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qarTuli enis flobis doneebis aRweriloba

REFERENCE LEVEL DESCRIPTION FOR THE GEORGIAN LANGUAGE

A1 · A2 · B1 · B2

Tbilisi Tbilisi 2006

naSromi Sesrulda saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministrosa da evropis sabWos erToblivi proeqtis farglebSi

proeqtis xelmZRvaneli redaqtorebi:

profesori marika oZeli profesori kaxa gabunia profesori vladimer kikilaSvili

proeqtze muSaobdnen: nino nakudaSvili, Wabuki qiria, nino SaraSeniZe, salome SaraSeniZe, lela wiqariSvili

dizaineri mariam kalandaZe

wigni gamoica evropis sabWos finansuri mxardaWeriT

Sinaarsi

Sesavali ......................................................................................................................................................... 1 naSromis zogadi daxasiaTeba ........................................................................................ 1.1 koncefcia ............................................................................................................................................. 1.2 enis flobis doneebis zogadevropuli sistema ..................................... 1.3 enis komunikaciuri swavlebis miznebi ................................................................. 5 ÛÛ 9Û 9 12 17

2 komunikaciuri kompetenciebi zrdasruli SemswavlelebisaTvis ...................................................................................................................... 18 2.1 sametyvelo qmedebebi (A1 - B2) ........................................................................................ 18 2.2 zogadi cnebebi (A1 - B2) ........................................................................................................ 51 2.3 Tematuri leqsika (A1 - B2) ............................................................................................... 82 2.4 kulturuli aspeqti (A1 - B2) ........................................................................................... 149 3 komunikaciuri kompetenciebi mozardis SemswavlelebisaTvis ...................................................................................................................... 165 4 teqstis ti pebi ............................................................................................................................... 4.1 wakiTxva ................................................................................................................................................. 4.2 audireba ............................................................................................................................................... 4.3 wera ............................................................................................................................................................ 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 strategiebi ........................................................................................................................................ sakompensacio saSualebebi ............................................................................................... swavlis swavleba ...................................................................................................................... urTierTobis taqtika ............................................................................................................ 212 212 213 214 215 215 217 218

6 qarTuli enis flobis doneebis nimuSi ............................................................ 225 6.1 audireba (A1 - B2) ......................................................................................................................... 225 6.2 wakiTxva (A1 - B2) .......................................................................................................................... 228 6.3 dialogi (A1 - B2) ........................................................................................................................... 231 6.4 monologi (A1 - B2) ...................................................................................................................... 234 6.5 wera (A1 - B2) ...................................................................................................................................... 237 7 qarTuli enis fonetikisa da gramatikis konspeqturi aRweriloba ........................................................................................................... 7.1 fonetika ............................................................................................................................................... 7.2 morfologia ................................................................................................................................... 7.3 sintaqsi ..................................................................................................................................................

241 242 243 255

reziume inglisur enaze .............................................................................................................. 260

CONTENTS

5 1. General Description of the Work .......................................................................... 9 1.1 Conception .......................................................................................................... 9 1.2 Common European Reference Levels ................................................................... 12 1.3 Communicative Aims of Teaching Languages ........................................................ 17 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Communicative Competences for Adult Lerners ................................................... 18 Speech Acts (A1 - B2) ........................................................................................ 18 General Notions (A1 - B2) .................................................................................. 51 Thematic Vocabulary (A1 - B2) ........................................................................... 82 Cultural Aspect (A1 - B2) .................................................................................... 149 Communicative Competences for Schoolchildren .................................................. 165 Types of Texts ..................................................................................................... Reading ............................................................................................................... Listening .............................................................................................................. Writing ................................................................................................................. Strategies ............................................................................................................. The Means of Compensation ................................................................................ Teaching How to Learn ........................................................................................ Tactics of Communication ..................................................................................... Samples of Reference levels for Georgian ............................................................. Listening (A1 - B2) .............................................................................................. Reading (A1 - B2) ............................................................................................... Spoken Interaction (A1 - B2) ............................................................................... Spoken Production (A1 - B2) .............................................................................. Writing (A1 - B2) ................................................................................................. 212 212 213 214 215 215 217 218 225 225 228 231 234 237

Foreword by Prof. Marika Odzeli .............................................................................

7 Brief Description of the Phonetics and Grammar of the Georgian Language ............ 241 7.1 Phonetics ............................................................................................................. 242 7.2 Morphology ......................................................................................................... 243 7.2 Syntax ................................................................................................................ Summary ...................................................................................................................... 255 260

ra ena waxdes, eric daeces grigol orbeliani

Sesavali

amieridan mravalenovani evropis enobriv standartebs Seemateba qarTuli enis flobis doneebis aRweriloba A1; A2; B1; B2. sxvadasxva enis flobis doneebis aRwerilobaTa matebas didi wvlili Seaqvs evropis sabWos enis politikis Semdgom warmarTvaSi, romelic pirvelyovlisa mimarTulia evropis mosaxleobis Tavisufali gadaadgilebisa da urTierTgagebisaken. enobrivi standartebi evropis kontinentze ganfenil enobriv da kulturul mravalferovnebaSi SeRwevis saSualebas aZlevs da ucxoerovnul garemoSi adaptaciis process uadvilebs mosaxleobis yvela fenas. qarTuli enis standartis Seqmnis aucilebloba Tanamedrove moTxovnebma ganapiroba. vimedovnebT, rom igi xels Seuwyobs TanamSromlobis gafarToebas saqarTvelosa da evropis sxva qveynebs Soris. qarTuli enis standarti mniSvnelovan pirobas warmoadgens erT saerTo aRwerilobaze orientirebisaTvis, vinaidan igi saswavlo process erTian mimarTulebas miscems rogorc CvenSi, aseve ucxoeTSi. cxovrebiseul mizans enis Seswavla ki ar warmoadgens, aramed misi gamoyeneba adamianis survilebis dasakmayofileblad (magaliTad, misTvis evropis masStabiT saintereso an maRalanazRaurebadi samsaxuris Sovna, Tavisufali drois sasiamovnod gatareba, ganaTlebis miReba, kargad dasveneba...). am TvalsazrisiT ucxouri enis Seswavla axal perspeqtivebs sTavazobs Semswavlelebs. qarTuli enis flobis doneebis aRweriloba gankuTvnilia maswavleblebisTvis, SemfaseblebisTvis, meTodistebisTvis, saswavlo programebisa da saxelmZRvaneloebis SemdgenlebisTvis, saswavlo literaturis gamomcemlebisa da redaqtorebisTvis, aseve TviT Semswavlelebisa da yvela imaTTvis, visac saqme aqvs qarTulis, rogorc meore an ucxouri enis swavlebasTan rogorc saqarTveloSi, aseve mis farglebs gareT. naSromi moicavs aucilebel moTxovnaTa minimalur lingvodidaqtikur aRwerilobas enis swavlebis konkretuli donis praqtikulad flobisaTvis da aseve Seicavs kulturul komponents. ucxouri enebis swavlebis praqtikaSi dResdReobiT miRebulia komunikaciuri midgoma, romelic fokusirebulia enis Seswavlaze, rogorc SemswavlelTaTvis aqtualur, cxovrebiseul situaciebSi urTierTobis saSualebaze. komunikaciuri swavlebis mTavari mizania SemswavlelebSi ucxoenovani komunikaciuri kompetenciebis im moculobiT formireba, 5

romelic maT cxovrebiseuli moTxovnebis dakmayofilebis saSualebas miscems. mocemul standartSic yuradReba swored komunikaciur midgomazea gadatanili. qarTuli enis flobis doneebis aRweriloba orientirebulia maTze, visTvisac sasurveli an aucilebelia qarTuli enis Seswavla rogorc yoveldRiuri urTierTobisTvis, aseve profesiuli komunikaciuri moTxovnebis dasakmayofileblad saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis, mewarmeobis, ekonomikisa da vaWrobis sferoSi. winamdebare standarti gaTvlilia zrdasruli SemswavlelebisTvis, romlebic saqarTveloSi Camodian turistulad, mivlinebiT, kerZo mowveviT, profesiuli, saqmiani interesebiT. es standarti xels Seuwyobs qarTuli eniT dainteresebul ucxoel mecnierebs Tanamedrove qarTuli enis komunikaciuri kompetenciis gafarToebaSi, ucxoeTSi mimobneuli qarTuli diasporebis momaval Taobebsa da aseve saqarTveloSi mcxovreb erovnul umciresobebs, gansakuTrebiT im regionebSi, sadac rig soflebSi mTlianad araqarTuli mosaxleobaa da Sesabamisad araqarTulenovani garemoa, rac imas niSnavs, rom qarTuli faqtobrivad iswavleba ara rogorc meore ena, aramed rogorc ucxouri ena. naSromSi aseve gaTvaliswinebulia mozardi Semswavlelebis interesebi da maTTvis calke Tavadaa mocemuli komunikaciuri kompetenciebis ganviTarebis etapebi. qarTulis, rogorc meore an ucxouri enis aRweris cda im parametrebiT, romlebic miRebulia evropis TanamegobrobaSi, ganapirobebs mis integrirebas ganaTlebisa da sertificirebis saerTaSoriso sistemaSi da mis ganxilvas saerToevropul enaTa erTobis erT-erTi enis rangSi. qarTuli ena saqarTvelos garda misi mezobeli qveynebis teritoriazec gamoiyeneba. saxeldobr, TurqeTSi, iranSi, azerbaijanSi. ukanaskneli ori aTeuli wlis manZilze sagrZnoblad gaizarda qarTuli diasporebi evropisa da amerikis kontinentze. qarTuli ena saqarTvelos saxelmwifo enaa. qarTuli samwerlobo ena qarTl-kaxur dialeqts efuZneba. igi iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa ojaxs miekuTvneba da am ojaxis uZvelesi samwerlobo enaa. iberiul-kavkasiuri enebia: qarTuli, zanuri (megrul-Wanuri), svanuri, afxazuri, Cerqezuli (adiReuri), ubixuri, wova-TuSuri, CaCnuri, inguSuri, daRestnuri enebi da baskuri, romelsac aseve iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa ojaxs miakuTvneben. qarTuli, zanuri (megrul-Wanuri) da svanuri qarTveluri enebia. TiToeuli maTgani Tavisi gramatikuli wyobiTa da leqsikuri fondiT aris ena da aqvs Tavisi dialeqtebi.

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qarTuli enis dialeqtebia: qarTluri, kaxuri, imeruli, guruli, raWuli, leCxumuri, aWaruli, mesxur-javaxuri, fSauri, xevsuruli, mTiulurgudamayruli, moxeuri, TuSuri, ingilouri (dRevandeli Aazerbaijanis teritoriaze), fereidnuli (dRevandeli iranis teritoriaze), imerxeuli (dRevandeli TurqeTis teritoriaze). zanuri enis dialeqtebia megruli da Wanuri (lazuri). Wanebis anu lazebis didi nawili dRevandeli TurqeTis teritoriazea dasaxlebuli, mcire nawili ki saqarTvelos teritoriaze cxovrobs. svanuri enis dialeqtebia: balszemouri, balsqvemouri, lentexuri da laSxuri. qarTuli enis uZvelesi werilobiTi Zeglebi ­ warwerebi, xelnawerebi, saistorio da iuridiuli dokumentebi did masalas iZleva qarTuli yofis, saliteraturo enis, qarTuli kulturis istoriis Sesaswavlad. aseTebia beTlemis qarTuli monastris warwerebi (Vs. I nax.), bolnisis sionis taZris warwerebi (Vs. bolo), ukangoris warwerebi (VIs. dasawyisi), mcxeTis jvris warwerebi (VI-VIIss), sahakduxtis warwera (Vs.), davaTis stela (IVs. II nax.), wyisis warwerebi (616-619ww.), kumurdos warwerebi (VIIs.), atenis sionis (739w), iSxnis (954-955ww.) warwerebi... qarTuli enis Zalian Zveli werilobiTi Zeglebia xelnawerebi, romelTa ricxvi 10 000-s aRemateba. maTgan bevri dakargulia, bevric sxvadasxva qveyanaSia gabneuli. 1000-ze meti qarTuli xelnaweri V-XII saukuneebisaa. filosofiuri da saistorio xasiaTis xelnawerebi X-XIII saukuneebs ganekuTvneba, iuridiuli XI saukunidan iCens Tavs. uZvelesi qarTuli istoriul-literaturuli Txzulebebidan Cvenamde moRweuli pirveli originaluri nawarmoebia wameba wmidisa mowamisa SuSanikisi (476-482 ww.). sasuliero mwerlobis metad Rirebuli Zeglebia evstaTi mcxeTelis wameba, abo tfilelis wameba, grogol xanZTelis cxovreba, ninos cxovreba da a.S. qarTuli anbani erT-erTi uZvelesia msoflioSi. qarTulma damwerlobam ganviTarebis sami safexuri ganvlo: asomTavruli (mrgvlovani), nusxuri, mxedruli. asomTavruliT Sesrulebuli uZvelesi werilobiTi Zeglebi V-IX saukuneebisaa. mxedruli anbanis yvelaze Zvel nimuSad iTvleba atenis sionis erT-erTi warwera (982-986ww.). mxedruli anu saero damwerloba qarTuli anbanis ganviTarebis bolo safexuria. am anbaniT vsargeblobT dResac. Tanamedrove qarTul anbanSi 33 aso-bgeraa. Cveni anbanis Rirsebaa is, rom bgerebs iseve vwerT, rogorc gamovTqvamT da piriqiT, gamovTqvamT ise, rogorc vwerT. yovel asos Tavisi saxeli aqvs. qarTuli asoebi, maTi saxelebi da transkrifcia amgvarad gamoiyureba: 7

a b g d e v z T i k l m n o p J r

an ban gan don en vin zen Tan in kan las man nar on par Jan rae

a b g d e v z t i k l m n o p zh r

s t u f qQ R yY S C c Z w W x j hH

san tar un far qan Ran yar Sin Cin can Zil wil War xan jan hae

s t u p k gh q sh ch c dz ts tsh kh j h

winamdebare standarti qarTuli enis flobis doneebis aRwerilobis pirveli cdaa da amdenad mas ara aqvs srulyofilebis pretenzia. avtorTa koleqtivi siamovnebiT miiRebs sasargeblo rCevebs am standartis Semdgomi daxvewisaTvis.

marika oZeli

enis politikis erovnuli warmomadgeneli evropis sabWoSi

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1 naSromis zogadi daxasiaTeba

1.1 koncefcia

qarTuli enis flobis doneebis aRweriloba Sedis Tanamedrove evropuli enebis lingvodidaqtikur aRwerilobaTa sferoSi, romelic sruldeba evropis sabWos egidiT ucxouri enebis komunikaciuri swavlebis farglebSi. komunikaciuri midgoma miznad isaxavs upirveles yovlisa evropis xalxTa enobrivi da kulturuli memkvidreobis SenarCunebas, Senaxvasa da ganviTarebas. amasTanave igi xels uwyobs xalxTa mobilurobis zrdas, teqnikur-samecniero informaciis, ideebis, kulturuli da ekonomikuri miRwevebis, profesiuli kadrebisa Tu momsaxure personalis gacvlagamocvlas. komunikaciuri midgoma ZiriTadad orientirebulia Semswavlelebze ise, rom maT SeZlon realur, cxovrebiseul situaciebSi garkveva da urTierTobis damyareba. enobrivi ganaTlebis sistemisaTvis standartebis Seqmnas didi mniSvneloba eniWeba, vinaidan masSi ganisazRvreba swavlebis mizani ­­ swavlebis strategia da taqtika. qarTuli enis flobis doneebis aRweriloba SeiZleba safuZvlad daedos SemswavlelTa sxvadasxva jgufisa da swavlebis sxvadasxva formisaTvis Sesadgen programebs; saxelmZRvaneloebs, saswavlo literaturas; konkretul miznobriv kursebs; testebs, romliTac SesaZlebeli iqneba qarTuli enis flobis donis sertificireba. amasTanave, Semswavlelebs saSualebas miscems Tavad gansajon sakuTari enobrivi unar-Cvevebi. enobrivi standartebi uzrunvelyofs saswavlo procesis unificirebas. igi xels uwyobs metyvelebis produqtiuli (laparaki, wera) da receptiuli (kiTxva, smeniTi aRqma) saxis unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebas yoveldRiuri da saqmiani urTierTobebis sferoSi. sametyvelo aqtivobis modeli Semdegnairad SeiZleba CamovayaliboT: aqtivoba interaqcia interaqcia recefcia recefcia producireba producireba metyveleba metyveleba forma zepiri weriTi zepiri weriTi zepiri weriTi zepiri weriTi unar-Cvevebi mosmena da laparaki

wakiTxva da wera mosmena wakiTxva laparaki wera Tarjimnoba Targmna

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enis komunikaciuri swavlebis ZiriTadi lingvisturi da meToduri princi pebi da enaTa aRwerilobis parametrebi enis swavlebis miznebis gaTvaliswinebiT ganisazRvreba. komunikaciuri midgomisas yuradReba gadatanilia gagebaze, Sinaarsis gadmocemaze, azris gamoxatvaze. enis struqturisa da leqsikis Seswavlac swored amas emsaxureba. komunikaciuri kompetencia araerTi komponentisgan Sedgeba. saxeldobr, _ _ _ _ _ _ lingvisturi sociolingvisturi diskursuli sociokulturuli socialuri strategiuli

lingvisturi kompetencia komunikaciuri unar-Cvevebis mTavari komponentia. sityvebisa da gramatikuli formebis gamouyeneblad verbaluri komunikacia ver Sedgeba. lingvisturi kompetencia niSnavs leqsikuri erTeulebis marags, swori gramatikuli formebisa da sintaqsuri wyobis codnas, romlis saSualebiTac leqsikuri erTeulebi gaazrebul gamoTqmebad gadaiqceva da Semswavlelebis mier iseTive mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneba, rogoriTac qarTuli enis matareblebis mier. lingvisturi kompetencia aseve iTvaliswinebs qarTuli enis normebis Sesatyvis agebuli konstruqciebis gagebas. sociolingvisturi kompetencia niSnavs enobrivi formebis situaciis Sesabamisad gamoyenebis unars. konteqsti (vin, visTan, sad, ris gamo, ra mizniT amyarebs urTierTobas) gansazRvravs enobrivi formebis SerCevas. diskursuli kompetencia niSnavs teqstis konstruirebisa da interpretirebisaTvis Semswavlelis mier garkveuli strategiis gamoyenebis unars. komunikaciur modelebSi garkveuli gamoTqmebis Tanmimdevrulobis miRwevasTan erTad, diskursuli kompetencia gagebis unarsac iTvaliswinebs. sociokulturuli kompetencia gulisxmobs qarTuli erovnulkulturuli specifikis (tradiciebi, Cvevebi, socialuri mdgomareoba, ritualebi, qveyanaTmcodneoba, cxovrebis wesi, normebi) codnas da qarTuli enis gamoyenebiT qarTul sociokulturul garemoSi Seqmnil situaciebSi orientirebis, sirTuleebis gadalaxvis unars. socialuri kompetencia gamoixateba sxvebTan urTierTobis survilsa da SesaZleblobaSi. xalxTan komunikaciis damyarebiT mosaubrem Tavi unda gaarTvas sazogadoebaSi Seqmnil sxvadasxva situacias. strategiuli kompetenciis gamoyeneba enis SezRudulad flobis kompensirebis saSualebas aZlevs Semswavlels. ucxoenovan garemoSi verbaluri da araverbaluri strategiebiT mani pulireba da socialuri urTierTobis unari avsebs codnis xarvezs. 10

es standarti komunikaciuri kompetenciis yvela komponents iTvaliswinebs. igi Sedgeba Sesavlis, 7 Tavis, 22 qveTavisa da reziumisagan. SesavalSi mocemulia qarTuli enisa da anbanis, uZvelesi werilobiTi Zeglebis zogadi aRweriloba. pirvel TavSi formulirebulia koncefcia, warmodgenilia naSromis struqtura, ganxilulia enis flobis doneebis zogadevropuli sistema da enis komunikaciuri swavlebis miznebi. meore Tavi _ komunikaciuri kompetenciebi zrdasrulTaTvis Sedgeba oTxi qveTavisagan: sametyvelo qmedebebi, zogadi cnebebi, Tematuri leqsika, kulturuli aspeqti. igi warmoadgens komunikaciuri kompetenciebis detalur aRwerilobas. sametyvelo qmedebebi sakiTxebis mixedviT aerTianebs enobriv gamoTqmebs. zogadi cnebebi kategoriebis mixedviTaa aRwerili, leqsikis codna Tematuradaa ganlagebuli, xolo kulturuli aspeqti or jgufad aris gayofili _ sociokulturuli qceva da ZiriTadi qveyanaTmcodneobiTi cnebebi. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom komunikaciuri kompetenciebi mocemulia doneebis mixedviT im varaudiT, rom yoveli momdevno donis Semswavleli unda flobdes wina dones. momdevno doneze wina donis masala faqtobrivad aRar meordeba da Tu meordeba, mxolod variantebis saxiT, romelSic aisaxeba ama Tu im frazis TandaTan garTuleba, leqsikis gamdidreba. mesame TavSi ­ komunikaciuri kompetenciebi mozardTaTvis Sesulia qarTuli enis flobis doneebis saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros mier dadgenili standarti araqarTveli moswavleebisaTvis. meoTxe Tavi ­ audirebisa da wakiTxvis teqstebis ti pebsa da Janrebs, weris unar-Cvevebs exeba. mexuTe TavSi aRwerilia komunikaciuri strategiebi ­ sakompensacio saSualebebi, swavlis swavleba da urTierTobis taqtika. meeqvse Tavi eTmoba enis flobis doneebis nimuSs unar-Cvevebis mixedviT. masSi naCvenebia ra unda icodes Semswavlelma enis flobis sxvadasxva doneze A1-dan B2-mde. am standartul aRwerilobaSi SeiZleba Tvali gavadevnoT sakomunikacio arealis TandaTanobiT gafarToebas enobrivi unar-Cvevebis fonze. naSromis bolo TavSi mocemulia qarTuli enis mokle fonetikuri, morfologiuri da sintaqsuri aRweriloba.

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1.2Eenis flobis doneebis zogadevropuli sistema

zogadevropuli enis politika Tanamedrove enebis Seswavlis, swavlebisa da SefasebisaTvis iTvaliswinebs enebis flobis eqvs donian sistemas, romelic iyofa jer sam msxvil erTeulad ­ A, B, C, xolo TiToeul maTganSi ori ZiriTadi done gamoiyofa: C A B

elementarulad floba damoukideblad floba Tavisuflad floba

A1

enis gasaRebi

A2

B1

B2

C1

C2

srulyofili

enis zRvruli safuZveli

zRvruli profesiuli ganviTarebuli

komunikaciur amocanaTa SesrulebisaTvis saWiro enobrivi kategoriebis, funqciebis, gramatikisa da leqsikis analizis safuZvelze enis flobis doneebi Semdegnairad aris gansazRvruli: A1 done ­ enis gasaRebi iTvleba enis Fflobis yvelaze dabal doned. es aris etapi, romelzec Semswavlels SeuZlia Zalian martiv saubarSi monawileoba; piradi xasiaTis SekiTxvebis dasma, an maTze pasuxis gacema. magaliTad, sad cxovrobs, vin aris, axlobeli adamianis Sesaxeb laparaki; SeuZlia nacnob an misTvis saintereso Temebze saubris dawyeba da gagrZeleba; amasTanave Semswavleli ar eyrdnoba mxolod dazepirebul frazaTa SezRudul repertuars, romelic exeba gansazRvrul situacias. A2 done Seesabameba safuZvlis donis specifikaciebs. swored am doneze warmoCndeba im deskri ptorTa umetesoba, romelic enis socialur funqcias asaxavs. magaliTad, Semswavlels SeuZlia yoveldRiuri martivi, misalmebisa da mimarTvis zrdilobiani formebis gamoyeneba; pirovnebasTan misalmeba, misi ambebis gamokiTxva da reagireba miRebul pasuxze; sayofacxovrebo xasiaTis mokle saubarSi monawileoba; SekiTxvis dasma an sxvis SekiTxvaze pasuxis gacema, Tu SekiTxva exeba mis samsaxurs an Tavisufal dros; mowvevis miRebaze reagireba, an sxvisi mowveva; drois ganawileba: imis dagegmva, Tu rogor moiqces, sad wavides, moilaparakos Sexvedris Taobaze, SesTavazos azri, an upasuxos raime SemoTavazebas. garda amisa, amave doneze Cndeba deskriptorebi, romlebic exeba yoveldRiur yofiT Temebs. magaliTad, maRaziaSi, bankSi, an fostaSi moqceva, sazogadoebrivi transportiT sargebloba: avtobusSi, matarebelSi, taqsSi elementaruli informaciis moTxovna; gzis gakiTxva an Cveneba, bileTis yidva; yoveldRiuri moxmarebis sagnebis an momsaxurebis moTxovna.

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enobriv CvevaTa Semdegi plasti Seesabameba safuZvlis gaZlierebulad flobas _ A2+. es done gamoirCeva saubarSi ufro aqtiuri monawileobiT, Tumca Semswavleli kvlav SezRudulia gamoxatvis formebis xmarebaSi da SeiZleba dasWirdes mosaubris daxmar eba. am donis deskr i pto rebi SeiZleba amgvarad davaxasiaToT: Semswavlels SeuZlia saubris dawyeba da saubarSi monawileoba; ukve esmis imdeni, rom Zaldatanebis gareSe warmarTos yofiT Temebze saubari; SeZlebs informaciis gacvlas, azris naTlad gadmocemas da gaziarebas nacnob Temebze, yoveldRiur gaTvaliswinebul situaciebSi im pirobiT, rom Seferxebisas mosaubre mas daexmareba formulirebis CamoyalibebaSi; zogjer iZulebulia uari Tqvas nafiqralis gadmocemaze sityvieri masalis naklebobis gamo. Tu mosaubre mas daexmareba, sakmaod dajerebulad SeuZlia mkafio struqturis mqone saubarSi monawileoba, Ria ganxilvaSi ki es SesaZlebloba ezRudeba. amave dros es done iTvaliswinebs monologis farTo SesaZleblobas. ase, magaliTad, am doneze myof Semswavlels SeuZlia martivi sityvebiT Tavisi grZnobebis gadmocema, misi garemomcveli samyarosa da yoveldRiurobis (adamianebi, adgilebi, samsaxuri, swavla) detaluri aRwera; warsul cxovrebaze, pirad gamocdilebaze, zne-Cveulebebze saubari; gegmebisa da molaparakebebis Sesaxeb ambebis moyola; axsna imisa, Tu ra moswons, an ra ar moswons; sayvareli cxovelebisa an nivTebis Sesaxeb laparaki; movlenaTa martivi eniT aRwera; enis elementaruli aRwerilobiTi saSualebebis gamoyenebiT mokled saubari misi kuTvnili sagnebis Sesaxeb, maTi erTmaneTTan Sedareba. B1 done Seesabameba zRvruli donis im specifikaciebs, romlebic ucxo qveyanaSi mokle droiT CamsvlelTadmia mimarTuli. es done ori gansxvavebuli niSniT xasiaTdeba. pirveli niSania is, rom Semswavlels, romelic am dones flobs, SeuZlia dialogis warmarTva da komunikaciis miznis miRweva mTel rig gansxvavebul situaciebSi. magaliTad, esmis mis garSemo mimdinare xangrZlivi msjelobis ZiriTadi arsi, Tu saubari neli tempiT da saliteraturo eniT aris warmarTuli, SeuZlia sakuTari azris gamoTqma an megobrul saubarSi sxvaTa azris gamokiTxva, Tavisi gamonaTqvamis azris naTlad da mkafiod gamoxatva; martivi enobrivi saSualebebis didi odenobiT da sakmaod Tavisuflad gamoyeneba TiTqmis yvela nebismieri azris gadmosacemad; sxvaTa saubarSi an ganxilvaSi CarTva, Tumca Znelia miyves maT azrebs, roca isini cdiloben zusti gamoTqmebis SerCevas; laparakobs gasagebad, magram SesamCnevi pauzebiT, rac gramatikuli konstruqciebis mosafiqreblad, leqsikurad gasaformeblad sWirdeba, gansakuTrebiT monologuri metyvelebis xangrZliv monakveTSi. am donis meore maxasiaTebeli mdgomareobs imaSi, rom Semswavlels, romelic am dones flobs, SeuZlia daZlios yoveldRiuri cxovrebiseuli amocanebi, magaliTad, SeuZlia Tavi gaarTvas: sazogadoebriv transportSi wamoWril naklebad standartul situaciebs, situaciaTa umetesobas, 13

romlebic SeiZleba warmoiqmnas agentis saSualebiT mogzaurobis dagegmvisas, an uSualod mogzaurobis dros, nacnob Temaze saubars winaswari momzadebis gareSe; SeuZlia konsultaciis an intervius procesSi iniciativis xelSi aReba, raime sakiTxis wamoweva, magram am dros bevrad aris damokidebuli mosaubreze, Tumca SeuZlia sTxovos mosaubres naTqvamis ganmarteba an dazusteba. enobriv CvevaTa Semdegi wyeba Seesabameba zRvrul gaZlierebul dones B1+. cxadia, CamoTvlili maxasiaTeblebi ZalaSi rCeba, magram emateba mTeli rigi deskri ptorebi, romlebic exeba sxvadasxva moculobis informaciis gacvlis unars, magaliTad, Semswavlels SeuZlia wamoWril problemebTan dakavSirebuli SetyobinebamoTxovnis miReba; im faqtobrivi informaciis warmodgena, romelic aucilebelia intervius an konsultaciis procesSi (magaliTad, avadmyofobis simptomebis aRwera eqimTan), Tumca formulireba SeiZleba yovelTvis zusti ar iyos; SeuZlia ganmartos Tu ratomaa esa Tu is sakiTxi Tu movlena problemuri; SeuZlia mokle moTxrobis, statiis, saubris Sinaarsis, msjelobis, dokumenturi filmis ganxilvis gadmocema, maTze Tavisi damokidebulebebis gamoxatva da pasuxis gacema mTel rig damazustebel SekiTxvaze, winaswar momzadebuli saubris warmarTva, intervius aReba mis xelT arsebuli informaciis SemowmebiTa da dazustebiT, Tumca xSirad svams SekiTxvas gadamowmebis mizniT, rodesac mosaubre pasuxobs swrafad da vrclad; SeuZlia zusti miTiTebebis gamoyenebiT moyves rogor keTdeba esa Tu is saqme; sakmaod dajerebulad SeuZlia dagrovili faqtobrivi informaciis gacvla misi interesebis sferoSi arsebul yofiT da ara yofiT sakiTxebze. B2 done dgas zRvrul da safuZvel doneebze (B1, A2) maRla da ewodeba zRvruli ganviTarebuli done. es imas niSnavs, rom saSualo donis dauflebisas Semswavleli xvdeba, rom miaRwia xarisxobrivad axal wertils, saidanac axali horizontebi ikveTeba da mas ukve SeuZlia axleburad Sexedos sagnebsa da movlenebs. aseT STabeWdilebas axdens B2 donis deskri ptorebi. am doneze myof Semswavlels SeuZlia sakuTari Tvalsazrisis dacva saTanado argumentebisa da ganmartebebis moSveliebiT, sakuTari komentarebis demonstrirebiT, sakuTari Sexedulebis gamoxatva aqtualuri sakiTxebis irgvliv dadebiT Tu uaryofiT argumentebze dayrdnobiT, raime dasabuTebis warmodgena, problemis arsis axsna da molaparakebis procesSi daTmobis moTxovna mowinaaRmdege mxarisagan, msjeloba movlenaTa hi poTeturi ganviTarebis sababsa da mizezebze, nacnob Tematikaze araformalur diskusiaSi aqtiuri monawileobis miReba, alternatiul winadadebaTa awon-dawona, hi poTezis Sesaxeb azris gamoTqma, sakuTari hi poTezis wamoweva. garda amisa, aRniSnul doneze Cndeba deskri ptorTa ori axali jgufi. pirveli jgufi exeba Tavisufali urTierTobis sferos, magaliTad: bunebrivi, Zaldautanebeli saubris warmarTva, yvelafris dawvrilebiT 14

gageba, rasac saliteraturo eniT eubnebian, Tundac xmauri uSlides xels; arc Tu ise daxvewili formiT, magram SeuZlia saWiro momentSi saubris dawyeba, gagrZeleba da dasruleba, saubris Semavsebeli sityvebis gamoyeneba (mag. Zneli saTqmelia, ver getyvi, ramdenad...) drois mogebisa da pasuxis Camoyalibebis mizniT; SeuZlia Tavisuflad da moumzadeblad saubari Sesaswavli enis matarebelTan, saubris mimarTulebis, stilis, aqcentis SecvlasTan Segueba; enis matarebelTan kontaqtSi Sesvla ise, rom mosaubres SeeZlos masTan urTierToba ara rogorc enis SemswavlelTan, aramed rogorc ukve enis matarebelTan. deskri ptorTa meore jgufi miekuTvneba enis ufro srulyofilad flobas. es enis codnis is progresuli safexuria, roca Semswavlels SeuZlia gaugebrobis gamomwvevi Secdomebis gasworeba, Tavisi metyvelebis gakontroleba da yuradRebis miqceva sayvarel Secdomebze, rom aRar gaimeoros; Tavisi Secdomebisa da uzustobebis Sesworeba, Tu isini SeamCnia mosaubrem; mosaubris reaqciis gaTvaliswinebiT winaswar gansazRvra imisa, Tu ra da rogor Tqvas. enobrivi Cvevebis Semdeg fazas warmoadgens zRvruli ganviTarebuli donis gaZlierebuli safexuri B2+. am donis zogierTi deskri ptori mimarTulia enis arsis Secnobisaken, umetesoba kvlavindeburad urTierTobisa da argumentirebuli diskusiis warmarTvas exeba, Tumca am mimarTulebaSi axali aspeqti iCens Tavs diskursuli Cvevebis ganviTarebis saxiT. diskursuli kompetenciis siaxle vlindeba saubris (urTierTTanamSromlobis strategiis) procesSi. Semswavlels SeuZlia Tvali gaadevnos mosaubris gamonaTqvamebs da moaxdinos maTze reagireba, riTac xels uwyobs saubris/ganxilvis warmarTvas. am donis siaxle Cans im deskri ptorebis magaliTze, romlebic Tanmimdevrul teqsts exeba: Semswavlels SeuZlia makavSireblebis SezRudulad gamoyeneba, magram axerxebs gamonaTqvamis mkafiod da gabmulad Camoyalibebas, nairgvari makavSirebeli sityvebis saSualebiT ideaTa Soris kavSiris gamoxatvas; argumentaciis sistemis SemuSavebas, mtkicebulebis saxiT mTavari poziciebis moxerxebulad gamoyofiTa da sxvadasxva faqtebis gamoyenebiT. swored am donezea Tavmoyrili deskri ptorTa didi nawili, romelic exeba saqmiani saubris warmarTvis Cvevebs. magaliTad, Semswavlels SeuZlia moiTxovos garkveuli kompensacia dapirispirebul mxaresTan darwmunebis enobrivi saSualebebis da argumentaciis gamWvirvale sistemis gamoyenebiT; mkacrad gansazRvros daTmobis sazRvrebi. C1 dones ewodeba enis profesionaluri flobis done. mas aqvs erTi ZiriTadi maxasiaTebeli ­ misTvis misawvdomia enobriv saSualebaTa farTo speqtri. aqedan gamomdinare, Semswavlels SeuZlia swrafad da moumzadeblad daamyaros urTierTobebi. magaliTisTvis moviyvanT ramdenime deskri ptors. Semswavlels SeuZlia sakuTari azrebis gadmocema Tavisuflad da TiTqmis winaswari momzadebis gareSe; Tavisuflad flobs didi raodenobis 15

leqsikur erTeulebs da situaciidan gamomdinare arCevs saWiro sityvebs. Tu saWiroeba iTxovs, sityvis SerCevas an raime sityvis/ konstruqciis xmarebas Tavs aridebs. mocemuli donis Semswavleli amas SeumCnevlad axerxebs. bunebrivi da naTeli metyveleba gagebis TvalsazrisiT mxolod rTulma Temam SeiZleba Seaferxos. urTierTobis Cvevebi igive rCeba, rac B2+ doneze. amasTanave yuradReba gadatanilia Tavisufal, Seuferxebel metyvelebaze. magaliTad, Semswavlels SeuZlia didi enobrivi maragidan amoarCios saWiro, Sesaferisi fraza, raTa mii pyros yuradReba, CaerTos saubarSi an moigos mosafiqrebeli dro; Camoayalibos mkafio, naTeli gabmuli zepiri gamosvla zustad gamoTqmuli instruqciiT, romelSic SeimCneva kompoziciuri modelebis, makavSirebeli sityvebisa da xerxebis gaazrebuli xmareba, rac teqstis koherentobas ganapirobebs. C2 dones marTalia enis flobis srulyofili done ewodeba, mainc ar iTvaliswinebs Semswavlelis enobriv kompetencias enis matareblis doneze. igi warmoaCens sizustesa da enobriv saSualebaTa daubrkoleblad gamoyenebis im xarisxs, romelsac yvelaze warmatebuli Semswavleli flobs. am donis deskri ptorebSi vlindeba, rom Semswavlels SeuZlia mniSvnelobis nebismieri niuansis maRali xarisxis sizustiT gamoxatva, sxvadasxva xerxis meSveobiT iyenebs mraval idiomatur da zepirmetyvelebaSi xmarebul gamoTqmas, erkveva maT konotaciebSi, xolo Tu raRacam Seaferxa enobriv saSualebaTa gamoyenebisas, swrafad da irgvlivmyofTaTvis SeumCnevlad SeuZlia Tavisi gamonaTqvamis perifrazireba.

amgvarad gamoiyureba enis flobis doneTa sistemuri Tanmimdevruli progresuli aRweriloba elementarulidan srulyofilamde. winamdebare naSromi iTvaliswinebs qarTuli enis flobis doneTa aRwerilobas elementarulidan zRvrul ganviTarebul donemde ­ A1; A2; B1; B2.

