Read T295.TMP text version

NECROPOLIS WITH STEAK TOMBSTONES Radimlja near Stolac Bosnia and Herzegovina

INTEGRATED REHABILITATION PROJECT PLAN / SURVEY ON THE ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE (IRPP/SAAH)

Regional Programme for Cultural and Natural Heritage in South East Europe 2003 - 2006

PRELIMINARY TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ARCHITECTURAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL HERITAGE IN SOUTH EAST EUROPE

Document adopted by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, Sarajevo, on 10 November 2005

NECROPOLIS WITH STEAK TOMBSTONES Radimlja near Stolac Bosnia and Herzegovina

FOREWORD

In the framework of the European Commission/Council of Europe Joint Programme on the Integrated Rehabilitation Project Plan /Survey on the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage (IRPP/SAAH), the present Preliminary Technical Assessment (PTA) for the Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones, Radimlja near Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, was prepared by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments associates: Mr. Mirzah Foco, Ms. Amra Saranci and external associates: Mr. Mustafa Humo, Mr Salko Kulukcija and Ms. Nermina Mujezinovi, headed by Ms.Mirela Mulali Handan, Project Co-ordinator, in co-operation with the PTA expert group: Leader Dr. John Bold (United Kingdom); Experts: Ms. Emma Carmichael (United Kingdom), Mr. Giorgio Gianighian (Italy), Mr. Andreas Heymowski (Sweden), Mr. David Johnson (United Kingdom), Mr. Pedro Ponce de Leon (Spain), Mr. Alkis Prepis (Greece). The Preliminary Technical Assessment (PTA) was adopted on 10 November 2005 by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments at the 23rd session held from 8 to 14 November 2005 by following members: Amra Hadzimuhamedovi, architect, historian of architecture; Dubravko Lovrenovi, historian; Ljiljana Sevo historian of art; Zeynep Ahunbay, architect and Tina Wik, architect

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 1 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

1.

Introductory page

Site map 1.1. Country/Territory: 1.2. Name of organisation compiling the information: 1.3. Contact name: 1.4. Email address: 1.5. Name and address of bulding(s) or site: 1.6. Inventory reference number(s): 1.7. Monument/Site type(s): 1.8. Main date(s): 1.9. Current use(s):

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones Bosnia and Herzegovina Commission to Preserve National Monuments Mirela Mulali Handan [email protected] The Historical Site of the Necropolis with Steak Tombstones, Radimlja near Stolac Decision for designation of national monument No.: 01-275/02 Sepulchral architecture ­ historical site Date: 15th century Tourism

2.

Executive Summary: the site and its management The Necropolis near Stolac, comprising a large number of medieval, monolithic (`stecak') tombstones, diverse in form and high in artistic quality, is one of the most important medieval monuments in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is recommended that conservation and restoration, together with the removal of neighbouring, extraneous, later structures would greatly enhance the overall cultural profile of the Stolac region, with a consequent beneficial impact on tourism. Before the 1992-1995 war, the Stolac region and the town of Stolac was one of Bosnia and Herzegovina's most attractive tourist destinations, not only in the south east but in Herzegovina as a whole, with local and a significant number of foreign visitors. The geographical location of Stolac made it readily accessible from other, more important regional tourist destinations ­ Dubrovnik, Neum and Mostar. The area boasts several examples of different types of monument of considerable cultural and historical value, and provides a snapshot of the historical complexity of the Stolac region and of the town itself. All these monuments are currently in a state of neglect. Some very important archaeological monuments for the whole of Bosnia and Herzegovina are in the Stolac region. The number of monuments, the diversity and representation of all the basic steak shapes, the relatively high artistic quality of the work, the wealth of decorative elements, relief carvings and epitaphs referring to known historical persons, as well as its unusual site and accessibility, are

