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Migratory Species: Working Together towards a Vision for 2020

Opportunities and Challenges for Migratory Wildlife from the North American Perspective

Seminar at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. 16th May 2007

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Published by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Secretariat of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS).

Migratory Species: Working Together towards a Vision for 2020 Seminar at the Smithsonian Institution; Washington D.C. UNEP / CMS Secretariat, Bonn, Germany. 31 pages. Produced by Supervisor Coordinator Report writer Editing & proof reading Publishing manager Design Production management Picture credits UNEP / CMS Convention on Migratory Species P. Deda, CMS Secretariat, E-mail: [email protected] Anne Devillers, CMS Secretariat, E-mail: [email protected] Diana Nicholson Robert Vagg Maryanne Sarah Odera, [email protected] Anja Addis Iris Göde, Norbert Hirneisen / piclease www.piclease.com / Bonn (page 7: G. Ellwanger, M. Müller, page 13: H. Glader, page 16: H. Rüb, page 18: H. Rüb, page 21, 25: M. Müller, Backcover: G. Ellwanger) All other pictures: UNEP picture database

© 2007 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) / Convention on Migratory Species (CMS). This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the source is made. UNEP would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this publication as a source. No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from the United Nations Environment Programme. DISCLAIMER The contents of this volume do not necessarily reflect the views of UNEP or contributory organisations. The designations employed and the presentations do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNEP or contributory organisations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area in its authority, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Copies of this publication are available from the UNEP / CMS Secretariat United Nations Premises in Bonn Hermann-Ehlers-Str. 10 53113 Bonn, Germany Tel (+49 228) 815 24 26 Fax (+49 228) 815 24 49 E-mail: [email protected] www.cms.int

This publication was prepared and printed with funding from The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU), Germany.

WELCOMING STATEMENTS

In his welcoming statement, CMS Executive Secretary, Robert Hepworth, emphasised the importance of institutional connectivity achieved through partnerships, and hailed the recent agreement with the World Conservation Society (WCS) http://www.cms.int/news/PRESS/nwPR2007/05_May/wcs_cms_sig.htm with its goal of achieving the 2010 targets in nature and biodiversity conservation. He also pointed to the CMS-CITES relationship as one which had been negotiated with the goal of ensuring complementarity between the two Conventions administered by UNEP, and to the IOSEA Marine Turtle MoU http://www.ioseaturtles.org/, concluded under the auspices of CMS and of which the United States is a signatory, although not a Party to CMS. Mr. Mario-Ingo Soos, Environment Counselor of the German Embassy in Washington, reminded the participants of the strong support of Germany as host country and Party to the CMS, current holder of both the Presidency of the European Union and of the G-8. He emphasized the importance of international and multilateral cooperation and that Germany has placed Biodiversity on the agenda of the G8. He informed the meeting that Germany would play host to the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the Convention on Biological Diversity in May 2008, at which a key topic would be the achievement of the 2010 Biodiversity Target: to achieve a significant reduction in the loss of biodiversity by 2010.

Acknowledgments

CMS Secretariat wishes to thank

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Dr. LEONARD HIRSCH, Senior Policy Advisor, Smithsonian Institution BRENNAN VAN DYKE, Regional Director UNEP/RONA and all the staff of UNEP/RONA office

for their assistance in organizing this seminar.

" Conservation and effective management of migratory species of wild animals requires the concerted action of all States within the jurisdictional boundaries of which such species spend any part of their life cycle." FROM THE PREAMBLE OF THE CONVENTION

The unique way of life of migratory animals, be it birds, marine or terrestrial mammals, fish, marine turtles or insects, illustrates like no other phenomenon the connectivity of ecosystems across the globe. These species are highly vulnerable because they require separate breeding, non-breeding and migration habitats. The loss or degradation of one or more of these habitats can jeopardize the entire migratory cycle of a population. Never more than now have the threats on migratory species been so great, the impacts of human activities so strongly felt: climate change, habitat loss or conversion, unsustainable use, pollution, migration barriers, upset ecological balances. Shifts in range and habitats are often not possible due to fragmented landscapes, highly specific needs or sharp population declines.

These complex issues cannot be easily addressed and decision makers around the world must strive to enhance ecosystem resilience and promote ecological connectivity to allow migration, genetic exchange as well as range shifts in reaction to changing environmental conditions.

Migratory animals include many keystone species capable of shaping the animal and plant communities to which they belong and have an undoubted cultural, historical and emotional appeal. Through emphasis on culturally important, charismatic species and a global vision, the conservation of migratory species has the potential of enlisting the broad public support that nature conservation sorely needs. Public attention cannot be held by reference to abstract concepts of species diversity and ecosystem services. Taking a species approach can catch the imagination and interest of the public and of policy makers.

Only a high level of international cooperation and political will, supported by broad public opinion concern, has a chance of overcoming the increasing pressure on migratory species and reversing the dramatic impoverishment trends observed. By bringing together the States through which migratory animals pass ­ their Range States ­ the Convention lays a legal foundation for conservation measures throughout extended migratory ranges and provides a global platform for the development and implementation of conservation projects. By its way of working, CMS is a uniquely versatile framework for international actions based on agreements tailored to regional and biological realities.

This symposium was the occasion to build a platform for improved engagement and dialogue with US agencies and civil society. Parallel conservation topics were presented and discussed. Bilateral conservation perspectives for global environmental issues such as marine mammal protection, migratory bird flyways or large terrestrial mammal migration corridors were explored.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Session I: By Air - Movement of Organisms and Diseases

Chair: Dr. Jeffrey Parrish, Vice President for Conservation, Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences: the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network

Migratory Connectivity: Science and Technology for Policy and Conservation

Dr. Peter Marra, Research Scientist, Migratory Bird Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution

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Securing the Siberian Crane Flyways, the Role of the Bonn Convention

Pallav Das, South Asia Conservationist and Wildlife Journalist

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Avian Influenza, Science and Migratory Birds

Dr. William B. Karesh, Director of the Field Veterinary Program, Global Avian Influenza Network for Surveillance for Wild Birds (GAINS), WCS

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Public Education and Wildlife

Special Presentation by Klaus Liedtke, Editor-in-Chief, National Geographic Germany

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Session II: Migration by Land - When Borders and Fences are not Understood: Conflicts and Opportunities

Chair: Dr. Leonard Hirsch, Senior Policy Advisor, Smithsonian Institution

Wildlife without Borders: Conservation of the Sahelo-Saharan Antelopes of North Africa

Dr. Pierre Comizzoli, Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of Reproductive Science, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution

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CMS Megafauna Projects and Wildlife Watching

Dr. Paola Deda, Inter-Agency Liaison Officer, CMS Secretariat

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Sustainable Use as an Important Tool for the Conservation of Migratory Species

Kai Wollscheid, Director General, International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC)

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Session III: Migration by Sea - Dealing with Unintended Consequences: By-catch and Monitoring

Chair: Brennan Van Dyke, Regional Director, UNEP/RONA

Marine Turtles and CMS, Conservation through Concerted and Cooperative Actions

Dr. Colin Limpus, Senior Principal Conservation Officer, Queensland Environment Protection Agency

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Keynote on US Approach to Marine Turtle Conservation

David Balton, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oceans and Fisheries, United States Department of State

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Monitoring Shark Migrations with Electronic Devices

Dr. Ramón Bonfil, Shark Specialist, NABU

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Seabird Conservation in North America: Opportunities and Challenges for Management of At-Sea Threats

Jennifer Wheeler, Coordinator for the Waterbird Conservation for the Americas Initiative Division of Migratory Bird Management, United States Fish and Wildlife Service

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Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP) and Bycatch Issues

Dr. Gary Allport, Senior Conservation Policy Advisor, BirdLife International

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Session IV: By Sea - Cetaceans

Chair: John Hilborn, Former Deputy Executive Secretary of CMS

Key Conservation Challenges for Marine Mammals: a Global Perspective

Dr. Howard Rosenbaum, Director Cetacean Conservation and Research Program, Global Conservation ­ Marine, Wildlife Conservation Society

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Cetacean Conservation in the U.S.