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1.3 enis komunikaciuri swavlebis miznebi

winamdebare meTodur dokumentSi swavlebis miznebi formulirebulia komunikaciuri minimumis amocanebis saxiT im situaciaTa katalogSi, romelic faravs yoveldRiuri da profesiuli urTierTobis sferos _ turistuls, kulturuls, yofiTs, saqmians. Semswavlels SeuZlia TviTonve gansazRvros Tu ramdenad ZaluZs komunikaciuri amocanebis daZleva situaciaTa katalogSi warmodgenili qarTuli enis sametyvelo eqsponatebis saSualebiT. komunikaciuri kompetenciis zRvrul ganviTarebul doneze flobis miRweva qarTul enaSi, araqarTvel mosaxleobas Tu saqarTveloSi Camosul ucxoelebs maTi cxovrebiseuli moTxovnebis, miznebisa da amocanebis, interesebis, umaRlesi ganaTlebis miRebisa da saqmiani urTierTobebis (ekonomika, biznesi, vaWroba) moTxovnebis Sesabamisad enis gamoyenebis saSualebas miscems. qarTuli enis zemoxsenebuli oTxi donisaTvis SevarCieT ti puri standartuli situaciebi da savaraudo problemebi, romlebsac SeiZleba Sexvdnen Semswavlelebi qarTul enobriv garemoSi yofnisas. maT dasaZlevad ki saWiroa qarTuli enis rogorc pasiuri, aseve aqtiuri codna. am enobrivi standartis swavlebis miznebi moicavs yoveldRiuri da saqmiani urTierTobis sferos (sayofacxovrebo, kulturuli, turistuli, ekonomikuri, savaWro, biznesis). es ki niSnavs, rom Semswavlelebi, romlebsac qarTuli enis saSualebiT SeuZliaT naSromSi aRwerili komunikaciuri amocanebis maqsimalurad gadaWra, praqtikulad floben qarTul enas zRvrul ganviTarebul doneze. amasTanave, yuradReba unda iqnas gamaxvilebuli damaxinjebul metyvelebasa da fonetikuri, leqsikuri Tu gramatikuli Secdomebis dasaSveb xarisxze. SesaZloa, rom Semswavleli, romelic flobs enis romelime dones, sakmaod warmatebiT urTierTobdes am doneze garkveul situaciebSi, magram ara yovelTvis. keTilganwyobil, xelsayrel garemoSi Semswavlelma saubari SeiZleba savsebiT damakmayofileblad warmarTos, Tundac mis metyvelebas mniSvnelovani leqsikur-gramatikuli Tu fonetikuri xarvezebi axldes. aseT SemTxvevaSi didi mniSvneloba aqvs Semswavlelis partniors. Tu is aris enis matarebeli, kargi komunikaciuri unariT dajildoebuli da amasTanave tolerantuli pirovneba, maSin is Tavisi damokidebulebiT xels Seuwyobs Semswavlels azris gamarTulad CamoyalibebaSi. Tu partniori uaryofiTad, uxalisod usmens Semswavlels, ver axerxebs konteqstidan saTanado daskvnebis gamotanas, aseT dros SesaZloa Semswavlelis metyvelebac seriozuli xarvezebiT, enobrivi sisufTavis daucvelad warimarTos enis flobis mis mier miRweul donezec ki. komunikaciuri aqtis dros Zalian mniSvnelovania Semswavlelis mimarT tolerantobis gamoCena, keTilganwyobili atmosferos Seqmna da saubrisas xelSewyoba. Tumca Semswavlelma unda icodes da yovelTvis gaiTvaliswinos isic, rom enis matarebeli Cveulebriv ufro martivad egueba mosaubris gramatikul Secdomebs, leqsikis simwires, gaumarTav frazebs, vidre kulturuli konteqstis _ mis qveyanaSi miRebuli qcevis normebis, tradiciebis, wes-Cveulebebis arcodnas an ugulvebelyofas. 17

2 komunikaciuri kompetenciebi

winamdebare standarti iTvaliswinebs Semswavlelis komunikaciuri kompetenciis yvela komponents _ lingvisturs, sociolingvisturs, diskursuls, sociokulturuls, socialurs, strategiuls. isini oTx blokSia ganTavsebuli:

_ _ _ _

sametyvelo qmedebebi zogadi cnebebi Tematuri leqsika kulturuli aspeqti

TiToeul blokSi warmodgenili enobrivi eqsponatebi qmnian im savaraudo situaciaTa katalogs, romelSic SeiZleba aRmoCndes Semswavleli enis flobis sxvadasxva doneze.

2.1 sametyvelo qmedebebi

sametyvelo procesis elementarul erTeuls warmoadgens sametyvelo qmedeba _ umciresi mniSvnelobis mqone fonetikurad da gramatikulad saTanadod gaformebuli monakveTi. Cveulebriv, sametyvelo qmedeba moicavs mosaubris komunikaciur mizans _ ra mizniT aris wamoWrili esa Tu is sakiTxi da ra Temaze midis saubari.

saubarSi sametyvelo qmedebas xSirad axlavs araverbaluri elementi. magaliTad, rodesac stumars vegebebiT, ase mivmarTavT: mobrZandiT, geTayva da JestiT mivaniSnebT im oTaxisaken, sadac gvinda rom SeviyvanoT stumari. oTaxSi Sesvlis Semdeg JestiT vTavazobT skams da veubnebiT _ dabrZandiT, rasac mosdevs stumris verbaluri reaqcia _ gmadlobT da Semdeg sruldeba arasametyvelo qmedeba _ stumari jdeba JestiT miTiTebul adgilas.

sayofacxovrebo da socialur sferoSi urTierTobisas SeiZleba iseTi sametyvelo aqtebis gamoyofa, sadac sametyvelo da arasametyvelo qceva Serwymulia erTian sametyvelo saqcielSi. magaliTad, dabadebis dRis verbalur milocvas _ gilocav dabadebis dRes, mosdevs araverbaluri qmedeba _ saCuqris gadacema, razec adresati pasuxobs verbaluri formiT _ didi madloba da asrulebs arasametyvelo qmedebas _ xsnis saCuqars. saCuqris naxvas SesaZloa kidev moyves sametyvelo qmedeba aRfrTovanebis 18

gamomxatveli frazebiT _ ra lamazia, ra mSvenieria, madloba aseTi SesaniSnavi saCuqrisaTvis.

Zalian didi

SeiZleba aseTi magaliTis moyvanac: deda asrulebs verbalur qmedebas _ hpirdeba bavSvs, rom cirkSi waiyvans xval 12 saaTian warmodgenaze. es niSnavs, rom man ukve SeiZina an dajavSna bileTebi aRniSnuli warmodgenisTvis, e.i. Seasrula araverbaluri qmedeba da aseT qmedebas is meore dResac Seasrulebs _ waiyvans bavSvs cirkSi.

qvemoT mocemulia sametyvelo qmedebaTa repertuari, romelic Sedgeba Semdegi nakveTebisgan:

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

sagnobrivi da faqtobrivi informacia inteleqtualuri urTierToba emociuri UurTierToba sametyvelo etiketi zemoqmedeba, darwmuneba, urTierTgagebis miRweva metyvelebis struqturireba gaSualebuli urTierToba komunikaciis aRdgena

savaraudod, Semswavleli, romelmac ukve daZlia zRvruli ganviTarebuli done, Tavisuflad unda saubrobdes qarTul enaze. amitom sametyvelo qmedebebSi enobrivi gamoTqmis ramdenime variantia warmodgenili.

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sametyvelo qmedebaTa katalogi

A1 ­ enis gasaRebi

sagnobrivi da faqtobrivi informacia identifikacia (axlavs saTanado Jestikulacia) es, is, aiD es sastumroa. es Zviri/iafi sastumroa. es komerciuli firmaa. es me var. is axalgazrda kaci Cveni menejeria. is saxelmwifo moxelea. ai Cemi pasporti. Tqveni SMS miRebulia. prezidentis viziti Sedga. me vfiqrob, rom es sadReRamiso afTiaqia. bankSi aris kargi momsaxureba. mas aqvs manqanis marTvis mowmoba. es Cemi wigni ar aris.

Setyobineba (aRwera, Txroba) dadasturebiTi Setyobineba TxrobiTi winadadeba

Setyobineba raimes qona/yolis Sesaxeb pozitiuri Setyobineba uaryofiTi Setyobineba informaciis dazusteba/ garkveva yofnasTan, arsebobasTan dakavSirebuli SekiTxva

am sarTulze aris saaqto darbazi? rogor moaxerxeT fexburTze moxvedra?

qona/yolasTan dakavSirebuli SekiTxva Tqven gaqvT vis aqvs vis ara aqvs/hyavs kiTxviTi winadadebis saxeebi zogadi SekiTxva dadebiTi pasuxis molodiniT

Tqven gaqvT Txilamurebi? vis aqvs saxelmZRvanelo? vis ara hyavs Zma?

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Tqven dadixarT curvaze? Tqven mas SexvdiT, ara? Tqven xom SexvdiT mas? mTawmindaze asasvlel gzas xom ar/ ver mimaswavliT?

specialuri SekiTxva (dro) rodis? (adgili) sad? (mimarTuleba) saiT? saidan? (mizezi) ratom? (mizani) risTvis? (piroba) ra pirobiT?

rodis midixar londonSi? sad SeiZleba SeviZino wignebi? netav saidan modis an saiT midis es kaci? ratom gamirbixar? risTvis gWirdeba amdeni fqvili? ra pirobiT migiRes am sadazRvevo kompaniaSi?

saidentifikacio SekiTxva (pirovneba) vin? (sagani, pirovneba) ra? vin? ra hqvia? (kuTvnileba) visia? (niSani/saxelwodeba) rogori? ranairi?

vinaa es kaci? vin xelmZRvanelobs am firmas? ra aris?, es ra aris?, es ra kacia?, amas ra hqvia? visia, visia, qali lamazi? ra saxis/ranairi sabuTi gWirdebaT? ra/romel gazeTebs kiTxulobT? Cai mogarTvaT Tu yava? TuTis arayi ufro mogwonT, Tu (Taflis) sanTlis?

alternatiuli SekiTxva (arCevani) Tu nawilakiT

kiTxvebze pasuxi zogadi dasturi

diax, es ar aris/araa mwife yurZeni. ara, es ar aris kargi saqcieli.

pasuxi specialur SekiTxvebze dro adgili

mimarTuleba

rodis mova gazafxuli? male, erT TveSi. romeli qveynidan xarT? belgiidan. sad SeiZleba SeviZino wignebi? rusTavelze, iq kargi wignis maRaziaa. dasasveneblad sad midixarT? Cven mTaSi gvinda asvla. mainc sad? svaneTSi vapirebT gamgzavrebas. me es-es aris davbrundi safrangeTidan. mivlinebaSi viyavi strasburgSi.

21

mizezi

mizani

piroba

xerxi, saSualeba

zoma

ase ratom dagagvianda Camosvla? didTovloba iyo bakurianSi da manqana Zalian nela moZraobda. saqarTveloSi ra mizniT CamoxvediT? minda viswavlo qarTuli, Zalian momwons Tqveni simRerebi. rodis/ra pirobebSi/ra SemTxvevaSi irRveva xelSekruleba? Tu droze ar/ver gadaixdiT fuls. ramdeni unda gadavixado TveSi? asi lari. rogor movxvde marjaniSvilis quCaze? CadiT veris daRmarTze da gadaiareT xidi mtkvarze. marjaniSvilis Teatrs ver mimaswavliT? xids rom gadaxvalT, pirdapir iareT. Teatri xuTi wuTis savalzea quCis marcxena mxares. ra manZilia aqedan aeroportamde? iqneba ociode kilometri. taqsiT rom wavide, ra eRireba? oci lari.

inteleqtualuri urTierTobebi Tanxmoba mosaubris azrTan daTanxmeba

Tanxmoba raimes gakeTebaze Tanxmoba pozitiur mtkicebulebaze

Tqven swors brZanebT/Tqven savsebiT marTali brZandebiT. me veTanxmebi batoni nikos azrs. siamovnebiT. me Tanaxma var. diax, ra Tqma unda. diax, Cven xom SevTanxmdiT. ki, batono. rasakvirvelia. ra Tqma unda, ara. cxadia, ase unda moiqce.

Tanxmoba uaryofiT mtkicebulebaze

22

uari

ara + Setyobineba ara + uaryofiTi mtkicebuleba

uari SemoTavazebuli azris gaziarebaze, SeTavazebaze ara, me Tqven ar geTanxmebiT. ara, es sakmaod Zviria. ara, es ase araa. ara, saqme sul sxvagvaradaa.

metyvelebis struqturireba saubris dawyeba sityvis Zieba (pauza, hezitacia)

TviTkoreqcia

ho...... kargi... aba ra giTxra?.. rogor giTxra?.. ici?.. ra hqvia... rogor iTqmis es qarTulad?...... ara... mapatieT/bodiSi/ukacravad me mindoda meTqva, rom... me minda vTqva oriode sityva.

Temis Semotana me minda giTxraT, rom... Seqmnil viTarebaze/Seqmnil viTarebasTan dakavSirebiT mogaxsenebT Semdegs... me minda gesaubroT...

me minda gesaubroT giorgi leoniZis poeziaze.

gaSualebuli urTierToba werilis formula megobruli werilis dasawyisi Zvirfaso Cemo gamarjoba werilis dasasruli (piradi, megobruli) gkocni mokiTxva Sexvedris imedi

Zvirfaso giorgi, Cemo sayvarelo mako, gamarjoba, Cemo kargo niko, salami, Cemo Zvirfasebo, siyvaruliT, Seni Tamriko. gkocniT, Tqveni gvrituka. mokiTxva Cvens megobrebs. moikiTxe Seni mSoblebi. vimedovneb, rom male SevxvdebiT. momaval Sexvedramde. momenatreT yvela. Zalian minda Tqveni naxva. 23

Sewyvetili komunikaciis aRdgena gaugebrobis signali bodiSi, ar mesmis. mapatieT, ver gavige, me qarTveli ar/ ara var. ukacravad, ar vici. bodiSi, Tu SeiZleba gaimeoreT. ra/rogor brZaneT? Tu SeiZleba nela isaubreT/ ilaparakeT. Tu SeiZleba cota nela miTxariT.

naTqvamis gameorebis Txovna nel tempSi saubris Txovna

sametyvelo etiketi (socializacia) misalmeba gamarjoba(T). salami. dila mSvidobisa/saRamo mSvidobisa. naxvamdis. kargad brZandebodeT/iyavi(T). Rame mSvidobisa. ukacravad... ekam bodiSi moixada dagvianebisaTvis. bodiSs gixdiT, magram xval ver moval krebaze. gmadlobT/didi madloba. merim madloba gadagvixada keTili rCevisaTvis. madlobas gixdiT daxmarebisaTvis. gilocav(T). qeTi, gilocav dabadebis dRes. gilocavT axal wels. gilocavT axalmosaxleobas. gmadlobT molocvisTvis. Tqvenc aseve, gisurvebT yovelive saukeTesos.

damSvidobeba

mobodiSeba bodiSis moxda

madliereba madlobis gadaxda

milocva

pasuxi milocvaze

24

A2 ­

enis safuZveli

sagnobrivi da faqtobrivi informacia Setyobineba uaryofiTi Setyobineba sityvaTa rigis Secvla romelime sityvaze yuradRebis gamaxvilebis mizniT (intonaciuri konstruqcia)

es Cemi CanTa ar aris. es CanTa Cemi ar aris. es ar aris Cemi CanTa.

koreqcia/dazusteba dadebiTi Setyobinebis dadastureba sityvaTa rigis saSualebiT

zogadi uaryofa: ara... ar... kerZo uaryofa: ara... ar... diax, + dadebiTi winadadeba zogadi SekiTxva zogadi SekiTxva maxvilis gadanacvlebiT, gaformebuli intonaciuri konstruqciiT

muzeumi dRes Riaa. muzeumi dResaa Ria. bavSvs maRali sicxe aqvs. sicxe aqvs bavSvs maRali. ara, fosta dRes ar muSaobs. ara, Cven TeatrSi ar wamovalT. diax, Cven cirkSi wavalT (da ara kinoSi).

Tqven is naxeT? Tqven is naxeT? Tqven is naxeT? Tqven naxeT is? is Tqven naxeT? razea damokidebuli Cveni eqskursiaze wasvla? rogor CavrTo magnitofoni? rogor mivide sadguramde? am gziT ramdenad axloa kafemde, ara? ram siSorezea bazari? ramxela manZilia aqedan iqamde? ra droa? ramdeni xania, rac aq muSaob? ra Rirs kargi wiTeli Rvino? vin dapatiJeT stumrad? ra amoirCieT saCuqrad? 25

specialuri SekiTxva urTierTgapirobebuloba (xerxi) ranairad? rogor? (zoma, odenoba) ramdenad? rogor? ramxela?

saidentifikacio SekiTxva (obieqti) vin? ra?

(adresati) vis? visTvis?

vis unda Cautano es werili? visTvis aris es gankuTvnili?

inteleqtualuri urTierTobebi uaris Tqma daZalebaze, Tavs azris moxvevaze

Tanxmobis/uaris garkveva

vSiSob, rom ver SevZleb. - xval ar vxvdebiT? - ara, ar vxvdebiT. ara, me ar mgonia, rom isini parizSi Sexvdebian. Tqven (ar) eTanxmebiT amas? SevTanxmdiT? Tqven (ar) gawyobT es dro? me ar vicodi, rom isini wavidnen. me (ar) vici rodis wavidnen isini.

garkveuloba me (ar) vic(od)i me (ar) vici Setyobineba me (ar) vicnob cnobilia, rom + mtkicebuleba mexsiereba, gaxseneba me (ar) maxsovs

me ar vicnob am maswavlebels. cnobilia, rom ekvatorze mudam zafxulia. me (ar) maxsovs misi misamarTi. me (ar) maxsovs, ra mi pasuxa man. me ar maxsovs ras Sevpirdi (mas) guSin. me ar damviwyebia/damaviwyda Cveni SeTanxmeba. (me) damaviwyda darekva.

me ar damviwyebia/damaviwyda

imis garkveva, Tu ra axsovs mosaubres (ar) gaxsovT (xom ar) dagaviwyda (xom ar) gaxsovs (ar) gaxsovs gaxsovs + Tu ara

(ar) gaxsovT, Tqveni qarTulis maswavlebeli? (xom ar) dagaviwyda, rom dRes misi dabadebis dRea? xom ar gaxsovs, vis unda davureko?/visTvis unda damereka. (ar) gaxsovs sad apirebdi wasvlas? gagondeba Tu ara karaleTis dReebi?

survili me minda/visurvebdi 26

me minda erTi nayini.

me vinatrebdi undaT me minda, rom survilis, moTxovnilebis garkveva

me vinatrebdi ramdenime milion evros. bavSvebs undaT gaseirneba. me minda, rom dedamiwaze iyos mSvidoba. me unda gavfrinde/wavide romSi. me mWirdeba manqana. yavas inebebT? cxel Sokolads xom ar miirTmevT? luds (xom) ar dalev? bulaCaurSi xom ar wavsuliyaviT saqeifod? TviTmfrinavis bileTis SekveTa xom ar gnebavT? Tqven gWirdebaT amis Sexseneba? Tqven gWirdebaT Cemi di plomi?

upiratesobis garkveva ra ufro mogwons? ra ufro giyvars?

ra mogarTvaT Rvino Tu ludi? vicekvoT Tu gaviseirnoT? yava Savi Tu rZiani?

emociuri urTierTobebi sixaruli, kmayofileba (me) moxaruli var, rom + Setyobineba (CemTvis) Zalian sasiamovnoa... me (erTob) kmayofili var (es xom) mSvenieria/brwyinvalea/ Zalian kargia/SesaniSnavia ra sasixaruloa

(me) moxaruli var, rom aseTi kargi ambavi momitaneT/mestumreT. (CemTvis) Zalian sasiamovnoa Tqveni naxva. me (erTob) kmayofili var Cemi Svilis aseTi didi warmatebiT. (es xom) brwyinvale naxatia, marTlac SesaniSnavia. ra sasixaruloa, rom Cvenma Tanamemamulem nobelis premia miiRo. aseTi wignebi me (sul) ar momwons. ra saSinelebaa aseTi Zlieri qariSxali. cudi ambavi moxda, ra samwuxaroa, namdvilad Zalian vwuxvar. 27

mwuxareba, ukmayofileba armowoneba, saSineleba

wuxili

emociis garkveva (Tqven) moxaruli brZandebiT? (Tqven) kmayofili/ukmayofilo brZandebiT?/xarT? (rogor) mogewonaT? dadebiTi ganwyobileba mowoneba

gaxarebuli xar?/gagexarda? kmayofili xar SedegiT? (rogor) mogewonaT (es) gamofena?

siyvaruli uaryofiTi ganwyobileba me es ar momwons me ar momwons/miyvars me ar msiamovnebs me ver vitan me mejavreba es cudia/saSinelebaa dadebiTi/uaryofiTi ganwyobilebis garkveva

me momwons (es) msaxiobi. me (Zalian) momwons/miyvars parkSi seirnoba. me miyvars cxenebi. me miyvars saCuqrebis keTeba/miReba.

me ar miyvars tkbili Cai. me ar msiamovnebs xmauri. me ver vitan WurWlis recxvas. me mejavreba sigaretis suni. cudia/saSinelebaa aseTi xSiri miwisZvrebi.

Tqven mogwonT es saxli? Tqven romeli naxati mogewonaT? Tqven ra mogwonT - mineraluri wyali Tu koka-kola?

metyvelebis struqturireba Tanmimdevroba jer... mere... jer erTi... meorec... damateba sxvaTa Soris.../amas garda...

jer Tavo da Tavo, mere colo da Svilo. jer erTi, me ar vyofilvar, meorec ­ niko saerTod ar minaxavs. sxvaTa Soris, ninikos ufrosi daZma hyavs. garda amisa, 9 wlis disSvili (diswuli) da erTi wlis ZmisSvili (Zmiswuli).

da kidev.../kidev iciT ra... amasTanave magaliTis moyvana magaliTad, gamoyofa, xazgasma CarTuli sityvebi, Sesityvebebi mTavari/ZiriTadad 28

mogiyvanT magaliTs. magaliTisTvis aviRoT...

saqme isaa, rom... erTi mxriv... (magram) meore mxriv...

saqme isaa, rom ukve gviania: Cveni giorgi col-Sviliania! erTi mxriv ­ yvelaferi naTelia, magram, meore mxriv ­ zogi ram bundovania.

zepir metyvelebaSi: intonaciuri konstruqciis centris gadanacvleba, sityvaTa rigis Secvla nabeWd teqstSi: SriftiT gamoyofa dayofiT gamoyofa xelnawer teqstSi: xazgasma ganzogadeba, daskvnebi maS ase... maSasadame...

yovelwliuri konkursi ­ saba. Rvino q i n Z m a r a u l i. me Zalian miWirs amaze saubari.

gaSualebuli urTierToba telefoniT saubari pasuxi kerZo piris telefonis zarze telefonTan moxmoba da pasuxi Tu SeiZleba...

alo/diax/gismenT batono. ukacravad, mapatieT, rom gawuxebT, bodiSi Tu SeiZleba mananas sTxoveT. ki batono, axlave/manana ar gaxlavT saxlSi/Sin. manana jer ar dabrunebula.

pasuxi

Sewyvetili komunikaciis aRdgena gaugebrobis signali da naTqvamis gameorebis Txovna bodiSs gixdiT, ver gavige Tqveni naTqvami, Tu SeiZleba/Tu ar SewuxdebiT, nela gamimeoreT. sityvis, frazis an gamoTqmis dazustebis Txovna mapatieT, romeli avtobusi midis saburTaloze? ukacravad, am gaCerebas ra hqvia? 29

bodiSs gixdiT, Tu SeiZleba miTxraT, rogor vTqva qarTulad.../ es qarTulad rogor iqneba? es xinkalia? iqneb es niSnavs so-so-s. nel tempSi saubris Txovna Tu SeiZleba, ase Cqara nu laparakobT, cota nel tempSi/ nela miTxariT, ris Tqma gsurT.

sametyvelo etiketi (socializacia) mobodiSeba, patieba mapatieT, ar mindoda, SemTxveviT momivida. pasuxi mobodiSebaze arafris/arauSavs. gpatiobT, amjerad gapatiebT. (mobodiSebis miReba). madliereba madlobas gixdiT yvelafrisTvis, rac CemTvis gagikeTebiaT. pasuxi madlierebaze ras brZanebT. arafris. ar Rirs madlobis gadaxdad. milocva da pasuxi milocvaze gilocavT gmadlobT, daeswariT wels; daeswariT gmadlobT, Sobas. mec gilocavT, mraval Soba-axal mravals. Tqvenc aseve.

30

B1 - zRvruli done

sagnobrivi da faqtobrivi informacia informaciis dazusteba/garkveva situaciasTan dakavSirebuli SekiTxva (intonaciuri konstruqcia) ninos ra daemarTa? universitetSi ra moxda? telefons raRac mouvida? yofnasTan, arsebobasTan dakavSirebuli SekiTxva sad SeiZleba vnaxo profesori ColoyaSvili?/sad SeiZleba profesori ColoyaSvilis naxva? (Tqven) xom ar icnobT baton niko avaliSvils? (Tu) gaqvT axali Jurnalebi?

inteleqtualuri urTierTobebi gacnobierebulobis garkveva Tqven (ar) iciT rom...

Tqven icnobT... Tqven icodiT...

Tqven iciT, rom dRes urza bairamia musulmanebSi? Tqven (ar) iciT rogor movxvde biblioTekaSi? Tqven icnobT Cvens reqtors? Tqven icodiT, rom man coli iTxova?

albaToba albaT SesaZloa albaTobis xarisxis garkveva SeiZleba (iqneba) + Setyobineba SesaZloa + Setyobineba gaurkvevloba albaT + Setyobineba me ar vici, + Setyobineba mgoni, + Setyobineba

isini, albaT, zRvaze wavidnen. daviTs SeiZleba/SesaZloa Seagviandes. SeiZleba xval gaavdrdes. iqneb xval mze gamovides. SesaZloa kaxa xvalve dabrundes.

albaT SabaTs muzeumi Riaa. me ar vici, iqnebian ki isini Tanaxma? mgoni Cven erTmaneTs (ver) gavugeT. 31

eWvi mgoni + Setyobineba iqneb, + Setyobineba egeb + Setyobineba Zneli saTqmelia/ dasajerebelia

mgoni iRrubleba. iqneb xvalamde dabrundes Tamriko. egeb gagvimarTlos. Zneli saTqmelia marTalia eg ambavi Tu ara/Zneli dasajerebelia eg versia. me ara var darwmunebuli Sens gulwrfelobaSi. (me) veWvob, rom Sen marTals (ar) meubnebi. Cven unda gavuZloT qartexilebs.

(me) ara var darwmunebuli... (me) veWvob valdebuleba valdebulebis garkveva kiTxviTi sityva...

rodis unda dabrundes Wabuki mivlinebidan? vin unda gasces gankarguleba? romeli formulari unda Seivsos? Tqven unda darekoT policiaSi.

aucilebloba/saWiroeba mas sWirdeba daxmareba. Tqven mogiwevT mocda/lodini. aucileblobis/saWiroebis uaryofa ar mWirdeba aucileblobis/saWiroebis garkveva gaformebuli kiTxviTi winadadebis intonaciiT

me ar mWirdeba misi bodiSi.

me ar mekuTvnis am Tanxis gadaxda? gWirdebaT es Zvelmanebi? Tu aRar gWirdebaT es wigni, egeb maTxovoT? miirTviT, geTayva. Tqven SegiZliaT isargebloT amiT. mxolod TanamSromlebisTvis. mxolod bavSvebisa da moxucebisaTvis. SeiZleba Semovide? SeiZleba ubileTod Sesvla stadionze? SeiZleba aq movwio (sigareti)? Tu SeiZleba, gamatareT.

nebarTva/SeTavazeba impertivi + geTayva Tqven SegiZliaT... mxolod...

nebarTvis garkveva SeiZleba

Tu SeiZleba 32

nebis darTva diax, ra Tqma unda ki batono/ra Tqma unda uari nebarTvaze/Txovnaze ara/ar SeiZleba

­ ­ ­ ­

SeiZleba wavide? ra Tqma unda. SeiZleba davreko? ki batono/diax, ra Tqma unda.

samwuxarod, ara/ar SeiZleba

SeiZleba saxlSi viTamaSo fexburTi? ara ar/ara, ar SeiZleba. SeiZleba maTxovoT Tqveni foto aparati? samwuxarod ara, ori dRis win daTos vaTxove. SeiZleba aviRo namcxvari? ara, ar SeiZleba SenTvis amdeni tkbileuli.

bodiSi/mapatieT, magram es akrZalulia/ar SeiZleba/ SeuZlebelia/dauSvebelia

SeiZleba aq movwio? bodiSi, magram dawesebulebaSi sigaretis moweva akrZalulia. Tqven gadaaWarbeT siCqares. ase swrafad siaruli dauSvebelia. xmauri akrZalulia. aq manqanis gaCereba akrZalulia. nu mieyrdnobiT (metroSi). nu SeexebiT (maRali Zabvis xazs).

akrZalva

nu + imperativi raimes gakeTebis unarianoba/ uunaroba mas ar SeuZlia man (ar) icis unarianoba/unarobis garkveva SeZleba

mas ar SeuZlia xinklis moxveva. man icis Tavis saqme. Sen SegiZlia xaWapuris gamocxoba?

sakuTari azri me vfiqrob, rom + Setyobineba me mgonia, rom + Setyobineba Cemi azriT, rom + Setyobineba me mimaCnia, rom + Setyobineba SekiTxva sxvis azrze Tqven rogor fiqrobT/TvliT? Tqveni azriT? Tqveni azriT + kiTxviTi sityva + Setyobineba

me vfiqrob, rom giam SesaniSnavi wigni dawera. me mgonia, rom dRes Cveni regbistebi moigeben. Cemi azriT, es gadacema mosawyenia. (me) mimaCnia, rom Salva namdvilad niWieri kacia.

Tqveni azriT, sad jobs dasveneba? 33

ganzraxva gadawyveta survili

dapireba

me gadavwyvite werilze pasuxis gacema. me minda qobuleTSi dasveneba. me minda, rom Cemma Svilma iaros cekvaze. me vapireb strasburgSi wasvlas.

emociuri urTierTobebi interesi (es) sainteresoa ra sainteresoa me es (Zalian) mainteresebs me mainteresebs sainteresoa interesis uqonloba, gulgriloba ar aris saintereso uintereso CemTvis sul erTia

(ici) ra saintereso filmi vnaxe guSin. me mainteresebs es wigni. sainteresoa, es ra adgilia.

(ar) mitacebs interesis garkveva ­ daintereseba/dauinteresebloba (Tqven) es (ar) gainteresebT? (Tqven) ra gainteresebT? (Tqven ar) gainteresebT (Tqven) gainteresebT gakvirveba (es) saocaria me makvirvebs nuTu + Setyobineba RmerTo (maRalo//didebulo!) gakvirvebis dafarva, argamoxatva araferia gasakviri! gasakviri araferia! 34

es ar aris saintereso. es uintereso TamaSia. me sruliad gulgrili var am sakiTxis mimarT/me gulgrilad vuyureb am sakiTxs/me es ar maRelvebs. me ar mitacebs ekonomika.