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 November 2005

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 2 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

the reasons why the necropolis with steak1 tombstones of Radimlja is one of the most valuable mediaeval monuments in BiH. The site is in jeopardy from the construction of building in the immediate vicinity. It is also at risk of rapid deterioration as a result of lack of maintenance and failure to implement even minimal protection measures. The conservation and rehabilitation of the necropolis will lead to the promotion of its significance as a monument of outstanding value. The long-term protection and presentation of the cultural, historical and natural heritage of the Stolac Municipality will create the conditions for sustainable development not only of the municipality itself, but of the region as a whole. 3. Administrative information 3.1. Responsible Authorities Authorities responsible for issuing decisions on and implementing preservation of national monuments, as well as for the execution of the rehabilitation works, are as follows: · The Commission to Preserve National Monuments has designated The Historical Site of the Necropolis with Steak Tombstones, Radimlja near Stolac as National Monuments of BiH, decision no. 01-275/02; applying the Criteria for Designation of National Monuments (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02). · The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve, display and rehabilitate the National Monument. The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina shall be responsible for providing the resources for drawing up and implementing the necessary technical documentation for the conservation and restoration of the National Monument. · The Ministry of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina responsible for urban planning shall give the approval for the restoration and conservation works, under the expert supervision of the responsible heritage protection authority. · Authorities and institutions at all levels of governance shall collaborate with the Commission on issues of significance for the work of the Commission. · Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the entities, cantons, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation and rehabilitation, including owners. · Pursuant to the Standing Rules of the Presidency of BiH (Official Gazette of BiH no. 29/02) based upon the Law on the procedure to sign and execute international contracts (Official Gazette of BiH no. 29/00), the Commission to Preserve National Monuments is authorised to perform activities of international cooperation in the field of cultural-historical heritage protection.

1

STEAK ­ a mediaeval monolithic tombstone, featuring in large numbers in Bosnia and Herzegovina in particular, although some are also to be found in the surrounding regions over which the kings and feudals of Bosnia extended their rule or where people originating from Bosnia and Hum lived ­ Croatia (particularly in Dalmatia), Montenegro and Serbia. The first reliably known stecci (plural of steak) date from the late 12th century (Grdo of Trebinje). The late mediaeval period ­ 14th-15th century ­ at a time when feudalism was well advanced in this part of the world, saw the acme of the steak as tombstone. Some tens of thousands of them are believed to have survived, mainly grouped in burial grounds in rows; these sites are of varying size, ranging from five to 700 tombstones. They are often located alongside monuments of earlier times, particularly alongside places of religious significance (tumuli, crkvina [sites of early mediaeval or late antique churches] and burial grounds). Many necropolises of steak tombstones had a church, and later mezarja (Muslim burial grounds), Christian churches and cemeteries took shape alongside them. The basic shapes of steak tombstones are slab, chest, tall chest, sarcophagus and, last of all, steles, nisans (Muslim tombstones) and slabs with an upright cross. The various shapes feature in different proportions from area to area. A large number of steak tombstones are decorated in bas relief or carving, taking the form of geometric, architectural, foliar/floral and zoomorphic designs, symbolic and heraldic features, representations of weapons and figural scenes. The decorations are often to be found in almost endless combinations and variants. Thus far, some 400 epitaphs in Bosnian Cyrillic have been deciphered on these tombstones. The forms and decorations of steak tombstones betray a blend of entrenched traditions and contemporary influences of various origins, from late antiquity to Romanesque and Gothic styles and designs.

