Read Eco Brass Casting Properties text version

Casting C87850

Larry Muller Manager, Metallurgy and Technical Services Chase Brass & Copper Co., LLC Montpelier, OH

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C87850 Water Meter Bodies

C87850 Chemical Requirements

Major Elements Pb (%) 0.09 Cu (%) 74.0 ­ 78.0 Sn (%) 0.30 Si (%) 2.7 ­ 3.4 Ni (%) 0.20 P (%) 0.05 ­ 0.20 Mn (%) 0.10 Zn (%) Rem. Sb (%) 0.10 TOE 0.50

Residual Elements

Fe (%) 0.10

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Liquidus Temperatures (F)

1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1400 ECO BRASS C89520 C87500 C83600 Alloy C92200 C89833 C84400

1616 1680 1810 1840 1842 1850 1877

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Freezing Ranges (F)

400 300 200 100 0 ECO BRASS C92200 C87500 C89833

45 170 280 353 291 292 305

Alloy C83600 C89520 C84400

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Sand Cast Water Meter Bodies

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· Foundry: · Original alloy: · Current alloy:

Tohoku, Fukushima Japan C83600 C87850

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Background

· Reason for alloy change: · Year alloy changed: · Current total production: Pb leachate reduction from 5 ppm 1ppm 2000 Over 9 million

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Melting

· Charge materials: · Melting furnace: · Dross generation: · Fume generation: Run-around scrap, ingot, turnings High frequency crucible Less than C83600 Less than yellow brass

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Pattern Design

· Pattern shrinkage: · Pattern draft: 1.2% to 1.7% 0.5º

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Gating & Risering

· Gating ratio: · Sprue diameter: · Casting weight: 1: 2-3: 3-6 0.6" ­ 1.2" 13mm - 1.47 lb 20mm ­ 2.74 lb

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Molding Sand

· Sand type: · Binder type: No. 90-100 AFS Olivene No-bake, 8.4%

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Casting Parameters

· Liquidus temperature: · Melt temperature: · Pour start temp.: 1616º F 2100º F 1830 - 1960º F

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Gating & Risering

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Gating & Risering

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Shakeout Parameters

· Critical temperature: · Shakeout precautions: · Gate & riser removal: Controlled for C836 None Cut-off

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Machining

· % Machinability: · Coolant: · Tooling type: · Tool life: 90%-105% of C836 Machined dry Cutting ­ carbide Drilling ­ carbide, HSS 70%

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Microstructure

C87850

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C83600

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C87850 ASTM B208 Tensile Strength Results

8

frequency

6 4 2 0 58 60 62 64 66

Tensile Strength ksi

68 (X 1000.0)

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C87850 ASTM B208 Yield Strength Results

10 8 6 4 2 0 22 24 26 28 30

frequency

Yield Strength ksi

32 (X 1000.0)

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C87850 ASTM B208 Elongation Results

8

frequency

6 4 2 0 15 19 23 27 31 35

Elongation %

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C87850 ASTM B208 Brinell Hardness Results

8

frequency

6 4 2 0 99 103 107 111 115 119 123

Brinell Hardness 500kg

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Summary of Sand Casting Parameters for C87850 ·

Gating system: Non-pressurized or pressurized; suggest gating like silicon bronze Tapered sprue or reverse taper + choke Spread ingates out to prevent hot spots · Pouring temperature: · Risers: Keep it low (melting T = 1615F; suggest 1950F maximum) Use sufficient riser necks if risers are necessary at all

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Corrosion Resistance

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Phosphorus and lower zinc levels in ECO BRASS give it superior dezincification resistance.

Corrosion depth after ISO6509 dezincification test (12.7 g/l CuCl2.2H2O for 24 hrs. at 167F).

ECO BRASS

C36000

Maximum corrosion depth of C360 and C377 = 0.04" (1.0mm) while ECO BRASS is almost zero.

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Comparison of ISO 6509 test results shows ECO BRASS excellent dezincification resistance.

180 160

17 0

Corrosion Depth (m)

12 0

140 120 100 80 60

170 m = 0.0067"

Cross-hatched bars indicates dezincification occurred. Solid bars indicate there was general corrosion only.

10 0

20

40 20 0

20

15

70

0. 1

5

0. 1

0. 1

Maximum

ECO BRASS w/o P ECO BRASS Forging C87500 ECO BRASS Casting

Average

ECO BRASS Rod C83600

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ECO BRASS dezincification resistance data shown in the Turner Diagram Key to the Graph 1 2 3 4

Plug-type dezincification Layer-type dezincification Transition boundary for C385 Transition boundary for C35330 Results for ECO BRASS

Residual Chloride (ml/L)

1 2 4 3

Calcium Carbonate (mmol/L)

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Maximum corrosion depth of ECO BRASS

®

in various above and below ground environments.

Maximum Dezincification Depths (microns)

60 40 20 0

ISO6509 Sandy Soil - 9 Mo., 3.5pH 12 Months - Agitated Water Air - 9 Mo., 3.5pH 5 Months - Underground (Osaka) Clay Soil - 9 Mo., 3.5pH 12 Months - Still Water

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Water meter body performance in Japan shows comparable behavior with C836 and bismuth brass. 13mm and 20mm refer to water meter orifice size.

140

Maximum Dezincification Depth (microns)

220

C83600 ECO BRASS 74.0-78.0 0.09 max 2.7-3.4 0.05-0.20 0.30 max Rem. CAC902 84.5-90.0 0.25 max 1.0-2.5 4.0-6.0 4.0-8.0

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

100 80

100

Copper Lead Bismuth Silicon

84.0-86.0 4.0-5.7 4.3-6.0 4.3-6.0

45

50

Phos. Tin Zinc

3.8 Yr. (13mm) C83600

5.2 Yr. (20mm) ECO BRASS

7 Yr. (20mm) CAC 902

8 Yr. (13mm)

# Measured 13mm 20mm

C83600 3 0

ECO BRASS 4 8

CAC902 4 4

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Silicon, low zinc, high strength levels give ECO BRASS high stress corrosion cracking resistance.

Results of Stress Corrosion Cracking Tests

290

Hours to Appearance of Cracks

300 250 200 150 100 50 0

ECO BRASS

No cracks

ASTM G37 NH4SO4 + CuSO4-5H2O + NH4OH 68F, 1500 kgf torque

4

4

C360 Hex Rod

C377 Hex Rod

ECO BRASS

C360 Hex Rod

C377 Hex Rod

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09M-0408

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Permanent Mold Cast Water Meters

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· 13mm: · 13mm production: · 20mm: · 20mm production:

High Pressure Die Cast 500,000 Low Pressure Permanent Mold 50,000

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Equipment

Mold

Spout

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Equipment

C17510 Mold Interior

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Pour Spout

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Sand Core

· Silica sand with phenolic resin binder

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Casting Parameters

Temperatures (F) Liquidus Solidus Casting Mold

1616 1571 1830 250

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Information

Eco Brass Casting Properties

36 pages

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