Dr. David Cottingham, Division Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources, NOAA Fisheries Service

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Marine Mammals in CMS

Robert Hepworth, Executive Secretary, CMS Secretariat

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Seminar Conclusions: Focusing on the Future ­ Developing a 2020 Vision for Migratory Species

Dr. Margi Prideaux, Strategic Policy Director, Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Independent Policy Consultant on Migratory Species Conservation

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Seminar Outcome Biographies

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"The global community ­ Governments and Civil Society ­ need to work together to protect the magnificence of our planet. The Convention on Migratory Species offers us this opportunity". Migratory Species: Working Together towards a Vision for 2020 seminar was a perfect example of the connectivity called for by Dr. Peter Marra in his keynote speech. At the invitation of the Convention on Migratory Species (CMS), the North American Regional Office of the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP RONA) and the Smithsonian Institution, key scientists and policy makers involved in migratory species concerns met at the Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History on May 16, 2007. The overall conclusion of the seminar was that to achieve the vision of protecting migratory species, efforts must be founded on science-based policy which understands the physical, political and institutional connectivity needed for successful design and implementation. As this policy develops it must also adapt to different regional, cultural and philosophical perspectives. Understanding the connectivity needs of migratory mammals, birds, fish, butterflies, and other species will be based on improved understanding of their biology and life cycles, and their conservation will be achieved through partnerships between countries and regions which play host to the same species at different parts of its life cycle. Recognising the magnitude of the task at hand, connectivity must importantly amplify and encompass institutional coordination and cooperation, drawing to it the intersecting work of civil society, research organisations, intergovernmental and governmental organisations. A number of speakers emphasised that new technologies are unlocking many of the secrets of migration patterns, pathways and populations. The use of increasingly sophisticated tracking and molecular techniques is vital to providing key scientific knowledge for conservation, sustainable use and effective management. Enhanced international cooperation was a constant theme at the meeting. Recurrent themes included the need to expand research beyond the current focus on breeding grounds to include the entire migratory cycle, understanding the multiple habitats used, seasonal and life-cycle interactions, and carry-over effects (i.e. habitat loss or deterioration) which affect the health and population equilibrium of the species. Also recurrent was the theme of economic and quality of life benefits flowing to indigenous and local communities from well-founded conservation policy. This was a rare occasion for representatives from the three levels of connectivity and experts from the worlds of science and public policy to meet in an intimate environment to examine the deteriorating situation, and together design the means for achieving a vision 2020 for migratory species. Although the species examples range from butterflies to antelopes to whales, and vary widely in physical characteristics, habitat, and even threats to their existence, the commonality of issues presented against the background of climate change and population pressures was graphically illustrated by the detailed and often passionate presentations.

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Session I: By Air - Movement of Organisms and Diseases

Chair: Dr. Jeffrey Parrish, Vice President for Conservation, Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences: the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network

Dr. Peter Marra, Research Scientist Migratory Bird Center, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution Migratory Connectivity: Science Technology for Policy and Conservation and

Arguing that periods of the annual cycle are inextricably linked, he cited results of a study on the American Redstart to determine individual level carry-over effects. The study, which was conducted at the Font Hill Nature Reserve in Jamaica, confirmed that prevailing conditions of the winter habitat affect the vulnerability of the population in terms of its health (winter mortality rate) and ability to successfully complete the migratory and nesting (reproductive) cycle. Other work suggests that winter conditions drive the mortality rate during migration; winter habitat drives natal dispersal; and reproductive costs influence feather colour and quality. Dr. Marra then turned to the tools and technology available for tracking wide-ranging animals: intrinsic (banding ­ capture and re-capture; transmitters ­ radio & satellite; molecular markers; microbes & parasites) and extrinsic (isotopes ­ individual & population; trace elements). In his discussion of tracking tools, he first pointed to the International Cooperation for Animal Research Using Space (ICARUS) initiative which is working towards establishing, for scientists worldwide, a remote sensing platform that can track small organisms globally, using radio transmitters as small as 0.3 grams thus enabling observations and experiments over large spatial scales. ICARUS is currently in the process of designing the technical (satellite) solution and soliciting scientific input. ICARUS collaborators have developed a satellite system that can locate radiotransmitter signals from low orbit, which is being used to investigate migration in dragonflies along the Eastern seaboard. The use of miniaturized electronic tags has enabled an international team of scientists from the United States, New Zealand, and France to document the extraordinary migratory cycle of the Sooty Shearwater - a cycle of some 39,000 miles (65,000 kilometers) that encompasses the entire Pacific Basin. The wealth of information generated by this study confirms the

Dr. Marra addressed the need for science and technology as the cornerstones for policy and conservation of migratory species. He emphasized the urgent need to study the geographic links between individuals and populations throughout the complete annual cycle: breeding, migration and winter stages, as events in one period influence events in subsequent periods. The study of migratory connectivity enables the understanding of population vulnerability and abundance, ecology, behaviour and evolution of each species, and the spread of invasive diseases. Only with this understanding will conservation policies and methods to arrest the degradation of all habitats in the annual cycle be correctly developed and refined. Emphasizing that the concepts to be discussed are equally applicable to birds and to non-avian species, Dr. Marra illustrated the different forms of migratory connectivities in a hypothetical bird species with a winter range in the southern hemisphere and summer range in the northern one. Loose connectivity is evident when one breeding population disperses throughout the wintering range. Populations with strong connectivity will have one-to-one connections between summer and winter populations. Unfortunately, for most species, the degree of connectivity is unknown. 8

need for science and technology as cornerstones of policy and conservation of migratory species. An important extrinsic tracking tool is the ratio of stable-hydrogen isotopes in the feathers of migrating birds. Certain chemical elements in animal tissues, such as deuterium, are linked to diet. Deuterium is a stable isotope of hydrogen that occurs naturally in rainwater and enters the food chain through the tissues of plants. Scientists have developed a method of measuring stable hydrogen isotopes in the wing tissue of butterflies and birds and analysis; feathers sampled in the non-breeding period reflect origins in the previous summer. Education and public awareness is key to engendering concern and support for the issues and actions required for successful conservation policy. As an example, he cited the May 16 segment on Monarch Butterflies broadcast on NBC's Today Show, one of the most charismatic species in North America. The impact of a feature shown on mainstream media is huge, raising awareness of the human impact on and threats to the habitats of this and many migratory species throughout their migratory cycles. In summary, Dr. Marra emphasized that:

Pallav Das, South Asia Conservationist and Wildlife Journalist Securing the Siberian Crane Flyways, the Role of the Bonn Convention Of the three populations of the critically endangered Siberian Crane, some 95% of the total estimated population of approximately 3,000 belongs to the Eastern population which breeds in northeastern Siberia and winters along the middle Yangtze River in China. This charismatic species is unique among cranes in that it relies exclusively on wetlands for nesting, feeding, and roosting. The traditional migration and wintering habitats of the species (especially in China) are under constant pressure from the demands of the growing human population on wetland systems and resources. Mr. Das outlined the array of threats faced by this species, including over-use and disturbance from

· · · · ·

Understanding migratory connectivity is critical for conservation Seasonal interactions and carry-over effects influence the ecology and evolution of species Investment in technological research is critical Integration of science and policy is essential International cooperation through treaties must further conservation of transboundary migration.

The two speakers who followed reinforced this theme.

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hunting, fishing, trapping, logging and grazing; reclamation for agriculture; overuse or diversion of water resources; development of oil and gas resources; construction of dams and other forms of river regulation; and degradation of watersheds. Mr. Das cited the Siberian Crane MoU as an example of the international cooperation ("political connectivity") required to meet the challenge. Developed under the auspices of CMS, the MoU's overall objective is to reduce mortality in the remaining populations, to protect and manage their habitats and enhance co-operation among the 12 signatory Range States and other concerned agencies. While the Siberian Crane MOU currently looks after the conservation needs of the Eastern and Western flocks of these migratory birds, Mr. Das emphasised the need for a concerted effort under the Siberian Crane MOU to initiate the reintroduction of Siberian Cranes to the Central Flyway and India.

governmental wildlife and domestic animal and public health experts from Patagonia to Central Africa, they use knowledge of wildlife disease to create local training programmes, conduct cutting-edge health investigations, and to advise on policies and preventive guidelines to reduce disease transmission among wildlife, people and domestic animals. The GAINS programme has made significant progress in its global implementation since receiving start-up funding from the U. S. Agency for International Development and the U.S Centers for Disease Control in the summer of 2006. Collaborations have been established between WCS and US-based and international organizations including governments, NGOs and universities to work together to improve our understanding of the dynamics of avian influenza, and to evaluate disease risks for people, biodiversity, and domestic poultry. WCS staff have been in active discussions with colleagues from USAID, CDC, DHS, DOD, USGS, USDA, NIH, DOS, WHO, FAO as well as university and private sector experts to address integrated approaches to global disease information management issues. Together with the FAO, WCS has conducted training efforts in Eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Caribbean, and a recent agreement with the USDA will expand training and bird monitoring in Latin America. WCS is providing technical expertise related to health monitoring of wild birds and capacity-building activities around the world. Awareness of and interest in the GAINS programme continue to grow, and working relationships with local institutions are being built in over 28 countries, with many more anticipated as the programme unfolds. This network of partners builds a "window on the world" and will help GAINS bring timely and pertinent information that will help combat the threats posed by highly pathogenic avian influenza to both humans and animals. From Afghanistan to Zimbabwe, field surveillance for HPAI is currently underway. GAINS' work in Mongolia illustrates the field methodology being used in many sites. Mongolia has been a hot spot for HPAI outbreaks in the past two years, and is a country where wild birds appear to be of particular importance to the ecology of the disease. Last