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 November 2005

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 3 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.2. Building/Site, Name and Address, Map reference Name: The Historical Site of the Necropolis with Steak Tombstones, Radimlja near Stolac Administrative location: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Stolac Municipality Description of location: The Radimlja necropolis is located in Vidovo polje, 3 km west of Stolac, on the Capljina to Stolac road. Cadastral reference/land unit: 394/9, 363/19, 394/2, 394/174, 395, 396, 397, 363/8, 363/22, 363/23, 363/24, 363/25, 363/26, 693/1, 374/1, Municipality Stolac, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. 3.3. Map references: Stolac, municipality Stolac, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe. Latitude 43.08° N, Longitude 17.96° E. 3.4. Type of monument Historical site of the necropolis - 15th and 16th century. 3.5. Ownership Ownership: State property Occupation: Graveyard Current use(s): Former touristic site, presently not in use 3.6. Statutory Protection/Constraints Pursuant to the provisions of the law, and by ruling of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments, no. 7142-67 dated 22 December 1967 in Mostar, the necropolis of Radimlja near Stolac, on the site known as "Stara Grobnica", a mediaeval necropolis, was accorded protected status as a cultural monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the same year it was entered in the register of monuments under two numbers: no. 70 ­ the Mostar Institute, and no. 536 ­ the Institute for the Protection of Culture of the People's Republic of BiH. The historic site of the necropolis of Radimlja near Stolac was entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo on 22 July 1997. Listed: At the 5th Session of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments (held from 5th till 11th of November 2002.) a decision to designate the historic site of the necropolis of stecci at Radimlja near Stolac as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina was adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadzimuhamedovi, Dubravko Lovrenovi, Ljiljana Sevo and Tina Wik. (Official gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina No. 12/03.) The provisions relating to protection and rehabilitation measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of B&H nos. 2/02 and 27/02) shall apply to the National Monument

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 November 2005

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 4 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

For the purpose of preserving the National Monument statutory protection measures defined by the Decision for the designation of the historical site of the necropolis with steak tombstones, Radimlja near Stolac, as a National Monument are: · Protection zone 1 covers cadastral plots 394/9 and 363/19: · all construction is prohibited; · any works other than those carried out for the conservation and presentation of the tombstones is prohibited; · all agricultural activities are prohibited; · Protection zone 1 should be surrounded by a hedge. Within this zone the restaurant and pergola in the south-western sector of cadastral plot 394/9 may be restored to its condition prior to demolition. · Protection zone 2 comprises cadastral plots 394/2, 394/174, 395, 396, 397, 363/8, 363/22, 363/23, 363/24, 363/25, 363/26, 693/1, 374/1: · construction is prohibited; · all construction and infrastructural works are prohibited; · Within protected zone 2, agricultural works shall be permitted (vineyards are recommended) subject to the preservation of existing vegetation (the group of cypresses on cadastral plot 394/2). · Protected zone 3 includes a protective zone of at least 2 km from the outer boundary of protected zone 1. The construction of buildings of no more than two storeys and maximum dimensions of 12 x 12 m is permitted. The construction of industrial buildings and facilities, major infrastructural facilities, quarries or the siting of potential environmental polluters is prohibited. 4. Summary of condition 4.1. Summary of Physical Condition Very poor: · Rapid deterioration of steak tombstones as a result of lack of maintenance and failure to implement even minimal protection measures; · Current condition of the steak tombstones: · All the tombstones (100%) in the necropolis are to a greater or lesser extent affected by biological agents; · 70% of the steaks have microfractures and minor cracks; · 30% of the steaks are damaged by fissures, cracks and fractures; · 30% of the steaks are at risk from damage in the form of "crystalline" cracking of the stone; · 40% of the tombstones are affected by other types of damage to the stone surface (missing terminal parts, caused by the above damage or by human factors). · The site is in jeopardy from the construction of building in the immediate vicinity; · Environs: A large rubbish dump is located in the immediate vicinity of the site and represents a threat to the area. Amount of war or associated damage: 0 None 4.2. Condition Risk Assessment Immediate risk of further rapid deterioration of the steak tombstones because of lack of maintenance and traffic in the vicinity.

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 November 2005

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 5 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