Tqven ra gainteresebT, qarTuli cekvebi Tu qarTuli simRerebi? (Tqven ar) gainteresebT laris kursi? Tqven gainteresebT arqiteqtura?

me makvirvebs Seni sijiute. nuTu ar icodi es ambavi? o, RmerTo Cemo.

amaSi gasaocars verafers vxedav.

(me) es (sulac) ar makvirvebs! mere ra? gakvirvebasTan dakavSirebuli SekiTxva (Tqven) es gakvirvebT? (Tqven) aman gagakvirvaT?

(me) ar mikvirs, rom vaJa dRes ar movida. mere ra, rom civa, male gazafxuli mova.

(Tqven) gakvirvebT imedi [(me) amis] imedi maqvs (me) imedi maqvs + Setyobineba wuxili, mwuxareba samwuxaroa, samwuxaroa! dasanania! Setyobineba

Tqven mainc ra gikvirT/ar unda gagikvirdeT, xom icodiT, rom yvelaferi ase iqneboda. Tqven gakvirvebT Cemi uaryofiTi damokidebuleba am sakiTxisadmi?

imedi maqvs, rom isini ar daagvianeben.

ra cudia, rom ver mivuswariT avtobuss, axla dacda mogviwevs. Zalian samwuxaroa, rom (Tqven) ar iqnebiT banketze.

dabneuloba (exla) ra[Ra] vqna(T)? rogor moviqceT? SeSfoTeba, SiSi (me) meSinia

ar vici, ra vqna.

(me) meSinia Weqa-quxilis. (me) meSinia manqanis tareba. me bavSvebis gamo var SeSfoTebuli. (me) vwuxvar, rom man daagviana, vin icis, raime uWirs.

damSvideba nu RelavT/nu wuxarT/nu geSiniaT yvelaferi rigzea/wesrigSia yvelaferi kargad iqneba. es araferia. arauSavs,

SiSTan, wuxilTan dakavSirebuli SekiTxva (Tqven) raime gawuxebT? visi/risi geSiniaT?

Tqven qariSxlis geSiniaT? Tqven geSiniaT, rom mewyeri ar Camowves/ Camowveba? ra kargia, rom nina TviTon ibans pirs. yoCaR ninka, Sen ukve didi gogona xar. 35

mowoneba, Seqeba (Zalian) kargia

[(es) ra] mSvenieria

ra mSvenivrad TamaSobs daCi fexburTs. swored magis Tqma mindoda, ra sworad urtyams burTs. ra kargi azria botanikur baRSi gaseirneba.

brwyinvale (kargi) azria kargi ideaa

uaryofiTi damokidebulebis gamoxatva [(me) es] ar momwons es cudia amas (aseT rames) ar velodi ici ra...? danaSauli, sinanuli (me) damnaSave var Cemi bralia uxerxulad vgrZnob Tavs ar megona, Tu ase gamovidoda/ moxdeboda

Sen ici, Seni nebaa, rogorc ginda ise moiqeci.

me vaRiareb, rom sworad ar moviqeci.

dadebiTi/uaryofiTi damokidebulebis gamoxatvasTan dakavSirebuli SekiTxva [(Tqven) es] mogwonT? rogor mogwons axali speqtakli? amas rogor uyurebT/afasebT?

zemoqmedeba, darwmuneba, urTierTgagebis miRweva erToblivad moqmedebis SeTavazeba modi(T) erTad iqneb raimes gakeTebis Txovna Tu SeiZleba xom ar SegiZliaT Tu SeiZleba ver SemavsebinebT 36 modiT, SevisvenoT. erTad wavideT koncertze? (Cven) SegviZlia cota davisvenoT. iqneb nayini viyidoT?/nayini xom ar gveyida? Tu SeiZleba aq moawereT xeli. xom ar SegiZliaT momceT aplikacia? Tu SeiZleba damexmareT CamosvlaSi. ver SemavsebinebT/xom ver SemavsebinebT anketas?

Tanxmoba SemoTavazebaze kai, batono. ki, batono! kargi! - (Tqven) damirekavT (me) dRes? - ki, diax/ra Tqma unda. - ludi davlioT? - aba, ra/siamovnebiT. - samsaxuris mere SevxvdeT? - ki batono! - vin aris (ar aris) Tanaxma? - me var. - modiT, dRes adre davasruloT muSaoba. - (me) ara var winaaRmdegi. konkretuli ramis Txovna momawodeT geTayva SeiZleba me mWirdeba SekiTxva SeTavazebaze Tanxmobis an uaris misaRebad (Tqven) Tanaxma xarT/brZandebiT? ra gadawyviteT, rodis midixarT dasasveneblad? rogor SeTanxmdiT, sad unda SexvdeT erTmaneTs?

momawodeT, geTayva sigareti. ori nayini, geTayva. SeiZleba gazeTi? me mWirdeba wigni.

SeTanxmeba

metyvelebis struqturireba ganzogadeba, daskvnebi amgvarad,/amrigad,... da bolos,...

da bolos, yovelive zemoTqmuli SeiZleba Semdegnairad ganvazogadoT...

daskvnis saxiT davZenT, rom... msmenlis (potenciuri mosaubris) CarTva saubarSi (Tqven) raRacis Tqma gind(od)aT? (me Tqven) gismenT/yuradRebiT gismenT. (Tqven) ra gainteresebT?

37

mosaubrisadmi yuradRebis gamoCenis maCveneblebi ki/diax, ra Tqma unda. gasagebia/yvelaferi. cxadia/ yvelaferi naTelia. me mesmis Tqveni. namdvilad (asea)/ki batono. iman, rao, ra Tqva/ra qna? ras brZanebT/marTla asea/me ar vicodi. mosaubris saubris Sewyveta mapatieT, magram... SeiZleba SegawyvetinoT mapatieT, magram telefons unda vupasuxo. erTi wuTiT Segawyvetineb, magasTan dakavSirebiT minda giTxraT, rom sruliad sxvagvarad aris saqme.

SeiZleba (mec) CaverTo saubarSi?

saubris dasruleba ese igi (maSasadame) SevTanxmdiT! kargi/Zalian kargi, rom amaze visaubreT/rom am sakiTxze SevTanxmdiT. ai, amis Tqma mindoda. sul es aris, risi Tqmac mindoda. kidev erTxel minda gadagixadoT madloba.

gaSualebuli urTierToba telefoniT saubari, pasuxi dawesebulebaSi telefonis zarze mdivani asaxelebs Tavis Tanamdebobas + gismenT dawesebulebis, firmis dasaxeleba + gismenT pirovneba asaxelebs Tavis vinaobas + gismenT telefonTan moxmobis Txovna: identifikaciis sakiTxi batoni petre brZandebiT? jibuti brZandebiT? 38

prezidentis mdivani gismenT! saqarTvelos saelCo gismenT! aversi (afTiaqebis qseli), gismenT. givi gagoSiZe gismenT!

saxeli, gvari + Tu SeiZleba saxeli, gvari + sTxoveT Tu SeiZleba

nata gelovani, Tu SeiZleba? guliko metrevels sTxoveT, Tu SeiZleba?

Tu SeiZleba + moixmeT telefonTan + (Tanamdeboba) + saxeli, gvari Tu SeiZleba + Tanamdeboba + damakavSireT

Tu SeiZleba, moixmeT telefonTan eqimi nana daviTiSvili. Tu SeiZleba, sastumros menejerTan damakavSireT.

dalodebis Txovna moiTmineT (geTayva), erTi wuTiT daelodeT, gi pasuxebT. smenadobis garkveva gesmiT Cemi (xma). rogor gesmiT (Cemi xma). kargi smenadobis Setyobineba me kargad mesmis Seni/Tqveni xma. reaqcia cud smenadobaze ar mesmis (Tqveni xma). araferi mesmis, darekeT xelaxla, Tu SeiZleba. pasuxi SecdomiT darekvaze Tqven sxvagan moxvdiT. Tqven SegeSalaT nomeri. es binaa/es dawesebulebaa. Tqven arasworad akrifeT nomeri (avtomati). reaqcia pirovnebis moxmobaze mimarTva + Tqven gTxoven telefonTan

qalbatono rusudan, Tqven gTxoven telefonTan. amJamad adgilze ar gaxlavT, gasulia, Tu SeiZleba darekeT erT saaTSi.

werilis formulebi oficialuri werilis dasawyisi pativcemulo batono/qalbatono + Tanamdeboba pativcemulo batono + saxeli Rrmad pativcemulo batono/ qalbatono + saxeli elene/batono zurab,

batono redaqtoro, qalbatono Tamar, Rrmad pativcemulo qalbatono.

39

oficialuri werilis dasasruli (uRrmesi) pativiscemiT, + saxeli, gvari pativiscemiT, gogi xatiaSvili. winaswar gixdiT madlobas, + pativiscemiT + (wodeba) saxeli, gvari miiReT Cemi gulwrfeli madloba, pativiscemiT, profesori nodar gomelauri.

Sewyvetili komunikaciis aRdgena damadasturebeli, damazustebeli kiTxva Tqven brZaneT + frazis nawili ese igi/es niSnavs + naTqvamis perefrazireba Tqven gindaT TqvaT, rom + dadasturebiTi winadadeba Tqven brZaneT dasvenebis dReo?, ese igi, SabaTsa da kviras gulisxmobT. Tqven gindaT TqvaT, rom is londonSi wavida?

mapatieT, kargad ver gavige + naTqvamis gaxmovaneba

mapatieT, kargad ver gavige, 7 lari Rirs?

SekiTxva naTqvamis dazustebis, an sworad gagebis mizniT mapatieT, ra brZaneT/TqviT? ras mekiTxebiT?/ra gnebavT? raimes ganmartebis Txovna raimes mniSvnelobis axsnis Txovna mapatieT, es ras niSnavs? mapatieT, ras niSnavs sityva...

mapatieT, ras niSnavs sityva uremi? sxvanairad rogor iqneba? gaimeoreT es sityva aso-aso, ras niSnavs Sps?

Txovna sityvis, cifrebis da a.S. daweris Sesaxeb damiwereT, Tu SeiZleba es damiwereT, geTayva + kiTxviTi winadadeba

damiwereT, geTayva, ra Rirs bileTi?

40

sityvis gaSifrvis Txovna sityvis karnaxi anbanis mixedviT petre ­ par-en-tar-rae-en. sityvis karnaxi sakuTari saxelebis pirveli asos mixedviT Tbilisi ­ Tamar-beso-ilia-levaniivane-soso-irakli. sxva sityvebiT axsna es es es es imis garkveva, gaigo, Tu ara mosaubrem naTqvami gasagebia? yvelaferi gaigeT/ ga(m)igeT, Tu ara? yvelaferi gaigeT rac giTxariT (raca vTqvi)? gasagebad vlaparakob (vambob)? aris sportis saxeoba. hgavs vaSlsac da atamsac. vardis aseTi nairsaxeobaa. namcxvari Taflisgan keTdeba.

yvelaferi gesmiT? Tu rames ver gaigebT, miTxariT da gagimeorebT. gasagebad vlaparakob, Tu ufro nela vilaparako?

Setyobineba sityvis an frazis mniSvnelobis arcodnis Sesaxeb me ar vici qarTulad rogor vTqva es. me ar vici es ras niSnavs. me ar mesmis, raSia saqme. me Tarjimani mWirdeba. daxmarebis Txovna saubrisas rogora vTqva qarTulad + fraza mSobliur enaze rogor vTqva qarTulad sityva salam aleiqum ? aseT SemTxvevaSi Tqven rogor (ras) ambobT?

41

sametyvelo etiketi (socializacia) pasuxi mobodiSebaze arafris/arauSavs/gapatieT/ (mobodiSebis miReba) es araferia/nu swuxarT, es gamoswordeba/aq araferia sabodiSo/es upatiebelia (mobodiSebis uaryofa) ara, amjerad ukve veRar gapatiebT, es upatiebeli saqcielia. ratom mixdiT bodiSs, amaSi araferia sabodiSo. mere ra, rom ase moxda, es gamoswordeba, nu swuxarT. madliereba madlobas mogaxsenebT (oficialuri forma)

madlobas mogaxsenebT am SesaniSnavi saRamos mowyobisaTvis.

pasuxi madlierebaze sapasuxo replika saCuqarze madlobisaTvis tansacmlis/fexsacmlis Cuqebaze madlobisaTvis

janmrTelobaSi/RmerTma janmrTelobaSi/sixarulSi mogaxmaros/mziT gacviTe.

gacnoba neba miboZeT warmogidginoT/ gagecnoT...

Jurnalisti: - neba miboZeT warmogidginoT batoni Tamazi. batono Tamaz, gTxovT gaecaniT mayurebels. ­ me gaxlavarT Tamaz devdariani, biologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori.

42

B2 - zRvruli ganviTarebuli done

inteleqtualuri urTierTobebi albaToba, SesaZlebloba, garkveuloba-gaurkvevloba albaT SeiZleba/SesaZloa savaraudoa saeWvoa egeb ar vici, an... an imeds vitoveb, rom...

ar vici, maia an mova, an ar mova. vimedovneb, rom Tamriko da niko wamovlen, kaxa wamova Tu ara, ar vici. ara var darwmunebuli, rom nino iq aris, Salva rom iq dagxvdeba, es udavoa. veWvob, rom yvelaferi ise kargad iyos, rogorc daTos hgonia.

garkveuloba-gaurkvevlobis xarisxis dadgena Tqven Rrmad xarT darwmunebuli, rom + Setyobineba Tqven kargad iciT + Setyobineba Tqven namdvilad fiqrobT, rom + Setyobineba Tqven migaCniaT, rom + Setyobineba

Tqven Rrmad xarT darwmunebuli gios simarTleSi? Tqven kargad iciT es gza? Tqven namdvilad fiqrobT, rom amis Tqma saWiroa? Tqven migaCniaT, rom Cveni sportsmenebi oqros Tu ara vercxlis medlebs namdvilad miiReben? Tqven gjeraT misi warmatebis? aTi saaTia. rogor fiqrobT, stumrad misvla ukve gvianaa, Tu jer kidev SeiZleba? rogor ggoniaT, Salva am saqciels gvapatiebs?

Tqven gjeraT + Setyobineba rogor fiqrobT + Setyobineba

rogor ggoniaT, + Setyobineba

nebis darTva ra Tqma unda/rasakvirelia ki batono/diax/cxadia

- SeiZleba wavide? - diax, ra Tqma unda. - SeiZleba davreko?/SeiZleba visargeblo Tqveni telefoniT? - diax, rasakvirvelia/cxadia, SeiZleba. 43

uari Txovnaze ara/ar SeiZleba samwuxarod ara vera, ver SevZleb

- SeiZleba aviRo es wigni? - ara, samwuxarod ver gagatanT, Cemi ar aris. - SeZlebT xval CemTan mosvlas? - ver SevZleb, xval mTeli dRe dakavebuli var.

ganzraxvis garkveva ras izamT? ras apirebT? xom ar isurvebdiT

xom ar isurvebdiT civi ludis dalevas? xom ar ivaxSmebdiT?

upiratesobis miniWeba me rusuli arayi ufro momwons. jobs nardi viTamaSoT.

zemoqmedeba, darwmuneba, urTierTgagebis miRweva rCeva, darigeba me girCevT daanebe Tavi Tqven (ar) gindaT Tqven unda jobs... gafrTxileba frTxilad frTxilad iyaviT! ar/nu + imperativi

me girCevT iyidoT es wigni. daanebe Tavi sigaretis mowevas! Tqven (ar) gindaT iqiraoT manqana? Tqven unda naxoT direqtori. jobs mimarToT veqils.

ar dajdeT! nu mieyudebiT! aq dajdoma akrZalulia.

mowodeba, Txovna moqmedebis dawyebisaken modiT, modiT! modi! Txovna, xvewna, mudara

modi, vcadoT kunZis aweva. gTxovT/gexvewebiT/gemudarebiT, daiwyeT muSaoba!

miTiTeba, instruqcia mimarTeT airzenas salaros. bargi SegiZliaT aeroportSi datovoT da ise gaiseirnoT qalaqis centrSi. es Cemodani unda CaabaroT, xelCanTa SegiZliaT SeitanoT salonSi.

unda + informacia

44

yuradRebiT waikiTxeT instruqcia paketi CauSviT mduRare wyalSi da 10 wuTi aduReT/ gaciebisas miiReT TiTo abi dReSi 3 jer. pretenzia am nivTs defeqti aqvs Cemi SekveTa uxarisxodaa Sesrulebuli fexsacmeli cudadaa SekeTebuli, gTxovT, kargad SeakeToT. vinaidan Cemi SekveTa droulad ver SeasruleT, gTxovT damibrunoT gadaxdili Tanxa. pasuxi pretenziaze me ar veTanxmebi Tqvens pretenzias ratom gamiTiSeT telefoni, me xom droulad gadavixade fuli! moTxovna bileTis moTxovna sabuTebis moTxovna

am fanjaras defeqti aqvs, gamomicvaleT, Tu SeiZleba.

Tqveni bileTi, geTayva! warmoadgineT Tqveni sabuTebi, Tu SeiZleba.

moTxovnis pasuxi (ai) inebeT ukacravad, raSia saqme? Cemi sabuTebi wesrigSia. es kanonsawinaaRmdegoa me kanoni/wesrigi ar damirRvevia me moviTxov, rom Tqven daukavSirdeT/damakavSiroT saelCosTan/sakonsulosTan

me yvela sabuTi wesrigSi maqvs. Tqveni moTxovna ukanonoa/ar aris kanonieri.

me moviTxov saelCos warmomadgenlis gamoZaxebas.

kmayofilebis gamoxatva kargia, Zalian kargia, yvelaferi wesrigSia

yvelaferi wesrigSia/rigzea/ kargadaa. es isaa, rac mWirdeboda. Cven Zalian gagvimarTla. Cven dRes bedi gvwyalobs. es yvelaferi erTob saintereso iyo. 45

ukmayofilebis gamoxatva es me ar mixdeba me ar momwons me ar mawyobs es is ar aris, rac me mWirdeba kmayofilebis/ukmayofilebis garkveva

me ar momwons es Jurnali. me ar mawyobs am kabis fasi. ara, me es ar gamomadgeba.

yvelaferi wesrigSia? Tqven es gawyobT? gakmayofilebT es pasuxi? daxmarebis SeTavazeba (xom ar) dagexmaroT? SemiZlia dagexmaroT?/riT dagexmaroT? neba momeciT, dagexmaroT. SeTavazeba, mowveva gpatiJebT/gepatiJebiT Cems dabadebis dReze. gTxovT mobrZandeT. neba momeciT, mogiwvioT sadilad. mobrZandiT CvenTan stumrad. mowvevis miReba didi siamovnebiT. gmadlobT, aucileblad moval. moxaruli var Tqveni mopatiJebis. uari mowvevaze gmadlobT, ara Zalian vwuxvar, magram...

samwuxarod, Zalian dakavebuli var da ver SevZleb mosvlas. Zalian merideba uaris Tqma, magram sxvagvarad ar SemiZlia. miWirs Tqma/pasuxi, unda davfiqrde. SeiZleba Tqven sworic brZandebiT. es Cemze ar aris damokidebuli. me ase ar vityodi. Cemi varaudiT...

pirdapiri pasuxisgan Tavis arideba

46

sametyvelo etiketi (socializacia) yuradRebis miqceva ukacravad... bodiSi/bodiSs gixdiT... geTayva, Tu SeiZleba... miTxariT, Tu SeiZleba... (xom) ver metyviT... (xom) ar iciT... sapasuxo replika diax/ki batono... gismenT... batono, gismenT! mimarTva saxeli saxeli/mamis saxeli batono/qalbatono profesori + saxeli, gvari ana. ana lavrentis asuli. gamarjobaT, qalbatono mariam. sityva (moxsenebisTvis) eZleva profesor mzeqala SaniZes. Zvirfaso megobrebo/kolegebo/ stumrebo, pativcemulo sabWos wevrebo, auditoriav... mimarTva gamyidvelisadmi, myidvelisadmi (gansakuTrebuli forma ar arsebobs) - Tu SeiZleba/geTayva, erTi kilogrami yveli da ori boTli nabeRlavi.- cxra lari da oTxmoci TeTri.- inebeT/miiReT. misalmeba gamarjoba(T), mogesalmebiT. dila mSvidobisa/saRamo mSvidobisa. pasuxi misalmebaze gagimarjos. mobrZandiT. keTili iyos Tqveni mobrZaneba. mokle kiTxva-pasuxi etiketis dacviT moxaruli var Tqveni naxvis. rogor brZandebiT? rogor aris Tqveni saqme? rogor midis Tqveni samsaxuris saqme? saxlSi xom kargad xarT? rogor imgzavreT? rogor moewyveT? 47

mec aseve moxaruli var Tqveni naxvis. gmadlobT, kargad. gmadlobT, ara miSavs. gmadlobT, Tqven rogor gikiTxoT? Cveulebrivad, yvelaferi kargadaa/ saqme kargad midis. ise ra, arc mTlad kargad. araoficialuri nacnoboba, TviTwardgena modi gavicnoT erTmaneTi + Cemi saxelia... modi, gavicnoT erTmaneTi, Cemi saxelia daTo. ukacravad, Tqveni saxeli? me daviT dadiani var Tqven ra gqviaT? Cemi saxelia gigi, gigi gelovani. Cemi TviTmfrinavi igvianebs. ukve ramdeni xania vsaubrobT da arc ki gagvicnia erTmaneTi, me nana mqvia, Tqven? oficialuri wardgena Suamavlis gareSe neba miboZeT/momeciT, warmogidginoT Cemi Tavi -/ warvsdge Tqven winaSe ­ me gaxlavarT Tamriko ratiani. oficialuri wardgena Suamavlis saSualebiT oficialuri mimarTva + warmogidginoT + statusi/ Tanamdeboba + saxeli, gvari

batono grigol, neba miboZeT warmogidginoT Cemi meuRle maia kvezereli.

icnobdeT, + batoni/qalbatoni + (statusi/Tanamdeboba) + saxeli, gvari

icnobdeT, erovnuli biblioTekis direqtori batoni zaza abaSiZe.

araoficialuri wardgena mesame piris mier es + saxeli (gvari)

es marinaa. es marina reviSvilia.

48

pasuxi wardgenaze Zalian sasiamovnoa. moxaruli var Tqveni gacnobis, didi xania, mindoda Tqveni gacnoba. bednieri var Cveni nacnobobiT. damSvidobeba naxvamdis/Rame mSvidobisa. momaval Sexvedramde/xvalamde. kargad iyavi(T)/kargad brZandebodeT! komplimenti/qaTinauri (Tqven) mSvenivrad/kargad gamoiyurebi(T) ra kargad gamoiyurebi es Tqven Zalian gixdebaT

es Cacmuloba Zalian gixdebaT. es varcxniloba namdvilad gamSvenebT. Tqven Zalian keTili brZandebiT Tqveni ojaxi ganTqmulia stumarTmoyvareobiT.Y Tqven mSvenieri diasaxlisi xarT. nino saxelganTqmuli pedagogia. qeTevani cnobili mxatvaria.

Tqven Zalian kargi/SesaniSnavi + statusi, wodeba + profesia

pasuxi komplimentze gmadlobT (qaTinaurisaTvis). gmadlobT Tqveni keTilganwyobisaTvis. Tavazianoba me yovelTvis/Zalian/moxaruli var Tqveni naxvis. CemTvis Zalian sasiamovno iyo Tqveni gacnoba. moxaruli var Tqveni ojaxis gacnobiT/rom gavicani Tqveni ojaxi. keTili survilebi gisurvebT yvelafers kargs/ yovelive saukeTesos. (RmerTma) Segargos (saWmelze). keTili mgzavroba. gisurvebT janmrTelobas/ bednierebas/sixaruls. 49

gisurvebT sixaruls/bednierebas/ janmrTelobas/warmatebebs/karg iRbals/xangrZliv sicocxles. TanagrZnoba-mxardaWera TanagrZnobiT Sexvedra

mis azrs yvelam mxari dauWira/mis azrs yvelam TanaugrZno/mis azrs yvela daeTanxma.

TanagrZnoba mwuxarebisas me Tqven gulwrfelad TanagigrZnobT

miiReT Cemi gulwrfeli/Rrma TanagrZnoba. me Zalian vwuxvar. monawile var Tqveni mwuxarebis/ viziareb Tqvens mwuxarebas. vimedovneb, (rom) mogewonebaT. me mgoni mogewonebaT. siZe-patarZals gaumarjos. am WiqiT/am sasmisiT ojaxis diasaxlisi minda vadRegrZelo/ davloco. (pirovnebis daxasiaTeba, misi Rirsebebis warmoCena, samomavlo survilebi).

saCuqris gadacema es Tqven/es TqvenTvisaa sadRegrZelo (Tamadis instituti)

50

2.2 zogadi cnebebi (zogadi cnebebis gamoxatvis enobrivi saSualebebi)

zogad cnebebs miekuTvneba pirvel rigSi filosofiuri da logikuri kategoriebi (sivrce, dro, raodenoba, xarisxi...). isini universaluria TiTqmis yvela enisTvis. universaluri is azrebi da mniSvnelobebia, romlebic praqtikulad yvela situaciaSi gvxvdeba. zogadi cnebebi Semdegnairad gvaqvs dajgufebuli: arseboba, yofiereba, qona-yola sivrce moZraoba dro xarisxi raodenoba kavSir-urTierToba emociuri, nebayoflobiTi da inteleqtualuri qmedebebi

qarTuli enis elementarulidan Tavisufal flobamde sxvadasxva xasiaTis komunikaciuri moTxovnebia dasakmayofilebeli. qvemoT warmodgenili masalac swored am moTxovnebidan gamomdinarea SerCeuli.

zogadi cnebebis katalogi

A1 ­ enis gasaRebi

yofna, arseboba, qona-yola pirovnebis, sagnis, nivTis arseboba aris/arsebobs, ar aris/ar arsebobs aq/iq/mand aq/iq/mand

arseboba mosvla Sedgeba

aq aris faqsi. mand ar aris cirki. sastumroSi aris auzi. restoranSi ar aris bari. arsebobs quCaSi moZraobis wesebi. wvima/Tovli modis/wamovida. TamaSi Sedgeba/gaimarTeba zeg 5 saaTze. 51

dabadeba gaxdoma daswreba/dauswrebloba daswreba TandaswrebiT dauswrebloba/ar yofna

mas eyola vaJiSvili. is eqimi gaxdeba.

me vilaparakeb mxolod veqilis TandaswrebiT. vin ar aris/vin gvaklia? maia aq/mand/iq aris. eqimi boWoriSvili dRes saavadmyofoSi ar aris/ar iqneba. vano aq ar aris. Tamuna iq aris.

qona/ar qona me maqvs

me maqvs SekiTxva. nodars usiamovnebebi aqvs. am students ara aqvs leqsikoni. Cven ara gvaqvs aranairi cnobari.

realoba/irealoba namdvilad, WeSmaritad

sworad brZanebT.

sivrce sivrciTi koordinatebi adgilsamyofeli raime orientaciis mimarT yofna, mdebareoba, ganTavseba - Si - ze - Tan - qveS - win - ukan - gverdiT - Soris, Sua marjvniv,/marcxniv - pirdapir - centrSi - SuaSi parametrebi zoma, odenoba 52

saxlSi, mTaSi, kinoSi. magidaze, napirze, xeze. TeatrTan, mamasTan. xidis qveS, qvis qveS. saxlis win. ezos ukan. ninos gverdiT. vin dgas Cven Soris. im or arxs Sua saTesi miwaa. saxlis marjvniv auzia, marcxniv ki didi muxis xe dgas. saxlis pirdapir mwvane mindoria. soflis centrSi lamazi parkia. ezos SuaSi Sadrevania.

didi, momcro, patara; maRali, dabali;

uzarmazari, pawawina, saSualo, normaluri. grZeli, mokle; maRali, dabali, Rrma, Txeli/ wvrili. sqeli/msuqani, gamxdari.

moZraoba fexiT fexiT siaruli wasvla, gasvla, misvla, mosvla

fexiT siaruli sasargebloa. yovel diliT saxlidan vakis parkamde ZunZuliT mivdivar. saxlidan Svid saaTze gavdivar. parkSi naxevar saaTSi mivdivar. cota xanSi ukan movdivar/ vbrundebi. am dros saxlSi aRaravin mxvdeba. yvelani wasulebi arian. me parkSi Sadrevanis garSemo davrbivar, nino ki cekvavs. ra mimosvlaa, ramdeni xalxia, ra moxda? daviTi diliT avtobusiT midis samsaxurSi. me troleibusiT mgzavroba mirCevnia. es avtobusi bankis win Cerdeba.

siaruli, sirbili cekva, siaruli

moZraoba transportiT wasvla, mgzavroba, gaCereba

vinmes/raimes transportireba transportiT mitana, motana, waReba, wamoReba

Cveni aveji sabargo manqaniT gadaitanes.

moZraobis mimarTuleba saiT? saidan? marcxniv, marjvniv, win, ukan aq, iq, aqeT, iqeT aqedan, iqidan, mandedan - Si - ze - dan - Tan

qalaqSi mivdivar. am gaCerebaze SevxvdeT. tyidan gamovida mgeli. megobarTan wavedi. 53

dro arafardobiTi dro drois monakveTi

cxovreba kviris dReebis saxelwodeba Tveebis saxelwodeba:

wami, wuTi, saaTi (15 wuTi, naxevari saaTi), dRe, dRe-Rame, kvira, Tve, kvartali; naxevari weli, weliwadi, saukune, epoqa; mTeli dRe, mTeli weliwadi, mTeli cxovreba. orSabaTi, samSabaTi, oTxSabaTi, xuTSabaTi, paraskevi, SabaTi, kvira. ianvari, Tebervali, marti, aprili, maisi, ivnisi, ivlisi, agvisto, seqtemberi, oqtomberi, noemberi, dekemberi.

weliwadis droebis saxelwodeba: zamTarSi, gazafxulze, zafxulSi, Semodgomaze dRe-Ramis monakveTi: diliT, dRisiT, saRamos, Rame mere, male, ... (xnis) winaT/Semdeg

zamTari, gazafxuli, zafxuli, Semodgoma. dila, dRe, saRamo, Rame. giga male mova, mere cirkSi wavalT. es iyo TxuTmeti wlis winaT, ori saaTis Semdeg. gakveTili 45 wuTi grZeldeba. zamTris ardadegebi gudaurSi gavatare. SabaT-kvira gansakuTrebiT miyvars. Soba, axali weli, aRdgoma. giorgis male mrgvali TariRi Seusruldeba. jerjerobiT aq daicadeT/cota xans daicadeT.

gakveTili, Sesveneba, antraqti, pauza, ardadegebi, Svebuleba

dasvenebis dRe, samuSao dReebi dResaswauli iubile jerjerobiT

zusti dro (aTvlis wertili) rodis? dro zusti dro + ze am dRes (saRamos, TveSi, wels)

paraskevs sam saaTze. am kviraSi. gasul/momaval kviras. gasul/momaval TveSi/wels. dekemberSi. 1921 wels. am diliT, wuxel.

54

dro + Tvis dadgoma, dadga rodis

sami saaTisTvis. dadga/movida axali weli. me ar vici, rodis mova gia.mova, magram rodis. axla. guSin, dRes, xval. guSinwin, zeg, mazeg. romeli saaTia? 3 saaTia, 5 saaTia. pirveli saaTia, oTxis xuTi wuTia. sams uklia xuTi wuTi. xuTis TxuTmeti wuTia, xuTs uklia TxuTmeti wuTi. naxevaria samis, xuTis naxevaria. SuadRe, SuaRame.

drois aRricxva ra droa axla?

xarisxi piris, sagnis fizikuri Tvisebebi gemo gemrieli, ugemuri sasiamovno, arasasiamovno tkbili, mlaSe mJave, mware, cxare CemTvis ar SeiZleba cxare saWmlis Wama. gemrielia, ugemuria gemos gasinjva, dagemovneba gasinjeT/daagemovneT Cemi gakeTebuli Rvezeli. feri ferebi TeTri, Savi, wiTeli, narinjisferi, yviTeli, mwvane, cisferi, lurji, iisferi, yavisferi, vardisferi, nacrisferi, ruxi, oqrosferi, vercxlisferi... asaki ramdeni wlis xar? ra xnis xar? me 20 wlis var; is 21 wlis aris. bavSvi, axalgazrda, moxuci.

55

raodenoba ricxvi ramdeni? ricxvi, cifri ricxvisa da cifris saxelwodeba mxolobiTi da mravlobiTi ricxvi Tvla, daTvla daaxloebiT, TiTqmis, savaraudod

ramdenime, bevri, cota.

A2 - enis safuZveli

qona-arqona pirovnebis, sagnis, nivTis arseboba/ararseboba mZRols aqvs sabuTebi. mas ara aqvs ynosva. uSaqro yava. is usindisoa. limoniani Cai. Cai limoniT. qeTis gareSe rogor xar? me mzad(a) var wasasvlelad. cnoba zeg iqneba mzad. besom miiRo werili. marili gagviTavda. es zamTari ara da ar damTavrda/gavida. fexis tkivili ar gamdis/micxreba/ meSveba. CanTa da pasporti davkarge/ damekarga.

u ­ o -iani -iT gareSe mzad yofna miReba damTavreba/gasvla gasvla/dacxroma/moSveba dakargva

sivrce adgilsamyofeli sivrceSi sad?

aqeT, iqiT, mand, yvelgan, saxlSi... sadRac, arsad, sadme, SigniT, gareT, quCaSi, ai iq, ai aq. is saxlSi ar aris, is institutSia.