Dr. William B. Karesh, Director of the Field Veterinary Program, Global Avian Influenza Network for Surveillance for Wild Birds (GAINS), WCS Avian Influenza, Science and Migratory Birds The final speaker of this session, Dr. William B. Karesh, Chief of Party for the Global Avian Influenza Network for Surveillance for Wild Birds (GAINS), and Director of the Wildlife Conservation Society's Field Veterinary Program, highlighted the evolution of WCS in worldwide animal health programmes through assessment and monitoring, and the collaboration of its Field Veterinary Program in GAINS. The WCS Field Veterinary Program - the first of its kind - was established in 1989 and uses a collaborative approach to address the complexities of maintaining ecosystem health. Working with in-country governmental and non10

year WCS staff collected over 3,500 samples at 42 sites across the country. Working with WCS staff, USGS scientists fitted whooper swans from the region with satellite transmitters in early August, and some have been tracked to China, Korea, and Russia. These types of data may shed light on possible viral transmission routes across Asia. The 2007 field season has started sampling for HPAI testing continues - and previous sites of HPAI outbreaks will continue to be monitored as sources of important epidemiological information. The first step to prepare for a pandemic is an `early warning system' for global influenza that monitors diseases in birds. GAINS' fieldwork also enables the isolation of new viral strains, which can contribute to vaccine development and help guide preparedness in the United States and abroad. One of the primary purposes of GAINS is to share international disease information through an interactive, publicly accessible webbased database, a working prototype of which has already been made available online at www.gains.org. The database is already starting to map sample collection sites, flyways and results of biological surveillance. GAINS surveillance includes systematic monitoring of wild birds along major global flyways. The migration of wild birds could contribute to the spread of HPAI over long distances, but much more data are needed to understand the actual level of threat. Captive wild birds and birds in the wildlife/pet trade are also being monitored, as these birds come into close contact with people and poultry, and are frequently transported over great distances and across international borders. Legal and illegal movements of poultry and poultry products must remain a focus of governments around the world, as it is clear such movements represent a real threat in terms of the spread of HPAI. Highly pathogenic avian influenza itself and the culling of wild birds in attempts to control the disease are both threats to the conservation status of certain species. For example, between 5% and 10% of the world population of the bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) perished in an outbreak at China's Qinghai Lake in spring 2005. Public and

animal health officials sometimes call for the culling of wild birds in an attempt to control or limit the spread of the virus, despite a lack of evidence that the culling of native wildlife has ever completely eradicated any wildlife disease, and the fact that culling attempts often increase dispersal of wild birds! Dr. Karesh noted that health is an effective tool to attract public interest, awareness and further education on related biodiversity issues, and that avian influenza has created a greater sense of teamwork among and within countries. It has also led to greater interest in the wild bird trade and the work of CITES and thus contributes to imbedding the concerns of CMS in a broader community.

Special Presentation by Klaus Liedtke, Editor-in-Chief, National Geographic Germany Public Education and Wildlife The key word in the quotation from Mr. Liedtke`s presentation is `stories`. Telling stories is probably the oldest form of communication, originating around the Stone Age camp fires. A more sophisticated term, "narrative science journalism", is often applied to nature stories today, but the basis of effective communication remains the same: to combine a quest, good science and a good story that capture the imagination of the public and may also contribute to the expansion of scientific knowledge. For a publication like the National Geographic (NG) that is funded by its membership, favourable public response generates satisfaction amongst the members, which in turn encourages additional funding for related educational products such as teachers' kits, publications designed for youth, 11

films and television programmes. Funding will also flow to new quests. A case in point is the National Geographic's Monarch Butterfly stories starting as early as April 1963 with "Mystery of the Monarch Butterfly" and continuing through the June 2003 story describing the Monarch Butterfly Special Biosphere Reserve in Mexico and revealing the scientific findings regarding the internal clock that appears to guide the Monarch's migration path. These articles have in turn generated other National Geographic publications such as articles in NG WORLD magazine, NG books, articles in the NG Research Journal, and teachers' kits, along with numerous citations in other media. The stories are widely read and studied by a broad public that includes school children, teachers, environmentalists, government officials, scientists and researchers. The popularity of the stories `satisfies' the members of the National Geographic Society, and consequently additional research funds are devoted to the subject. Not incidentally, Mr. Liedtke adds, by popularising

the Monarch Butterfly, the stories also remind the public that species of insects are migratory. Nature stories may also have a positive impact on public policy as happened with the National Geographic series describing the remarkable 2,000-mile (3,200-kilometer) MegaTransect of Africa by WCS ecologist and explorer J. Michael Fay in 1999. He and National Geographic photographer Michael "Nick" Nichols spent 455 days on the expedition across the Congo Basin to survey the ecological and environmental status of the region. Following the completion of the MegaTransect, Michael Fay undertook a personal campaign to preserve nearly 250,000 hectares (618,000 acres) of forest in Gabon as a national park. When the President of Gabon learned about the project, he invited Mr. Fay and two associates to make a presentation to the Council of Ministers at the end of which the President signed a decree creating a network of 13 protected areas/national parks. Mr. Liedtke also spoke of the importance of photography in telling and documenting a nature story. He traced the history of wildlife photography from the early glass plate cameras which because of their size and weight requiring solid platforms often created frustrating or dangerous situations for the photographers and resulted in rather stilted portrayals of their subjects. Later, improvements in technology and equipment brought smaller cameras and faster film that revolutionized photography and allowed wildlife photographers to capture more spontaneous behaviour ­ action shots ­ and to travel more easily with their equipment. Today, much of the danger to photographers is reduced by ever smaller, higher performance cameras and film combined with technological advances that allow photographers to set camera traps where the shutter is tripped whenever an object crosses the infrared beam. However there can still be unpleasant surprises, or long periods of tedium waiting to trigger the shutter from a remote observation point when wildlife does not sit or stand on command for its portrait. He also pointed out that there are occasions when wildlife photographs contribute to science by documenting animal behaviour that contradicts

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and/or advances scientific knowledge, notably the Nick Nichols photograph of a gorilla wading through wetlands to reach a favourite plant that disproved the accepted theory that gorillas avoided water under all circumstances. ("The National Geographic Society. 100 years of Adventure and Discovery" by C.C.B. Bryan. Abrams, New York, 1997). It is indisputable that well researched, well documented nature stories told in a manner that engages the reader in a quest - a voyage of discovery - can and do influence a broad audience of young and old, specialist and amateur to learn

more and to act on behalf of nature and the environment.

Session II: Migration by Land - When Borders and Fences are not Understood: Conflicts and Opportunities

Chair: Dr. Leonard Hirsch, Senior Policy Advisor, Smithsonian Institution

less than 5 inches' annual rainfall in some areas, it is not a barren wasteland, but an area rich in fauna/flora and habitat diversity. Dr. Pierre Comizzoli, Post-Doctoral Fellow, Department of Reproductive Science, National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institution Wildlife without Borders: Conservation of the Sahelo-Saharan Antelopes of North Africa Dr Comizzoli vividly illustrated the importance of a multi-partnership approach to the conservation of species that do not recognize man-made borders, reminding the participants that support for conservation is derived from stakeholders across all sectors of society and that there are benefits from conservation to be shared by regional and local communities. The Sahara, the world`s biggest desert covering 3.5 million square miles and shared by 14 countries is a hot spot for conservationists. Despite receiving Prolonged drought, desertification, over-hunting, chronic lack of resources for conservation and lack of awareness/interest in aridlands pose serious threats. As a result, the Scimitar-horned Oryx is the largest mammal to have gone extinct in the past 30 years. Other species including the critically endangered Addax, Dama Gazelle, as well as the Desert Ostrich now are extinct in many local areas. The Desert Cheetah (extremely rare) is also isolated and highly vulnerable. Adopted at the 1998 meeting in Djerba, a CMS Action Plan focuses on six antelope species and covers 14 Range States. The Sahelo-Saharan Interest Group (SSIG) was formed at that time and now has a more formal structure called the Sahara Conservation Fund (SCF), whose mission is to conserve wildlife and key habitats in partnership with stake-holders from all sectors of society. Science-based surveys conducted by SCF assessed and monitor the current status and threats, providing the documentation required to mobilize support for the action plan and to determine the interests of the stakeholders. Despite 13

serious obstacles to cooperation, including problems of transboundary conflicts, civil and tribal unrest, lack of trained people, and chronic lack of funding, agreement has been reached to concentrate on the creation of protected areas, with the first proposed area at Termit ­ Tin Toumma, Niger. In the long term, a transboundary park (between Niger and Chad) could be created. SCF efforts also concentrate on applying science and research to management, and foster community-based action, management and custodianship of rare species (e.g. ostriches). Additionally, ex-situ conservation roles for zoos and private collections in the Middle East have been identified. Pilot projects for Addax and Scimitar-horned Oryx reintroductions are ongoing in Tunisia and Morocco in partnership with CMS and North American and European zoos.