4.3. Priority for intervention High 5. Existing information 5.1. Documentary sources The main documentary sources for the necropolis with steak tombstones Radimlja are libraries, the register of the Institute for the Protection of Monuments FBiH and the register of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments. There are several published books that relate to the necropolis with steak tombstones Radimlja, or the necropolis in general, in which it is possible to find a description, photographs and historical data of the Monument, and description of the interventions that have been, over time, carried out on the necropolis. The register of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments is placed in the Office of the Commission and is available to all interested parties. It contains the following: · The decision on the designation of the historical monument of the necropolis with steak tombstones Radimlja as a National Monument, with a description of the location, historical information of site, a detailed description of the site and steaktombstones, information on legal status to date, research, conservation and restoration works and information on the current state of the property; · Documentation on the location and current owner and user of the property (copy of cadastral plan); · Data on the previous condition and use of the property, including drawings, description and photographs, data of war damage, data on previous restoration or other works on the property, etc. · Situation plan of the wider area, · Photographs on the present condition of the necropolis, · Paper on the findings of a study of the causes of damage and examination of the potential for protecting the stone steaks in Radimlja near Stolac, Belgrade, 1986, Institute for the Examination of Materials of SR Serbia, Centre for Stone and Ceramic Building Wares · Study report of the working group on the site of Radmilja near Stolac ­ principles of integrated protection · Report by Esad Veskovi MSc " Proposal for the repair and conservation of the stone steak tombstones in the Radimlja necropolis near Stolac, Sarajevo 2005. 5.2. Bibliography 1950. 1953. 1962. 1962. A. Benac, Radimlja. Sarajevo B. Hrabak, Prilog datovanju hercegovackih steaka (Supplement to the dating of the stecci of Herzegovina). Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja (Journal of the National Museum), n.s. Vol. VIII/1953, Sarajevo, 325-328 M. Vego, Zbornik srednjovjekovnih natpisa BiH (Anthology of medieval inscriptions in BiH), I. Sarajevo, 1962, 64-71, no. 42-46 (with relevant bibliography) A. Zelenika, Prilozi za proucavanje srednjovjekovnih nekropola steaka na Radimlji i Osanikoj Gorici kod Stoca (Contributions to the study of mediaeval tombstone necropolises at Radimlja and Osanika Gorica near Stolac). Nase starine (Our Antiquities) VIII/1962, Sarajevo, 172-174 M. Wenzel, Ukrasni motivi na stecima (Decorative motifs on tombstones). Sarajevo, 1964 P.Andeli, Doba srednjovjekovne bosanske drzave, Kulturna istorija Bosne i Hercegovine od najstarijih vremena do pada ovih zemalja pod osmansku vlast (The mediaeval Bosnian State, Cultural History of Bosnia and Herzegovina from ancient times to the beginning of Ottoman rule) Sarajevo, 1984, pp. 345-587.

10 November 2005

1964. 1984.

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 6 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

5.3. Fieldwork already conducted During the procedure for the designation of the property as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina in October 2002, experts from the Commission to Preserve National Monuments inspected the Monument, determined its condition, and drew up a technical assessment on the restoration/rehabilitation of the structure. During the process of completing the PTA form in July 2005, experts from the Commission to Preserve National Monuments inspected the site and updated information relating to the condition of the site. 5.4. Project in progress None. 5.5. Project already planned None. 5.6. Financial estimates already made None. 6. Scope of PTA 6.1. Extent/Nature of assessment Architect ­ expert, Jasna Burnazovi, associate for archaeology of the Secretariat to the Commission, needed fifteen days to collect all necessary data and prepare the draft decision on the designation of the property as a National Monument (a report). Members of the Commission, Zeynep Ahunbay ­ architect, Amra Hadzimuhamedovi ­ architect, Dubravko Lovrenovi ­ historian, Ljiljana Sevo ­ art historian and Tina Wik ­ architect, adopted a decision on the designation of the historical site of the necropolis with steak tombstones, Radimlja near Stolac, as a National Monument. Members of the Commission, Amra Hadzimuhamedovi, Dubravko Lovrenovi and Ljiljana Sevo are local experts while Zeynep Ahunbay and Tina Wik are international experts. It took 10 days for Jasna Burnazovi associate for archaeology, Orjana Lenasi, associate for ensembles, historical, urban and cultural landscapes and Esad Veskovi, stone conservator external associates to complete the PTA form. Esad Veskovi MSc, stone conservator, external associate of the Commission, made the report "Proposal for the repair and conservation of the stone steak tombstones in the Radimlja necropolis near Stolac. All the associates who collected the date, drafted the decision and completed the form are local experts. 6.2. Limitations of the study None.

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 November 2005

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 7 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.

