muscle, brow bulge, eye squeeze, nasolabial furrow, open lips, stretch mouth, lip purse, taut tongue, chin quiver Hand, foot, arm, leg, head, torso, motor activity

Content Construct

Feasibility

32 weeks GA to term 33 weeks GA to term 27 weeks GA to term

Procedural Pain Procedural Pain Procedural & Post op Pain Procedural Pain

Content

None

Facial expression, cry, breathing patterns, arms, legs, state of arousal GA, behavioral state, heart rate, oxygen saturation, brow bulge, eye squeeze, nasolabial furrow Facial expression, movement, tone, behavioural state, breathing, heart rate, blood pressure

Construct

None

Content Construct

Reliability

Scale for Use in Newborns (SUN) (Blauer, 1998)

Term

None

None

None

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Limitations in Infant Pain Measures · Plethora of infant pain measures

­ Limited psychometric analyses of existing pain measures

Background of the Problem

· Increased survival of ELGA infants · Frequent exposure to painful and stressful procedures · Immediate and long-term consequences of pain · Focus on quality of life · Plethora of pain measures

­ Not specific for ELGA infants ­ Extrapolation from more mature infants ­ Potential for error

· Certain high-risk populations excluded

­ ELBW (<1000g) (Grunau et al., 2000; Holsti et al., 2005; Morison et al.,

2003)

· Certain situations excluded

­ Chronic vs. Procedural vs. Disease related

Comparison of Pain Responses in Infants of Varying gestational ages

Gibbins et al. 2007 Neonatology

Demographic Characteristics of Gestational Age (GA) Strata at Baseline

GA (weeks) 23-27 6/7 n=41 28-31 6/7 n=50 32-35 6/7 n=21 >36 n=49

Part of a larger study with 149 neonates (25-40 weeks gestation) at high (Cohort A, n=54), moderate (Cohort B, n=45) and low (Cohort C, n=50) risk for neurological impairment

Variable Birth weight (g)* Gestational age* (weeks) Apgar score at 1* minute Apgar score at 5 minutes SNAP: PE score* NTIS score* % Male % Multiple birth* % Cohort A* % Cohort B % Cohort C 892 (175) 26.0 (0.7) 4.7 (2.2) 7.5 (1.7) 31.6 (20.1) 20.8 (4.2) 25 (60%) 9 (22%) 11 (27%) 16 (39%) 14 (34%) 1298 (322) 29.4 (1.1) 5.8 (2.2) 7.7 (1.3) 17.7 (18.2) 16.7 (5.9) 32 (64%) 14 (28%) 12 (24%) 15 (30%) 23 (46%) 2059 (605) 33.6 (1.1) 6.5 (2.2) 8.4 (1.2) 15.8 (15.7) 14.1 (7.2) 12 (57%) 6 (28%) 8 (38%) 5 (24%) 8 (38%) 3049 (801) 38.4 (1.6) 6.6 (2.6) 7.7 (2.1) 14.1 (20.9) 11.7 (8.2) 27 (55%) 2(4%) 26 (53%) 12 (24%) 11 (22%)

Infants were stratified into 4 mutually exclusive gestational age (GA) strata

Observed 9 facial actions and physiological indicators in response to a standardized heel lance procedure

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Results

·Significant differences in total facial activities from baseline to lance phase were found with the least mature GA infants having the least amount of change from baseline ·There were no effects of cohort allocation ·Only 8 infants (20%) in the least mature GA stratum cried during the lance phase and comparisons between GA were not possible

300 P e rc e n ta g e o f T im e P re s e n t 250

Percentage of Oxygen Saturation 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 <27 6/7 28-31 6/7 32-35 6/7 >36

Results

·Infants born < 27 6/7 weeks GA had the greatest amount of change in oxygen saturation from baseline and infants 32-35 6/7 weeks GA had the least amount of change ·No significant differences in GA groups were found in changes in heart rate ·There were no effects of cohort allocation

200 150 100 50 0 Baseline Lance Phases of Heel Lance Procedure <27 6/7 28-316/7 32-35 6/7 >36

Baseline

Warm

Lance

Return

Phases of Heel Lance Procedure

Results

35 30 % Time Observed 25 nasolabial furrow 20 15 10 5 0

rm e e se l in nc tu r n wa la re

Conclusions

· Four facial activities (brow bulge, eye squeeze, nasolabial vertical mouth stretch) were present in ELGA infants

furrow,

brow bulge eye squeeze

vertical mouth stretch horizontal mouth stretch lip purse taut tongue chin quiver

·Brow bulge, eye squeeze, nasolabial furrow and vertical mouth stretch the most frequently observed facial activities in each of the 4 phases of the heel lance

· Facial activities increased significantly following painful procedures but the magnitude of responses was proportional to GA · Audible cry was not a sensitive indicator in ELGA infants, due to the presence of endotracheal tubes in this high-risk population. · Future studies should be directed towards evaluation of gross/fine body movements and factors known to dampen pain responses

ba

Phases of Heel Lance Procedure

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Pain Behaviours of Extremely Low Gestational Age Infants

Gibbins et al. 2007 submitted

Results

No differences in Total Facial Activity Individual Facial Expression during the Procedure Phase

Following REB approval, 53 infants were examined in random order during a standardized 4-phase diaper change and heel lance procedure

Stratification into 2 groups:(23-25 weeks GA) and 2627 weeks GA) Demographic data, severity of illness, history of painful events collected Heart rate, oxygen saturation, 9 facial actions, 6 body actions, salivary cortisol levels were collected within the first week of life

Implications

· Four facial actions (BB, ES, NLF, VMS) are the most sensitive pain indicators

­ Premature Infant Pain Profile ­ Behavioral Indicators of Infant Pain

Future Direction

· Focused analysis of facial and body movements · Examination of maturational effects on pain response · Development of measure for ELGA ­ Further testing of PIPP, BIIP

· Gross body movements (arms, legs, hands, feet, torso, head) are not specific to pain

­ Further studies with specific movements are warranted

· Physiological indicators, in isolation, are not specific · Salivary cortisol levels for ELGA infants are not specific

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