all species, the development of networks of effective protection systems, including protected areas and community-based stewardship, the affirmation of the importance of common natural and cultural resources of Sahelo-Saharan deserts and semideserts and a considerable reinforcement of the awareness of local stakeholders. Follow-on actions include: achieving on-the-ground programmes, formalising the partnership announced at COP8 as a WSSD partnership with Range States, IGO's and other stakeholders, adoption of a mechanism of cooperation among Range States, regular review of the action plan; and extending the Plan to other species. The Saiga Antelope Action Plan in cooperation with CITES aims to restore populations to ecologically and biologically appropriate levels throughout the species' range by restoring the range and habitats to optimal levels and enhancing transboundary and international cooperation to conserve and sustainably use Saigas. The Rewilding the Steppe Concerted Action aims to establish a conservation area for the indigenous species of the Central Asia desert zones. The objective of the project is to restore the large mammal fauna of the arid lands of Eurasia and their peripheral biomes to a substantial amount of its past presence. Keystone constituents of the fauna must be in sufficient numbers so that processes such as eco-ethological interactions and migratory phenomena are able to take place, and that they are able to fulfil their ecological role. This will be achieved through the establishment and promotion of a network of protected areas that will, between them, hold and support significant and viable populations of the emblematic species

Dr. Paola Deda, Inter-Agency Liaison Officer, CMS Secretariat CMS Megafauna Projects and Wildlife Watching Dr. Deda explained how CMS has developed wide-ranging multi-state projects for the conservation and restoration of nomadic and farforaging terrestrial mammals that engage in complex, trans-border movements of a migratory nature and whose survival requires the coordinated conservation of several complementary habitats. The Sahelo-Saharan Antelopes Concerted Action addresses the western part of the largest and most complex continuous belt of arid lands on Earth. Its objectives are the location and protection of any remaining populations of the target species, the reconstitution of viable free roaming populations for 14

that constitute the megafauna of desert, steppe and temperate montane Eurasia. The West African Elephants Agreement Area comprising 12 signatory Range States and one non-signatory State was launched in close cooperation with the African Elephant Specialist Group (AfESG) of the IUCN. The Strategy to conserve elephants and their habitats in West Africa has three main components: to better understand the status of elephants, maintain and possibly increase the numbers and improve elephant habitats. Most recently, CMS has initiated the Article IV Ngagi Agreement on Gorillas, which will commit Signatory Range States to conserve all populations of gorilla classified as critically endangered, or endangered, under IUCN Redlists (IUCN 2006) and to identify sites and habitats for gorillas occurring within their territory and encourage the protection, management, rehabilitation and restoration of these sites. In collaboration with TUI, CMS has produced Wildlife Watching and Tourism, a practical assessment of the benefits and impacts of wildlife tourism offering recommendations to governments and other authorities on the introduction of wildlife watching as a tourism attraction. The report presents 12 case studies, including watching gorillas, whales, whale sharks, penguins and the monarch butterfly. Among the conclusions: wildlife watching is a multi-billion dollar industry with potential to fight poverty by pumping vital income into local communities and conservation initiatives; and animals are worth more alive than dead: sensitive and well managed wildlife watching generates real and long-lasting returns.

Kai Wollscheid, Director General, International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC) Sustainable Use as an Important Tool for the Conservation of Migratory Species Conservation concepts must be sustainable in all aspects: politically, economically, and ecologically. The economic importance, in this context refers to the question of how to finance the conservation of migratory species. Sustainable financing should mainly be self-generated, as wildlife in general is a valuable renewable resource. Sustainable use options for wildlife (including migratory species) are many and varied: photo tourism, hunting, meat production, use of by-products, etc. Experience shows that a combination of different forms of such utilisation usually provides the highest income and best long-term support for conservation. In some instances environmentally friendly wildlife utilisation can bring equal or even greater revenue per unit area than other land use options (e.g agriculture). Factual harvest rates, particularly of migratory birds and mammals that are subject to hunting, can and should be an incentive for improved management and educational opportunities. Users need to see the application of such harvest data as supporting both the long-term survival of managed species, and the human traditions associated with its sustainable use. One of the most successful conservation models in the world, the North American Wildlife Conservation Model, was developed by hunters and anglers in the second half of the 19th century, in other words, concerned, hands-on stakeholders. This very early approach to conservation is based on ethical and biological rules for the harvest of wildlife. Supported by a legal framework and international cooperation 15

for the conservation of migratory species on the North American continent, it offers a number of best-practice examples and experiences to inspire strategies for the management and conservation of migratory species elsewhere in the world. With regard to international guiding frameworks, the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity (AAPG) (http://www.cbd.int/programmes/socio-eco/use/ addis.asp), developed under the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD), represent the latest state of the art on sustainable use of biodiversity, and provide a framework for assisting stakeholders on all geographical, as well as institutional levels such as the UN System, Conventions, Governments, development agencies, local and indigenous communities, resource managers, the private sector and NGOs, on how to ensure that their uses of biodiversity will not lead to its long-term decline. The Principles apply to consumptive and nonconsumptive use and are intended to be of general relevance, but not all apply equally to all situations

or apply with equal rigour. Sustainability of use of biodiversity will be enhanced if there is:

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Supportive and linked governance at all levels, Empowerment and accountability of local users, Adaptive management using science, monitoring, local knowledge and timely feedback, Equitable sharing of benefits for local people, Transparency & international co-operation, Public awareness of the benefits.

Addressing public awareness and education, Mr. Wollscheid called upon the conservation media for more equity and honesty in reporting successes and failures of conservation. It is critical for the better understanding of the role sustainable use plays in conservation that the media present successes and failures in both, consumptive and non-consumptive use of migratory species.

Session III: Migration by Sea - Dealing with Unintended Consequences: By-catch and Monitoring

Chair: Brennan Van Dyke, Regional Director, UNEP/RONA

Dr. Colin Limpus, Senior Principal Conservation Officer, Queensland Environment Protection Agency Marine Turtles and CMS, Conservation through Concerted and Cooperative Actions Dr. Limpus highlighted the technological advances that have contributed to far greater knowledge of the migration cycles of marine turtle species; the improved fishing technologies that have contributed 16

to the development of industrial fishing and thus to greater harvests and declining populations; the threats to nesting grounds from climate change and population pressures including increased coastal development; and the need to increase concerted international cooperation to conserve this shared and threatened treasure of the seas. Since the 1970s, new tagging technologies including titanium tags, pit tags and satellite telemetry, and emphasis on long-term tags and recapture have combined with the application of medical and veterinary technology (Laprascopy and Ultrasound that define sex, maturity and breeding status) to vastly expand knowledge of all phases of the migratory cycle. Tagging-recapture studies of the Loggerhead Turtle (Caretta caretta), have yielded underlined important information collected on foraging

demography (i.e. adult Loggerhead Turtles forage within 2,600 km of rookeries), sex ratio, maturity ratio, breeding rate, recruitment, survivorship and growth, behaviour and migration-dispersal. Advances in navigation techniques, design of fishing boats and equipment have brought escalated industrial fisheries and by-catch. Analysis of the information from the Woongara Coast Total Tag Nesting census confirms the damage inflicted on the overall population of Loggerhead Turtles by trawling that kills adults and large immatures. Tag-recapture of the Green Turtle has established that the adults migrate from many different feeding areas to any one breeding area, however, turtles in any one feeding area do not all migrate to the same breeding area. Therefore genetic ID is needed to partition turtles of all sex and maturity in the feeding areas to their respective stocks. Heightened awareness of the decline in the Marine Turtle population has led to international cooperation under the auspices of CMS in the form of two Memoranda of Understanding among Range States, each committing the Signatory Range States to a Conservation and Management Plan. The Memorandum of Understanding Concerning Conservation Measures for Marine Turtles of the Atlantic Coast of Africa became effective on 1 July 1999 and covers 23 West African Range States, the Azores and Madeira (Portugal), and Canary Islands (Spain). It aims at safeguarding six highly migratory Marine turtle species (the Loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta), Ridley turtle