56

cxovrobs, aris, muSaobs, dgas, swavlobs, aris xolme

guSin eqimTan viyavi. niko konservatoriaSi swavlobs.

sivrceSi ganfeniloba dgoma, wola, jdoma, dakideba, dadgma, dadeba, deba, gdeba adgoma, ayeneba, dayeneba, dasma, dajdoma gaSveba, CaSveba, daSveba aReba, adgoma vardna, davardna, dacema pirdapir, sworad sivrciTi koordinatebi dasawyisi, dasasruli (ris) sazRvari adgili mxare Sesasvleli, gasasvleli gza, quCa, gamziri, ubani, trotuari, gzajvaredini, Sesaxvevi, moedani dawyeba damTavreba parametrebi uzarmazari, zomieri cicqna/erTi cicqna, didi ganieri, viwro, sifrifana, msuqani Cvens ubanSi viwro quCebia. gazomva, zomis aReba gansazRvra, gansazRvreba zustad, miaxloebiT sigrZe, sigane, simaRle zoma

me axlave agixsniT sad aris akademia.

ai gzis dasawyisi. Sexvedris adgili. sazRvris saguSago aqedan sul raRac xuTas metrSia. Cvens mxareSi kargi xili modis. quCis marcxena mxares kargi sastumroa.

es erTi cicqna biWi am uzarmazar lods rogor daeWida.

is bavSvi msuqana iyo. mkeravma bavSvs zomebi auRo da kabas ukeravs. am patara biWs albaT 24 zoma fexsacmeli moergeba. fexsacmlis/tansacmlis zoma. ra zomis fexi gaqvs?

57

manZili manZili, siSore darCena

Tbilisidan baTumamde 600 kilometria. qalaqamde 2 kilometri darCa. saxlidan samsaxuramde 3 gaCerebaa. gaCereba 200 metris Semdegaa. binis saerTo farTia 150 kv.m. didi, patara, saSualo, kvadratuli. es patara oTaxia. damisxi, geTayva, borjomi. dalie cota viski. bevri arayi mavnebelia. es boTli carielia.

farTobi farTi metri moculoba dasxma daleva bevri, cota savse, carieli

moZraoba fexiT siaruli seirnoba waqceva

bavSvma daiwyo siaruli/fexi aidga. nini yoveldRe parkSi seirnobs, magram guSin gaqceva da waqceva erTi iyo. mibrZandiT aqedan! Cveni qosatyuila mobrZanda. TviTmfrinavi venidan Ramis 12 saaTze Camofrinda. kviraSi erTxel matarebliT miwevs mgzavroba. mdinare giom gadacura.

mibrZaneba, mobrZaneba moZraoba transportiT frena, gafrena mgzavroba curva, gacurva vinmes/raimes transportireba mitana, motana, waReba, wamoReba

qeTis Tavisi Tojina sul Tan daaqvs: sofelSi midis ­ Tan miaqvs, TbilisSi Camodis ­ ukan moaqvs.

Catana, Camotana moZraobis mimarTuleba saiTken? saidan? fexiT wasvla/mosvla qanaobs. transportiT wasvla/mosvla 58

aqeT-iqiT, aqeT-iqeT, saqanela

saiT, saiTme, sadRac, sadme arsad, arsaidan, saidan, pirdapir, zeviT, qveviT, qvemoTken, zemoTken saxlisken, saxlidan aRmosavleTi, dasavleTi, CrdiloeTi, samxreTi gadaadgileba orientiris mimarT moZraoba orientiris mimarTulebiT siaruli, mosvla, sarkinigzo, sazRvao transportiT mgzavroba, sahaero transportiT frena

dro TariRi ra ricxvia dRes kalendari, Tve, ricxvi TariRis dasma

2006 wlis 6 maisi (zepirad). 6 maisi, 2006w. an 06.05.06 (weriT). - rodis/romel ricxvSi daiwyo ardadegebi? - pirvel ivniss. prados muzeumi aris madridSi. luvri parizSia. bavSvma daiwyo laparaki/ena aidga, siaruli/fexi aidga. leqcia ukve daiwyo. speqtakli iwyeba. koncertis dasawyisi 12 saaTze. Tvis/kvartlis dasawyisi... momavali wlis dasawyisSi. amRerda, alaparakda, ayvirda. maRazia muSaobs 9 saaTidan.

arafardobiToba droSi zmna awmyo droSi

fardobiTi dro drois rigi moqmedebis dasawyisi

dawyeba, dasawyisi a ­ ­ dan moqmedebis dasruleba damTavreba/dasruleba moTaveba dasasruli, bolo

moTavda, moaTava. filmis dasasruli. dRis/Tvis bolos. am wlis bolos.

59

dro mimdinare momentTan mimarTebaSi awmyos kuTvnileba dRes, axla, amJamad axali jer/isev/kvlav/kidev am TveSi, am wels, am kviraSi warsulis kuTvnileba guSin, guSinwin, ufro adre didi xnis win, cota xnis win axlaxan gasul

axali gazeTi.

guSin kargi amindi iyo.

drois an periodis aRmniSvneli win momavlis kuTvnileba vapirebT

gasul kviras; gasul orSabaTs; gasul TveSi; SarSan; gasul zamTars; gasul zafxuls. 5 wlis win; 3 dRis win;

Cven vapirebT televizorSi axali ambebis yurebas. Cven mivemgzavrebiT SuaRamisas. isini mifrinaven xval.

SemdgomSi, male, xval, zeg dRes SuadRisas Semdeg, momaval

momavali, momaval

Semdeg

Semdeg samSabaTs; momaval oTxSabaTs; momaval kviras; momaval wels; momavali Sexvedra; momaval TveSi; momaval wels; uaxloes momavalSi, uaxloes droSi; sami dRis Semdeg.

xarisxi piris, sagnis fizikuri Tvisebebi mxedveloba xedva, danaxva Cans, ar Cans xilvadoba yureba, Sexedva Tvali 60

aqedan kargad vxedav. iqidan kargad Cans. dRes gzebze cudi xilvadobaa.

brma/usinaTlo SemCneva, danaxva, povna

sinaTle, sibnele Crdili CarTva, gamorTva smena smena mosmena ismis xmamaRali, xmadabali (Cumi) xmamaRla, Cumad/siCumea xmamaRla xma yvirili, dayvireba xmauroba xmauri xmauria dumili, gaCumeba Wori ynosva cxviri suni/dgoma sunamo, odekoloni suni, surneli kargi, cudi, sasiamovno, arasasiamovno, nazi sunis SegrZneba feri sufTa, mkveTri, nazi toni baci/Ria muqi saRebavi aRqma grZnoba, SegrZneba Sexeba, xelis xleba rbili, magari, nazi

usinaTloTa sazogadoebas daxmareba sWirdeba. es qalbatoni cudad xedavs da ver daginaxaT, verc kedlis bzari SeamCnia da verc saTvale i pova. naTeli oTaxi. bneli sardafi. CrdilSi dgoma. eleqtrikosi CarTavs/gamorTavs sinaTles. Cemi papida dayruvda, aRaraferi esmis. niniko musikas usmens. aq cudad ismis. is Cumad laparakobs. oTaxSi siCumea. xmamaRali kiTxva.

bavSvi ayvirda, sxva bavSvebmac daiwyes yvirili/daiyvires. ra xmauri atexeT? dumili oqroa. Wori dadis TiTqos... es sul Worebia.

ra gemrieli suni dgas!mgoni, gazis suni dgas. surnelovani, suniani, usuno; sasiamovno/arasasiamovno suni. aq veraviTar suns ver vgrZnob.

baci/Ria tonebi; baci mwvane, muqi tonebi; muqi yavisferi.

xeli ar axloT! ra rbili savarZelia! 61

temperatura temperatura gradusi, nuli/noli, nols qvemoT, nols zemoT cxeli, Tbili, grili, civi cxela, Tbila, grila, civa, yinavs sicxe, yinva, sicive zomva, gazomva gayinva gaTboba maRali, dabali mduRare cecxli, xanZari namdviloba, WeSmariteba namdvili namdvilad marTlac dedani, originali advili/Zneli advili, Zneli, mZime sirTule advilad, Znelad martivi/rTuli martivi, rTuli martivad, rTulad sufTa/WuWyiani sufTa, WuWyiani sisufTave, sibinZure dabana, banaoba recxva, gasufTaveba mtvris gadawmenda dalageba, mowesrigeba savse/carieli savse, carieli dasxma Cadeba, Cayra TiTqmis

xval iqneba +10 (aTi gradusi nols zemoT, plus aTi gradusi). quCaSi civa, me mciva. dRes 15 gradusi yinvaa/sicivea. (minus 15 gradusi). temperaturis gazomva. Rame sarecxi gaiyina. moxuci RumelTan Tbeba. dabali temperatura. mduRare wyalSi Cadeba.

es namdvili tyavia. es namdvilad franguli sunamoa? es naxati originali ar aris.

is mZime adamiania. mas Znelad vugeb.

is rTulad wers.

saxls yoveldRe valageb da amitomac aris sisufTave. SabaTobiT vrecxav. mtveri guSin gadavwminde da dRes avejs isev mtveri daedo.

carieli Wiqa. Cais dasxma. CaiSi Saqari Cagiyaro? Cemi benzinis avzi TiTqmis savsea.

62

fasi fasi, Rirebuleba gadaxda, anazRaureba, ganaRdeba sazRauri Zvirfasi, iaffasiani, iafi iafad, Zvirad

ra Rirs es Tojina? nikom vali gadaixada. Zvirfasi wigni. dRisiT yvelaferi Zviria, saRamoTi ufro iafad SeiZleba produqtis SeZena. yvelaze maRali fasebi moskovSia. fasiani poliklinika.

maRali, dabali fasiani, ufaso mniSvneloba didi mniSvneloba aqvs; did rols TamaSobs did rols ar TamaSobs uzarmazari mniSvnelovani mTavari, ZiriTadi, didi cnobili, didi sasurveli minda, msurs me minda me msurs dae

pirvel STabeWdilebas didi mniSvneloba aqvs. gogi did rols TamaSobs am saqmeSi.

es Zalze mniSvnelovania. didi mecnieri/poeti, mxatvari.

me minda/msurs TeatrSi wasvla. me minda, rom Tqven Cempioni gaxdeT. dae mudam iyos mze.

B1 - zRvruli done

sivrce sivrciTi koordinatebi usasrulo sivrce SezRuduli sivrce sazRvari/usazRvro parametrebi, ganzomilebis erTeulebi veeberTela erTi bewo, erTi cicqna 63

alaznis veli usazRvrod moCans. es oTaxi Zalian pataraa, Tanac dabalWeriania.

caze veeberTela sahaero buSti dafrinavs.

ganieri, viwro, farTe ganzomileba gansazRvra, gansazRvreba milimetri, santimetri decimetri, metri, kilometri funti, lie, mili siRrme, sisqe zoma manZili Sors, Soriaxlos, aqve, axlos Soreuli, maxlobeli, uaxloesi, mezobeli farTobi siviwrove, sixalvaTe mgzavroba/mogzauroba sxvadasxva transportiT

zustad, miaxloebiT.

es qvevri Zalian Rrmaa. tansacmlis/fexsacmlis zoma.

aq nametani siviwrovea.

gemiT mogzauroba miyvars, magram ver vitan, radgan zRvis avadmyofoba maqvs.

moZraoba wayvana, tareba moZraoba, gaCereba bavSvs kviraSi samjer vatareb simReris gakveTilze. zafxulSi Ria avtobusi dadis, romelic, Cveulebriv, yvela gaCerebaze Cerdeba. giorgis kateris wayvana SeuZlia, marTvis mowmobac aqvs.

transportis wayvana fexiT/transportiT siaruli moZraobis mimarTuleba orientirisken saidan ­ saiT/saiTken misvla fexiT/transportiT -mde miRweva, misvla Camosvla, Camodgoma gamovla, mokiTxva dabruneba Sexvedra 64

transportiT misvla gaCerebamde Tavisuflebis moedani.

rogor mivide rkinigzis sadguramde? matarebeli borjomi-Tbilisi Camodgeba mesame liandagze. sam saaTze mogakiTxav. gamoiareT sam kviraSi. SevxvdebiT quCaSi.

Sesvla (fexiT, transportiT) gamosvla (fexiT, transportiT) moZraoba orientiridan wasvla, gamgzavreba, gafrena waReba, -dan gaiwia, mocilda - dan gasvla, gamgzavreba

man saxlidan nivTebi gaitana. nanam Zlivs gamoaRwia saxlidan. matarebeli gadis mexuTe platformidan.

moZraoba trasaze siaruli, mgzavroba, frena, sirbili, curva, seirnoba, moZraoba, tareba, waReba. gza, liandagi, gzatkecili, quCa, gamziri, gadasasvleli, gzajvaredini, xidi, kibe

mariami manqanas kargad atarebs.

Cavla (gverdiT, iqve, axlos) -Tan, Sua, Soris, win, ukan gavla, Cavla, frena, Cafrena, gverdiT, iqve, axlos, Tan, Sua, Soris, win, ukan

xids gadaivli, kibeze Caxval, gzajvaredinze gaxval da marjvniv afTiaqs dainaxav. gverdiT Cauara.

Cavla afTiaqis win. gagarinis moednis gavla. sakuTari gaCerebis gavla. maRaziaSi wasvla purisTvis. erTi wuTiT Semogirbine.

moZraobis mizani wasvla, gamgzavreba, gafrena. mosvla, Camosvla, Camofrena, morbena wasvla, gamgzavreba, gafrena, gaqceva, misvla (fexiT, transportiT), mifrena, mirbena gacileba, mocileba (moSoreba) moZraoba

saxlamde gagacilebT. Camovida konferenciaze gamosasvlelad. Camovida imisTvis, rom gamovides konferenciaze. miuaxlovda, raTa misalmeboda.

moZraobis xarisxi midis, mirbis, miiCqaris swrafi, neli swrafad, nela, auCqareblad moZraobis raodenoba moZraobis raodenobis sazomi raodenobrivi mniSvneloba

miiCqaris matarebelze, mirbis stadionisken, midis samsaxurSi.

man dRes 100 kilometri gaiara. 65

- Soria metrodan muzeumamde? - avtobusiT ori gaCerebaa. - fexiT xuTi wuTis savalzea. moZraobis siCqare km/sT (kilometri saaTSi) zustad, daaxloebiT, TiTqmis swrafi, neli swrafad, nela, ZlivZliobiT

dro drois aRricxva saaTis dayeneba, saaTis gasworeba saaTi dRes diliT gavaswore da is xuTi wuTiT ukve CamorCa. zustad xuTia. Cemi saaTi zustad dadis/zust dros uCvenebs. ninos saaTi win midis. kaxas saaTi ukan rCeba.

zustad dadis win midis ukan rCeba xangrZlivoba ramden xans didi xania, cota xania

- dros -dan ­ -mde -is CaTvliT gagrZeleba dasrulebuloba -mde

me aq vcxovrob/var ori welia/ wuTia, saaTia, dRea, kviraa, Tvea, mTeli dRea, mTeli Ramea, mTeli zamTaria, mudmivad, mTeli cxovreba. ardadegebis dros. sam saaTamde, dilidan saRamomde. 3 aprilis CaTvliT. 1-dan 10 ivnisis CaTvliT. grZeldeba Casxdoma reisze N 437. biblioTeka muSaobs 21 saaTamde.

moqmedebis Tanamimdevrobis rigi Tavidan, mere, Semdeg, bolos uwin, ufro adre, Semdgom, bolos ukve jer male gagrZeleba, gavagrZeloT gagrZeleba momdevno, Semdegi 66 Cven ukve visadileT. mas jer ar daurekavs. me male moval. gavagrZeloT saubari. gagrZeleba iqneba. momdevno dRes. vin aris Semdegi?

rigiTi mniSvnelobebi jer erTi, meore, mesame... ukanaskneli, bolo dawyeba, iwyeba damTavreba, mTavrdeba

pirveli, meore... mease. bolo seansi kinoTeatrSi.

erTi moqmedebis dro meore moqmedebis drosTan mimarTebaSi erTdrouloba - dros + saxeli

avariis dros; xanZris dros; mogiyvebi Sexvedris dros/ Sexvedrisas.

erTdrouli, erTdroulad rodis imave dros

Cven safrangeTSi erTsa da imave dros viyaviT. me maSin viyavi safrangeTSi, roca Senc iq iyavi. dResaswaulis win. omamde. man universiteti daamTavra ufro adre, vidre me. Cven jer ar gvinaxavs es filmi. is jer kidev ar mosula? man ukve yvelaferi gaakeTa. vidre Cven vlaparakobdiT, maRazia daiketa.

winswreba - win -mde ufro adre, vidre jer ar jer kidev ukve Tavidan/manam, sanam/manamde, vidre/imis win, vidre/vidre

Tanmimdevruloba mas Semdeg, rac mere/Semdeg/mogvianebiT/ ufro gvian, vidre

koncertis/konferenciis/samuSaos/ gakveTilis Semdeg. 23 saaTis Semdeg. rogorme Semogivli. Semdeg ra gavakeTo?

odesme rogorme Semdeg wona grami, kilogrami, naxevari kilo, tona, centneri msubuqi, mZime

ramdens iwoniT? erTi centneri aris 100 kilo.

67

adamianis mdgomareoba da fizikuri SesaZleblobani asaki sabavSvo, axalgazrduli, mozardTa, mozrdilTa moxuci, xnieri Cvili, bavSvi, gogona, biWi, axalgazrda, ymawvili, qaliSvili deida, biZia, dideda (bebia), papa (babua) fizikuri mdgomareoba Zlieri, susti, daRlili, mTvrali daRla kargad, cudad, mZimed, msubuqad janmrTeloba rogor grZnobT Tavs?

masala qaRaldi, xe, oqro, vercxli, tyavi, liToni, plastmasi, rezini, sinTetika, mina, abreSumi, bamba, matyli. xidan, matylidan, bambidan. 100% bamba. qaRaldis, xis, Salis, abreSumis, naturaluri, xelovnuri.

-idan masalis aRmniSvneli

Sefaseba xarisxis Sefaseba kargi, ukeTesi, saukeTeso, yvelaze kargi, araCveulebrivi, SesaniSnavi, lamazi, cudi, uaresi, yvelaze cudi SesaniSnavad, kargad, cudad Zveli, axali, Tanamedrove Cveulebrivi/araCveulebrivi normaluri, Cveulebrivi, araCveulebrivi Cveuli, uCveulo ucnauri, gansakuTrebuli normalurad, Cveulebrivad, araCveulebrivad, ucnaurad 68 is rusulad kargad kiTxulobs. Cveni macivari ukve Zvelia.

uCveulo ram moxda. ucnauria, rogor mogvagno. ra araCveulebrivad gamoiyurebi!

miCveva, SeCveva Cveva swori/araswori swori, araswori, zusti sworad, arasworad, kargad, saukeTesod gasinjva, Sesworeba Secdomis daSveba, SeSla Secdoma Sesworeba, gasworeba marTalia, ar aris marTali warmatebuli/warumatebeli warmateba warmatebuli, warumatebeli SeZleba, SesaZlebloba, moxerxeba

niniko Tavis ZiZas SeeCvia. mas aseTi Cveva aqvs.

ra xSirad mogdis Secdoma/ geSleba. uSecdomod dawera. es umarTebuloa.

gamarTleba, umarTlebs warmateba warmatebuli warmatebiT miRweva damarcxeba sasargeblo/mavnebeli sasargeblo, mavnebeli

Tqven SegiZliaT (moaxerxeT) britaneTis muzeumSi Sesvla? me ar gamimarTla.

man warmatebiT iaspareza. miaRwia karg Sedegs. samwuxarod damarcxda.

bostneuli sasargebloa. bevri Wama mavnebelia.

advilad misawvdomi/ miuwvdomeli daketva, Caketva gaxsna, gaReba daketili, gaxsnili (Ria)

maRazia iketeba rva saaTze. saloni iReba cxra saaTze. daketilia. Riaa. dakavebulia. Tavisufalia. maRazia muSaobs. es advilad misaRwevia. vera da ver CavaRwie sofelSi.

muSaoba miRweva, CaRweva SesaZlebeli/SeuZlebeli SesaZlebeli SesaZloa SesaZlebelia SesaZlebloba SeiZleba

SesaZloa/SeiZleba xval iwvimos.

es SeiZleba Zalze swrafad gakeTdes. 69

(ar) SeiZleba ar SeiZleba, SeuZlebelia SeiZleba/ar SeiZleba SeZleba/ver SeZleba akrZalva SeiZleba aucilebeli savaldebulo unda

saWiroeba

valdebuleba iZulebuli yofna Rirebuleba radac ar unda daujdes xarisxis Secvla gaumjobeseba gauareseba gafuWeba mtvreva texva Senaxva gaxdoma uceb, uecrad, moulodnelad

aq ar SeiZleba xmauri. Zalian cudad ismoda. ramis gageba SeuZlebeli iyo. Tqven SegiZliaT, xval ar adgeT Zalian adre. me SevZeli Teatris bileTis Sovna. eqimebma mas aukrZales moweva. me ver SevZleb amis gakeTebas. SenTvis aucilebelia eqimTan misvla. sxdomaze daswreba savaldebuloa. faqsi xelmowerili unda iyos firmis prezidentis mier. isini unda wasuliyvnen jer kidev guSin. Cven unda wavideT. me wamali unda davlio. mas sWirdeba/esaWiroeba Tqveni daxmareba. saWiroa Tqveni pasporti. Tqven valdebuli xarT, es gaakeToT. iZulebuli var, mivlinebiT Tavad gavfrinde. am filmis naxva Rirs.

puri aSkarad gaumjobesda. am maRaziaSi momsaxureba gauaresda. amindi gafuWda. sayvavile daimtvra/daimsxvra/ gatyda. sad Seinaxa Tamrikom denis qviTari? is gaxda eqimi. uecrad is cudad gaxda.

raodenoba raodenobis ganusazRvreloba /gansazRvruloba raodenobrivi ricxviTi saxelebi

ramdenime. zogierTi. erTi, erTnaxevari, ori, orni, orTave, orive, orjer, samjer.

70

boTli, Wiqa, TefSi Sekvra, paketi didi, uzarmazari, patara, bevri, cota, mciredi

maiam maRaziidan moitana erTi boTli borjomi, didi dasta asanTi, patara paketiT marili, uzarmazari Sekvra karaqi da cota Zexvi.

sakmao sakmarisia sakmarisi

dro gyofnis? dro geyo?

danawevrebuli/ daunawevrebeli raodenoba mTeli, saerTo, savse mTliani, yvela srulad sul nawili, naxevari danarCeni umravlesoba Sedis + -Si + saxeli Sedgeba + -sgan + saxeli

sul ramdenia? nawili da mTeli.

adgilze mitana Sedis RirebulebaSi. Cemi bargi Sedgeba 1 Cemodnisa da 2 CanTisgan.

xarisxi, sazomi didi patara, mcire Zalian, sul, TiTqmis zedmetad, sakmaod bevri, cota, sul cota naklebi, meti maRali, dabali SedarebiTi da aRmatebiTi xarisxi

sakmaod Zlieri.

maRali/dabali xelfasi. ufro maRla. ufro maRla, vidre... ufro meti; ufro meti, vidre... ufro naklebi. ufro naklebi, vidre...

ZlivZlivobiT, sul odnav raodenobis cvlileba Semcireba mateba gazrda -iT -jer, - ramdenjer

es amcirebs risks. brinji xarSvisas imatebs. nabeWdi produqcia yovelwliurad izrdeba. gaizrdeba 5 metriT. fasebi gaizarda 100-jer. 71

emociuri, nebayoflobiTi da inteleqtualuri qmedebebi grZnobebi, emociebi, neba grZnoba, SegrZneba grZnoba siyvaruli, Seyvareba siyvaruli xasiaTi mSvidi mSvidad Relva wuxili SfoTva/foriaqi kmayofileba gaxareba mowoneba sasiamovno, arasasiamovno bednieri, ubeduri mxiaruli, seriozuli gabrazeba, brazi SiSi sasacilo, mwuxare, mosawyeni, saSiSi xumroba sicili, Rimili tirili, yvirili pativiscema pativcemulo, Zvirfaso madlobis gadaxda xvevna, moxvevna kocna mcdeloba, cdilobs survili, unda, mounda miRweva, miaRwia

siyvaruli agvamaRlebs. Tamrikos mSvidi xasiaTi aqvs. nu Relav, yvelaferi kargad iqneba. maias sicxe aqvs da Zalian wuxs. es gogona sul aforiaqebulia. is kmayofilia mgzavrobiT. niniko saCuqarma gaaxara. lados mowons axali speqtakli. ra sasiamovnoa. es bednieri wyvilia. bavSvebi seriozulad miudgnen am ambavs. gabrazeba ar gixdeba.

sasaciloa, samwuxaroa, mosawyenia, saSiSia. sicili sicocxles axanZlivebs.

pativcemulo nikoloz! Zvirfaso Tamar! madlobas mogaxsenebT/gixdiT. madlobeli var. didi xnis unaxavma megobrebma erTmaneTi gadakocnes.

Sedegs miaRwia.

inteleqtualuri qmedebebi azrovnebiTi moqmedebebi fiqri, mofiqreba gageba, esmis

didia fiqri kacisa.

72

gasagebi, mkafio

ocneba SeTavazeba kamaTi gadawyveta, gadaWra gadawyvetileba xsovna, gaxseneba Seswavla daviwyeba Secdomis daSveba, SeSla Semowmeba SemCneva gaanalizeba

Tu SeiZleba ufro mkafiod gamoTqviT, rom CemTvis gasagebi iyos. adamiani ocnebobs Svilis warmatebebze. gamyidveli saqonels sTavazobs myidvels. kamaTis kultura yvelas ara aqvs.

verc ki SevamCnieT, dro ise gavida. qveyanaSi politikuri mdgomareobis gaanalizeba.

metyveleba laparaki, Tqma saubari moyola SekiTxva kiTxva, pasuxi gameoreba, ganmeoreba Sexseneba dapireba axsna gamocxadeba dasabuTeba

mxolod laparakiT saqme ar gamova. Tinikom kargi moyola icis. - ra Rirs kitri? ­ ori lari. - ramdeni? Tu ar Sewuxdebi, xval gamaxsene, rom jabasTan davreko. kviras cirkSi wagiyvan. maswavlebeli axal gakveTils xsnis. gamocdebis Sedegebs acxadeben. mivlinebaSi wasvlis aucilebloba kargad unda daasabuTo. gaigeT, rodis vxvdebiT maT. vaJam davaleba ukve dawera. ninom Tavis koncertze megobrebi miiwvia. magaliTisTvis aviRoT... ganvixiloT es situacia. Tanaxma var. me winaaRmdegi var/ver dageTanxmebiT. me girCevT, Tbilad CaicvaT. 73

gacnoba, gageba wera mowveva magaliTis moyvana magaliTad ganxilva daTanxmeba SewinaaRmdegeba rCevis micema

rCeva

Cemi azriT, dRes sigrilea, jobs ufro Tbilad CaicvaT.

inteleqtualuri grZnobebi da mdgomareoba gageba grZnoba yuradRebis miqceva saintereso, uintereso daintereseba, gataceba gakvirveba, gaoceba dajereba, imedis qona

darwmuneba naTelia

me Tqveni ar mesmis, gasagebia. me vgrZnob, rom yvelaferi kargad iqneba. is Zalian yuradRebiania; yuradRebiT moismine! es sainteresoa/uinteresoa. nika Zalian interesiania, is axla gatacebulia konstruqtoriT. saocaria/sakvirvelia. nuTu marTla. imedi maqvs, es saqme dadebiTad gadawydeba. mjera, rom yvelaferi mogvardeba. isini darwmunebuli arian? CemTvis naTeli gaxda, rom is Relavda.

kavSirebi da urTierTobani gansazRvrebiTi da gansazRvrebiT-viTarebiTi damokidebulebebi kuTvnilebiTi, sakuTrebiTi damokidebulebebi visia? Cemi, Seni, misi, Cveni, Tqveni, maTi sakuTari saxeli qona, yola miReba kuTvnileba patroni sakuTari sxvisi instrumenti -iT saubris, fiqris sagani/obieqti -ze 74

es Cemi CanTaa. Cemi ukeTesia. ninosi, Tamarisa, giorgisa, vaJasi... fulis qona, manqanis yola. ninos aqvs magnitofoni. misgan mSvenieri saCuqari miviRe. es agaraki me-18 saukuneSi grafs ekuTvnoda. saxlis patroni, ZaRlis patroni... es Cemi sakuTari saxlia. es manqana sxvisia. sxvisi nivTebi. fanqriT xatva, kalmiT wera. fiqri bavSvebze, saubari Wadrakze,

-is Taobaze garemoebiT ganpirobebuli urTierToba moqmedebis saxe rogor? ra viTarebaSi?

mogonebebi Tbilisze. am sakiTxis Taobaze mimarTeT 345-e oTaxSi.

kargad, cudad, swrafad, nela, Znelad, advilad, Cumad, xmamaRla, moridebiT. sulerTia. Canawerebis mixedviT, wignis mixedviT.

radac ar unda daujdes -is mixedviT mizani ratom? ra mizniT?

Txovna, Tqma, survili

-sTvis + saxeli

is movida dasaxmareblad. is movida, rom damxmareboda. is movida imisTvis, rom damxmareboda. vTxove, rom xval movides, me vuTxari, rom xval movides. me minda, rom is xval movides. gazeTisTvis wasvla; saxlisTvis, ojaxisTvis; drois motoveba. varjiSisTvis/ varjiSis mizniT.

-is mizniT piroba ra pirobiT? Tu

rom..., maSin -is dros -is SemTxvevaSi + saxeli logikuri urTierTobebi, kavSiri da, magram, -c; iseve, rogorc ara mxolod..., aramed

xval Tu darekavT, me ukve SevZleb, giTxraT, rodis iqneba yvelaferi mzad. misamarTi rom gvcodnoda, maSin misi moZebna ar gagviWirdeboda. xanZris dros, avariis dros. xanZris SemTxvevaSi darekeT 01.

mecniereba da teqnika; giorgic midis. Cven movaswariT ara mxolod britaneTis muzeumis naxva, aramed viyaviT britaneTis biblioTekaSic. Cven iq erTad viyaviT. 75

CarTuloba/CaurTveloba erTad

-Tan erTad gareSe garda

calke saerTo/calkeuli saerTo nebismieri calkeuli, calke magaliTi marto

iq wasvla mindoda maTTan erTad. iq wasvlas ar vapirebT mananas gareSe. yvelani iq viyaviT, Sen garda. mnaxvelTa miReba yoveldRe, oTxSabaTis garda. telefonis fuli calke unda gadaixado.

calke oTaxi, calkeuli sakiTxi. avxsnaT magaliTis meSveobiT. me marto vcxovrob.

B2 - zRvruli ganviTarebuli done

sivrce moculoba litri, Careqa, koka, Wiqa, boTli, TefSi, paketi, yanwi, dasxma daleva cota, bevri savse, carieli

Wiqa wyali, erTi boTli nabeRlavi, erTi paketi rZe. dalieT/miirTviT limoniani Cai. SemivseT, geTayva yanwi. es boTli carielia.

moZraoba moZraoba fexiT mibrZaneba, mobrZaneba Claxuni CoCva Treva

mibrZandiT mexuTe kabinetSi. mobrZandiT, ra xania gelodebiT. is kaci sacodavad miClaxunobs, fexebi stkiva da Zlivs daCoCavs. avadmyofobis mere niko fexs miiTrevs.

76

Sesaxvedrad wasvla zura TinikosTan Sesaxvedrad wavida. xval maka Camodis, vin midis dasaxvedrad? soflidan papa Camovida da bavSvebi misagebeblad gaiqcnen.

Segebeba

dro dro, dadgenil momentTan mimarTebaSi Tanadrouloba (dadgenil momentTan Tanxvedra) droulad moswreba miswreba

Cven ver movaswariT sadiloba. Cven ver mivuswariT filmis dasawyiss.

winswreba (dadgenil momentTan mimarTebaSi) winaswar CamorCena (dadgenil momentTan mimarTebaSi) dagvianeba Seyovneba dagvianeba dagvianebuli iqneba/iyo dagvianebiT, dayovnebiT adre, ufro adre, gvian

winaswar momzadeba.

Cven ukve vigvianebT. TviTmfrinavis gafrena yovndeba meteopirobebis gamo. mas daagviandeba, mis gareSe daviwyoT. gafrena dagvianebuli iyo. matarebeli N 37 Camodgeba naxevari saaTis dagvianebiT; Cais daleva adrea. is Cemze ufro adre movida. ukve gvian aris, wasvlis droa.

perioduloba, ganmeorebadoba periodulad xSirad/arc Tu xSirad/ iSviaTad/arc Tu iSviaTad

elene da nino xSirad seirnoben parkSi, zogjer zooparkSi midian, arc Tu iSviaTad ­ cirkSi, kviraSi samjer ­ simReris gakveTilze.

Zalian iSviaTad orjer, bevrjer, ramdenjerme 77

Cveulebriv, yovelTvis, arasodes xelmeored, isev, kidev usasrulod, mudmivad yoveldRiuri, yovelTviuri, yovelwliuri, yoveldRe/saaTs/Tve, . . . kviraSi/TveSi/weliwadSi erTxel (orjer) -obiT moqmedebis erTaderToba erTxel mxolod erTxel erTxel moqmedebis wyvetiloba ara mudmivad, SesvenebiT moqmedebis uwyvetoba

is mudmivad agvianebs.

am wamlis miReba aucilebelia dReSi orjer... oTxSabaTobiT (xuTSabaTobiT...).

sveneb-svenebiT avediT mTis kenweroze. yovelTvis, mudmivad, uwyvetad, Sesvenebis gareSe, mTeli drois ganmavlobaSi, dRe-Ramis ganmavlobaSi.

droSi SezRuduloba periodis aRniSvna -iT -is ganmavlobaSi is cxovrobs/cxovrobda ruseTSi ramdenime Tvis ganmavlobaSi. ori saaTiT, erTi kviriT; Tqven SegiZliaT am wignis waReba erTi kviriT. ori saaTis ganmavlobaSi; erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi; Cemi bina gaaremontes erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi. orSabaTisTvis, seqtembrisTvis, ori saaTisTvis, vaxSmisTvis. me masTan unda viyo sami saaTisTvis. amis gakeTeba unda movaswro Semodgomamde (or saaTamde).

-sTvis

-mde + saxeli ara mudmivad, ara yovelTvis

xarisxi piris, sagnis fizikuri Tvisebebi forma, garegnoba forma swori 78

sagnis forma. saxis swori nakvTebi.