PTA 7.1. Background 7.1.1. Summary description of the site The historic site of the necropolis of steak tombstones of Radimlja near Stolac is located in Vidovo polje, 3 km west of Stolac, on the Capljina-Stolac road. The necropolis is on flat ground that slopes gently down towards a river on the west. It covers an area of 60 x 50 m. It consists of 133 steak tombstones. The majority of the steak tombstones date from the 15th and 16th century. The Capljina-Stolac road runs through the necropolis, leaving 11 tombstones to the north of the road and the remainder to the south. Some 20 tombstones were probably destroyed when the road was built. The monuments of this necropolis lie north-west/south-east. A total of 63 are decorated in bas relief, engraving, or a combination of the two. The finest decorated examples are gabled tombstones and tall chest-shaped tombstones. There are epitaphs on five tombstones referring to the Hrabren Miloradovi family. The Radimlja necropolis is one of the most valuable monuments of the mediaeval period in Bosnia and Herzegovina. After the 1992-1995 war, four commercial facilities were erected in the immediate vicinity of the necropolis. In use, dimension and appearance these are detrimental to the integrity of the site. They stand to the north-east of the necropolis, about 50-100 m from the steak tombstones. At the same time, to the north of the necropolis a car-wash was built. Both environmentally and in terms of architecture, this poses a threat to the necropolis itself. There is also a newly-opened garbage dump by the Radimlja brook which is seriously detrimental to the natural environment - an inseparable element of the site. In 2005, a memorial was erected to the south-east of the necropolis on the Capljina-Stolac road in the area in which building is prohibited. All these structures are within the protected zone of the necropolis and do not conform to the protection provisions set forth in the Decision to designate the Historical Site of the Necropolis with Steak Tombstones, Radimlja near Stolac as a National Monument. All new structures were built in accordance with the "Urban plan of Gorica 2", adopted in 1997, by the Stolac Municipality. To the north-west, right by the necropolis is a restaurant in a delapidated state which was built and in use prior to the 1992-1995 war. 7.1.2. Summary historic development of building/site Most of the tombstones of the type known as stecci (sing. steak) date from the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The most reliable evidence of the date of origin is an epitaph on one of the stecci, which suggests that the necropolis dates to the time when the HrabrenMiloradovi family lived in Batnoge or Osanii. Radoje, brother of Duke Petar, sons of Duke Stipan, is buried beneath the tombstone. The names of Duke Stipan and Petar Miloradovi are inscribed on the judge's seat outside the church in Osanii, providing a close link between the necropolis and this family, which used to live here in the fifteenth century, according to historical evidence and the inscription on the entrance to Osanii church. The many Illyrian tumuli in the immediate vicinity are evidence of the perpetuation of the tradition of burials near old graves and of the continuity of burials. Chronology of the history of the site:

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 November 2005

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 8 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

1. When the Capljina-Stolac road was built in the Austro-Hungarian period, it cut through the necropolis, leaving eleven stecci to the north of the road and the remainder to the south. The assumption is that twenty stecci were destroyed on that occasion and used to tarmac the road. 2. In the late 1940s A. Benac took archaeological soundings. 3. in the late 1950s A. Zelenika, an archeologist from the Regional Institute for the Protection of Monuments in Mostar, conducted minor archeological research. 4. Pursuant to the provisions of the law and by ruling of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments, no. 7142-67 dated 22 December 1967 in Mostar, the necropolis of Radimlja near Stolac, on the site known as "Stara Grobnica", a mediaeval necropolis, was accorded protected status as a cultural monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the same year it was entered in the register of monuments under two numbers: no. 70 ­ the Mostar Institute, and no. 536 ­ the Institute for the Protection of Culture of the People's Republic of BiH. 5. in the late 1960s the necropolis was set in order under the supervision of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of SR BiH. The cemetery area was cleared of vegetation and a hedge and line of cypresses were planted. 6. In the late 1980s the Restoration Institute of Croatia cleaned and carried out the chemical protection of the whole necropolis under the supervision of the Institute for the Protection of the Cultural, Historical and Natural Heritage of BiH. 7. During the 1992-1995 war a prefabricated café-restaurant was burned down. Since the war, the site is in jeopardy because of the construction of buildings in the immediate vicinity. Environs: A large rubbish dump is located in the immediate vicinity of the site and represents a threat to the area. 8. The historic site of the necropolis of Radimlja near Stolac was entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo on 22 July 1997. 7.2. Significance Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a National Monument, adopted at the fourth session of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments (3 to 9 September 2002), the Commission has enacted the Decision. 7.2.1. Summary statement of significance/historical and heritage importance The number of monuments, the diversity and representativity of all the basic steak shapes, the relatively high artistic quality of the work, the wealth of decorative elements, relief carvings and epitaphs referring to known historical persons, as well as its unusual site and accessibility, are the reasons why the necropolis of Radimlja is one of the most valuable mediaeval monuments in BiH. 7.2.2. Historical 3 (high) 7.2.3. Artistic/Aesthetic 3 (high) 7.2.4. Technological 2 (medium) 7.2.5. Religious/Spiritual 2 (medium)