(Lepidochelys olivacea), Green turtle (Chelonia mydas), Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), Leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) and Flatback turtle (Natator depressus)) that are estimated to have rapidly declined in numbers during recent years due to excessive exploitation (both direct and incidental) and the degradation of essential habitats. The Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia (IOSEA) became effective on 1 September 2001. Covering six species of marine turtles (Caretta caretta, Chelonia mydas, Dermochelys coriacea, Eretmochelys imbricata, Lepidochelys kempii, and Lepidochelys olivacea), and 41 Range States, it applies to waters and coastal States of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia and adjacent seas, extending eastwards to the Torres Strait. The Marine Turtle ImapS, the first comprehensive online system to map the nesting and migrating habitats of endangered sea turtles, was launched in 2004 as a collaborative effort between IOSEA, UNEP/WCMC and Dr. Limpus. In its first phase, designed to support IOSEA, it focuses initially on the Indian Ocean/South East Asia region where six species of marine turtle are found. Tag-recapture data are invaluable inputs to the mapping process which is based on 30 years of previous data on the nesting and migration of turtles throughout the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. The new challenge is to manage marine turtles under the impact of climate change. Beaches that

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had good incubation success rates 36 years ago show declining success rates today. Not only is there an optimal sand temperature for successful incubation, but the temperature of eggs determines the sex of marine turtle hatchlings. As warmer temperatures produce females, it is feared that as little as a one-degree Celsius rise in temperature could cause some populations to become totally female. In the face of this challenge, concerted, cooperative international conservation effort is a priority.

sea turtles. Each year, the Department of State certifies which foreign nations have met certain criteria relating to the protection of sea turtles in the course of shrimp trawl fishing. This has spurred a number of other governments to institute programs to protect sea turtles in such fishing operations, including the required use of TEDs. The United States recognizes that restrictions on the importation of shrimp do not constitute a complete solution to the many threats that sea turtles face. For one thing, these restrictions can only influence governments whose industries wish to sell shrimp in the U.S. market. More importantly, the import restrictions do not represent the type of collaborative, broad-based approach that is needed if sea turtles are to recover. The United States and Mexico led efforts to create the first multilateral sea turtle agreement, the 1996 Inter-American Convention on the Conservation and Protection of Sea Turtles. The IAC, which is still the only binding sea turtle instrument in existence, sets forth specific obligations to protect sea turtles throughout their life cycles, as well as the habitats on which sea turtles depend. The IAC includes innovative features that have fostered collaboration in sea turtle research and in the development of additional conservation measures. The United States was also a driving force in the development of the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asian Sea Turtle MOU. This MOU, which is the only CMS instrument that the United States has signed, has effectively promoted sea turtles conservation, due in no small measure to the efforts of the Coordinator, Douglas Hykle. The Signatories have conducted a number of awareness-raising and educational campaigns and projects in the region. Following the disastrous tsunami, the MOU provided a framework for quickly re-establishing

David Balton, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oceans and Fisheries, United States Department of State Keynote on US Approach to Marine Turtle Conservation The United States has long been a leader in conserving sea turtles, both nationally and internationally. Initially, our focus was on populations of sea turtles that occur in waters under U.S. jurisdiction and that nest on U.S. beaches. In recent years, we have also actively engaged with our partners in the international community in support of multilateral efforts to conserve and protect sea turtles. Since roughly 1990, the United States has required shrimp trawl vessels that operate in areas under U.S. jurisdiction where sea turtles occur to use turtle excluder devices or TEDs. Although the U.S. industry initially resisted this requirement, it is now generally accepted as a cost-effective way to minimize sea turtle mortality in shrimp fishing operations without significant loss of shrimp. Most shrimp sold in the U.S. market are imported. For more than a decade, U.S. law (Section 609 of Public Law 101-162) has prohibited the importation of shrimp harvested in ways that are harmful to 18

sea turtle project sites in affected areas. The IAC and the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asian MOU are both good examples of policy interventions that can help conserve migratory species. They have each raised the profile of sea turtle conservation efforts in their respective regions and have brought together policy makers, technical experts and scientists to forge useful joint efforts. But much more remains to be done. Sea turtles remain endangered due to multiple causes. The international community will need to use all tools at its disposal if we are to save these creatures.

satellite tags can be employed: the Pop-up archival tags that provide accurate start and end point positions and an extremely detailed collection of information on depth, temperature and light level from where migratory route can be estimated, and real-time satellite tags that link to the satellite every time the instrument comes out of the water and can provide accurate semi-continuous tracks including the timing and route of migration. Since the introduction of these technologies, the "pace of learning has been exponential". In order to advance the conservation of these species, more and better science must be pursued by expanding basic biology studies, and increasing research with satellite tags coupled with population genetic studies; and by developing more sophisticated instruments. To accomplish this, the critical need is for much greater funding. At the multinational level, support is required from new international instruments (Agreements, MoUs, new/improved RFMOs).

Dr. Ramón Bonfil, Shark Specialist, NABU Monitoring Shark Migrations with Electronic Devices NABU Shark Specialist, Ramón Bonfil made a compelling case for the value of sophisticated monitoring tools. He reminded the participants that there are no Agreements or MOUs for any shark or bony fish, although CMS has 3 shark species listed on its appendices and 72 species of shark have been identified as migratory or possibly migratory with 45 classified under the IUCN Red List. There is great need for scientific information about their life cycles and biotic requirements, along with international mechanisms to ensure their protection and conservation. Little is known about their distribution, movements, the timing, routes or motivations of their migrations, nor the life cycles of most shark species. Acoustic (active tracking) tags have limited time and area coverage and passive tracking acoustic tags have limited coverage, For longer time and larger scale studies, two types of

Jennifer Wheeler, Coordinator for the Waterbird Conservation for the Americas Initiative Division of Migratory Bird Management, United States Fish and Wildlife Service Seabird Conservation in North America: Opportunities and Challenges for Management of At-Sea Threats Following a brief overview of characteristics of seabirds, their status and threats, Jennifer Wheeler's presentation focused on the advances, opportunities and remaining challenges to seabird conservation, emphasizing science and policy related to issues at-sea. Our understanding of the factors affecting seabird distribution and abundance at sea is complicated by the fact that ocean conditions 19

and the associated forage species are transient and fleeting, changing on scales much faster than are usual on land. It is improving through large-scale, long-term studies, including the North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database, which involves collection of seabird observation and associated biological and environmental data from oceanographic and fisheries research vessels. Also, recent advances in remote sensing and the ingenuity of the scientific community, such as the development of micro-transmitters, are producing a wealth of new information about seabird movements and their use of environmental cues to locate food. Knowing where seabirds occur and how they use their marine habitat is of paramount importance for understanding species' overlap with and vulnerability to at-sea threats, particularly fisheries bycatch, a significant factor affecting declining populations. Where seabirds and fishing operations do overlap, additional science is needed to unravel how fishery characteristics interact with one another and the biological and life history characteristics of individual seabird species to affect the risk of incidental capture and population-level impacts of fishery mortality. Ms. Wheeler's five recommendations to North American agencies, organizations and funders to improve at-sea science are: (1) international coordination of at-sea monitoring (2) development of a continent-scale seabird monitoring database; (3) programs to track seabird population dynamics and trends at sea and on colony; (4) continued collection of information necessary to assess the risk of seabird interactions within particular fisheries; and (5) communications to stimulate investment in science and management action. 20

Fortunately, there are already many simple and inexpensive ways to adjust equipment and ship practices to reduce fishery bycatch. More complex and controversial is the manipulation of the timing of the fishing season and the locations open to fishing to minimize overlap between fishing activities and birds. Nations in North America already have the authority to recommend, require and enforce bycatch reduction measures via a number of federal laws and policies, such as: migratory bird treaties; endangered species laws; fisheries management laws; environmental statutes; and protected areas legislation. International instruments for seabird conservation include the UN global driftnet ban, the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries, the FAO`s International Plan of Action (IPOA) for Seabirds, and the new Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP). Perhaps most importantly, nations can affect change for seabirds through the decision-making processes of the Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs), groups of nations with vessels, territories, or market interests in specific ocean-scale "fishing grounds." Ms. Wheeler's recommendations regarding policy were 1) a continued international approach, 2) multi-faceted strategies involving education, capacity building, and partnership, as well as regulatory or intergovernmental mechanisms, and 3) the establishment of an alliance of organizations and instruments in a holistic, integrated approach. Waterbird Conservation for the Americas ­ an independent partnership of individuals and institutions with a shared vision of sustained and restored waterbird populations and habitats throughout the Americas ­ is seeking to facilitate this alliance. Waterbird Conservation for the Americas offers CMS a nexus for engagement on issues related to seabirds and other waterbirds.