Tanabari, mrude, mrgvali wre, buSti, rkali, burTi kuTxe samkuTxedi, marTkuTxedi kvadrati, kubi maxvili, blagvi nasvreti, xvreli

swori xazi; swori Tmebi. mrgvali saxe.

samkuTxa, marTkuTxa. kvadratuli, kuburi.

nivTierebis, sagnis mdgomareoba myari, Txevadi dineba, dasxma

gadaRvra duRili sveli, nestiani, teniani, mSrali sisvele, simSrale

mtveri, yinuli, wyali, haeri, airi. Tergi xmauriT moedineba. damisxi damalevine es Rvino oxertiali; onkani gafuWda da wyali tyuilad iRvreba. kokasa Sigan raca duRs, igive gadmodindeba. nestiani amindia. quCaSi simSralea.

emociuri, nebayoflobiTi da inteleqtualuri qmedebebi pativiscemis gamoxatva dafaseba madlierebis gamoxatva madlobis gadaxda me Tqven uaRresad did pativs gcemT. me didad vafaseb Tqvens naSromebs/Rvawls. madlobeli var. uRrmesi madloba. pirvelyovlisa, minda madloba mogaxsenoT. zogierT adamians ar uyvars bodiSis moxda. bodiSs gixdiT dagvianebisTvis. ukacravad, rom gawuxebT. mapatieT uneblie SecdomisTvis.

mobodiSeba bodiSis moxda

79

kavSirebi da urTierTobani dapirispireba, Sepirispireba igiveoba iseTive, iseve, erTnairi, zusti es igivea, rac... msgavseba, Sedareba

erTnairad, zustad.

gaWrili vaSliviT hgavs; ori wveTi wyaliviT gvanan erTmaneTs. araerTnairi, aramsgavsi sxvanairi, gansxvavebuli, sxva es sxva saqmea! sxvanairad; sxvagvarad; daaxloebiT rva saaTisTvis moval. mas asaki axla ufro etyoba, vidre fotosuraTze. dRes is ufro swrafad muSaobs, vidre guSin. is Cven Soris yvelaze Wkviania. es uaxlesi modelis kompiuteria. is iseTive maRalia, rogorc misi Zma, is ar aris iseTi, rogorc misi Zmaa.

daaxloebiT, magaliTad, TiTqmis

yvelaze, -u iseTive ... rogorc;

gansxvaveba es igivea, rac ... es igive ar aris, rac ... es buSti xom iseTivea, rogoric gias aqvs. sxva -gan gansxvavebiT mizezobrioba mizezi ratom? -is gamo, rom imis gamo, rom Sedegi

momeciT sxva ferisa. Tavisi disgan gansxvavebiT, megi Wkviania.

imitom, rom... radgan... avadmyofobis gamo; tkivilisgan.

amitom... ase rom, aqedan gamomdinare; amrigad. sababi saWiroa, aucilebelia 80

-Tvis

aucilebelia

janmrTelobisTvis aucilebelia haerze seirnoba. raTa; imisTvis, raTa saWiroa, imisTvis, raTa saxli kapitalurad gadaixuros, saWiroa damatebiTi Tanxebi. saqme is aris, rom Cveni gio jerac umuSevaria.

radgan, ramdenadac saqme is aris, rom subieqtur-predikaturi damokidebuleba moqmedebis subieqti vin? ra? saxeli -s raodenobriv-saxelobiTi SeTavseba

dedas, ZaRls, vanos, mamukas. ori Zma, sami kosmonavti, xuTi Txa. Cven TqvenTan varT. isini bavSvebTan arian. nino qmarTan aris. cnoba xelmowerilia eqim mgalobliSvilis mier. erT-erTi Cvengani; olimpiadis monawileTagan erTerTi.

pasiuri konstruqcia erT-erTi

predikati man es statia waikiTxa sarkeSi. amirani ­ inJineria, me ­ pedagogi. Cemi Svili pediatri gaxdeba. me maqvs aspirini. dokumentebi xelmowerilia.

yofna, gaxdoma qona vnebiTi obieqturi damokidebuleba pirdapiri obieqti visi? risa? iribi obieqti vis? visTan? ris Sesaxeb? -is Sesaxeb

wignis kiTxva, kabis kerva, tortis cxoba; giorgis naxva, nanas gacnoba. davurekoT Temurs. es Tqven. mokiTxva mamas da Zmas. vis unda mivce cnoba? saubari vaxtangTan. kamaTi nanasTan. visaubroT amindis Sesaxeb. mogviyevi konferenciis Sesaxeb; informacia madridSi mimdinare movlenebis Sesaxeb. 81

2.3 Tematuri

leqsika

qarTuli enis SemswavlelTaTvis aqtualuri komunikaciuri amocanebis gadasaWrelad Tematur leqsikaSi warmodgenilia iseTi leqsikuri erTeulebi, romlebic aucilebelia yoveldRiuri da profesiuli urTierTobisaTvis elementarulidan zRvrul ganviTarebul donemde. Tematuri leqsika amgvaradaa dajgufebuli: pirovnebis identifikacia sacxovrebeli adgili yoveldRiuri cxovreba Tavisufali dro, garToba, sporti transporti, mgzavroba, mogzauroba gzis povna amindi janmrTeloba ganaTleba sayidlebi sursaT-sanovage momsaxureba ucxouri enebis floba sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebi saqmiani gamgzavreba saqarTveloSi bankebi saqmiani informaciis moZieba sazogadoebis ekonomikuri cxovreba pirveli saqmiani kontaqtebi kompaniis, firmis stumroba kompaniis/produqciis prezentacia molaparakebebi saqmiani qaRaldebi.

82

Tematuri leqsikis katalogi

A1 ­ gasaRebi

pirovnebis identifikacia saxeli saxeli gvari mamis saxeli inicialebi qalbatoni (q-ni) batoni (b-ni) mimarTva misamarTi cxovreba misamarTi quCa Sesaxvevi moedani gamziri gzatkecili xidi parki

nika, sruli saxeli nikolozi. me mqvia giorgi. dawereT gvari. ra gvaris brZandebiT? Tqveni mamis saxeli? a.g. dadiani. qalbatoni mariami. batoni oTari. batonebo da qalbatonebo!

me vcxovrob baTumSi. misamarTis micema; saxlis misamarTi.

yoveldRiuroba saxli adgoma gaRviZeba dabana miReba Cacma gaxda Wama sauzmoba, sadiloba, vaxSmoba sauzme sadili

adre/gvian adgoma. bavSvma gaiRviZa. Sxapis/abazanis miReba. Tbilad/msubuqad Cacma. mobrZandiT, gaixadeT palto. mobrZandiT, miirTviT. modiT, visauzmoT/visadiloT/ vivaxSmoT. ra gaqvT sauzmed? sadilad gvaqvs bozbaSi. 83

vaxSami momzadeba saqmianoba dakavebuli wasvla wola, dawola ZiZa

vaxSmad ras inebebT? sauzmis/sadilis/vaxSmis momzadeba. ras saqmianob? dakavebuli xar? maRaziaSi produqtebisTvis wasvla. loginSi wola; dasaZineblad dawola; ZiZam bavSvi daawvina da unda daaZinos.

samuSao muSaoba samuSao samsaxuri sasadilo

vmuSaob dReSi 8 saaTs. samuSao dRe, samuSao dro. samsaxurSi siaruli,samsaxuris Sovna; Cven samsaxurSi kargi sasadilo gvaqvs.

Tavisufali dro Tavisufali dro ardadegebi dResaswauli dasveneba cota Tavisufali dro; saSobao ardadegebi; CvenSi aRdgoma udidesi dResaswaulia; rogor daisvene? Cveulebriv, sad isveneb xolme?

transporti sazogadoebrivi transporti qalaqis transporti avtobusi troleibusi tramvai metro taqsi saqalaqTaSoriso transporti TviTmfrinavi vertmfreni matarebeli gemi, navi 84

amindi mziani wvimiani kargi amindi cudi amindi Tovli wvima

dRes susxiani amindia. Tovs/Tovli modis. wvims/wvima modis.

sxeulis nawilebi Tavi Tvali cxviri piri nikapi tuCebi kbilebi loya safeTqeli yuri kiseri yeli mxari xeli xelis mtevani xelis guli idayvi fexi barZayi muxli wvivi qusli terfi TiTi gul-mkerdi muceli zurgi saxelis gatexas Tavis gatexa sjobia. Tvali TvalSi gauyara. sxvis saqmeSi cxviris Cayofa.

kbilebs nu aRrWialeb. loyawiTeli/loyebRaJRaJa. yurad ar iRo. gediviT yeli. mxarSi amodgoma. xeli xels bans, orive erTad pirso.

fexebis bakuni.

aqilevsis qusli. iseTi sibnelea, TvalTan TiTs ver miitan. broliviT gul-mkerdi. Rormuceloba.

85

ganaTleba swavla gakveTili maswavlebeli moswavle skola instituti niSani fanqari kalmistari rveuli qaRaldi wigni saxelmZRvanelo

kargi/cudi niSani. niSnis miReba/dawera.

sayidlebi maRazia gamyidveli fasi bazari bostneuli xili tansacmeli fexsacmeli ojaxSi saxmari nivTebi TefSi finjani dana Cangali Wiqa kovzi Caidani saWmeli, sasmeli sacivi baJe Romi xaWapuri mWadi gozinayi 86

kombosto, stafilo, Warxali, badrijani, yvavilovani kombosto... vaSli, msxali, atami, alubali, bali, Sindi, qliavi, marwyvi...

gozinayi axali wlis tradiciuli tkbileulia.

indauri laRiZis wyali limonaTi mineraluri wyali

Semwvari indauri komSiT.

momsaxureba fosta werili werilis gagzavna konverti marka Ria baraTi

me vici misaloci baraTis gagzavna.

adamianebs Soris urTierToba urTierTobis ti pebi naTesavi nacnobi megobari mezobeli axlobeli cnoba urTierToba stumari

me mas vicnob. kargi/cudi/normaluri urTierToba.

A2 ­ safuZveli

pirovnebis identifikacia saxeli, gvari xelmowera misamarTi saxeli nomeri korpusi sadarbazo kodi

nata andronikaSvili.

¹ 91.

Tqven gaqvT kodi sadarbazoSi? 87

indeqsi sofeli qveyana telefonis nomeri telefoni

safosto indeqsi; Tbilisis ubnebs sxvadasxva indeqsi aqvT.

rekva/darekva mesiji (Setyobineba) dabadebis adgili da TariRi dabadeba dabadebis dRe, Tve da ricxvi dabadebis TariRi dabadebis adgili asaki mozardi, qaliSvilobis asaki, xnieri

samsaxuris/binis telefonis nomeri; mobiluris telefonis nomeri; telefonis nomris micema/Cawera; sainformacio cnobari 09 gismenT; mesijis gagzavna.

me davibade TbilisSi 1969 wels. 13. 12. 2002. foTi.

nugzari Suaxnis kacia.

sqesi mamrobiTi (mamr) mdedrobiTi (mdedr) mamakaci qali biWi gogona vaJi qaliSvili

sacxovrebeli, garemo Senoba oTaxi sakuTari saxli korpusi samzareulo tualeti saabazano 88

oTaxebia: saZinebeli, sastumro, sasadilo, sabavSvo, kabineti.

kar-fanjara aivani derefani sarTuli kibe lifti gadis/gamodis garaJi (avtofarexi) aveji logini sabani baliSi TeTreuli leibi samsaxuri ufrosi kolega SromiTi mowyobis biuro saWiroa, esaWiroeba ganyofileba kadrebis ganyofileba kontraqti movaleoba saSvi Sesveneba Svebuleba gamosasvleli (dRe)

fanjrebi gadis ezoSi/gamodis quCaSi.

sawoli, skami, magida, karada, savarZeli, divani.

zewari, baliSispiri, sabnis piri.

firmas esaWiroeba mdivanreferenti; firmis/dawesebulebis ganyofileba. kontraqtis gaformeba; kontraqtiT muSaoba; amis gakeTeba Sedis mis movaleobaSi. samsaxuris saSvi; Sesveneba sadilisTvis; Svebulebis aReba; SvebulebaSi gasvla; mas ori gamosasvleli dRe aqvs ­ SabaTi da kvira.

xelfasi xelfasi xelfasis aReba; xelfasma moimata/daiklo; maRali/dabali xelfasi; mas maRali/dabali gamomuSaveba aqvs; gadasaxadebis gadaxda; pensiis miReba; pensiaze gasvla. 89

gamomuSaveba gadasaxadi pensia

Tavisufali dro sayvareli saqmianoba, garToba hobi hobia: Segroveba, qsova, qargva, seirnoba, fotografireba, kerva, Tevzaoba, xatva... interesebis sferoa: ferwera, literatura, kino, arqiteqtura...

transporti, mogzauroba sarkinigzo transporti sadguri/rkinigzis sadguri matarebeli

Sors mimavali matarebeli; sabargo matarebeli; samgzavro matarebeli. kupirebuli/saZinebeli vagoni; oradgiliani/oTxadgiliani kupe; kenti/luwi adgili; zeda/qveda adgili.

elmavali vagoni kupe adgili mogzauroba mogzauri mogzauroba turisti eqskursia daTvaliereba

ucxoel turistTa jgufi guSin eqskursiaze iyo dasavleT saqarTveloSi. maT daaTvalieres bagratis taZari, gelaTi.

amindi mze Rrubeli yinva qari Crdili mziani amindi. Rrubliani amindi; yinavs/yinvaa; qariani amindia/qari qris.

90

janmrTeloba adamianis Sinagani organoebi guli, tvini, saylapavi, kuWi, RviZli, naRvlis buSti, elenTa, filtvebi, nawlavebi... Tavis tkivili. rogor grZnob Tavs? Tavi amtkivda; kbili mtkiva. gavcivdi ­ surdo maqvs da maciebs/mamcivnebs; sicxe maqvs; wamali miiReT?/dalieT?

Tavi

tkivili gacieba temperatura wamali ganaTleba swavla swavleba gakveTili leqcia mecadineoba gamocda CaTvla

institutSi/kolejSi/kursebze/ universitetSi; swavlebis Rirebuleba; gakveTilis Catareba/mosmena; leqciis Catareba/mosmena; jgufuri/individualuri mecadineoba; gamocdis Cabareba; CaTvlis miReba.

sayidlebi fasi/Rirebuleba daxarjva gadaxda fuli xurda yidva gayidva ganvadeba salaro molare

macivari viyide ganvadebiT. molare bankSi wavida da salaro daketilia.

91

saWmeli, sasmeli Romi elarji

Romi da elarji megruli kerZebia. karg aCmas aWaraSi acxoben. nigvziani fxali dasavleT saqarTveloSi ician.

aCma nigvziani fxali Canaxi kecze Semwvari varia tyemali pomidvris sawebeli/tomati mwvadi xaSlama Silaflavi Tevzi soko yveli sunelebi ajika kompoti nabeRlavi borjomi

xaSlama kaxuri saWmelia. cocxali/mtkvarSi cocxal Tevzs veravin gamolevs; Semwvari soko; sulguni, gudis yveli; sadils Zalian uxdeba suneli.

momsaxureba telefoni darekva akrefva muSaobs/ar muSaobs policia policieli policiis ganyofileba patruli qurdoba

akrifeT jer kodi, Semdeg nomeri. ar ismis, Tu SeiZleba Tavidan darekeT.

gancxadeba binis gaqurdvis Sesaxeb. Civili mezobelTan Cxubis gamo.

Civili

92

cnobaTa samsaxurebi satelefono cnobari informacia telefonis nomeri

policiis/saxanZros/saswrafo daxmarebis...

cnobaTa biuro sainformacio biuleteni

adamianebs Soris urTierToba stumrebi, miwvevebi miwveva/mowveva

molaparakeba aRniSvna/zeimoba

mowvevis dawera/gagzavna/ miReba; stumrad miwveva; Cven movilaparakeT, rom xval 7 saaTze giorgis vewvioT; gia dabadebis dRes aRniSnavs/ zeimobs.

93

B1 - zRvruli done

pirovnebis identifikacia ojaxuri mdgomareoba coliani/ucolo gaTxovili/gasaTxovari/ gauTxovari/martoxela/qvrivi

is coliania. is ucoloa. is gaTxovilia. is ornaqmarevia. is gasaTxovaria.

erovneba erovnebebia: ingliseli, frangi, rusi, qarTveli, germaneli. Cans, es kaci ucxoelia. ucxouri ena/pasporti.

ucxoeli ucxouri mudmivi sacxovrebeli adgili (qveyana) Camosvla qveyana

saidan brZandebiT? saidan CamoxvediT? me safrangeTidan var. me safrangeTidan Camovedi.

profesia profesia

profesiebia: maswavlebeli, eqimi, msaxiobi, inJineri, Tarjimani, gamyidveli, parikmaxeri/stilisti.

specialoba muSa glexi studenti pensioneri diasaxlisi umuSevari samuSao adgili muSaoba direqtori mdivani ufrosi menejeri saxelmwifo struqtura ojaxi mSoblebi mama deda 94

samuSao adgilia: qarxana, firma, instituti, banki.

saxelmwifo dawesebuleba.

bavSvi, bavSvebi Zma da coli qmari ojaxis wevrebi, naTesavebi

ojaxis wevrebi arian coli, qmari, qaliSvili, vaJiSvili, bebia, papa, SviliSvili. naTesavebi arian biZa, deida, mamida, bicola, biZaSvili, mamidaSvili, deidaSvili, ZmisSvili, disSvili...

aRmsarebloba religia RmerTi eSmaki rwmena eklesia wirva kaTolikos-patriarqi mRvdeli moZRvari monazoni beri mnaTe diakvani meufe

xasiaTi rogori xasiaTi aqvs giorgis? mxiaruli/mZime/rTuli xasiaTi. mSvidi kargi cudi sasiamovno/arasasiamovno keTili boroti zarmaci gawonasworebuli/ gauwonasworebeli garegnoba gamoiyureba simaRle maRalia/ar aris maRali

rogor gamoiyureba? is mSvenivrad gamoiyureba. ram simaRlea? maRalia. 95

msuqani gamxdari simpatiuri/usimpatio lamazi/uSno/ulamazo

sacxovrebeli, garemo sacxovreblis ti pebi, arenda saxli bina

mravalsarTuliani saxli/korpusi. erT-/or-/samoTaxiani bina. bina avejiT/avejis gareSe/aivniT/ aivnis gareSe.

oTaxi agaraki yidva daqiraveba gaqiraveba gayidva yidva Sesyidva arenda saxlis patroni gancxadeba

Cven gvinda patara binis yidva qalaqis centrSi.

binebis gayidva.

naxva, daTvaliereba survili

gancxadebis naxva; gancxadeba gazeTSi binis gaqiravebis Taobaze; rodis SeiZleba binis daTvaliereba? ras isurvebdiT? rogor binas isurvebdiT?

binis gadasaxadi (qira) qira, gadasaxadi

dagvianeba gadaxda SeTanxmeba, xelSekruleba vada winaswar keTilmowyoba eleqtroba (sinaTle) telefoni wyali 96

wylis gadasaxadi Sedis binis saerTo RirebulebaSi. gadasaxadis aReba/miReba/gadaxda; gadasaxadis dagvianeba; gadaxda binis qiris/TveSi erTxel/winaswar/calke. xelSekrulebis gaformeba. arendis vada damTavrda. winaswar gadaxda.

bina keTilmowyobilia. bina telefoniT. cxeli/civi wyali;

gazi eleqtroba nagavi dacva signalizacia

gazis gadasaxadi; eleqtroqura, eleqtromricxveli; nagvis gatana; sadarbazoSi aris dacvis jixuri; signalizaciis CarTva; bina signalizaciiT.

mowyobiloba, binis movlis saSualebani Sxapi onkani televizori radio sarecxi manqana mtversasruti macivari qura uTo dalageba recxva, garecxva, morecxva (ar) muSaoba gatexva CarTva gamorTva remonti

gazqura. oTaxis dalageba; WurWlis garecxva, iatakis morecxva; sarecxi manqana ar muSaobs. uTo gagvityda; macivris CarTva; Caidnis gamorTva; remontis gakeTeba; molaparakeba remontis Taobaze.

garemo raioni adgili ezo dedaqalaqi qalaqgareT veli, mindori tye mTa tba mdinare zRva napiri, sanapiro plaJi wyali

ekologiurad sufTa/mwvane raioni; sasiamovno/mSvidi/xmauriani adgili; Cven kargi ezo gvaqvs; londoni, madridi, lisaboni dedaqalaqebia.

mTaSi isev Tovlia.

saxli zRvaze. Cveni agaraki mdinaris piras aris. wylis temperatura.

97

flora da fauna frinveli mweri xe yvavili buCqi cxoveli

arwivi, mercxali, bulbuli, kaWkaWi, beRura, kodala, TuTiyuSi... Wiamaia, buzi, pepela, koRo... muxa, Wadari, naZvi, fiWvi, tirifi... ia, vardi, tita, gvirila, SroSani... bza, mocxari... Sinauri: ZaRli, kata, cxeni, Zroxa... gareuli: lomi, vefxvi, zebra...

yoveldRiuroba swavla samomavlo gegmebi gaxdoma (gamova)

yofna swavla

kursebis gavlis Semdeg is mZRoli gaxdeba. me eqimi gamoval. me maswavlebeli viqnebi. is universitetSi swavlobs. me jer isev skolaSi vswavlob.

Tavisufali dro, garToba, sporti sayvareli saqmianoba, garToba gataceba

daintereseba

mitacebs mTasvleloba. mecadineoba, axali saqmianobis dawyeba. mainteresebs xelovneba. SarSan dainteresebuli viyavi/ mainteresebda Wadraki.

radio, televizia radio televizia (tv) televizori satelevizio programa gadacema

radios mosmena. saqarTvelos/adgilobrivi televizia. televizoris yureba. ra gadis televizorSi? satelevizio filmi; satelevizio programa; radios kviris programa; satelevizio/radio gadacema; telegadacemebia: qronika, axali ambebi, mxatvruli/dokumenturi

98

filmi, musikalur-gasarTobi programa. magnitofoni videomagnitofoni fleieri videofleieri kaseta kompaqt-diski firfita dadeba, Cadeba simRera musika

popularuli kino, Teatri, koncerti

firfitis dadeba/diskis Cadeba dasakravad. mas kargi Canawerebi aqvs. musikaluri Janria: klasikuri/ xalxuri/Tanamedrove musika, roki, jazi. popularuli momRerali.

filmi kino TamaSi dakvra mRera/simRera cekva bileTi

dasvenebisa da garTobis adgilebia: kinoTeatri, cirki, Teatri, sakoncerto darbazi, konservatoria, diskoTeka, (Ramis) klubi, samorine. warmodgena: bileTi, koncerti, opera, speqtakli. SemoqmedebiTi profesiebia: msaxiobi, reJisori, momRerali. musikaluri instrumentebia: pianino, gitara, violino, fleita. sabavSvo filmi, multfilmi. kinoSi wasvla. dRes vin TamaSobs mefe lirs? me vukrav gitaraze. ekas uyvars cekva-simRera. bileTis SekveTa/yidva; bileTi koncertze/kinoSi Sesasvlelad; zedmeti bileTi; bileTi SabaTisTvis; bileTis winaswari gayidvis salaro; SeiZleba SegikveToT ori bileTi xvalindel speqtaklze? umjobesia bileTebis winaswar yidva. dRis/saRamos warmodgena; gaqvT bileTebi momdevno seansze? 99

salaro SekveTa winaswar warmodgena seansi

dila/saRamo adgili rigi parteri amfiTeatri Sesasvleli gasasvleli saTadarigo gasasvleli garderobi tualeti programa antraqti afiSa administratori naxva, yureba naxva gamosvla msurvelebi gamofenebi, muzeumebi muzeumi

ori bileTi dilis/saRamos seansze; moxerxebuli (mouxerxebeli) adgilia.

Tqveni bileTebi loJaSia.

qalTa/mamakacTa tualeti; programis gayidva/yidva.

modi, vnaxoT es filmi. ginaxavs es speqtakli? gamodian cirkis msaxiobebi. giwvevT yvela msurvels.

galerea gamofena xelovneba ferwera qandakeba suraTi stili Tanamedrove Zveleburi cnobili mxatvari moqandake arqiteqtori wakiTxva kiTxva, wakiTxva wigni wignebis maRazia Jurnali mwerali 100

istoriuli/literaturuli/ xelovnebis muzeumi ­ kar-midamo; muzeumi ­ bina. samxatvro galerea. saxviTi xelovneba. im parkSi Zalian saintereso qandakebebia. es naxati originaluria. arqiteqturuli stili.

wignis saxli. literaturuli Janrebia: romani, moTxroba, leqsi. qarTveli/frangi gamoCenili/didi/ saintereso mwerali.

poeti biblioTeka sporti sporti

biblioTekaSi Cawera.

sportiT dakaveba, romel sports misdev? sportis saxeobebia: fexburTi, hokei, CogburTi, frenburTi, kalaTburTi, Wadraki, cigurebi, Txilamurebi, curva... sportuli nagebobebia: stadioni, sportuli darbazi, sportuli moedani, auzi, fexburTis moedani. Tqven darbixarT dilaobiT? kalaTburTis TamaSi; romel klubSi TamaSobda sxiereli? fexburTis TamaSi 18 sT-ze iwyeba. vin igebs? dinamom gaimarjva. lokomotivma waago. dinamom daamarcxa lokomotivi. fexburTis yureba televizorSi... ra angariSia? TamaSi fred damTavrda. golis gatana; sportuli klubi; me barselonas vgulSematkivrob. Tiko milanis interis gulSematkivaria. axali/dRevandeli/yoveldRiuri/ saRamos gazeTi; specialuri Jurnali; ukanaskneli nomeri; Tbiliselebis meoTxe nomeri ukve gamovida? Jurnal-gazeTebis gamowera. fotografia gazeTSi; reklamis ganTavseba/wakiTxva; gancxadebis ganTavseba/wakiTxva. popularuli Jurnalisti.

sportsmeni sirbili TamaSoba/TamaSi TamaSi mogeba/gamarjveba wageba/damarcxeba naxva/yureba angariSi fre goli gundi klubi gulSematkivroba presa gazeTi Jurnali nomeri gamosvla gamowera statia fotografia reklama gancxadeba gverdi Jurnalisti korespondenti

101

transporti, mgzavroba, mogzauroba sazogadoebrivi transporti transporti mgzavroba transsaagento cnobaTa biuro cnobari gancxadeba

nebismieri transportiT mgzavroba; erTi mgzavrobis taloni.

gancxadebis SekveTa/wakiTxva/ mosmena. gancxadeba radioTi/ sadgurze. bargis Senaxva Semnaxvel kameraSi; bargis Cabareba/miReba/dakargva; es Tqveni nivTebia? Casxdomis gamocxadeba/damTavreba. avtobusis/troleibusis gaCereba; am matarebels mcxeTamde gaCereba ara aqvs. Semdegi gaCereba; matarebeli avWalaSi ar Cerdeba. sxva matarebelSi gadajdoma iqneba saWiro. sxva avtobusSi gadavsxediT. SevxvdiT jgufs/megobars; gaacila megobari/deda. taqsis ayvana. metros sadguri; wriuli xazi; taqsis sadgomi, fasiani sadgomi.

napovni nivTebis biuro Semnaxveli kamera bargi nivTebi Casxdoma gaCereba

gaCereba gadajdoma gadajdoma, gadasxdoma Sexvedra gacileba qalaqis transporti taqsi samarSruto taqsi sadguri xazi sadgomi Sesasvleli gamosasvleli Camosvla, Casvla gadasasvleli gadasvla mgzavroba bileTi taloni Jetoni magnituri baraTi mZRoli jarima 102

CadixarT? CabrZandebiT? Tu SeiZleba gamatareT, Cavdivar. miwisqveSa gadasasvleli, gadasasvleli meore xazze; quCaze gadasvla; mgzavrobis safasuris gadaxda; avtobusis samgzavro bileTi; talonis gaxvreta/dakombostireba; metros Jetoni.

saqalaqTaSoriso transporti sahaero transporti TviTmfrinavi aeroporti frena mofrena gafrena dajdoma, dajda registracia reisi gasasvleli mxare saloni klasi pirdapiri stiuardesa sarkinigzo transporti sadguri/vagzali matarebeli

saiT mifrinavT? mofrenis darbazi; gafrenis (an gasafreni) darbazi; TviTmfrinavi romidan ukve dajda?/Camofrinda? registracia reisze; reisis nomeri; gasasvleli ¹ 8; marjvena/marcxena mxare; saloni mwevelebisaTvis/ aramwevelebisaTvis; biznes/ekonomiuri/pirveli klasi; es pirdapiri reisia?

kievis vagzali. matarebeli ¹ 67 baTumi ­ Tbilisi Camodgeba pirvel liandagze. samgzavro/Cqari/sagareubno matarebeli.

liandagi baqani samdinaro/sazRvao transporti samdinaro vagzali gemi/Tbomavali kaiuta porti navsadguri bileTebis yidva/SekveTa bileTi wasasvlel-dasabrunebeli bileTi bileTi fasdaklebiT; (bileTebis) SekveTebis biuro fasdakleba gayidva

sazRvao porti. samdinaro navsadguri; matareblis/TviTmfrinavis bileTi.

studentebisaTvis fasdakleba 20%-ia. gayidva larebSi/valutaze; gayidva gamgzavrebamde 30 dRiT adre. 103

gamgzavreba dajavSna SekveTa, SekveTis micema gadatana Cabareba ricxvi ganrigi yoveldRe kenti luwi gamosasvleli samuSao dRe dayovneba gauqmeba, uqmdeba drouli, droulad dagvianeba, igvianebs gasvla Camosvla, Camodgoma Camosvla piradi transporti manqana, avtomobili motocikleti velosi pedi tareba, wayvana marTvis mowmoba (nebarTva) nomeri gaqiraveba daqiraveba dazRvevis polisi dazRveva sagzao moZraoba moZraoba gza manZili trotuari gzajvaredini mwkrivi 104

gamgzavrebis dRe; bileTis/adgilis dajavSna; SeiZleba bileTis SekveTa telefoniT? SekveTis gadatana 8 ivnisisTvis/ 9 oqtombrisTvis. bileTis Cabareba; ra ricxvisTvis gnebavT bileTi? moZraobis ganrigi; cvlilebebi ganrigSi. kent ricxvebSi; luw ricxvebSi; gamosasvlel dReebSi. matareblis gasvla/TviTmfrinavis gafrena yovndeba; matarebeli ¹ 20 gauqmebulia. gadis/Camodis/Camofrena droulad; matarebelze/TviTmfrinavze dagvianeba.

manqanis tareba. manqanis nomrebis aReba/ daregistrireba. manqanis gaqiraveba; manqanis qiriT gamoyvana (daqiraveba). manqana dazRveulia.

calmxrivi/ormxrivi moZraoba; mTavari/wriuli gza.

marjvena/marcxena mwkrivi,

SuqniSani Suqi gasvla wiTel Suqze misaxvevi mosaxvevi Semovla dgoma sadgomi sagzao avtoinspeqcia wesebi jarima dajarimeba usafrTxoebis qamari/Rvedi akrZalva CamorTmeva avaria sagzao niSani/maniSnebeli

mZRolebo, iareT marjvena mwkrivSi. wiTeli/yviTeli/mwvane Suqi.

Semovla wriuli gziT. dgoma akrZalulia; fasiani/ufaso/sadReRamiso sadgomi. sagzao moZraobis wesebi, wesebis darRveva; jarimis gadaxda.

gaCereba/SeCereba/moZraoba akrZalulia; marTvis mowmobis CamorTmeva; avariaSi moxvedra. warwerebi sagzao niSnebze: Semovla, gasvla/gaCereba/ SeCereba/ moZraoba akrZalulia...

gzis abneva/dabneva mogzauroba mogzauri svlagezi eqskursia laSqroba turisti turistuli eqskursiamZRoli/gidi jgufi naxva, daTvaliereba

svlagezi dasavleT saqarTveloSi; eqskursiaze wasvla/gamgzavreba; laSqrobaSi wasvla. turistuli saagento/biuro.

sazRvari dasasvenebeli saxli sagzuri sagzuri fasdaklebiT samxreTi

aq risi naxva SeiZleba? RirsSesaniSnaobaTa daTvaliereba. RirsSesaniSnaobani: eklesia, taZari, monasteri, muzeumi, sasaxle, saxl-muzeumi, Zegli. sazRvargareT. saojaxo sagzuri; sagzuri or kacze. samxreTSi gamgzavreba/dasveneba. 105

kontinentebia: avstralia, azia, amerika, afrika, evropa. sastumro sastumro, hoteli moteli (sastumro samanqano gzasTan) kempingi saerTo sacxovrebeli cxovreba gaCereba Ramis gaTeva registrireba daregistrireba nomeri keTilmowyoba kveba dRe-Rame mawyobs/ar mawyobs SekveTa administratori morige gasaRebi gaRviZeba fosta gadacema Canaweri, werili xanZari

konferencia xuTvarskvlavian sastumroSi Catarda.

gavCerdeT erTi kviriT/erTi RamiT; Rame sastumroSi gavaTioT.

oradgiliani/oTxadgiliani nomeri; keTilmowyobili nomeri or kacze. orjeradi/samjeradi kveba. am pirobebiT dasveneba ar mawyobs. vaxSmis SekveTa nomerSi. gasaRebi morigesTan aris; gasaRebis aReba/datoveba/Cabareba. fosta rodis moaqvT? CemTvis araferi (ar) gadmouciaT? Canaweris gakeTeba; werilis datoveba. xanZris SemTxvevaSi... cecxlmqrobi (ar) muSaobs; telefoni/lifti/gaTboba ar muSaobs; televizori gafuWda; pirsabanis niJara gatyda; naTuris/pirsaxocis Secvla; angariSis gasworeba; mogvitaneT angariSi. qviTaris gamowera.

gatexva/gafuWeba Secvla angariSi angariSis motana qviTari bargi adgili, naWeri nivTi 106

ramdeni naWrisagan/risgan Sedgeba Tqveni bargi?

portfeli Cemodani CanTa fotoaparati kinokamera mebarguli SefuTva qveyanaSi Sesvla, qveynidan gasvla sazRvari sabaJo mebaJe gasvla gatana Semotana waReba ra migaqvT? deklaracia gaxsna/gaReba gaxseniT, Tu SeiZleba, Tqveni Cemodani; nebarTva nebarTvis aReba; nebarTva suraTebis/wignebis gatanaze; akrZalva am nivTebis gatana akrZalulia! baJi baJis gadaxda; ubaJo es nivTi ubaJod gatanas eqvemdebareba; Zvirfasi Zvirfasi nivTebi. fuli valuta Tqven ra valuta gaqvT? gadacvla fulis gadacvla; Cabareba Cemodnis Cabareba bagaJSi; viza vizis gagrZeleba. xelbargi registrireba, daregistrireba vizebisa da registraciis ganyofileba gancxadeba gancxadebis dawera/gancxadebaze xelis mowera; jarima jarimis gadaxda; qviTari qviTris miReba. sabuTebi sabuTi pasporti samedicino dazRveva cnoba beWedi

cnobis miReba; beWdis dasma.