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 November 2005

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 9 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

7.2.6. Symbolic/Identity 3 (high) 7.2.7. Scientific/Research 3 (high) 7.2.8. Social/Civic 2 (medium) 7.2.9. Natural 3 (high) 7.2.10. Economic 2 (medium) 7.2.11. Category of significance: Of outstanding international and national importance. 7.3. Vulnerability The historical site of the necropolis with steak tombstones Radimlja is either directly or indirectly endangered by the following: · Neglect and inadequate maintenance, · Lack of financial resources for maintenance and repair, · Inadequate planning followed by economic development which ignores the existence of the site, and poor integration of the heritage into development plans. · Factors causing the deterioration of individual tombstones: Active factors: · Climate: water, frost, thermal changes, damp-drought; · Physical agents causing deterioration: pollution, salts, human beings; · Chemical agents causing deterioration: oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide (SO2 and SO3); · Biological agents causing deterioration: algae, fungi, lichens, moss, larger vegetation. Passive factors: · Petrographic characteristics of the stone · Position of the tombstones ­ condition in relation to external factors 7.4. Technical condition All the tombstones in the necropolis are affected to a greater or lesser extent by biological agents: - Algae feature in symbiosis with soot and other contaminants and impurities, taking the appearance of dark deposits on the stone surface. - Lichens are particularly damaging to the stone and are hard to remove. - Moss is present to a much lesser extent than algae and lichens, and appears in larger cracks and hollows. 70% of the steaks have microfractures and minor cracks (less than 1mm to several mm). This damage is caused by the action of the factors listed above, and is the first stage in the visible degradation of the stone. Failure to make the necessary repairs could lead to much more serious damage to the stone surfaces. 30% of the steaks are damaged by fissures, fractures and cracks, which provide ideal conditions for further damage caused by water (ice) retention and plant growths.

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 November 2005

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 10 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

30% of the steaks are at risk of damage in the form of "crystalline" cracking of the stone. This is one of the most serious forms of damage. The smallest pressure can cause breakage, with entire pieces of these tombstones falling away. 40% of the tombstones have other types of damage to the stone surfaces. This includes steaks where some of the terminal parts are missing as a result of the damage described above or of human factors. It is possible that some damage was caused when these tombstones were restored. 7.5. Outline summary of required repairs To amend this situation, the following actions set in four phases have been recommended: Stage 1: Composition of a study on the execution of conservation, restoration and protection works. Stage 2: comprises conservation and restoration works · Removal of damaging bio-factors with the use of appropriate substances and products, and preventing their reappearance. · Removal of contaminants and impurities caused by other damaging agents, primarily chemical. · Removal of old, out-dated interventions from the stone surfaces, · Introduction of new lead stoppings, where there is major damage ­ cracks, fissures and hollows ­ using appropriate materials (epoxy-resins and the like). · Injection, deep impregnation and consolidation of minor cracks and microfractures and of places where there is "crystalline" cracking of the stone. In this case the procedure would be repeated until the desired effect is attained. Here too products based on silicon solutions could be used. · Conservation and protection of the stone surfaces, in order to provide adequate hydrophobic protection of cracks using certain substances (e.g. silicon solutions). · Composition of a report on the works carried out, including all necessary documentation and photo-documentation. Stage 3: comprises other works in accordance with the protective measures defined by the Decision: · Removal of four structures to the north-east of the necropolis; · Removal of the car wash facility; · Relocation of the existing garbage dump; · Relocation of the memorial; · Reconstruction of the restaurant building. Stage 4: works on the presentation of the necropolis: Making good the approaches to the necropolis and its immediate surroundings: · Rehabilitation of the natural surroundings of the necropolis; · Planting a surrounding hedge. Long term objective Relocation of the Capljina-Stolac road 7.6. Conservation/rehabilitation policy and proposals 7.6.1. Broad summary of the vision for the site, and its sustainability, at this preliminary stage The aim of the project is to promote and enhance the tourist attraction of Stolac, a region with a rich cultural, historical and natural heritage. The creation of good tourist routes and access roads, the indication of routes and the installation of signposts to facilitate access, and notice boards giving basic details of each of the monuments, will be a major contribution to the promotion of the heritage as a tourist attraction of Stolac and environs, and thereby its inclusion in development trends of the