Dr. Gary Allport, Senior Conservation Policy Advisor, BirdLife International Agreement on the Conservation of Albatrosses and Petrels (ACAP) and Bycatch Issues "It is in America's interests to work with the international community to preserve the productivity and health of the oceans and to secure cooperation among nations everywhere in managing marine assets wisely." Final Report of the US Commission on Ocean Policy, September 2004. The current status of seabird species is critical. Twenty of twenty-one species of albatross are threatened with extinction and the other one is near-threatened. Five large petrels are also threatened. The primary threat comes from fisheries bycatch, longline primarily, but also trawling. The concentration of the threat is in southern oceans where the species and the fisheries are concentrated. As is the case for other highly migratory species, albatrosses and petrels cannot be conserved by one country acting independently of other nations that share the same species populations. The importance of the ACAP is that it protects critical habitat; control non-native species detrimental to albatrosses and petrels; introduce measures to reduce the incidental catch of seabirds in long-line fisheries; and support research into the effective conservation of albatrosses and petrels. It adds value to existing frameworks, such as bycatch committee work of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations. Although the United States is not a signatory to ACAP, it is exercising leadership through

the Reauthorized Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, which promotes the science-based fishery management techniques successfully developed in the North Pacific. ACAP can act as a vehicle for U.S. to demonstrate leadership by promoting worldwide use of successful seabird bycatch mitigation measures developed domestically.

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Session IV: By Sea - Cetaceans

Chair: John Hilborn, Former Deputy Executive Secretary of CMS on identifying and ultimately achieving protection measures for critical marine mammal habitats. These efforts include initial attempts to identify areas more suitable for long term management, where available resources can be applied for maximum conservation benefit. The longestrunning field projects include the conservation and population ecology of humpback whales in Antongil Bay in the northeast of Madagascar (since 1996), off the island of Mayotte in the Comoros Archipelago (since 1997), and off the coast of Gabon (since 2000) in West Africa; and the assessment and mitigation of human impacts on small cetaceans in southwest Madagascar (since 1999). Public education and community-based awareness in the host countries are essential to the success of the field sites. As AMNH and WCS are cultural institutions whose missions are research, education, and exhibition, we are able to utilize and apply a wide array of technologies and media to disseminate our findings and educate the public on local, national, and international scales. Activities include support of local marine festivals, workshops, and the development of interpretive materials. We are also actively involved in training the next generation of conservation practitioners, which has resulted in colleagues from Gabon and Madagascar becoming leading spokespeople for the conservation of marine mammals and the marine environment. The CCRP's support of conservation and education-oriented ecotourism (whale-watching) initiatives not only educates the local people and eco-tourists, but also provides valuable economic opportunities for the local communities. Dr. Rosenbaum then went on to describe a number of key conservation challenges for marine mammals around the world and how these are being addressed. These included: resumption of whaling, potential effects from anthropogenic noise related to industry, shipping and military activities, bycatch and hunting.

Dr. Howard Rosenbaum, Director Cetacean Conservation and Research Program, Global Conservation ­ Marine, Wildlife Conservation Society Key Conservation Challenges for Marine Mammals: a Global Perspective Dr. Rosenbaum gave an overview of the work being done by the Cetacean Conservation and Research Program, primarily around Africa and Madagascar. A brief summary is provided below: The Cetacean Conservation and Research Program (CCRP), a joint program between the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) and WCS exemplifies the WCS/AMNH approach to conservation and science. The CCRP is dedicated to protecting endangered whales and dolphins and their critical habitats through integrated conservation research, capacitybuilding, education, and community involvement at local, regional, and international management levels. The CCRP also utilizes genetics to assess `conservation units` to improve management decisions for a variety of cetaceans globally. The CCRP focuses conservation efforts on a variety of marine mammal species. These include seven large whale species and numerous species of small cetaceans. New initiatives include efforts to study and protect critically endangered West African Manatees and Dugongs. Long-term field sites include Madagascar (Western Indian Ocean) and Gabon (Gulf of Guinea), and an important aspect of the CCRP's approach is to assess population status and linkages across broad geographic areas. The CCRP's in situ efforts are centered 22

Howard Rosenbaum discussed a number of local, regional, and international approaches and interventions that are helping to mitigate these threats. With a recently signed MoU between WCS and CMS, Rosenbaum indicated that WCS and his program in particular look forward to working with CMS on upcoming initiatives involving cetacean and marine mammal conservation. The WATCH meeting (Western African Talks on Cetaceans and their Habitat) will be an important start and will benefit from WCS CCRP's conservation and research in the region.

with mechanisms to provide exceptions. Under the ESA, "take" is defined as "to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or attempt to engage in any such conduct". The goal of the ESA is to provide a program for the conservation of threatened and endangered species, and a means whereby the ecosystems upon which such species depend may be conserved. The U.S. assesses and responds to threats facing marine mammals in the following ways: assessing marine mammal stocks and preparing Annual Stock Assessment Reports; preparing recovery plans for endangered or threatened species; preparing a National By-catch Report (with publication of the first edition planned for 2008); and conducting research to develop understanding of marine mammal-environmental parameter interactions. Further initiatives include specific plans to address each of the identified threats through a combination of science, education, community involvement, and emergency response. The principal threats to marine mammals and the corresponding U.S. management measures are: 1. Fishery interactions (e.g. entanglements) NOAA Fisheries Service works with the fishing industry to develop or modify fishing gear and practices to minimize bycatch. NOAA Fisheries Service also publishes an annual List of Fisheries categorizing each commercial fishery based on whether it has frequent (Category I), occasional (Category II), or remote (Category III) likelihood of incidental mortality and serious injury of marine mammals and develops and implements take reduction plans to recover or prevent the depletion of strategic marine mammal stocks interacting with Category I and II fisheries. 2. Ship strikes NOAA Fisheries Service has developed regulatory and non-regulatory measures to reduce ship strikes, including proposed operational measures for vessels (speed limits and vessel routes), education and outreach programs, technological research, and research and monitoring activities. 3. Marine debris Under the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act, NOAA 23

Dr. David Cottingham, Division Chief, Marine Mammal and Sea Turtle Conservation Division, Office of Protected Resources, NOAA Fisheries Service Cetacean Conservation in the U.S. In the United States, two acts, the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and the Endangered Species Act (ESA), govern the preservation of marine mammals. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) protects all marine mammals, regardless of status and prohibits their take, with limited exceptions. Under the MMPA, "take" is defined as to "harass, hunt, capture, or kill, or attempt to harass, hunt, capture, or kill any marine mammal". The MMPA provides for exceptions to the "take" prohibition in two categories: incidental take (commercial fishing and other specified activities such as oil and gas exploration); and direct take (subsistence hunting/ handicrafts by Alaska natives; scientific research, public display, and photography; non-lethal deterrence; government officials (Federal, state, local); and a pinniped removal authority when they are preying on endangered or threatened salmon). The Endangered Species Act (ESA) prohibits the take of endangered and threatened species,

Fisheries Service responds to the threats marine debris through removal of debris, research, monitoring, education and outreach, and emergency response. NOAA Fisheries Service also makes grants for groups to manage marine debris. 4. Noise NOAA Fisheries Service is working with acoustic experts to develop noise exposure criteria for cetaceans and other living marine resources. NOAA Fisheries Service authorizes people who intentionally introduce sound into the marine environment and requires mitigating measures for underwater sonar and seismic activities, works with the shipping industry to address shipping noise, funds research, and contributes to public education. 5. Disease and contamination NOAA Fisheries Service addresses issues of marine mammal disease and contamination the Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, including the National Stranding Network, Unusual Mortality Event response and investigation, John H. Prescott Marine Mammal Rescue Assistance Grant Program, Tissue and Serum Bank Program, Disentanglement Program, and Biomonitoring Program. 6. Disturbance of natural behaviours NOAA Fisheries Service encourages responsible whale watching activities and has developed recommended viewing guidelines, voluntary operator certification programs, and public education programs, while examining the need for regulation of other programs, i.e. spinner dolphin "swim-with" programs in Hawaii. At the international level, the U.S. government encourages research partnerships with scientists worldwide. It is party to a number of bilateral agreements and has signed multilateral agreements including:

· · ·

Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) South Pacific Environment Program (SPREP) Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife Protocol (SPAW).