107

gzis povna Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT ikiTxon, Tu rogor mividnen romelime adgilas, gamoarkvion marSrutis optimaluri varianti da amasTanave unda SeeZloT msgavsi ganmartebebis sxvebisaTvis micema. ruka sqema gegma marSruti ukeTesia ufro swrafad ufro moxerxebulia Tbilisis ruka; metros sqema/transportis moZraobis sqema; centris gegma; cvlileba marSrutSi; ukeTesia taqsiT wasvla. riTi iqneba ufro moxerxebuli vazisubnamde misvla?

amindi Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT gaigon amindis prognozi, gacvalon informacia da azrebi klimatisa da amindis pirobebis Sesaxeb hava amindi prognozi mze mziani moRrubluli naleqebi wvima Tovli burusi/nisli yinva qari Weqa-quxili temperatura (atmosferuli) wneva wneva izrdeba/mcirdeba Crdili haeri civi/Tbili hava; kargi/cudi amindi; amindis prognozi. mziani/umzeo amindi; Rrubliani amindi/uRrublo ca; unaleqo amindi; Zlieri/mcire wvima; Tovs/wvims; sqeli nisli; quCebi mTlad moiyina; Zlieri qari qris. ramdeni gradusi iqneba xval? maRali/dabali. CrdilSi 22 gradusia; sufTa/nestiani/mSrali haeri.

108

janmrTeloba Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT saubari sakuTar fizikur mdgomareobaze (SimSili, daRliloba da a.S.), pirad higienasa da piradi higienis sagnebze; janmrTelobaze, daavadebebze (kerZod, eqimTan aRweron Tu ras uCivian); unda SeeZloT sxvisi informireba ubeduri SemTxvevis Sesaxeb, saswrafo daxmarebis gamoZaxeba, samedicino dawesebulebebiT sargebloba; am sakiTxebis irgvliv azrebisa da informaciis gacvla.

guneba/qeifi rogor grZnobT Tavs? rogor gunebaze xar? Tavs moxerxebulad/ komfortulad/kargad vgrZnob/ Tbilad var/mciva/kargad/var/cudad/ uqeifod var. mSia/meZineba/ mwyuria/mosveneba minda.

survili daRla tkivili piradi higiena sufTa WuWyiani jagrisi kbilis pasta savarcxeli samarTebeli saponi sarecxi fxvnili dabana saparikmaxero/saloni SeWra

sad SeiZleba xelebis dabana? Tmis SeWras vapireb silamazis salon merlinSi.

daavadebebi, ubeduri SemTxvevebi janmrTeloba daavadeba avad gaxdoma tkivili temperatura

tkivili Tavbrus xveva

daavadebebi: gri pi, Sidsi. niko guliT avadmyofia; gizo ciroziT daavadda. Tavis/kbilis tkivilis wamali/tkivili muclis areSi; maRali/normaluri/dabali temperatura. mas sicxe aqvs. aq gtkivaT? Tavbru mexveva; 109

mada ubeduri SemTxveva davardna mirtyma motexva damwvrobis miReba damwvroba gaWra dieta samedicino momsaxureba poliklinika saavadmyofo eqimi

kargi/cudi mada; madis dakargva; moxda ubeduri SemTxveva.

fexis motexva. es meore xarisxis damwvrobaa. TiTis gaWra; dietaze yofna.

saavadmyofoSi dawola; eqimTan wasvla; eqimi specialistebi: stomatologi, Terapevti, qirurgi, okulisti. saswrafo daxmarebis gamoZaxeba; eqimis saxlSi gamoZaxeba; avadmyofis monaxuleba 17-dan 20 saaTamde.

medda/eqTani saswrafo daxmareba gamoZaxeba palata monaxuleba registratura samedicino baraTi Cawera miReba

miReba operacia wamali abi nemsi/ineqcia analizi recepti saTvale samedicino dazRveva dazRveva

qirurgTan miRebaze Cawera; qirurgi CaweriT iRebs. Terapevti avadmyofebs xuTSabaTobiT iRebs; dReSi samjer miiReT wamali; miReba damTavrebulia; operaciis gakeTeba; wamlis gamowera/daleva/miReba; xvelis wamali. nemsis gakeTeba; analizis Cabareba/miReba; receptis gamowera; saTvalis tareba.

sadazRvevo 110

samedicino dazRvevis tarifi; ubeduri SemTxvevisgan/ avadmyofobisgan dazRveva; samedicino dazRveva, dazRvevis miReba; dazRveviT sargebloba; sadazRvevo polisi; sadazRvevo kompania.

ganaTleba Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT saubari TavianTi ganaTlebis, kvalifikaciis Sesaxeb; maTTvis saintereso saswavlo dawesebulebebSi CabarebasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebisa (magaliTad, enis kursebze) da swavlebis organizebisa da RirebulebasTan dakavSirebuli pirobebis garkveva. amasTanave unda SeeZloT azrebis gacvla-gamocvla ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebiT.

ganaTleba dawyebiTi/saSualo/specializebuli/ umaRlesi/saxelmwifo/kerZo ganaTleba; ganaTlebis micema/ miReba; universitetSi romeli ena SeiswavleT? maswavlebelTan erTad mecadineoba; individualuri mecadineoba; damatebiTi mecadineoba; gakveTilebis Catareba/mosmena; kerZo gakveTilebi; gakveTilis fasi/Rirebuleba. rusuli enis kursebi; kursebze Cawera; kursebze swavla; kursebis damTavreba.

Seswavla

mecadineoba gakveTili

kursebi

maswavlebeli studenti Semswavleli/moswavle skola instituti universiteti fakulteti cxrili niSani leqsikoni saxelmZRvanelo fanqari kalami flomasteri

institutSi Cabareba; universitetis damTavreba. gakveTilebis/mecadineobebis cxrili; cxrilis Secvla; kargi/cudi niSani; niSnis miReba/dawera; leqsikonis xmareba aucilebelia enis Seswavlisas.

111

saswavlo sagnebi sagani

saswavlo sagnebi: maTematika, informatika, geografia, istoria, filosofia, rusuli ena, qimia. institutis/universitetis di plomi; kursebis gavlis sertifikati; miReba/gacema sertifikatis; di plomis/sertifikatis gacema; misaRebi/gamosaSvebi gamocda;

kvalifikacia di plomi sertifikati gacema gamocda CaTvla testi Cabareba

gamocdis Cabareba.

sayidlebi Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT saWiro maRaziisa da saqonlis povna firniSisa da maCveneblebis daxmarebiT; saqonlis SerCevisas da yidvisas mis xarisxsa da fasze saubari, safasuris gadaxda da am sakiTxebis garSemo informaciisa da azrebis gacvla.

maRazia maRazia

kioski bazari salaro rigi TviTmomsaxureba gayidva yidva gamyidveli garantia Cveneba Secvla/gamocvla gazomva/mozomeba arCeva dabruneba/mibruneba sxva 112

maRaziebi: gastronomi, univermaRi, supermarketi, xil-bostneuli, safunTuSe-sakonditro, sameurneo, saiuveliro, tyavgalanterea; gazeTebis, suvenirebis, kasetebis. bazarSi SeiZleba gamyidvelTan vaWroba. salarosTan rigi ar aris. molare swrafad muSaobs. rigSi dgoma, urigod wasvla. gayidva larebSi.

gamyidveli da myidveli SeTanxmdnen fasze. garantia 6 Tve. maCveneT es telefoni. SeiZleba kaba movizomo? am maRaziaSi farTo arCevania; fexsacmels wuni hqonda da ukan davabrune; sxva feri/zoma;

moduri finjani maTlafa Caidani yavadani Wiqa Cangali dana kovzi boTli qila tosteri blenderi sendviCmeikeri nayidi nivTebis fasis gadaxda gadaxda fasi/Rirebuleba/Tanxa daxarjva fuli sakredito baraTi naRdi fuli Ceki fasdakleba xurda daxurdaveba gacvla valuta damatebiT tansacmeli, moda

moduri tansacmlis maRazia.

xis kovzi, sadilis kovzi, Cais kovzi, desertis kovzi.

saboloo jamSi didi Tanxa dagrovda. bevri fuli davxarjeT sigaretze. sakredito baraTiT gadaxda; naRdi fuliT gadaxda; Cekis gamowera; fasdaklebiT yidva/gayidva; 20%-iani fasdakleba; xurdis aReb/micema. valutis gacvla; valuta: rubli, dolari, evro, lira, funti sterlingi, lari; damatebiT gadaxda.

fexsacmeli safule CanTa samkauli saaTi Cacma moxdena feri

tansacmeli: qurqi, palto, kaba, perangi, qudi, qvedakaba, kostiumi, Sarvali; Ceqma, waRebi.

Tanamedrove samkauls moduri dizaini aqvs; Zvirfasi saaTi iyideba saiuveliro maRaziaSi. es palto Zalian gixdebaT. 113

zoma TuTuni sigareti saferfle asanTi sanTebela moweva Cibuxi ojaxSi saxmari nivTebi WurWeli aveji eleqtrosaqoneli

nu moswevT!

sursaT-sanovage Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT sxvadasxva kerZebis dasaxeleba da SekveTa restoranSi, kafeSi... informaciisa da azrebis gacvla kerZebis momzadebis, sxvadasxva adgilebSi momsaxurebis xarisxis Sesaxeb.

saWmeli produqtebi Wama sauzme sadili vaxSami momzadeba moxarSva Sewva gawmenda/daTla daWra bostneuli salaTi supi/wvniani kerZi xorci Zexvi sosisi lori Tevzi xizilala qaTami 114

sadilze ra gaqvT? sauzme/sadili/vaxSami mzadaa.

kartofili, kombosto, pomidori, Warxali, kitri, stafilo, xaxvi. pomidvris salaTi. pirveli kerZi: supi, mJaunis supi, mawvnis SeWamandi, borSi, uxa... saqonlis/cxvris/Roris/qaTmis/ indauris/ixvis/batis... moxarSuli/Sebolili.

qaSayi, TarTi, loqo, oraguli... wiTeli/Savi xizilala. dedali/mamali/varia/wiwila.

kvercxi erbokvercxi/omleti gogli-mogli yveli nayini Sokoladi Rvezeli

naRebis, Sokoladis, nigvziT, vanilis, marwyvis. Sokoladi nigvziT. vaSlis, kombostos Rvezeli, Rvezeli xorciT, brinjiT. kombostoTi, xilfafiT.

orcxobila torti namcxvari konfeti kakali nigozi xili kenkra mdogvi wiwaka marili karaqi zeTi fqvili makaroni vermiSeli brinji fafa wiwibura pelmeni puri batoni naWeri funTuSa buterbrodi muraba Saqari mawoni xaWo araJani sasmeli daleva

vaSli, forToxali, msxali. Jolo, mocxari, mayvali... mware/bulgaruli wiwaka. bevri marili saWmels amlaSebs.

italiuri makaroni.

TeTri/Savi/axali puri. erTi naWeri ruxi puri.

soflis mawoni.

ualkoholo Cai rZe

ras dalevT? wveni, mineraluri wyali, ludi, Rvino, arayi, koniaki, Sampaniuri. ualkoholo sasmeli. Cais dayeneba. muqi Cai limoniT/ rZiT; rZis flavi, rZiani yava; 115

yava kakao sazogadoebrivi kvebis obieqtebi kafe bari sasadilo restorani bufeti bistro makdonaldsi momsaxureba TviTmomsaxureba oficianti magida darbazi SekveTa kabineti meniu kerZi samzareulo cxeli garniri/sakmazi deserti Semwvari moxarSuli umi arCeva gadawyveta angariSi gasamrjelo

yavis moduReba; kakaos gakeTeba.

momsaxurebisTvis 3% viRebT.

calke magida; magidas ar emsaxurebian; calke/saerTo darbazi; magidis/darbazis SekveTa.

pirveli/meore/erovnuli/safirmo kerZi; rusuli/erovnuli/evropuli/Cinuri. cxeli ra gaqvT?

angariSis mitana/gamowera; gasamrjelo oficiantisTvis;

momsaxureba Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT fostis, telegrafis, telefonis, bankis, policiis, sakonsulo samsaxurebis, samedicino dawesebulebebis, manqanebis gaqiravebis biurosi da sayofacxovrebo momsaxurebis dawesebulebebis momsaxurebiT sargebloba.

116

fosta fosta gagzavna amanaTi blanki Setyobineba fostalioni safosto werili konverti Ria baraTi qaRaldi marka avia miReba pasuxis gacema telefoni darekva Jetoni kabina kodi saubari

fostaSi wasvla; aviafosta, eleqtronuli fosta; amanaTis/werilis/telegramis...

safosto yuTi/gadagzavna/indeqsi. aviakonverti.

aviafosta; werilze pasuxis gacema.

saidan SemiZlia sxva qalaqSi darekva? Jetoni avtomatisTvis. qalaqis/qveynis kodi. kodiT darekva. saqalaqTaSoriso/saerTaSoriso saubari; saubris SekveTa; nomris/kodis akrefa; telefoni ar muSaobs; kavSiri ar aris. xma ar gamodis/ar ismis.

akrefva muSaoba kavSiri dakavebulia (ar) ismis telegrafi telegrama/depeSa sityva gamgzavni Sesvla banki blanki valuta gacvla Ceki sagzao Ceki angariSi krediti

telegramis/depeSis gagzavna; faqsis gagzavna/miReba.

RirebulebaSi Sedis.

valutis yidva/gayidva; valutis gacvla, valutis kursi.

angariSis gaxsna/daxurva. kreditis aReba/gacema. 117

gadaricxva policia policiis ganyofileba policieli gancxadeba Civili dakargva sakonsulo, saelCo konsuli sakonsulo elCi saelCo savizo ganyofileba teqmomsaxurebis sadguri Sefaseba xelosani/ostati filtri zeTi saWe saburavi borbali remonti/SekeTeba dazianeba saTadarigo nawili gatexva avtogasamarTi sadguri avtogasamarTi sadguri benzini baki/avzi Rilaki sayofacxovrebo momsaxurebis dawesebuleba remonti/SekeTeba

fulis gadaricxva angariSze/ safrangeTSi.

manqanis gatacebis/qurdobis gancxadeba.

sabuTebis/portfelis dakargva.

konsulis gamoZaxeba/masTan Sexvedris moTxovna; sakonsulos warmomadgeneli. saelCos TanamSromeli/ warmomadgeneli; ganacxadi vizis miRebaze.

remontis Sefaseba. filtris Secvla; zeTis Secvla. saburavis gaxvreta; borblis Secvla, saTadarigo borbali.

benzini 96. savse/carieli avzi; daWera Rilakze.

fexsacmlis/saaTis/CanTis SekeTeba/ remonti; eleqtronawilebis saswrafo remonti; saremontod Cabareba.

gawmenda qimwmenda laqa 118

laqa kostiumze.

samrecxao (TviTmomsaxureba) miReba dauTaveba momsaxureba mzad aris SekveTa saswrafo xelosani/ostati saxelosno gamoZaxeba garecxva

saremontod/gasarecxad miReba; TeTreulis gasarecxad miReba. SekveTa mzad aris. SekveTis nomeri; SekveTis miReba/Cabareba; saswrafo SekveTa/remonti; gTxovT, saswrafod gaakeToT es.

ostatis Sin gamoZaxeba; am samrecxaoSi manqanas kargad recxaven.

sainformacio samsaxurebi (policiis, saxanZro samsaxuris, saswrafo daxmarebis, saqalaqo satelofono cnobaris telefonis nomrebi). cnobaTa biuro cnobari cnoba mimarTva vagzlis satelofono cnobaTa biuro; satelefono cnobari; cnobis miReba/micema; fasiani/ufaso cnoba; mimarTva cnobis asaRebad.

ucxouri enis floba Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT isaubron meore an ucxouri enis codnis xarisxis Sesaxeb da im problemebze, romlebic Cndeba qarTulad saubrisas.

ena aso sityva fraza (winadadeba) saubari swavla wakiTxva dawera SekiTxva pasuxi gageba

enebi: qarTuli, rusuli, inglisuri, franguli, germanuli, italiuri.

zepirad swavla.

SekiTxvis dasma; SekiTxvaze pasuxis gacema. 119

Targmna axsna gameoreba niSnavs Targmani cota leqsikoni gasagebia/gaugebaria Secdoma

ras niSnavs es sityva? Targmanis gakeTeba; cotas gageba; cota ufro nela; qarTul-inglisuri leqsikoni. Secdomis daSveba/gamosworeba/ koreqcia; TviTkoreqcia.

adamianebs Soris urTierToba Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT pirad urTierTobebze, sazogado cxovrebaze, socialur problemebze, xelisuflebaze, politikaze, kanonebze, danaSaulze, omis da mSvidobis Temaze, sazogadoebrivi organizaciebis wevrobaze saubari da azrebis gacvla am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT.

stumroba dResaswaulis aRniSvna

aRniSvna wasvla Sevla mosvla mocda gacnoba saubari cekva milocva saCuqari Cuqeba SeTavazeba miRebulia/ar aris

dResaswaulebi: axli weli, Soba, aRdgoma, giorgoba, mariamoba, nanaoba, ninaoba, Tamaroba, nikolozoba... saojaxo dResaswaulebi: dabadebis dRe, iubile, qorwili; qeTevani dResaswauls aRniSnavs; stumrad wasvla; SemoiareT CvenTan stumrad. modiT/mobrZandiT am saRamos CvenTan; gicdiT am saRamos CvenTan.

yvavilebis Cuqeba; miirTviT; CvenTan es miRebulia/ar aris.

120

saubrebi interesebis mixedviT

sazogado organizaciebis wevroba klubi profkavSiri Sesvla, gawevrianeba sazogadoebaSi/klubSi/partiaSi gawevrianeba; wevri klubis wevri. kreba Sekreba vikribebiT kviraSi orjer. xelisufleba, politika saxelmwifo konstitucia xelisufleba parlamenti prezidenti brZanebuleba premierministri ministri saministro Tavmjdomare deputati warmomadgeneli arCevnebi arCeva kandidati xmis micema mTavroba ekonomika ekonomikuri xelSekruleba mrewveloba soflis meurneoba reforma sakuTreba politika politikosi politikuri partia

mravalenovani saxelmwifo.

brZanebulebis gacema.

sagareo saqmeTa saministro.

deputatobis kandidati. saxelmwifo/Zlieri/susti mTavroba; ganviTarebuli/CamorCenili ekonomika. xelSekrulebaze xelis mowera.

reformis Catareba; kerZo/saxelmwifo sakuTreba; saxelmwifo politika; popularuli/axalgazrda politikosi. politikuri partiebia: nacionaluri, social-demokratiuli, leiboristuli, respublikuri...

121

respublika avtonomia olqi evropis sabWo evropis kavSiri dsT (damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobroba) nato (Crdilo-atlantikuri aliansi)

nato sityva-sityviT niSnavs ­ Crdilo atlantikis xelSekrulebis organizacias.

wesrigi da kanondarRveva danaSauli damnaSave qurdi qurdoba moparva mokvla motaceba afeTqeba srola iaraRi bomba teroristi terorizmi mafia narkotiki alkoholi msxverpli ufleba dapatimreba moZebna kanoni advokati sasamarTlo mowme cixe omi da mSvidoba

danaSaulis Cadena.

sabuTebis/safulis moparva. manqana moitaces; afeTqeba metroSi; bombis afeTqeba.

terorizmTan brZola.

msxverpli ar aris; uflebis qona. damnaSavis moZebna; kanonis miReba; advokatis TandaswrebiT sasamarTloSi Civili.

konfliqti armia jari 122

omamde, omis Semdeg, omis dros; omi mZvinvarebs; omi damTavrda, mSvidobisa geSinodeT. samxedro/saerTaSoriso konfliqti; konfliqtis dawyeba/dasruleba; armiaSi samsaxuri; gaeros jarebis Seyvana.

floti aviacia jariskaci oficeri samxedro Tavdasxma Tavdacva zavi dazaveba jaSuSi gamarjveba damarcxeba gaero (gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia) socialuri problemebi sazogadoeba problema sociologiuri gamokiTxva gamokiTxvis Sedegebi; dabinZureba Raribi/siRaribe mdidari/simdidre umuSevroba daxmareba Semweoba ufleba cxovrebis done inflacia fasebi gadasaxadi/gadasaxadebi

zavis dadeba/dazaveba/zavis darRveva.

gaeros Stab-bina niu-iorkSi.

ekonomikuri/ekologiuri problemebi; sociologiuri gamokiTxvis Catareba; haeris/wylis dabinZureba ekologiuri problemaa.

adamianis uflebis dacva/darRveva; dabali/maRali done.

gancxadebis Semcireba/gazrda.

123

B2 ­ zRvruli ganviTarebuli done

pirovnebis identifikacia vinaoba saxeli, gvari gvaris dawera batoni (b-ni), qalbatoni (q-ni) mudmivi sacxovrebeli qveyana (samSoblo) cxovreba . . . -Si Camosvla . . . -dan misamarTi qalaqi quCa saxlis nomeri dabadebis TariRi da adgili dabadebis TariRi dabadebis adgili asaki didi, zrdasruli patara, bavSvi davaJkaceba, daqaleba

ra gvaris brZandebiT? me gaxlavarT giorgi Wyonia, firmis menejeri.

me vcxovrob avstriaSi; me Camovedi avstriidan.

dabadebuli 1985 wlis 9 ivliss. Tbilisi.

nodari ukve xandazmulia. nukri mowiful asakSia, magram bavSviviT iqceva.

sqesi mamrobiTi (mamr.) mdedrobiTi (mdedr.) ojaxuri mdgomareoba coliani/ucolo gaTxovili/gasaTxovari/ gauTxovari/martoxela/qvrivi erovneba ingliseli, frangi, rusi, qarTveli, germaneli. firmis xelmZRvaneli erovnebiT germanelia.

124

dawesebulebis dasaxeleba samuSao adgili da Tanamdeboba kompania firma saministro ganaTleba umaRlesi, saSualo, arasruli saSualo, arasruli umaRlesi kompaniis mflobeli; firmis advokati; ministris moadgile.

- ra daamTavreT?- me universiteti davamTavre.

saqmiani gamgzavreba saqarTveloSi (Sesvla/gasvla) sapasporto kontroli mivlineba: mcirevadiani, ramdenime dRiani, erTTviani vada pasporti, pasportis wardgena viza, vizis gagrZeleba sabaJo samsaxuri (sabaJo) sabaJo deklaracia: Sevseba, xelmowera, wardgineba baJi: gadaxda, amoReba, dakisreba ubaJod gatana qonebis gaTavisufleba sabaJo gadasaxadebisagan sabaJo tarifi sabaJo inspeqtori bargi: piradi, ugamyolo

ris gatana SeiZleba ubaJod? sad xdeba qonebis gaTavisufleba sabaJo gadasaxadebisagan?

CanTas abarebT, Tu Tan migaqvT salonSi?

tvirTi (kolofi, yuTi): awonva, registrireba, gatana, gaxsna nebarTva/akrZalva (wignebis, suraTebis, xatebis, Zvirfaseulobis) Semotanaze/ gatanaze Tqven gaqvT nebarTva am suraTis gatanaze? sabargo urika nivTebi: Zvirfasi, piradi tvirTi, tvirTis danakargi sabaJo kontroli wardgena sabaJo kontrolisTvis satvirTo sabaJo deklaracia 125

specifikacia SefuTva tvirTis gaxsna Cxreka, Cxrekis warmoeba tvirTis gaformeba sawyobi tvirTis dazianeba policia policieli dokumentis wardgena

sad formdeba tvirTi?

sastumro sastumro gaCereba erTi kviriT/erTi RamiT registrireba/daregistrireba blankis Sevseba cxovreba sastumros nomeri erTadgiliani, oradgiliani, luqsi; administratori morige gaRviZeba (. . . sT-ze) Canaweri, werili Canaweris/werilis datoveba Canaweris/werilis gadacema (ar) muSaoba (ar) muSaobs

sastumros dajavSna.

romel sastumroSi cxovrobT?

telefoni/lifti/gaTboba ar muSaobs.

Secvla, gamocvla Secvla gamocvla angariSi angariSis motana/gasworeba saerTaSoriso laparakis angariSi qviTari qviTris gamowera

pirsaxocis Secvla; naTuris gamocvla.

126

garToba restorani, samorine, Ramis klubi restorani, oficianti, SekveTa menius SekveTa/motana kerZi: erovnuli, safirmo, Cinuri romeli safirmo kerZis SemoTavazeba SegiZliaT? kerZis SerCeva sauzme, deserti, angariSi, gasamrjelo angariSis motana/gamowera Teatri bileTi, Teatris salaro, Teatraluri sezoni speqtakli, baleti, opera adgili sayidlebi marketi, supermarketi, univermaRi, suvenirebis, samrewvelo saqonlis maRazia gamyidveli naxva, Cveneba salaro gadaxda gadaxda sakredito baraTiT/ naRdi fuliT xurda, wvrili fuli Ceki Cekis gamowera/ganaRdeba transporti sazogadoebrivi transporti avtobusi, troleibusi, tramvai, metro mgzavroba erTi mgzavris taloni gaCereba avtobusis, troleibusis, tramvais gaCereba gaCerebis gamocxadeba 127

parteri, amfiTeatri, iarusi...

ra Rirs?

gadajdoma gadajdoma gadasvla miwisqveSa gadasasvleli metros gadasasvleli gadasvla SuqniSanze bileTi avtobusis, troleibusis, tramvais bileTi Jetoni metros Jetoni taqsi taqsis ayvana taqsis sadgomi taqsis mZRoli mgzavrobis safasuris gadaxda

banki/gadamcvleli punqtebi banki saxelmwifo, komerciuli, kerZo, aqcioneruli, Semnaxveli, sapaio. sabanko/bankTaSorisi krediti sabanko garantia bankiri (bankis mepatrone) anabari meanabre anabari

mokiTxvamde, saswrafo, warmomdgenze, depozituri. anabris saxeoba. anabris Tanxa. anabris vada. anabris pirobebi. dolaris savaluto kursi larTan mimarTebaSi Seadgens . . . rogoria amJamad laris kursi?

savaluto angariSi laris savaluto kursi

anabris miReba naRdi angariSsworebiT anabris gaformeba anabris daxurva 128

anabris anderZiT datoveba/ gaformeba gadacvala valutis gadacvala gadamcvleli punqti valutis kursi oficialuri moqmedi kursis dadgena kursis Secvla sakurso biuleteni valutis Sesyidva/gayidva piri fizikuri iuridiuli angariSi saangariSsworebo gadaricxva angariSze gadaricxva angariSidan angariSis ganaRdeba angariSis gaxsna angariSis daxurva Cekis gamowera sagzao Ceki sakredito baraTi sagarantio werili Tanxa naRdi, unaRdo Tanxis dawera cifrebiT Tanxis dawera sityvebiT operacia Sesavlis gasavlis gacvlis savaluto sakredito gadayvana, gadazidva Tanxis gadagzavna: ucxour bankebSi 129 sabanko operaciebi.

rogoria laris kursi evrosTan mimarTebaSi.

Tanxa Tqvens pirad angariSze gadairicxeba.

angariSis gasaxsnelad mcire Tanxac sakmarisia.

me sakredito baraTi ara maqvs.

dsT-s bankebSi arasabanko dawesebulebebSi Tanxis angariSze dasma konversia Tanxis konversia:

larebSi; evroebSi; sxva valutaSi.

saqmiani informaciis moZieba firma firma gTavazobT firma giwvevT firma eZebs firma dagexmarebaT firma gaaqiravebs firma iqiravebs

firma gTavazobT kabels dabal fasebSi. firma iwvevs programebis specialistebs. firma eZebs partniors erToblivi sawarmos Sesaqmnelad. firma dagexmarebaT eleqtroxelsawyoebis realizaciaSi. firma gaaqiravebs Senobas. firma iqiravebs Senobas sawyobisaTvis.

momsaxureba momsaxurebis gaweva

firma eweva saSuamavlo momsaxurebas.

partniori reklama, gancxadeba gancxadebis gamoqveyneba

rogoria am reklamis gamoqveynebis vada?

publikaciis vada rodis aris statiis motanis bolo vada? fasi Srifti msxvili, wvrili CarCo teqsti Cajdes CarCoSi/ darCes CarCos gareSe

130

eleqtronuli fosta faqsi teleqsi faqsis, teleqsis miReba/ gagzavna telefoni saubris erTi wuTi moTxovna moTxovnis gagzavna, pasuxi moTxovnaze moTxovniT mimarTva Txovna TxovniT mimarTva

miTxariT geTayva, Tqveni elfostis misamarTi.

myidvelma mogvmarTa TxovniT, rom gavugzavnoT Cveni axali produqciis aRweriloba. gTxovT gamogvigzavnoT katalogebi. Cven SevTavazeT winadadeba saqonlis mowodebaze.

winadadeba saqonlis mowodebaze myidveli, yidva gamyidveli, gayidva teqnikuri monacemebi, daxasiaTeba informireba

informacia gadaxdis pirobebi katalogi angariSsworebis forma SekiTxva, sakiTxi, garkveva

am moTxovnaSi firma gvawvdis informacias Carxis ZiriTadi maxasiaTeblebis Sesaxeb. Cven regularulad vawvdiT momxmarebels saWiro informacias. rogoria gadaxdis pirobebi? Cven gvainteresebs ukanaskneli katalogebi. Cven gvainteresebs angariSsworebis forma. me mainteresebs erTi sakiTxis garkveva, ra dromdea ZalaSi preiskurantSi mocemuli fasebi. gadaxdis romeli forma gawyobT? Cven varT Tanaxma inkasoze, Tu Tqveni banki iZleva gadaxdis garantias. es saqoneli iyideba mxolod naRdi angariSsworebiT. 131

gadaxda (Rirebulebis) gadaxdis forma akreditivi inkaso saavanso gadaricxva naRdi angariSi qeSi

sazogadoebis ekonomikuri cxovreba Semswavlels unda SeeZlos saqarTveloSi mimdinare ekonomikur procesebSi garkveva, informaciis mopoveba sakuTrebis sxvadasxvagvari formis, sameurneo saqmianobis ZiriTadi mimarTulebis Sesaxeb.

ekonomika saqarTvelos ekonomika sabazro ekonomika gegmiuri ekonomika ekonomikis stabilizacia ekonomikuri reforma ekonomikuri zrda ekonomikuri Cavardna inflacia, hi perinflacia ekonomikuri kavSirebis rRveva momwodebeli, mwarmoebeli, momxmarebeli warmoebis Cavardna, warmoebis aRmavloba (ara) rentabeluri warmoeba zarali, mogeba gadauxdelobis krizisi gakotreba TanamSromloba saqmiani ormxrivi mravalmxrivi mWidro samecniero-teqnikuri savaWro-ekonomikuri kulturuli urTierToba qveynebs Soris urTierTTanamSromloba TanamSromlobis damyareba TanamSromlobis gaRrmaveba TanamSromlobis formebi erToblivi sawarmo 132

sabazro ekonomika ganicdis aRmavlobas. SeimCneva ekonomikis stabilizacia.

ekonomikuri Cavardnis mizezi jer ar aris Seswavlili.

momxmarebeli damokidebulia mwarmoebelze.

es aris rentabeluri warmoeba. Cven vnaxeT didi zarali. es warmoeba gakotrda.

damyarda ormxrivi TanamSromloba biblioTekebs Soris. mWidro TanamSromloba saqmeSi aisaxa.

urTierTTanamSromloba mniSvnelovnad Rrmavdeba. damyarda TanamSromloba universitetebs Soris.

erToblivi sawarmos Seqmna

xval Cven gveqneba molaparakeba erToblivi warmoebis Seqmnis Taobaze.

sainvesticio saqmianobis warmarTva kontaqtebi: samecniero, kulturuli samecniero kontaqtebi aucilebelia eris gonebrivi ganviTarebisaTvis. Cven dainteresebuli varT mravalmxrivi kontaqtebis damyarebiT. aRdga kontaqtebi ruseTis federaciasTan. Cven gvsurs kontaqtebis gaRrmaveba bevr qveyanasTan.

mravalmxrivi, saqmiani

kontaqtebis damyareba kontaqtebis aRdgena kontaqtebis gaRrmaveba kavSirebi: ekonomikuri, saerTaSoriso

saqmiani, savaWro, pirdapiri kavSirebis damyareba

dairRva ekonomikuri kavSirebi ruseTTan. savaWro kavSirebis gaRrmavebas xels uSlis araerTi faqtori. damyarda mWidro kavSiri prezidentebs Soris.

valdebulebebi urTierTvaldebuleba sakontraqto valdebuleba valdebulebis aReba, Sesruleba valdebulebis Sesrulebaze uaris Tqma valdebulebis Sesruleba/ Seusrulebloba

es firma yovelTvis asrulebs Tavis sakontraqto valdebulebebs.

valdebulebebis Seusrulebloba ganixileba rogorc xelSekrulebis darRveva.

gacvla azrTa gacvla-gamocvla saqonlis gacvla gamocdilebis gaziareba

azrTa gacvla-gamocvla gadavida mZafr kamaTSi. azrTa gacvla-gamocvlas mohyva gamocdilebis gaziareba.

urTierTobebi qarTul-latviuri ormxrivi urTierToba 133

urTierTobis ganmtkiceba Cven qveynebs Soris. urTierTobis gaRrmaveba

ganmtkicda savaWro urTierToba urTierTobis gaRrmavebas xels uSlis politikuri daZabuloba.

soflis meurneoba sofeli

meurneoba: fermeruli/saojaxo sasoflo sameurneo warmoeba sasoflo sameurneo produqcia agrosamrewvelo kompleqsi transporti sahaero rkinigzis wylis: sazRvao, samdinaro tvirTebis, saqonlis transportireba

soflis meurneoba saWiroebs investiciebs. am sofelSi aris Zroxebis ferma. wvrili fermeruli meurneoba gaxda momgebiani. sasoflo sameurneo produqcia mniSvnelovnad gaizarda.

sahaero mimosvla ruseTTan aRdgeba wlis bolosTvis.