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 November 2005

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 11 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Herzegovina region as a whole. This approach would ensure that Stolac is more effectively incorporated into sustainable development trends and the increasingly evident tendency towards development in BiH. The overall aim is the integration of the Radimlja site into the development programme of Stolac, primarily tourism. The specific objectives are: - the development of a strategic plan for the sustainable use of the heritage for the purposes of tourism; - to contribute to the systematic, long-term protection, presentation and revitalization of the cultural, historical and natural heritage of Stolac Municipality ­ a contribution to protecting the built heritage from further deterioration; - a contribution to the sustainable development of Stolac Municipality and the region as a whole. 7.6.2. Conservation philosophy Over the past few decades, the deterioration of the steak tombstones in the Radimlja necropolis near Stolac has visibly accelerated. The changes are the result of various factors, each of which gives rise to certain changes to the stone. The effects of individual factors are very similar and frequently overlap, thus making it more difficult to identify the actual cause of deterioration of the stone surface. Proper diagnosis of the true cause will ensure that the conservation procedure that follows will be of high quality. The long term objective is the removal of the road and the construction of a new section of road to exit the necropolis, and the ridding of the site of all post-war buildings. This will ensure the return to the original perimeter of the necropolis. Within 5-10 years increasing traffic will force the enlargement of the road and this would be the appropriate time to move it. 7.6.3. Level of interventions The levels of interventions can be defined as follows: 1. preparation of documentation ­ composition of a study on the execution of conservation, restoration and protection works, 2. interventions to the monument ­ conservation and restoration works on individual tombstones, 3. other works pursuant to the provisions of the Decision to designate Radimlja as a National Monument, 4. Works on the presentation of the necropolis ­ making good the surroundings and approaches. 7.6.4. Preliminary proposals for appropriate uses The historic site of the Radimlja necropolis may be used solely for educational, scientific and research, cultural and tourist purposes which will not jeopardize the integrity of the necropolis. 7.6.5. Opportunities for social uses and sustainable development The conservation and rehabilitation of the necropolis will lead to the promotion of its significance as a monument of outstanding value, and encourage the development of cultural tourism. 7.6.7. Public access It is necessary to prepare a Programme of development of tourism in the Municipality and the region, and to incorporate this and other monuments into the Programme. In this way the necropolis and its significance would be brought closer to the public. In order to

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 November 2005

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 12 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