Robert Hepworth, Executive Secretary, CMS Secretariat Marine Mammals in CMS Many marine mammals are highly endangered. Flagship groups, such as dolphins, though emblematic, suffer losses of hundreds of thousands of individuals every year through human-induced threats. Whales have been hunted for oil, meat, baleen and ambergris. The list of threats to these species is long and can be divided into six categories: fisheries & by-catch, chemical pollution, deliberate hunting, noise pollution & harassment, habitat loss and degradation, climate change. Underlining that cetaceans are one of the most important taxonomic groups for CMS (12 species on Appendix I and 39 species on Appendix II), Mr Hepworth pointed out that the Convention's policy has been to adopt a regional approach for cetacean conservation. Three regional agreements

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International Dolphin Conservation Program (IDCP) International Whaling Commission (IWC) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

have already been established for small cetaceans. CMS has also published encyclopaedias on these animals and is currently running the global "Year of the Dolphin 2007" campaign with strong NGO, IGO and commercial support. The Agreement on Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas (ASCOBANS) covers all species, subspecies or populations of small cetaceans in the Baltic Sea and North Sea, with the exception of the Sperm whale. The flagship species of the Agreement is the Harbour porpoise. A Conservation and Management Plan obliges Parties to engage in: Habitat conservation and management, Surveys and research, Pollution mitigation, Public information. ASCOBANS also cooperates with Range States that have not yet acceded to the Agreement, relevant IGOs and NGOs. The Agreement on Cetacean Conservation in the Mediterranean and Black Seas (ACCOBAMS) aims to reduce threats to cetaceans in the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic coasts of North Morocco and South Portugal, which includes 28 Range States. ACCOBAMS encourages whalewatching practices while monitoring and managing the activity. The new Pacific Islands Cetaceans MoU covers all populations of cetaceans in the Pacific Islands Region and has 22 Range States and territories, many of which are Small Island Developing States. It provides a framework for governments, scientists and others to monitor and coordinate conservation efforts. Several programmes are already underway and support the MoU's implementation. Two new agreements are being developed under CMS to include them: I. Agreement/MoU for the Conservation of the West African Manatee and [Small] Cetaceans of the Eastern Atlantic Basin: CMS has supported several projects in recent years (in Senegal, the Gambia, Ghana and Togo) aimed at improving knowledge of marine mammals in this region. CMS will be holding a series of meetings on cetacean science, whale watching activities and the negotiation of the new agreement in Tenerife, in October (WATCH: Western African Talks on Cetaceans and their Habitat).

II. The Dugong MoU/Agreement is being developed, ranging from the coast of East Africa to the Western Pacific Ocean. A conservation and management plan is the basis for focused species and habitat-specific activities, coordinated across the Dugong's migratory range. Other CMS projects include the Agreement on the Conservation of Seals in the Wadden Sea and an Action Plan for the Eastern Atlantic Monk Seal CMS stands as the global "guardian" or "promoter" of regional networks for marine mammals. It already undertakes many promotional and normative activities, such as the "Year of the Dolphin" campaign and the publication of technical and educational material. Looking ahead to 2020, the network might have expanded to have a quadrennial "World Whales Conference" linking Conventions, regional networks, governments, scientists, NGOs and the wider public. There was also scope to establish permanent financing mechanisms for whale conservation via a (voluntary) tax on whale tourism. Mr Hepworth's personal view is that CMS is already the main global convention for conservation and non-lethal use of small cetaceans. IWC should continue to lead on the utilisation of large whales.

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Dr. Margi Prideaux, Strategic Policy Director, Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Independent Policy Consultant on Migratory Species Conservation Seminar Conclusions: Focusing on the Future ­ Developing a 2020 Vision for Migratory Species Dr. Prideaux addressed the specific conclusions under three headings: Science, Policy, and Developing a Vision, before enumerating the Challenges we face. I Science Science should be the basis for effective policy, monitoring and implementation. It is therefore essential that research is conducted to understand how connectivity contributes to conservation, integrates diverse and new technologies and modelling; and understands species' needs across all their habitats, seasonal and life-cycle interactions and carry over effects. To achieve this, it is necessary to combine population/taxa specific research with habitat and ecosystem research; stress the need for adaptation strategies to address and mitigate emerging issues such as disease and climate change; better understand the needs for reintroductions of species and rewilding of habitats; and ensure that research is relevant to policy needs. By collaborating, coordinating and appropriately targeting science we can create a policy environment that is sufficiently informed to make necessary decisions. II Policy Policy delivery is becoming more complex. Competing demands for diplomatic attention, the challenges of managing impacts on the global 26

commons and the escalation of issues requiring urgent and immediate government and civil society attention all conspire to push poorly represented issues into the background. Therefore successful migratory species conservation policy development and implementation depends on the extent of active and committed participation from government and civil society in the development of solutions. This can only be achieved where the relevance of migratory species conservation has been established. In a global diplomatic environment saturated with pressing concerns, the establishment of relevance is a high priority. Establishing such relevance will rely not only on the quality of the underlying scientific research, but also on the breadth and depth of communication to increase societal concern. Sophisticated use of existing paradigms will be required and, to improve international cooperation, `safe diplomatic spaces' must be developed which promote scientific, political and institutional connectivity; they are also sensitive to different regional, cultural and philosophical perspectives; and encompass institutional coordination and cooperation. III Developing a Vision The dominant political paradigm is now an interconnected world, where governance and capacity vary widely, and increased involvement of stakeholders is a sine qua non for a globally accepted vision. Isolated initiatives will no longer work. Progress can be achieved through agreeing to a shared vision and increasing cooperation; supporting the kind of research needed; coordinating the input and output of research and conservation programmes; and fully utilising and promoting international mechanisms. Progress depends on the recognition that partnerships with a spectrum of stakeholders, from governments through to civil society are essential. Through such partnerships, governance is more

easily shared. Conservation must remain relevant through time. Our horizons (scientific and policy) need to be extended to track progress and science needs to be fully built into long-term implementation to ensure that policy solutions evolve and adapt as knowledge builds. The Challenges The core challenge we face is the imperative to increase the relevance of migratory species conservation on the global diplomatic stage. Therefore, it is incumbent on us to evolve conservation ideas to meet both our needs and

the contemporary political paradigm. We need to translate species connectivity into political connectivity. We will only achieve these goals if we overcome not just the tyranny of the commons but also the tyranny of borders (turf, policy, law, interest and the mind). To do so we must continually improve our ability to communicate effectively what we know and what we need. Summarizing the conclusions, Dr. Prideaux stated: "Recognizing connectivity brings with it a responsibility ­ the responsibility to respect that we must protect what we share. Separating our interests can no longer work."

Seminar Outcome

Migratory species are especially vulnerable as they engage in complex trans-border movements and their survival requires the coordinated conservation of several complementary habitats. This symposium was originally set up to explore possible areas of common interest between UNEP/CMS and the US. Many fruitful discussions were held and many ideas explored, but furthermore, throughout nearly every intervention, connectivity emerged as a key notion. Connectivity, both on the physical and on the institutional level was defined as a crucial element for the conservation of migratory species. On the physical level, migratory corridors, flyways and swimways must be preserved or provided. Without these connecting networks, migration does not exist. The interrelations between sites and components of migratory cycles need to be better and more deeply understood. The systematic application of modern technologies is a tremendous asset that needs to be exploited on a greater scale then currently possible. On the political and institutional level, more partnerships and cooperation between countries and organisations must be developed. Many national and international conservation instruments exist. Their complementary specificity must be enhanced rather than smoothed over 27 in order to have tailored responses to the various needs of a threatened natural world. Policy should stem from the understanding and achievement of the two levels of connectivity. Effectively conserving migratory species, their habitat, their migration corridors and stop-overs will require considerably more means than presently available. There is a critical need for much greater funding. This can only be reached through improved international cooperation and enhanced public support. In the face of the challenges confronting migratory species, concerted, cooperative international conservation effort is a priority. North America and its scientists, political leaders, government officials and NGOs can play a major role in helping to promote this effort.

Biographies

Dr. Peter Marra received his Master`s Degree from the Museum of Natural History at Louisiana State University and Ph.D. from Dartmouth College. He has been a research scientist at the Smithsonian Institution since 1999. Peter's research at the Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center focuses on isolating the factors that control population abundance, such as climate, habitat, food and disease in migratory and resident birds. Another key aspect of his research is quantifying and understanding migratory connectivity. His work has been widely published in journals such as Science and Nature. Bringing his research findings to the public, graduate students and interns by not only communicating his science but by also involving them in his research is a high priority of his program.

Pallav Das has been deeply involved with environmental and conservation issues in South Asia since the 1970s. He has worked specifically on wetland and alpine wilderness research, exploration, and conservation. He was one of the founding members of `KALPAVRIKSH', one of the earliest environmental action groups established in India. Currently based in Washington D.C., he works as a consultant on management and advocacy issues pertaining to biodiversity and natural resource conservation.