CvenSi ar arsebobs mdinaris transporti. vinaa pasuxismgebeli tvirTebis transportirebaze? Tqven valdebuli xarT, mogvawodoT es tvirTi Tvis bolomde.

mowodeba/saqonlis mowodeba tvirTebis mowodeba momwodebeli mrewveloba mZime/msubuqi mrewveloba navTobis/qimiuri mrewveloba mrewvelobis dargi samxedro samrewvelo kompleqsi ruseTSi gaZlierda samxedro samrewvelo kompleqsi. warmoeba samrewvelo warmoeba

mezobeli qveynebi zrdian navTobis warmoebas.

samrewvelo warmoeba saWiroebs axal teqnologiebs.

qimiuri, seriuli warmoeba saqonlis, produqtebis warmoeba warmoebis zrda, kleba 134

sawarmo, organizacia, firma sawarmo: kerZo/saxelmwifo saaqcio, qarTul-Turquli mcire, erToblivi mewarme qarxana, fabrika, kombinati, gaerTianeba saaqcio sazogadoeba, asociacia SezRuduli pasuxismgeblobis sazogadoeba (Sps)

ras awarmoebs es firma? es qarTul-Turquli sawarmo uSvebs sarecx saSualebebs.

dRes es msxvili gaerTianeba zaralis momtania. dafuZnda kavkasiologTa saerTaSoriso asociacia.

bazari msoflio, Sida, gare savaluto, sasaqonlo, safondo Zvirfasi qaRaldebis bazari gasaRebis bazari

msoflio bazari savsea saukeTeso produqciiT. Cven gvaklia gasaRebis bazari meRvineobis dargSi.

vaWroba sagareo/saSinao momgebiani savaWro SeTanxmeba savaWro kontaqtebi navTobiT vaWroba saqonlis brunvis gazrda/ Semcireba

rogoria Cveni sagareo vaWrobis mdgomareoba? Cven davdeT savaWro xelSekruleba ukrainasTan. navTobiT vaWroba ar unda gaxdes korufciis sagani. mniSvnelovnad gaizarda saqonlis tvirTbrunva.

fasi, Rirebuleba fasi

TviTRirebuleba

ra fasad gvTavazobT saqonels? Cveni fasi moicavs saqonlis Rirebulebas da dazRvevas/ saqonlis Rirebulebas da gemis bortze mitanas. am saqonlis TviTRirebuleba Zalian maRalia.

sakuTreba sakuTrebis formebi saxelmwifo sakuTreba

perestroikam Secvala warmodgena sakuTrebis formebze. 135

kerZo sakuTreba inteleqtualuri sakuTreba miwis sakuTreba mesakuTre sakuTari firma privatizacia

kerZo sakuTrebis araswor gagebas moaqvs garkveuli ziani. yvelaze Zviri inteleqtualuri sakuTrebaa. adre sofelSi kerZo mesakuTreebs eZaxdnen kulaks. man sakuTari firma Seqmna.

CvenSi binebi privatizebulia. finansebi finansireba mSeneblobis finansireba asignireba, subsidireba finansisti

dRes mSeneblobis finansireba yvelaze momgebiania. me gaxlavarT firmis mTavari finansisti.

fuli (saxsrebi) fuli: qaRaldis, plastikuri fulis Setana naRdi fuli, unaRdo angariSsworeba

qaRaldis fuli Secvala plastikurma baraTebma. SeitaneT fuli bankSi. dawesebulebas akrZaluli aqvs naRdi fuliT angariSsworeba.

valuta konvertirebadi arakonvertirebadi Semosavali sufTa Semosavali, dabali Semosavali warmoebis Semosavali

dolari konvertirebadi valutaa. lari arakonvertirebadia.

Cemi sufTa Semosavali Zlivs myofnis Semdeg xelfasamde. am warmoebis Semosavali metad dabalia.

mogeba mogeba didi/maqsimaluri/dabali mogebis miReba momgebiani sawarmo sawarmos aqvs didi mogeba. saxelmwifom miiRo didi mogeba; es ludis qarxana warmoadgens momgebiani sawarmoa.

wageba, zarali zarali

fors-maJorul situaciasTan dakavSirebiT Cvenma sawarmom ganicada didi zarali.

zaraliani sawarmo 136

gadasaxadi saSemosavlo gadasaxadi damatebiTi Rirebulebis gadasaxadi (dRg) sagadasaxdo inspeqtori sagadasaxado inspeqcia

saSemosavlo zarali 12 procents Seadgens.

pirveli saqmiani kontaqtebi Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT sakuTari Tavisa da kolegebis warmodgena gvariT, saxeliT, TanamdebobiT, im kompaniis dasaxelebiT, romelsac isini warmoadgenen; kompaniis mokle daxasiaTeba, im qveynis gacnoba stumrebisaTvis, sadac isini cxovroben da muSaoben; partniorebis Sesaxeb Sesabamisi informaciis gageba; saqmian Sexvedraze SeTanxmeba; saqmian sadilze dapatiJeba da msgavsi mowvevis miReba.

gvari, saxeli batoni, qalbatoni saxeli iwereba, warmoiTqmis xelmowera savizito baraTi Tanamdeboba direqtori: generaluri, komerciuli menejeri (firmis, kompaniis...) direqtoris movaleobis Semsrulebeli warmomadgeneli: oficialuri specialuri firmis interesebis warmomadgeneli me gaxlavarT firmis interesebis warmomadgeneli. lado aris sazogadoebasTan urTierTobis ganyofilebis gamge. me gaxlavarT jim teilori; es batoni ronald stivensonia. ra gqviaT Tqven?

inebeT Cemi savizito baraTi.

es Cveni firmis generaluri direqtori gaxlavT.

es Cveni firmis oficialuri warmomadgenelia. Cven gvaqvs am qalaqSi specialuri warmomadgenloba.

ganyofilebis gamge mewarme ekonomisti mmarTveli: bankis, firmis

bankis mmarTveli axalgazrda kacia. 137

Suamavali prezidenti: asociaciis, korporaciis mdivani: gamgeobis, asociaciis specialisti: mTavari, ufrosi... Statiani TanamSromeli TanamSromlebi: bankis, firmis, korporaciis, kompaniis filialis savaWro agenti mTavari buRalteri pasuxismgebeli vice prezidenti firma, kompania

saSuamavlo firma iRebs Semosavlis 10%-s. kavkasiologTa asociaciis prezidenti aris Cveni profesori. gamgeobis mdivanma gaxsna kreba. mTavari specialisti statusiT utoldeba mTavar ekonomists.

mTavarma buRalterma daagviana xelfasis uwyisis Sedgena.

saagento banki sareklamo biuro saswavlo-sakonsultacio centri erToblivi warmoeba organizacia asociacia saxelmwifo kerZo specializacia

Cveni kompania awarmoebs eleqtromowyobilobebis eqsports. Cven warmovadgenT kerZo firmas. uZravi qonebis saagento. Cven xelfass viRebT qarTus plastikuri baraTebiT. mimarTeT sareklamo biuros. saswavlo-sakonsultacio centri Zalian sasargeblo aRmoCnda. saqarTvelo-amerikis erToblivi warmoeba. Cven gvaqvs arasamTavrobo organizacia.

es kerZo kompania wagebaSia. Cven gaviareT specializacia marketingis sferoSi.

qveyana aRmosavleT evropis qveynebi dasavleT evropis qveynebi Camosvla... -dan imyofeba... -Si

Cven gvestumra delegacia didi britaneTidan. Cveni delegacia vizitiT imyofeboda luqsemburgSi.

138

saqmiani viziti saqmiani viziti: moklevadiani /xangrZlivi mivlineba vizitis mizani Sesyidvebis SesaZleblobebis garkveva vizitis samuSao programa vizitis samuSao programis SemuSaveba Sexvedra gavla

me vimyofebodi moklevadiani/ xangrZlivi vizitiT daniaSi. mivlinebis angariSi warmoadgineT CamosvlisTanave. vizitis mizania kontaqtebis aRdgena. erToblivi sawarmos Seqmna. Caraxebis, nedleulis, produqtebis.

vizitis samuSao programa mzad iqneba xvalisTvis. Sexvedra daniSnulia xval 12 saaTze. unda gavuaroT Cven stumrebs.

kompaniis, firmis, warmoebis monaxuleba Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT warmoidginon sakuTari Tavi da TavianTi kolegebi delegaciis wevrebad, gadascen saWiro informacia im kompaniis Sesaxeb, romelsac warmoadgenen, moiTxovon analogiuri informacia sxva kompaniis Sesaxeb, gamoarkvion maTTvis saintereso faqtebi komerciuli Tu samrewvelo saqmianobis, TanamSromlobis, garigebis... Sesaxeb.

gvari, saxeli Tanamdeboba kompania warmoeba warmoebis gafarToeba produqciis warmoeba mwarmoebeli ZiriTadi mimwodebeli

unda gafarTovdes videoteqnikis warmoeba. Cven vawarmoebT macivrebs. puris mwarmoebelia firma ifqli. saqarTveloSi macivrebis ZiriTadi momwodebelia firma beko ­ msoflio marka.

sawarmo saqmianoba produqcia samrewvelo sasoflo sameurneo mza produqcia 139

maRalxarisxovani produqcia moZvelebuli/axali produqcia warmoebis, firmis, qarxnis, produqcia produqciis gamoSveba qarxana qarxnis monaxuleba cexi, ganyofileba

CvenSi daiwyo Semosvla maRalxarisxovanma produqciam.

es mezobeli warmoebis produqciaa. Cven daviwyeT axali produqciis gamoSveba. vestumroT metalurgiul qarxanas.

kafeli mzaddeba am cexSi? mowyobiloba es mowyobiloba mzaddeba CineTSi. gayidva realizacia/gasaReba warmoeba kvebis produqtebi rZis nawarmi burRuli makaroni Zexveuli puri Rvino saxalxo moxmarebis saqoneli tansacmeli fexsacmeli sayofacxovrebo saqoneli aveji saqoneli msubuqi mrewvelobis, samomxmareblo sabavSvo, sportuli, maRali/dabali xarisxis, ekologiurad sufTa, erToblivi warmoebis, importuli msubuqi-mrewvelobis saqoneli CvenSi ZiriTadad importulia. maRali xarisxis samrewvelo saqoneli aris evropuli bazris ganmasxvavebeli niSani. saqonlis xarisxi: umaRlesi, maRali, dabali, uxarisxo 140 am saqonlis realizacia unda moxdes uaxloes xanSi.

rZe, xaWo, yveli ­ Zalian sasargeblo produqtebia. burRuli ZiriTadad ruseTidan da ukrainidan Semodis. makaroni italiuri warmoebis produqtia.

Rvino ki maTrobela sjobs...

damakmayofilebeli, aradamakmayofilebeli

es naWeri umaRlesi xarisxisaa. es fexsacmeli sruliad uxarisxoa.

saqonelbrunva wliuri, mimdinare, Sida, sagareo komerciuli saqmianoba vaWroba kreditiT (nisiaT) kvebis produqtebiT soflis meurneobis produqtebiT navTobiT, nedleuliT mogebas iZleva. vaWroba sxva qveyanasTan savaWro kapitali debuleba, wesdeba, sfero Semosavali, kompania firma, sawarmo dakveTa didi, patara, saswrafo

wlevandeli saqonel brunva Warbobs SarSandlisas. komerciuli saqmianoba gafarTovda.

nisiaT vaWroba aZnelebs saqonel brunvas. kvebis produqtebiT vaWroba Zalze momgebiania.

navTobiT, nedleuliT vaWroba did CineTTan vaWroba farTovdeba.

savaWro kapitali iZleva ganviTarebis saSualebas. savaWro sferoSi muSaobas iRbali unda. Semosavali gasavalze didi unda iyos. es savaWro firma male gakotrdeba.

Tanxa dakveTis micema dakveTis Sesruleba

qarxanam miiRo didi dakveTa, magram sirTule imaSi, rom es saswrafod unda Sesruldes. dakveTis Tanxa erTob didia. am dakveTis Sesrulebas ver SevZlebT.

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kompaniis/produqciis prezentacia Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT kompaniis/produqciis prezentacia.

gvari, saxeli qveyana, kompanias Tanamdeboba

firma statusi saxelmwifo, kerZo, savaWro iuridiuli saSuamavlo saaqcio sadazRvevo firmis dafuZneba firmis, sawarmos wesdeba wesdeba

sabuTebis gaformeba SeiZleba iuridiul firmaSi.

kapitali sastarto filialebi qona, dafuZneba, gaxsna filiali, ganyofileba firmis warmomadgenloba saqmianobis sfero: komerciuli, sainvesticio saSuamavlo, sainformacio, safinanso samecniero, teqnikuri ganaTlebis sistema raimes warmoeba sawarmos mogeba

aldagi sadazRvevo firmaa. firmis dafuZvnebisTvis saWiroa sawesdebo kapitali. firmis wesdeba saWiroa sabanko angariSis gaxsnisTvis. normatiulad dadasturebuli wesdeba unda iyos warmodgenili sam egzempliarad. sawesdebo kapitali unda iyos aranakleb 3 000 $ - isa. sastarto kapitali saWiroa warmoebis asamoqmedeblad. Cven firmas aqvs 80 filiali, maT Soris naxevari sazRvargareT. es firma dafuZnda SarSan. am bankis filiali aris foTSic. Cveni firmis warmomadgenloba TurqeTSi gvaqvs. komerciuli saqmianoba araa akrZaluli. saSuamavlo saqmianobas eweva saadvokato kantora mediatori.

am produqtis sawarmoeblad saWiroa licenzia.

142

momsaxureba sakredito, iuridiuli saaudito, finansuri saSuamavlo komerciuli SeTavazeba

am bankis sakredito momsaxureba moikoWlebs. xvalidan firmaSi muSaobas iwyebs saaudito momsaxureba. am firmas SeuZlia saSuamavlo momsaxurebis gaweva. firma gvTavazobs soflis meurneobis produqcias.

saqoneli (momsaxureba, produqcia) saqonlis gayidva saqonlis yidva saqonlis nimuSebi saqoneli gankuTvnili saqonlis miwodeba (damkveTisTvis) Cveni saqoneli.. saqonlis eqsporti saeqsportod gagzavna warmoeba eqsportis mizniT

es saqoneli (fexsacmeli) kargad iyideba. Cven gvinda SevisyidoT Tqveni firmis saqoneli. am nimuSis saqoneli davukveTe. es saqoneli saeqsportodaa gamzadebuli. damkveTs droze unda mivawodoT

goris qarxnis kaklis muraba saeqsportod igzavneboda inglisSi. dRes es qarxana aRarafers awarmoebs saeqsportod.

modeli axali Zveli bolo sareklamo prospeqti katalogi saqonlis, momsaxurebis katalogi sagamofeno preiskuranti nakeToba cali bazari

es mersedesis axali modelia. Zveli modelebi aq aRar fasobs.

am wels saqonlis katalogi jer ar gamosula. sagamofeno katalogs miiRebT Tqvens pavilionSi. fasebi mocemulia preiskurantSi. faifuris es nakeToba metad myifea. kvercxi calobiT iyideba. kolmeurneobis bazarSi siZvirea.

143

molaparakeba Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT miiRon monawileoba molaparakebaSi, romelic exeba erToblivi sawarmos Seqmnas, saqonlis miwodebas, garigebas, ganixilon kontraqtis dadebis pirobebis ganxilvas...

molaparakeba molaparakeba Sedga erTi Tvis win. gamarTva dasruleba molaparakebaSi monawileoba daswreba valdebuleba valdebuleba guSin dasrulda molaparakeba opelis firmasTan. orive firma monawileobda molaparakebaSi. me ar veswrebodi am molaparakebebs.

petrem aiRo valdebuleba da unda Seasrulos kidec igi.

ganxilva dRis wesrigi sakiTxis ganxilva dokumentaciis ganxilva valebis ganxilva

dRis wesrigSi warmodgenilia Semdegi gansaxilveli sakiTxebi. dRes unda ganvixiloT daswrebis sakiTxi. gadawyda, rom mosavlis aRebis vadebis ganxilva gadatanil iqnes xvalisTvis. kontraqtis pirobebis ganxilvas daeTmoba mTeli dRe.

kontraqtis pirobebis ganxilva

Seqmna erToblivi sawarmos Seqmna samecniero-sawarmo gaerTianeba mmarTveloba/gamgeoba iuridiuli piri mza produqcia mza produqcia dafasoebulia da mzadaa momxmareblisTvis misawodeblad. 144

damtkiceba wliuri gegma perspeqtiuli gegma

wliuri gegma mtkicdeba gamgeobis mier. Cven gvaqvs mzad momavali wlis perspeqtiuli gegma.

gadawyvetileba gadawyvetilebis miReba

ruseTis dumam miiRo gadawyvetileba embargos Sesaxeb.

krediti kreditis aReba Rirebuleba

kreditis asaRebad saWiroa uZravi qonebis Cadeba. sabazro Rirebuleba mniSvnelovnad aRemateba saqonlis TviTRirebubas.

teqnologia Rvinis xarisxi teqnologiebzea damokidebuli. wili ra wili aqvs lukoilSi daviTs? xarjva xarjviTi nawili Warbobs biujets. gasaRebis bazari bazris sakiTxi jer gadawyvetili ar aris. subsidireba Cveni proeqtis subsidireba ukve gadawyvetilia. kontraqti daido kontraqti or ucxour firmasTan. es kontraqti grZelvadiania.

grZelvadiani sagarantio werili

bankis sagarantio werili dagexmarebaT sesxis aRebaSi. sagarantio vada vadis gasvla saqonlis mowodebis vadis gasvlasTan dakavSirebiT Cven movaxdineT kontraqtis analizeba. Tqven dagekisraT pasuxismgebloba kontraqtis Sesrulebaze. saqme sarfiani saqme me viSove sarfiani saqme. 145

pasuxismgeblobis dakisreba

saqmiani mimowera saqmiani kontaqtebi partniori saqmiani ucxoeli

kontraqtis gaformebas win uZRoda saqmiani mimowera. gaaRrmaveT saqmiani kontaqtebi.

saqmiani partnioris moZebna yovelTvis Wirs. ucxoeli partniorebi xval gvewvevian.

SeTavazeba, winadadeba saqonlis SeTavazeba komerciuli SeTavazeba momgebiani winadadeba

myidvels SesTavazes mravalgvari saqoneli. es momgebiani winadadebaa. mosaxleobisaTvis momsaxurebis SeTavazeba SeuZlia firma pirimzes.

potenciuri klienti, partniori, investori garantia xarisxiani momsaxureba saqonlis xarisxi warmateba

es firma iZleva xarisxiani momsaxurebis garantias. saqonlis xarisxis garantias ver mogcems verc erTi firma. kargi saqoneli misi gayidvis garantiaa.

molaparakeba Sexvedraze vadebze protokoli

molaparakeba Sexvedris Sesaxeb gadaido. molaparakeba jarebis gayvanis Sesaxeb Seferxda. molaparakeba gaformda saTanado pritokoliT.

Sesruleba dakveTis kontraqtis pirobebi SeTanxmeba, mogvareba SeTanxmeba saqonlis mowodebaze mogvareba SeTanxmeba vadebze 146

partniori valdebulia droze Seasrulos dakveTa. kontraqtis pirobebiT sruldeba.

xeli moewera SeTanxmebas saqonlis mowodebaze. am problemis mogvarebas dro sWirdeba. vizitis vadebze SeTanxmeba jer ara gvaqvs.

dakveTa, SekveTa telefoniT

picis SekveTa SeiZleba telefoniT. bileTebis dakveTa SeiZleba avia saagentos meSveobiT. fexburTis bileTebze ganacxadi unda gakeTdes erTi kviriT adre.

ganacxadi

warmodgena licenziis fasdakleba, SeRavaTi

gTxovT warmoadginoT licenzia.

SeRavaTi sakmaod soliduria. fasdakleba 50% iania. daiwyo saSobao fasdakleba.

saqmiani dokumentacia Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT saSualo sirTulis saqmiani werilis Sedgena da masze ufro rTuli dokumentis wakiTxva. magaliTad, erToblivi sawarmos, asociaciis, fondis Seqmnis Sesaxeb.

saqmiani werilebi Txovnis amsaxveli werili werili-Setyobineba mowvevis teqsti damadasturebeli werili sarekomendacio werili madlobis werili moTxovnis amsaxveli werili moTxovna moTxovnis Seswavla moTxovnis ganxilva moTxovna raimes SeZenaze saqonliT daintereseba saqmiani kavSirebis damyareba mudmivi myidveli potenciuri myidveli moTxovnileba werili-SekveTa SekveTis Sesruleba saqonlis dasaxeleba fasi SekveTis moculoba SekveTis moqmedebis vada

moTxovnileba xarisxian saqonelze.

147

SekveTis gauqmeba/anulireba dazRveva sadazRvevo polisi usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa saCivris werili CiviliT mimarTva arbitraJi dava uTanxmoeba/azrTa sxvadasxvaoba saCivris ganxilva zarali/danaklisi zaralis anazRaureba dajarimeba/jarimis gadaxda Sablonuri frazebi, romelic gamoiyeneba: saqmiani werilis dasawyisSi

CvenSi araerTi sadazRvevo kompaniaa.

SemakavSirebel elementebad

werilis dasasruls

pativcemulo... batono/qalbatono... Tqveni werilis pasuxad mogaxsenebT... Cveni SeTanxmebis Tanaxmad, gTxovT... moxaruli var gacnoboT, rom... samwuxarod, unda SegaxsenoT, rom... damatebiT SegviZlia gacnoboT, rom... imis gamo, rom... zemoTqmulidan gamomdinare... amasTan dakavSirebiT... Tqveni yuradReba gvinda mivapyroT... saqme isaa, rom... Cveni azriT... upirveles yovlisa... garda amisa... madloblebi dagrCebiT SekveTis droulad SesrulebisTvis. gTxovT saswrafod gvacnoboT... veliT Tqvens Tanxmobas pativiscemiT... Rrma pativiscemiT... veliT Tqvens pasuxs.

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2.4 kulturuli aspeqti

kulturuli aspeqti SeiZleba or ZiriTad jgufad gaiyos: sociokulturuli qceva da ZiriTadi qveyanaTmcodneobiTi cnobebi. cxadia, rom namdvili komunikacia ar gamoixateba mxolod metyvelebis procesis struqturirebiTa da gramatikuli sistemis swori gamoyenebiT. ucxour enaze urTierTobis mniSvnelovan mxares warmoadgens verbaluri da araverbaluri qcevis marTlzomierad, mocemuli kulturis Sesabamisad gamoyeneba. bunebrivia, rom socialuri qcevis wesebi araa ise mkacrad gansazRvruli, rogorc gramatikuli, magram Semswavleli unda flobdes ara marto enobriv da sametyvelo saSualebebs, aramed unda icodes qarTveli xalxis socialuri qcevis normebi, rom ar dauSvas kulturaTmcodneobiTi uzustobebi. imisaTvis, rom araqarTvelma myarad igrZnos Tavi saqarTveloSi cxovrebisas da dajerebuli iyos sakuTar unar-CvevebSi unda flobdes garkveul codnas qveyanaTmcodneobaSi. e.i. unda icodes saqarTvelos geografiuli mdgomareoba, mosaxleoba, saxelmwifo da politikuri mowyoba, saSinao da sagareo politikis ZiriTadi tendenciebi da a.S. am miznebidan gamomdinare sociokulturul qcevaSi gaerTianda Semdegi sakiTxebi: _ kontaqtis verbaluri saSualebebi _ kontaqtis araverbaluri saSualebebi _ socialuri pirobiTobebi da ritualebi qveyanaTmcodneobiTi cnobebi Semdeg sakiTxebs aerTianebs: _ _ _ _ _ - - _ _ _ _ _ _ geografiuli cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb saqarTvelos kuTxeebi da qalaqebi mosaxleobis eTnikuri Semadgenloba saxelmwifo struqtura politika kultura ganaTleba sakuTrebis formebi religia tradiciebi janmrTeloba dResaswaulebi metruli sistemis Sesabamisoba

kulturuli aspeqtis aRwerilobaSi Cans sakomunikacio arealis TandaTanobiTi gafarToeba, rogorc enobrivi, aseve informaciuli TvalsazrisiT.

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2.4.1 sociokulturuli qceva A1 ­ enis gasaRebi

kontaqtis araverbaluri saSualebebi sxeulis moZraoba: xelis CamorTmeva araoficialuri misalmebisas an damSvidobebisas megobrebi, kargi nacnobi an TanamSromeli kacebi xels arTmeven erTmaneTs. qalebSi, rogorc wesi, xelis CamorTmeva miRebuli ar aris. qalebi umetesad kocniT xvdebian erTmaneTs. xelis CamorTmevas an kocnas, Cveulebriv axlavs verbaluri kontaqti misalmebis an damSvidobebis formuliT.

Sexeba araoficialur situaciaSi, xelis gayra, mklavze xelis mokideba, mxarze xelis moxveva TanamosaubresTan keTilganwyobilebis gamoxatvaa. megobruli, axlo urTierTobisas miRebulia xel-mklav gamodebuli siaruli (rodesac qali da kaci an ori qali modis da ara kacebi).

moxveva, kocna araoficialur situaciaSi megobrebi, kargi nacnobebi, naTesavebi erTmaneTs exvevian da kocnian. es Cveulebriv xdeba xangrZlivi ganSorebis Semdeg Sexvedrisas. yoveldRiuri Sexvedrisas kocna miRebuli ar aris.

Jestebi araoficialur viTarebaSi qarTvelebi, rogorc wesi, uxvad iyeneben Jestikulacias. magaliTad, Tavis gaqneva- uaryofis niSania, Tavis daqneva- Tanxmobis gamoxatvaa, xelebis gaSla ­ gakvirvebas gamoxatavs, saCvenebeli TiTis safeTqelTan mitana ­ uazrobis, sisulelis niSania, gaSlili, win gawvdili xelis mtevnis zemoT-qvemoT moZraoba damSvidobebas aRniSnavs, mxrebis aCeCva ­ eWvis, arcodnis gamoxatvaa, yelTan saCvenebeli TiTis mitana da gasma ­ mombezrda, yelSi amomividas niSnavs, ori TiTiT yelis gamoweva ­ Txovnis aRmniSvnelia, aweuli ceri TiTi ­ kargia...

mimika araoficialur viTarebaSic mimika did rols TamaSobs arasametyvelo urTierTobisas. mimikiT saubari aseve miRebulia saqarTveloSi. magaliTad, warbebis aweva ­ gakvirvebis niSania, warbebis SeWmuxvna ­ ukmayofilebas niSnavs, kbilebis RrWiali, ybebis TamaSi ­ gabrazebis niSania, igi tkivilis gamomxatvelic aris. 150

pozebi araoficialur viTarebaSi ki araa miRebuli savarZelSi naxevrad wamowolil mdgomareobaSi fexebis win gaweva, uzrdelobad iTvleba fexebis magidaze an savarZlis saxelurze dadeba. megobrebis wreSi yofnisas dasaSvebia xelebis Tavis ukan dawyoba. misaRebia fexis fexze gadadeba, xelebis gadajvaredineba, xelis mtevanze nikapis Camodeba.

zrdilobis normebi rogorc araoficialur, ise oficialur viTarebaSi qarTvelebisaTvis tradiciulad zrdilobis normebi erTnairia: qalis, moxucis, bavSvis pativiscema ­ adgilis daTmoba transportSi, transportidan gadmosvlisas xelis gawodeba, manqanis karis gamoReba da Cajdomis Semdeg karis miketva, karebSi win gatareba (ucxoeTis bevr qveyanaSi miRebulia, rom magaliTad, restoranSi kaci win Sedis). kaci fexze dgeba, rodesac oTaxSi qali Sedis, kacebi quds ixdian SenobaSi Sesvlisas (adre, Sexvedrisasac kacebi misalmebis niSnad quds uxdidnen erTmaneTs), kaci elodeba, vidre pirvelad qali ar gauwvdis xels misalmebis niSnad.

151

A2 - safuZvlis done

kontaqtis verbaluri saSualebebi wardgineba an TviTwardgineba gacnobisas Sua xnis xalxs, rogorc wesi, waradgenen ase ­ icnobdeT, batoni petre/ batoni petre didebuliZe, an Tanamdeboba + batoni/qalbatoni + saxeli, gvari: redaqtori qalbatoni ana WabaSvili; TviTon pirovneba Tavis Tavs waradgens formuliT: me gaxlavarT giorgi bagrationi, samecniero departamentis ufrosi. am wardginebis sapasuxo formulaSi Tanamdeboba aRar figurirebs ­ sasiamovnoa Tqveni gacnoba batono giorgi. SesaZlebelia aseTi formulis gamoyenebac: batoni + Tanamdeboba/statusi ­ batoni direqtori, batoni profesori, batoni ministri. axalgazrdebs xSirad mxolod saxeliT waradgenen: gaicaniT, es Cveni nikoa, an saxeli + gvari ­ niko dadiania an gaicaniT es mariamia, Tamaris qaliSvili/es anis vaJia, dimitri. gamoiyeneba aseve kninobiTi saxeli ­ niniko, aniko, vaniko, mixako, daTuCi.

telefoniT kontaqti araoficialur viTarebaSi gamoiyeneba formula ­ saxeli + var/gawuxeb + gvari ­ kaxa var, ColoyaSvili, giorgi emxvari gawuxebT. oficialur viTarebaSi meordeba zemoT warmodgenili formula odnavi saxecvlilebiT ­ gamarjobaT, Tqven gawuxebT biblioTekis direqtori nodar amirejibi. sapasuxo replika iqneba amgvari ­ diax, batono direqtoro an gismenT, batono nodar.

werili araoficialuri mimarTvisas gamoiyeneba formula (Cemo) Zvirfaso/(Cemo) sayvarelo + saxeli ­ (Cemo) Zvirfaso nino, (Cemo) sayvarelo maiko, (Cemo) usayvarleso bebo... werili SeiZleba dasruldes ase ­ siyvaruliT, Seni naTia, axlo momavalSi Sexvedris imediT, giorgi, gkocni, Seni merabi... oficialuri werili SeiZleba daiwyos amgvarad ­ (Rrmad)(pativcemulo) batono/qalbatono + saxeli ­ batono giorgi, werilis dasasruli ­ pativiscemiT, + saxeli, gvari ­ pativiscemiT, nino abaSiZe.

152

kontaqtis araverbaluri saSualebebi sxeulis moZraoba: xelis CamorTmeva oficialur situaciaSi, vTqvaT, pirveli Sexvedrisas, xels uwvdis asakiT an mdgomareobiT ufrosi qali kacs, rogorc misalmebisas, aseve damSvidobebisas. xeli arc Zalian magrad da arc zedmetad modunebulad ar unda CamovarTvaT. politikosebs Soris gavrcelebulia orive xelis CamorTmeva, rac CvenSi mainc da mainc miRebuli ar aris.

Sexeba, Jestebi, mimika Sexeba, moxveva, kocna, Jestebi da mimika oficialur situaciaSi miRebuli ar aris. Tanamedrove oficialuri Sexvedrebi xelis CamorTmeviT Semoifargleba, gamoiyeneba minimaluri Jestikulacia, oficialuri stili xasiaTdeba TavSekavebulobiTa da naklebi emociurobiT.

Tvalebis roli qarTvelebi advilad saurTierTo xalxia. saubris dros miRebulia erTmaneTisTvis TvalebSi yureba. Tvalis arideba ­ aragulwrfelobisas, tyuilis niSania, Tvalis miStereba ­ Tavxedobis, gaumarTlebeli moTxovnis, an aragulwrfelobis dafarvis niSania. raki oficialur viTarebaSi Jest-mimikis roli dayvanilia minimumamde, amitom Tvalebi did rols TamaSobs kontaqtis SesanarCuneblad.

urTierTobis distancia araoficialur viTarebaSi saqarTveloSi megobrebis Sexvedrisas urTierTobis distancia daaxloebiT mklavSi moxrili xelis daSorebazea. e.i. is ufro moklea, vidre aRmosavleTSi, sadac ara xelis CamorTmeviT, aramed Tavis daxriT esalmebian erTmaneTs. oficialur Sexvedrebze urTierTobis distancia orjer-samjer ufro izrdeba.

153

socialuri pirobiTobebi da ritualebi stumrobis ritualebi: araoficialuri stumrobis dro megobrul viTarebaSi stumrad umetesad saxlSi SabaTs an kviras (SesaZlebelia kviris nebismier dResac) dabadebis dReze, qorwilSi, ZeobaSi an Wiris sufraze ­ qelexSi, ormocze, wlisTavze sadilad (14-1516 saaTidan) an vaxSmad (18-19 saaTidan) patiJeben Cveulebriv, ramdenime dRiT adre. sufraze dagvianeba sasurveli ar aris, magram xSirad xdeba xolme. sufrasTan gatarebuli dro Seesabameba mowvevis mizezs ­ lxinis sufris dro ganusazRvrelia. mas ZiriTadad Tamada gansazRvravs. Wiris sufraze dro met-naklebad limitirebulia, daaxloebiT ori saaTi. dapatiJeba xdeba umetesad telefoniT. werilobiT zogjer patiJeben did wveulebebze ­ qorwilSi, saiubileo dabadebis dReze. didi wveulebebi umetesad restoranSi ewyoba.

stumrad Tavis daWera maspinZloba saqarTveloSi Zalian delikatur doneze xdeba. stumari iseve komfortulad unda grZnobdes Tavs, rogorc sakuTar saxlSi. aperativi an furSeti miRebuli ar aris. stumrebis miReba xdeba Tavidanve sufrasTan. sasmeli (sxvadasxvanairi, ZiriTad ki Rvino) da civi kerZebi sufraze awyvia. cxeli kerZebi Semodis TandaTan sufris mimdinareobis kvaldakval. bolos Cai an yava, namcxvrebi, torti, muraba Semodis sufraze. maspinZlebi stumrebs xSir-xSirad sTavazoben axlad Semotanili kerZis gadaRebas. sufraze Tamada sargeblobs ganusazRvreli uflebebiT, Tumca amis miuxedavad, sufris mimdinareoba demokratiis nimuSia. Tamadis warmoTqmul sadRegrZelos sufris wevrebi ganavrcoben da Sesvamen. sufraze awyvia Rvinis Wiqebi, romlebic yoveli sadRegrZelos win ivseba. sadRegrZelos mniSvnelobidan gamomdinare, Tamadam SeiZleba gansxvavebuli sasmisi moiTxovos. saqarTveloSi ludiT sadRegrZelos ar warmoTqvamen. sufris dasrulebis Semdeg stumrebi emSvidobebian maspinZlebs da madlobas uxdian keTili maspinZlobisaTvis.

saCuqrebi stumrad misvlisas diasaxlisisaTvis miaqvT yvavilebis Taiguli, an sunamo, mamakacisaTvis raime sasmeli. Tu gansakuTrebuli dRe aRiniSneba, magaliTad, dabadebis dRe, iubile, qorwili, bavSvis dabadeba, Sesaferisad arCeven saCuqars ­ dabadebis dRisa Tu saiubileo TariRisaTvis - asakisa da mdgomareobidan gamomdinare, suvenirebs, xelovnebis nimuSs, wigns, kosmetikas, parfiumerias, halstuxs... qorwilze ­ TeTreuls, WurWels, sxvadasxva saojaxo nivTebs, Zalian axloblebi xSirad fuls Cuqnian. axalSobils ki misTvis aucilebel samomxmareblo sagnebs, tansacmels an raime Zvirfas nivTs usaxsovreben xolme. 154

Cacmuloba araoficialuri stumrobisas xalxi yoveldRiurobisagan gansxvavebuli, gamorCeuli tansacmliT midis. axloblebTan stumrobisas grZeli saRamos kaba da smokingi miRebuli ar aris.

sasaubro Temebi araoficialur garemoSi megobrebi ZiriTadad saubroben ojaxur mdgomareobaze, amindze, aSuqeben kulturul cxovrebas, janmrTelobas. didi gaxaliseba da sicil-xarxari mohyveba xolme anekdotebis, mxiaruli istoriebis moyolas. sufraze aucileblad mRerian, ukraven, cekvaven. bolo periodSi didi dro eTmoba politikur movlenebze saubars.

qaTinaurebi qarTvelebs uyvarT komplimentebi. qalebi erTmaneTs xSirad uqeben tansacmels, fexsacmels, Tmis varcxnilobas, garegnul formas. komplimentze meore mxare pasuxobs SekiTxvas - marTla? marTla mixdeba? marTla mogwons? madlobT, komplimentisTvis.