include the necropolis on the future tourist route, it is necessary to repair the access road and to place road signs and information boards. The sale of appropriate souvenirs and booklets would supplement the funds set aside for the maintenance of the necropolis. 7.6.8. Other benefits Benefits from the conservation of the necropolis, in relation to the community, are the promotion of culture by means of tourism and the preservation of the landscape. 7.7. Finance 7.7.1. Broad assessment of budgetary need and phasing Broad assessment of budgetary need is estimated based on prior experience and current prices. Stage 1 Composition of a study on the execution of conservation, restoration and protection works 17.900 EUR Composition of a study on the execution of conservation, restoration and protection works Stage 2 Comprises conservation and restoration works Removal of damaging bio-factors Removal of contaminants and impurities Removal of old, out-dated interventions from stone surfaces Introduction of new lead stoppings Conservation and protection of stone surfaces Injection, deep impregnation and consolidation of minor cracks Composition of a report on the works carried out, including all necessary documentation and photo-documentation TOTAL Stage 3 Other works according to protective measures defined by the Decision Removal of 4 structures north-east of the necropolis: - demolition of buildings - loading and removal of building materials to town dump Removal of car-wash facility: - demolition of facility - loading and removal of building materials to town dump Relocation of existing garbage dump Relocation of monument to the victims of Bleiburg Reconstruction of restaurant building: - clearing and removal of building materials to town dump - reconstruction of the building - provision of good access to the building TOTAL Stage 4 Making approaches to the necropolis and its immediate surroundings Rehabilitation of the natural surroundings of the necropolis Planting a surrounding hedge TOTAL

7.700 EUR 5.100EUR 2.600 EUR 5.100EUR 15.400 EUR 7.700EUR 5.100 EUR 48.700EUR

219.500 EUR

2.800 EUR

1.100 EUR 5.100 EUR 93.100 EUR

321.600 EUR

10.300EUR 10.200EUR 20.500 EUR

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 November 2005

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 13 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 TOTAL

17.900 EUR 48.700 EUR 321.600EUR 20.500 EUR 408.700 EUR

Long term objective Construction of part of the Capljina-Stolac road to replace the one cutting through the necropolis 380.000 EUR Construction of the road 7.7.2. Assessment of possibilities for attracting investments · · · · · Direct access ­ a main road runs through the area; Easy access to the site for the disabled; The pre-war restaurant very close to the necropolis, currently in a delapidated condition, was very popular. All the necessary infrastructure exist on the site and only require repair; The proximity of other archaeological and cultural-historical monuments and sites of Stolac and the nearby towns of Mostar, Pocitelj, Neum, Trebinje, Dubrovnik; The proximity of the sea.

7.7.3. Assessment of possibilities for recovering investments Assessment of possibilities for recovering investments is known - important tourist attraction, 7.7.4. Have you already tried to raise funds for this site or monument? In 2003, the Commission to Preserve National Monuments launched a Campaign to protect the heritage at risk of BiH, and the Radimlja necropolis was marked as a priority. Through public presentations, exhibitions, workshops, etc., the Commission has drawn the attention of the public, as well as competent BiH and European institutions, to the importance and dangers to which the Radimlja necropolis has been exposed and the need for its repair. 7.7.5. Have you already received funds for this site or monument? The Government of Federation BiH within «Transfer for Cultural Heritage» granted 20,000 KM for drawing up a Programme for Protection; the Federal Ministry for Culture is responsible for its implementation; marking of one protection zone is to be implemented; 7.8. Management It is state-owned, and the relevant authorities for all works on Monument, as set forth in the Decision of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, are the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Ministry responsible for regional planning in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. All these authorities are a guarantee that conservation and restoration works will be carried out in the most appropriate manner. The sustainability of the necropolis largely depends on public and institutional awareness of the significance of the necropolis and development of the town. Management layout: · The Commission to Preserve National Monuments is responsible for drafting the protection measures of the National Monument. · The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the relevant Ministry are responsible for issuing approval for rehabilitation.

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 November 2005

Preliminary Technical Assessment of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage in South East Europe 14 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________

· 8.

A team of experts for protection is responsible for the implementation of the restoration and conservation works.

Documentation PTA is supported by photographs, plan of the necropolis and the location map.

PTA carried out by: Commission to Preserve National Monuments Local experts: Jasna Burnazovi, Associate for Archaeology, Orjana Lenasi, Associate for Ensembles, Historical, Urban and Cultural Landscapes, Esad Veskovi, Stone Conservator, headed by Mirela Mulali Handan, Project Coordinator, Sarajevo, 31st of August 2005.

__________________________________________________________________________

Necropolis with Stecak Tombstones ­ Radimlja near Stolac ­ Bosnia and Herzegovina 10 November 2005

Information

T295.TMP

20 pages

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

831802


You might also be interested in

BETA
T295.TMP