Dr. William B. Karesh, has directed the Field Veterinary Program for the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) since its inception in 1989. Prior to his work with WCS, Dr. Karesh was Director of the Center for Wildlife Conservation at the Woodland Park Zoo in Seattle, Washington, and a veterinarian at the San Diego Zoo and Wild Animal Park in California. During his career, Dr. Karesh has also worked for the USDA, DOD, and DOI. Dr. Karesh chairs the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Veterinary Specialist Group, and is currently Chief of Party for the newly established Wild Bird Global Avian Influenza Network for Surveillance (GAINS) program. The aim of the GAINS program is to expand operational field capabilities, improve understanding of influenza viruses in wild birds, and to disseminate information regarding avian influenza.

Klaus Liedtke, 63, is editor-in-chief of NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC DEUTSCHLAND magazine. He also oversees a number of other Gruner + Jahr magazines published in Germany. He is a former White House correspondent (1973 - 1976), war reporter, foreign editor and chief editor of Stern Magazine (1986-1990). He has interviewed and portrayed a large array of prime ministers, presidents, and political leaders including Gandhi, Kennedy, Rabin, Carter, Mandela, Gorbachev, Arafat, Kissinger and Schröder. He has written a book on the United States and was host of the National Geographic Explorer Show on German TV. In 1990 he founded OSKAR'S, a bilingual magazine promoting student exchange between the United States and Germany. 28

Dr. Pierre Comizzoli has worked as a veterinarian in French Guyana studying the seasonal reproduction of different mammalian species living in the rain forest. As an epidemiologist-ecopathologist, he has been in charge for several years of reproductive and health monitoring programs (sheep, goat and cattle) in the African Sahelian zone and Lake Chad. Dr. Comizzoli also has worked on the implementation of assisted reproductive techniques and genome resource banking in various deer species at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris. Since 2002, he has been a staff scientist at the Smithsonian's National Zoological Park responsible for ex situ and in situ conservation projects on ungulates (deer and Sahelo-Saharan antelopes) and wild felids.

Dr. Paola Deda is an architect and environmental planner by training. She completed her Ph.D. at the University of Turin, Italy and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. Before joining the United Nations in 1998, she undertook a postdoctoral year as research assistant at the University of Berkeley, California. At the UN, she has worked as Associate Expert with the Division for Sustainable Development of UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs. In 2001 she joined the UNEP Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity in Montreal, as Program Officer on sustainable use and tourism. She also covered traditional knowledge and island biodiversity. Since April 2005 she has worked as the InterAgency Liaison Officer at the UNEP CMS Secretariat in Bonn.

Kai Wollscheid holds a M.Sc. in Forestry and Game Biology from the University of Göttingen, Germany. After completing his studies in 1999, he worked for the German Development Service (GTZ) in Tibet, and at UNEP headquarters in Nairobi focusing on environmental policy and law. He continued working in Kenya for GTZ on an agricultural policy project before starting as Conservation Officer at the Federation of Associations for Hunting and Conservation (FACE) in Brussels. Since 2002, Mr. Wollscheid has been Director General of the International Council for Game and Wildlife Conservation (CIC), a politically independent advisory body aiming to preserve wild game by promoting its sustainable use. Mr. Wollscheid is also a member of the IUCN Sustainable Use Specialist Group's European and Central Asian Sub-Groups.

Dr. Colin Limpus, Senior Principal Conservation Officer, Wildlife Ecology Unit, Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service, CMS Scientific Council`s sea turtle expert.

29

David A. Balton is the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Oceans and Fisheries in the Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, U.S. Department of State. In March 2005, President Bush accorded Mr. Balton the rank of Ambassador during his tenure. Ambassador Balton previously served for 6 years as Director of the Office of Marine Conservation in the Department of State. In that capacity, he was responsible for coordinating the development of U.S. foreign policy concerning living marine resources. Ambassador Balton also worked for 12 years in the Office of the Legal Adviser in the Department of State covering such areas as the law of the sea, human rights and international claims. Ambassador Balton has negotiated numerous treaties and other international agreements on fisheries, marine mammals, and other matters pertaining to the marine environment. Ambassador Balton received his A.B. from Harvard College in 1981 and his J.D. from Georgetown University Law Center in 1985. Dr. Ramón Bonfil, is a marine ecologist and an international expert on sharks. Until recently, he worked as a conservation scientist with the Wildlife Conservation Society and is now an independent researcher and consultant. He holds an MSc in Fisheries Biology and Management from the University of North Wales, UK, and a Ph.D. in Resource Management Science from the University of British Columbia, Canada. Dr. Bonfil is a member of the Shark Specialist Group of IUCN and a scientific advisor to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Additionally, he serves in the Advisory Panel for Highly Migratory Fishes of the US National Marine Fisheries Service, and has participated in shark related work within ICCAT (International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas) and ICES (International Council for the Exploration of the Sea). His work with great white sharks has been featured in several popular magazines and TV documentaries including the BBC and National Geographic. Jennifer A. Wheeler, since 2001, has served as the international coordinator for Waterbird Conservation for the Americas, a voluntary partnership that involves agencies, organizations, and individuals committed to sustained and restored aquatic bird population and habitats. Ms. Wheeler is a generalist at heart and enjoys involvement in the many fronts of wildlife conservation work: research, education, land management, and policy. She earned an interdisciplinary Echols Scholar Degree at the University of Virginia and a Masters Degree in Sustainable Development and Conservation Biology from the University of Maryland. She is employed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Division of Migratory Bird Management, and has previously been employed as an environmental consultant to private industry and as an environmental educator in the NGO community.

Dr. Gary Allport is Senior Conservation Policy Advisor for BirdLife International. Gary worked on the conservation of wetland birds in the UK for his Ph.D. at the University of East Anglia (Norwich) and thence in both forests and wetlands in a range of countries ­ from Canada to Indonesia but mostly in Africa ­ before beginning work at the BirdLife Secretariat in 1990 on the BP Conservation Awards. He then moved on to the Africa team becoming head of the region for seven years and was subsequently head of the Pacific region for five years before leading advocacy work with European institutions. 30

Dr. Howard C. Rosenbaum is a Conservation Scientist at the Wildlife Conservation Society and a Senior Scientist with the American Museum of Natural History`s Biodiversity and Conservation Program. Dr. Rosenbaum currently directs the Natural History Museum's Cetacean Conservation and Research Program (CCRP). Dr. Rosenbaum received his Ph.D. in biology from Yale University and had been involved in marine mammal research for eighteen years. He is an adjunct faculty member with New York University and Columbia University in New York. Dr. Rosenbaum currently serves on the Scientific Committee of the International Whaling Commission, the Cetacean Specialist Group of the World Conservation Union`s Species Survival Commission (IUCN/SSC), Scientific Advisory Board of the American Cetacean Society, and is Associate Editor for the journal Marine Mammal Science. Dr. David Cottingham graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a degree in Biology in 1972, and obtained a Masters of Environmental Management from the Duke University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies. Dr. Cottingham has served several US governmental agencies including the White House Council on Environmental Quality, the Fish and Wildlife Service, and at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) where he was a senior advisor on marine mammal and endangered species policies. He moved to NOAA's Fisheries Service in 2001 where he led the marine resources section of the US delegation to CITES, and worked on fishery-marine mammal interactions. In 2002, Dr. Cottingham accepted the position as Executive Director of the Marine Mammal Commission, an independent federal agency. In 2006, he returned to NOAA Fisheries Service to continue work on marine mammal and sea turtle conservation. Robert Hepworth is the Executive Secretary of the UNEP Secretariat to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), a position he has held since 2004. Previous to his appointment to CMS, Robert worked at UNEP Headquarters in Nairobi from 2000-4 as Deputy Director for Environmental Conventions where he was instrumental in the creation of the UN Great Ape Survival Project ("GRASP"). Robert has served as Head of Global Wildlife Policy at the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (1994-2000), Chair of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (1997-2000), and government appointed Chair of an independent 1998 review of the Finnish State Environmental Agency (FEI). He also conceived and co-chaired the Partnership for Action against Wildlife Crime (PAW) in conjunction with UK police authorities and NGOs. Robert holds a First Class Honours Degree in Ancient History and Archaeology from the University of Birmingham, England. Dr. Margi Prideaux is a specialist in migratory marine species conservation policy. With over 18 years of international marine policy experience, she is currently employed as the Strategic Policy Director with the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society International (WDCS), and leads WDCS's Convention on Migratory Species (CMS) Program. She has a Ph.D. in International Relations, and has lectured on international environmental diplomacy and globalisation at the University of South Australia's School of International Studies. Dr. Prideaux has participated in the negotiation of over a dozen different international agreements. Most recently she helped draft and negotiate the CMS cetacean conservation agreement in the Pacific Islands Region in September 2006. Dr. Prideaux is strongly committed to the protection of marine species, and to the development civil society's role in international diplomacy. 31

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