155

B1 - zRvruli done

socialuri pirobiTobebi da ritualebi oficialuri Sexvedrebis ritualebi: msoflios sxvadasxva qveyanaSi didi gansxvaveba ar aris oficialur, saqmian vizitebs Soris. saqmiani Sexvedrebi SesaZloa sauzmobisas, sadilze an vaxSmad (rogorc wesi an restoranSi, an firmaSi). saqmian Sexvedraze mowveva xdeba an werilobiT an telefoniT. dagvianeba Zalian arasasurvelia. saqmiani Sexvedrisas TariRi ukeTesia rac adre iqneba SeTanxmebuli. aseTi Sexvedrebisas winaswar gansazRvrulia stumrebis raodenoba, maTi adgilebi magidasTan, Sexvedris drois xangrZlivoba. oficialur Sexvedraze qcevis normebi saqmiani Sexvedrebi sauzmeze, sadilze Tu vaxSamze TiTqmis yvela qveyanaSi erTnair garemoSi mimdinareobs. SesaZloa furSeti, warmoiTqmis sadRegrZeloebi oRond ufro SezRudul raodenobiT, vidre megobruli Sexvedrebisas. sadRegrZeloebis Sinaarsic ufro konkretuli saqmis irgvliv trialebs, miRebulia Wiqebis Waxunic. Sexvedris kargad dasrulebis Semdeg SesaZloa zepiri an werilobiTi madlobis gadaxda. saCuqrebi, suvenirebi saqmiani partniorebis erTi meoriT dainteresebis xarisxisa da statusidan gamomdinare Cveulebriv Cuqnian xolme erTmaneTs bloknotebs, kalmistrebs, qveynisaTvis damaxasiaTebel simbolikas ­ Rvinos, erovnul suvenirebs, wignebs, albomebs. Cacmuloba oficialuri Sexvederebisas zogjer mosawvev baraTze aris miTiTebuli tansacmlis saxeoba. restoranSi qali SeiZleba mivides grZeli saRamos kabiT, kaci - smokingiT. saqmian partniorebTan Sexvedrisas kacebi Cveulebriv icvamen kostiums, ikeTeben halstuxs. sasaubro Temebi saqmiani sakiTxebis ganxilvis Semdeg, Tu dro SezRuduli ar aris, SesaZloa mimdinare kulturul da politikur sakiTxebze iyos msjeloba. qarTvelebi Zalian afaseben mosaubris farTo interesebis sferos, mravalmxriv ganaTlebas, amitom saintereso Temebia poezia, xelovneba, sporti, ekonomika, filosofia, musika... qaTinaurebi oficialur garemoSi kompliments ZiriTadad eubnebian karg gamomsvlels, mowonebas imsaxurebs muSaobis warmatebuli Sedegebis gamovlena. emociebi TavSekavebulia, magram reaqcia cxadad da naTlad vlindeba. 156

B2 ­ zRvruli ganviTarebuli done

codnis kompleqsi, romelic aucilebelia qarTuli enis Seswavlisas warmodgenilia sam ganakveTSi:

I II III

eTnografiuli enobrivi profesionaluri

eTnografiuli informacia es informacia moicavs ZiriTadad qveyanaTmcodneobiT cnobebs, magram Semswavleli unda flobdes wina doneebTan SedarebiT ufro dawvrilebiT informacias, raTa srulyofilad SeZlos profesionalur urTierTobaSi Tavisi miznebis realizacia.

saqarTvelo warmoadgens mravalerovan da mravalenovan saxelmwifos Tavisi rTuli istoriuli warsuliTa da kulturuli memkvidreobiT.

garda eTnikuri gansxvavebulobisa (azerbaijaneli, somexi, berZeni, rusi, daRestneli mosaxleoba...) TviT qarTvelebisTvis damaxasiaTebelia mravalgvari kuTxuri gansxvaveba, romelic ganpirobebulia geografiuli garemoTi. swored am kuTxurma gansxvavebebma gamoiwvia enobrivi, dialeqturi, gansxvavebac.

XX saukunisa da XXI saukunis gariJraJis saqarTvelos istoriis ZiriTadi movlenebi: - ruseTis imperiis rRveva da 1917 wlis oqtombris revolucia - saqarTvelos damoukideblobis mopoveba ­ 1918 w. - saqarTvelos damoukideblobis dakargva da sabWoTa kavSiris SemadgenlobaSi Sesvla ­ 1921 w. - sabWoTa represiebis periodi ­ 1937-1938 ww. - didi samamulo omi 1941-1945 ww. - perestroika 1985-1991 ww. - kidev erTxel damoukideblobis mopoveba 1991 w. - SevardnaZis mmarTveloba 1992-2003 ww. - vardebis revolucia 2003 w.

157

saqarTvelos gavleniani pirebi saqarTvelos gavleniani pirebi arian: prezidenti, misi administracia, misi partia, parlamentis Tavmjdomare, parlamentarebi, ministrebi, sakanonmdeblo da aRmasrulebeli organoebi, prokuratura. gavlenian pirebs miekuTvnebian masmediis warmomadgenlebi, kulturis muSakebi, didi bankirebi, msxvili kompaniebis mflobelebi.

enobrivi informacia enobrivi informacia moicavs im leqsikur da stilistur saSualebebs, romlebic dakavSirebulia qarTuli kulturis erovnul specifikasTan. sazogado arsebiTi saxelebi, romlebic gamoxataven qarTul sinamdvilesa da yofas: xati, ferwera, arqiteqtura, kaxuri qedi, Coxa, CurCxela, Romi, SoTi, maWari, mWadi, sacavi da sxva. konotatiuri, an simboluri mniSvnelobis matarebeli erTeulebi: Tbilisi - centraluri xelisufleba bermuxa - Zlieri, pativsacemi adamiani caltvina - uWkuo adamiani rqiani - xepre adamiani vazi/Rvino - saqarTvelo leqsikuri

sakuTari saxelebi: erekle, giorgi, daviTi, vaJa, akaki, mixeili, nino, nana, mariami, qeTevani, Tamari... oikonimebi: jarianTi, TvaldamwvarianTi, giJvracua, seroJa, karapeta... dReisTvis gavrcelebuli saxelebi: laSa, jaba, zviadi, gio, anastasia, nato, qeTi, nuca... im gmirTa saxelebi, romlebmac miiRes gadataniTi mniSvneloba: TaTqariZe ­ zarmaci, msunagi. WiWikia ­ xumara, anekdoturi pirovneba; mixo ­ kaxeli glexi, dajildoebuli iumoris grZnobiT...

geografiuli saxelebi, romlebsac farTo asociaciuri foni gaaCnia: marabda, krwanisi, dmanisi, alazani da a.S. 158

frazeologizmebi: qoneba qars gaatana; kedels cercvi Seayare. aforizmebi: xams moyvare moyvrisaTvis; rasaca gascem Senia, rac ara dakargulia. profesiuli informacia: oficialur molaparakebaze qarTvelebi seriozulad iqcevian, an bevrs laparakoben Jest-mimikis meSveobiT; uyvarT iumoris gamoyeneba da TviTonac reagireben sxvis iumorze, iRimebian, xSirad xmamaRla xarxareben. qarTvelebs axasiaTebT individualizmi, yvelas surs iyos pirveli, prezidenti, direqtori... Tu oficialur warmomadgenels ara aqvs sakmao rwmuneba, spontanuri gadawyvetilebis misaRebad, is aWianurebs molaparakebebs zemdgom organosTan SeTanxmebamde. sxvadasxva sakiTxze msjelobisas qarTvelebs uyvarT avtoritetebze apelireba, argumentad iyeneben andazebs, frTian gamoTqmebs da TavgamodebiT amtkiceben mis siswores. Tanxmobis an mowonebis niSnad mamakacebi mxarze utyapuneben erTmaneTs xelebs. oficialur viTarebaSi qarTvelebi icaven administraciul ierarqias. saqmiani urTierTobis sferoSi tradiciulad iTvleba erovnuli saCuqrebis mirTmeva, qarTul sufraze mi patiJeba. oficialur Sexvedrisas Cveulebriv ar saubroben ojaxze, pirad cxovrebaze. saqmiani urTierTobisas pozitiuri mniSvneloba aqvs pirad kontaqtebs, pirad nacnobobas. seriozuli sakiTxebi qarTul sufrasTan xSirad ufro dadebiTad wydeba.

159

2.4.2 ZiriTadi qveyanaTmcodneobiTi cnobebi A2 ­ safuZvlis done

qveyanaTmcodneobiTi kompetenciebis mizania, rom saqarTvelos araqarTveli mosaxleoba srulad CarTuli iyos samoqalaqo integraciis procesSi, xolo aq Camosulma ucxoelebma Tavisuflad/komfortulad igrZnon Tavi. amisTvis, adaptaciis ama Tu im etapze maT unda hqondeT garkveuli codna saqarTvelos Sesaxeb.

zogierTi aucilebeli cnoba saqarTvelos Sesaxeb saqarTvelo mdebareobs kaspiisa da Sav zRvas Soris, didi kavkasionis samxreT ferdobze. aRmosavleTidan mas esazRvreba azerbaijani, samxreTidan ki TurqeTi da somxeTi. saqarTvelos ZiriTadi mdinareebia ­ mtkvari, alazani, iori, aragvi (aRm. saqarTvelo), rioni, enguri, bzifi, kodori, cxeniswyali (das. saqarTvelo). mTebi ­ myinvarwveri (aRm. saqarTvelo), uSba, TeTnuldi (das. saqarTvelo)... ZiriTadi qalaqebia ­ Tbilisi, gori, Telavi, gurjaani (aRm. saqarTvelo, quTaisi, baTumi, foTi (das. saqarTvelo). qarTvelebis garda saqarTveloSi cxovroben azerbaijanelebi, somxebi, rusebi, afxazebi, osebi, berZnebi... qarTveli mosaxleoba tolerantulia sxva eris warmomadgenelTa mimarT. aq ar aris rasobrivi Cagvra.

B1 ­ zRvruli done

zogierTi cnoba saqarTvelos Sesaxeb saqarTvelos geografiulma mdebareobam ganapiroba misi bunebis mravalferovneba. igi mdebareobs evraziis alpuri danaoWebis sartyelSi. misi reliefi warmodgenilia maRali, saSualo da dabali mTebiT, zegnebiTa da vakeebiT. saqarTvelos havac mravalferovania. dasavleT saqarTveloSi notio subtropikuli havaa, aRmosavleTSi ­ mSrali da zomierad notio subtropikuli. samxreT saqarTvelos hava kontinenturia. aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mdinareebi (mtkvari, Tergi, alazani, iori, aragvi, algeTi, liaxvi, qsani...) miekuTvneba kaspiis zRvis auzs. dasavleT saqarTvelos mdinareebi (rioni, Woroxi, enguri, cxeniswyali, kodori, bzifi, yvirila...) miekuTvneba Savi zRvis auzs. saqarTvelos mniSvnelovani tbebia: faravani, paliastomi, tabawyuri, jandari, bazaleTi, riwa...

160

saqarTvelos dRevandeli teritoria da mis samxreT-dasavleTiT mdebare miwebi uZvelesi droidan dasaxlebuli iyo monaTesave qarTveluri tomebiT, romelTa xangrZlivi urTierTkavSirisa da Serwymis Sedegad warmoiSva qarTveli xalxi da rogorc erTiani saxelmwifo Camoyalibda XI saukunis dasawyisSi. sabWoTa periodSi saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda aWaris avtonomiuri respublika, afxazeTis avtonomiuri respublika da samxreT ruseTis avtonomiuri olqi. dRes-dReobiT am or ukanasknelze saqarTvelos iurisdiqcia ar vrceldeba. isini mxolod formalurad rCebian saqarTvelos SemadgenlobaSi. saqarTvelos bunebis msgavsad eTnikuri Semadgenlobac mravalferovania. saqarTveloSi cxovroben azerbaijanelebi, somxebi, rusebi, ebraelebi, ukrainelebi, berZnebi, afxazebi, osebi... saqarTvelo iyofa kuTxeebad ­ qarTli, kaxeTi, imereTi, guria, samegrelo, raWa, leCxumi, svaneTi, samcxe-javaxeTi, aWara, fSavi, xevsureTi, gudamayari, xevi, TuSeTi. qarTuli samwerlobo ena qarTl-kaxur dialeqts efuZneba. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ena aris qarTuli, xolo afxazeTis avtonomiur respublikaSi agreTve afxazuri (saqarTvelos konstitucia, muxli 8).

B2 ­ zRvruli done

politikuri wyobileba saqarTvelos saxelmwifo politikuri wyobilebis forma aris demokratiuli respublika. misi saxelwodebaa saqarTvelo. qveynis umaRlesi warmomadgenlobiTi organo aris saqarTvelos parlamenti, romelic axorcielebs sakanonmdeblo xelisuflebas, gansazRvravs qveynis saSinao da sagareo politikis ZiriTad mimarTulebebs, konstituciiT gansazRvrul farglebSi kontrols uwevs mTavrobis saqmianobas da axorcielebs sxva uflebamosilebebs (saqarTvelos konstitucia, muxli 48). saqarTvelos prezidenti warmarTavs da axorcielebs saxelmwifos saSinao da sagareo politikas. igi uzrunvelyofs qveynis erTianobas da mTlianobas, saxelmwifo organoTa saqmianobas konstituciis Sesabamisad. saqarTvelos prezidenti saqarTvelos umaRlesi warmomadgenelia sagareo urTierTobaSi (saqarTvelos konstitucia, muxli 69). mTavroba saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad uzrunvelyofs aRmasrulebeli xelisuflebis, qveynis saSinao da sagareo politikis ganxorcielebas. mTavroba pasuxismgebelia saqarTvelos prezidentisa da parlamentis winaSe (saqarTvelos konstitucia, muxli 78). mTavrobis Tavjdomarea premier-ministri. 161

erovnul umciresobebTan da ucxoel moqalaqeebTan damokidebuleba saqarTvelos moqalaqeni Tanasworni arian socialur, ekonomikur, kulturul da politikur cxovrebaSi ganurCevlad maTi erovnuli, eTnikuri, religiuri Tu enobrivi kuTvnilebisa. sayovelTaod aRiarebuli princi pebisa da normebis Sesabamisad maT ufleba aqvT TavisTavad, yovelgvari diskriminaciisa da Carevis gareSe ganaviTaron TavianTi kultura, isargeblon TavianTi deda eniT pirad cxovrebaSi da sajarod. saerTaSoriso samarTlis sayovelTaod aRiarebuli princi pebisa da normebis Sesabamisad, umciresobaTa uflebebis ganxorcieleba ar unda ewinaaRmdegebodes saqarTvelos suverenitets, saxelmwifo wyobilebas, teritoriul mTlianobasa da politikur damoukideblobas (saqarTvelos konstitucia, muxli 38). saqarTveloSi mcxovreb ucxoel moqalaqeebs da moqalaqeobis aramqone pirebs saqarTvelos moqalaqis Tanabari uflebani da movaleobani aqvT, garda konstituciiTa da kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli gamonaklisebisa (saqarTvelos konstitucia, muxli 47).

kultura saxelmwifo xels uwyobs kulturis ganviTarebas, kulturul cxovrebaSi moqalaqeTa SeuzRudav monawileobas, kulturuli TviTmyofadobis gamovlinebasa da gamdidrebas, erovnul da zogadsakacobrio RirebulebaTa aRiarebas da saerTaSoriso kulturul urTierTobaTa gaRrmavebas. saqarTvelos yoveli moqalaqe valdebulia zrunavdes kulturuli memkvidreobis dacva-SenarCunebaze. kulturul memkvidreobas saxelmwifo icavs kanoniT (saqarTvelos konstitucia, muxli 34). ganaTleba yvelas aqvs ganaTlebis miRebisa da misi formis arCevis ufleba (saqarTvelos konstitucia, muxli 35).

janmrTeloba yvelas aqvs ufleba isargeblos janmrTelobis dazRveviT, rodesac xelmisawvdomi samedicino daxmarebis saSualebiT. kanoniT dadgenili wesiT gansazRvrul pirobebSi uzrunvelyofilia ufaso samedicino daxmareba (saqarTvelos konstitucia, muxli 37). sakuTrebis formebi sakuTreba da memkvidreobis ufleba aRiarebuli da uzrunvelyofilia. dauSvebelia sakuTrebis, misi SeZenis, gasxvisebis an memkvidreobiT miRebis sayovelTao uflebis gauqmeba (saqarTvelos konstitucia, muxli 21). 162

inteleqtualuri Semoqmedebis Tavisufleba uzrunvelyofilia. inteleqtualuri sakuTrebis ufleba xelSeuvalia (saqarTvelos konstitucia, muxli 23).

religia saxelmwifo acxadebs rwmenisa da aRmsareblobis srul Tavisuflebas, amasTan erTad aRiarebs saqarTvelos samociqulo avtokefaluri marTlmadidebeli eklesiis gansakuTrebul rols saqarTvelos istoriaSi da mis damoukideblobas saxelmwifosagan. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo da saqarTvelos samociqulo avtokefaluri marTlmadidebeli eklesiis urTierToba ganisazRvreba konstituciuri SeTanxmebiT. konstituciuri SeTanxmeba srulad unda Seesabamebodes saerTaSoriso samarTlis sayovelTaod aRiarebul princi pebs da normebs, kerZod, adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTa sferoSi (saqarTvelos konstitucia, muxli 9).

dResaswaulebi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo uqmeebi 1-2 ianvari 7 ianvari 19 ianvari 3 marti 8 marti 9 aprili 9 maisi 12 maisi 26 maisi 24 agvisto 28 agvisto 14 oqtomberi 23 noemberi axali weli Soba naTlisReba dedis dRe qalTa saerTaSoriso dRe saqarTvelos damoukideblobis dRe faSizmze gamarjvebis dRe mociqul andria pirvelwodebulis dRe saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgenis dRe konstituciis dRe mariamoba sveticxovloba giorgoba

religiuri dResaswaulebi udidesi saeklesio dResaswaulia brwyinvale aRdgoma uflisa RmerTisa macxovrisa Cvenisa ieso qristesi. aTormetTagan moZravni: bzoba, amaRleba, sulTmofenoba. aTormetTagan uZravni: 7 19 15 7 19 ianvari ianvari Tebervali aprili agvisto - - - - - Soba naTlisReba mirqma xareba feriscvaleba 163

28 agvisto 21 seqtemberi 27 seqtemberi 4 dekemberi

- mariamoba - RvTismSoblis Soba - jvarTamaRleba - taZrad miyvana yovladwminda RvTismSoblisa

garda amisa, arsebobs didi religiuri dResaswaulebi, micvalebulTa moxseniebis dReebi, saeklesio samaxsovro dReebi, marxvebi, xsnili dReebi da a.S.

metruli sistema saqarTvelosa da sxva qveynebis metrul sistemaSi garkveuli gansxvavebebia. magaliTad,

1 1 1 1 1

diuimi funti iardi saxmeleTo mili sazRvao mili

2,54 sm. 0,3048 m. 0,9144 m. 1,609 km. 1,852 km.

1 1 1 1

funti pinta galoni bareli

0,4536 kg. 0,568 l. 4,546 l. 163,65 l.

164

3 komunikaciuri kompetenciebi mozardi SemswavlelebisaTvis

es Tavi warmoadgens saqarTvelos ganaTlebisa da mecnierebis saministros mier qarTuli enis flobis doneebis dadgenil standarts araqarTveli moswavleebisaTvis.

!

sametyvelo funqciebi

rubrika 1.1 socialuri urTierTobebi

I klasi

II klasi

III klasi

misalmeba

mokiTxva

damSvidobeba madlobis gadaxda mobodiSeba Tavaziani mimarTva

gamarjoba! / salami! / saRamo gamarjoba(T)! dila mSvidobisa! _ mSvidobisa! / gamarjoba(T)! rogor xar? / rogor brZandebiT? rogor xarT? _ kargad. naxvamdis! kargad brZandebodeT! gmadlobT! didi madloba! bodiSi! Tqven... (rogor xarT?) didi bodiSi!

mogesalmebiT!

rogor gikiTxoT?

Rame mSvidobisa! madlobeli var!

wardgena, gacnoba me var... / es aris... milocva

gilocav dabadebis dRes! / gilocav axal wels! diax / ara yoCaR! / kargia! miirTviT! _ didi madloba! / gmadlobT! SeiZleba wavide? SeiZleba movide? SeiZleba gavide?

daTanxmeba, uari waxaliseba interaqcia sufrasTan Txovna

ukacravad! mapatieT! rogor brZandebiT? deda rogor batono / brZandeba? qalbatono gaicaniT, es aris... icnobdeT, es Cemi megobaria. gilocavT axal gilocavT axal wels! _ Cvenc saswavlo wels! gilocavT! ki, ho... kargi. Zalian kargia! brwyinvalea! inebeT! _ gemrielad gmadlobT! miirTviT. Tu SeiZleba, gaval? Tu SeiZleba, Semoval? ara uSavs!

damSvideba gafrTxileba telefoniT saubari 1.2 informaciis gacvla piradi monacemebi:

araferia! frTxilad iyavi! Tu SeiZleba, giorgis sTxoveT.

ra gqvia Sen? _ me mqvia... ra gvari

ra hqvia mas? _ mas hqvia... ramdeni

saidan xar(T)? _ me Tbilisidan var.

165

saxeli, gvari, asaki, misamarTi

xar? _ me var... ramdeni wlis xar? _ me var 7 wlis... sad cxovrob? _ me vcxovrob...

wlis aris ...? _ is aris 8 wlis... sad cxovrobs is? _ is cxovrobs ... me vcxovrob saqarTveloSi.

_vin xar(T) Tqven? _ me moswavle var.

erovnebis da warmomavlobis Sesaxeb telefonis nomeri dabadebis dRe ojaxi

me var somexi/rusi/ azerbaijaneli/ qarTveli Cemi telefonis nomeria... Cemi dabadebis dRea 15 noembers ra hqvia dedaSens? mamaSens? Sens Zmas/ das? is aris skolis moswavle

saqmianoba identificireba pirovnebis / sagnis janmrTelobis Sesaxeb TariRi

vin aris is? _ is aris biWi, / gogona ra aris es? _ es aris kata... rogor xar? _ kargad / cudad

vin gyavs Sen? _ me myavs deda, / mama, / da, Zma me var moswavle is aris / ar aris moswavle

drois aRricxva

rogor xar(T)? _ arc ise kargad / arc ise cudad dRes aris 15 noemberi (Tveebis saxelebi) ra dRea dRes? _ dRes aris orSabaTi...

gaciebuli var. maxvelebs. Maceminebs.

ra dRea da ra ricxvia dRes? romelia gazafxulis Tveebi? _gazafxulis Tveebia... (weliwadis droebi da Tveebi)

ras akeTeb? _ me saqmianobis, aqtivobis Sesaxeb vxatav. ras akeTebs gogona? _ gogona xatavs, wers... rogori amindia dRes? _ dRes kargi/cudi amindia... civa? _ civa/ ar civa cxela? - cxela/ar cxela wyali ginda? _ minda/ ar minda me momwons / me ar momwons

amindis Sesaxeb

wvims. Tovs. / ar wvims. ar Tovs.

dRes mziani/ Rrubliani amindia

survilis Sesaxeb TviTgamoxatva sayidlebze 166

me minda xatva, / TamaSi... me miyvars / me ar miyvars

me Zalian minda... me Zalian minda/ momwons/miyvars... ra Rirs?

Tavisufali drois Sesaxeb

vkiTxulob/ vukrav pianinos/ vaTvaliereb

1.3 aRwera, daxasiaTeba adamianis garegnoba

rogoria is? _ is maRalia,/dabalia, lamazia

adamianis Cacmuloba adamianis xasiaTi

rogoria is? _ is keTilia,/ Wkviania,/ kargia, cudia, / sulelia... rogoria is? is aris didi,/patara,/mokle /grZeli ZaRli, kata... lomi, mgeli... cxovelia... qaTami, bati... beRura, bulbuli... frinvelia...

me maqvs Savi Tma, ori xeli, ori fexi... is aris qera / TeTri... me macvia Savi Sarvali, kaba... is aris mxiaruli / mowyenili

is aris msuqani/ gamxdari/maRali/da bali mas acvia qvedakaba/zedatani/ TeTri perangi is uWkuoa, ulamazoa...

sagnis aRwera

mrgvali, feradi...

es aris samkuTxa, oTxkuTxa...

cxovelis aRwera / ras Sveba cxoveli / frinveli? 1.4 gemovnebis gamoxatva 1.5 Sefaseba, damokidebuleba mowoneba, armowoneba dadebiTi, uaryofiTi Sefaseba sakuTari poziciis gamoxatva grZnobebis, emociis gamoxatva 1.6 SegrZnebebis gamoxatva

es ZaRli aris Savi, / TeTri, / Wreli...

ZaRli, kata Sinauri cxovelia... lomi, mgeli gareuli cxovelia Zalian lamazia/mSvenieria.. .

mogwons? _ diax, momwons,/ara, ar momwons sworia! ar aris swori! rogoria? _ kargia/cudia...

Zalian kargia, / lamazia, / didia...

arc ise kargia, arc ise lamazia... swori ar xar kargad ar moiqca

Zalian kargia / cudia mixaria!

me ar momwons, me ar miyvars... Zalian mixaria! Zalian bednieri var! arc ise ar civa / arc ise ar cxela; meZineba / ar meZineba

gciva(T)? _mciva,/ar mciva gcxela(T)? _ mcxela,/ar mcxela

1.7 saWiroebis, survilis gamoxatva

167

saWiroeba 1.8 emociis gamoxatva sixaruli sinanuli brazi eWvi, varaudi

me minda/ar minda

me Zalian minda ...

me mWirdeba. me ar mWirdeba...

ra kargia! ra cudia! me (Zalian) gabrazebuli var!

gakvirveba SiSi interesi indiferentuloba 1.9 droSi orientireba droSi ganTavseba dRes, / axla

ra bednierebaa! ra saSinelebaa! brazob? _ar vbrazob? SeiZleba, ar movides. SeiZleba movides. marTla?

me meSinia / ar meSinia ZaRlis... sainteresoa / ar aris saintereso ara uSavs! araferia!

erTxel

qronologia sixSire xangrZlivoba 1.10 sivrceSi orientireba adgilmdebareoba

xandaxan, / xSirad vxatav

erTi wuTiT! rodis daibade? rodis moxval? xuTi saaTia. xuTis naxevaria. zogjer, arasdros, iSviaTad didi xania / arc ise didi xania...

sad aris is?_is aris oTaxSi.sad aris wigni?_wigni aris magidaze

maRazia aris axlos / Sors...

saxlTan, saxlTan axlos, saxlidan Sors saxlis pirdapir, saxlisken

mimarTuleba 1.11 logikuri kavSiris gamoxatva mizezi, Sedegi, opozicia 1.12 nebarTva, valdebuleba, akrZalva 1.13 interaqcia saklaso oTaxSi maswavleblis miTiTebebi

168

imitom, rom... Tu SeiZleba? _ SeiZleba, / ar SeiZleba momeci, Tu es ar unda SeiZleba wigni! ar gaakeTo, unda daxato! ar dawero! gaakeTo

adeqi(T)! dajeqi!/dasxediT! gadaSale(T) wign(eb)i! gamodi(T)

swrafad! xeli aswie(T)! Sexede(T) dafas! yuradRebiT momismineT!

yuradRebiT iyaviT! daiyaviT jgufebad! gaakeTeT swrafad! nu CqarobT! ras

dafasTan! waSale(T) dafa! siCume! Cumad! iTamaSe(T)! Sexede(T)! momismine(T)! gavimeoroT erTad! daxate(T)! vin aris dRes?/vin ar aris dRes?

mipasuxe kiTxvaze! Tqvi(T) qarTulad! ra aris suraTze? saSinao davaleba...

ityvi amis Sesaxeb? SegiZlia aRwero? SegiZlia daaxasiaTo?

mimarTvebi, SekiTxvebi maswavleblisadmi

gavide? Semovide?

Tu SeiZleba, damexmareT! SeiZleba davxato? ra gvaqvs davaleba?

leqsika rubrika

2.1 individi sxeuli I klasi II klasi IIIklasi

Tavi, tani, Tma, saxe, Tval(eb)i, yur(eb)i, cxviri, piri, xel(eb)i, fex(eb)i, lamazi, uSno, grZeli, mokle, didi, patara, maRali, dabali, axalgazrda, moxuci kargi, cudi, keTili, boroti, Wkviani, suleli, Zlieri, susti kaba, Sarvali, fexsacmeli, winda/windebi, qvedakaba, zedatani, perangi, palto, qudi, CanTa savarcxeli pirsaxoci, saponi, jagrisi

tuC(eb)i, kbil(eb)i, ena, muxli. TiT(eb)i, mkerdi, zurgi, muceli...

garegnoba

msuqani, gamxdari, swori / xuWuWi Tma, TeTri, qera, Savgvremani...

kiseri, yeli, mkerdi, muceli, mklavi, maja, xelis mtevani, frCxilebi, idayvi, terfi, wvivi Zalian lamazi, mSvenieri, mrgvali saxe/saxis, kexiani cxviri...

daxasiaTeba

tansacmlis aqsesuarebi

gonieri, uWkuo, mxiaruli, mowyenili., Tamami, morcxvi... sawvimari, qolga, Jaketi, Ceqmebi, qamari, axali palto, lamazi kaba, Custebi...

higiena

xelis/saxis/piris/ fexis dabana, kbilis jagrisi, kbilis pasta, bavSvis pirsaxoci...

seriozuli, bejiTi, zarmaci, Sromismoyvare, uqnara saTvale, mzis saTvale, feris..., svitri, qurTuki, Jileti, CanTa, zurgCanTa, xelCanTa, gulsabnevi... Sampuni, abazana, saabazano oTaxi, banaobs

169

janmrTeloba/ avadmyofoba

eqimi, kargad var,/ cudad var/ avad var

Sefaseba da emociuri reaqciebi 2.2 individis garemocva adamianebi

kargad, cudad

avadaa, sicxe aqvs, gaciebulia, axvelebs, aceminebs... janmrTeli, avadmyofi... Zalian kargad, Zalian cudad,....

wamali, afTiaqi, bavSvis eqimi, wamlis daleva

gaxarebuli, nawyeni, gabrazebuli, daRonebuli

ojaxi / naTesavebi

kaci, qali, bavSv(eb)i, xalxi, amxanagi, biWi, gogo(na), cxoveli, lekvi, knuti. ojaxi, deda, mama, Svili, da, Zma, bebia, babua... cxovelebia: ZaRli, kata, cxvari, Rori, Txa, cxeni, Zroxa; mela, daTvi, mgeli, spilo, iremi, kurdReli... Tagvi, frinvelebia: qaTami, mamali, bati, ixvi, Citi...

moxuci qali / kaci, axalgazrda biWi / gogona,

xanSiSesuli, mezobeli, naTesavi, axlobeli

cxovelTa samyaro

zRapris samyaro

mefe, dedofali, ufliswuli, sasaxle, jadoqari... princi, princesa mze, ca, mTvare, dedamiwa, varskvlav(eb)i, mdinare, qva, xe, yvavili, foToli, mze anaTebs... sicxe, sicive, wvima, Tovli, qari

SviliSvili, mSoblebi, qaliSvili, vaJiSvili... lomi, vefxvi, maimuni, niangi, behemoTi... pepela,futkari, buzi... ciyvi... lekvi, knuti, goWi, Tikani, kvici, xbo, wiwila... ZaRli yefs, cxeni Wixvinebs, kata knavis... jadosnuri joxi, jadoqroba, Raribi kaci, mdidari kaci...

biZaSvili, mamidaSvili, deidaSvili Sinauri / gareuli cxovelebi...

buneba

gube, tba, zRva, gora, mTa, tye...

feria, jadosnuri sarke, mojadoebuli saxli, uqnara, zarmaci, Raribi, Rataki, juja, devi okeane.. mwvervali. planeta, samyaro

bunebis movlenebi

geografiuli dasaxelebebi

170

saqarTvelo, qalaqi, sofeli

yinva, nisli, setyva, Tovlis fifqi, kargi amindi, cudi amindi... qveyana, dedaqalaqi, javaxeTi, qvemo qarTli...

mzis Casvla / amosvla, xmeleTi, wyali

daba, raioni.

saxelmwifos atributebi

qalaqi

qalaqi, quCa, maRazia, manqana, gza, Senoba. mindori, yvavili, balaxi, ezo

sofeli

saxelmwifo, prezidenti, droSa, erovneba: qarTveli, somexi, azerbaijaneli, rusi, berZeni... parki, baRi. gadasasvleli, SuqniSani (wiTeli, yviTeli, mwvane) bostani, Robe

saqarTvelos gerbi, saqarTvelos himni;

transporti

sacxovrebeli adgili

saxli, oTaxi, kedeli, fanjara, kari

aveji, sayofacxovrebo nivTebi.

magida, skami, savarZeli, taxti, sawoli, karada, Taro. televizori, kompiuteri, suraTi.

aqsesuarebi, WurWeli

TefSi, Wiqa, dana, Cangali, kovzi, finjani, lambaqi.

skola, personali

saswavlo nivTebi

skola, klasi, moswavle. zari, gakveTili, dasveneba. maswavlebeli, wera, kiTxva, xatva, mosmena. CanTa, wigni, rveuli, kalami, fanqari,

saswavlo sagnebi

miwis nakveTi, venaxi, baRi, saxuravi, buxari; mindori, biliki, wyaro. bina, iataki, Weri, saZinebeli oTaxi, sastumro oTaxi, kabineti, sasadilo oTaxi, samzareulo, sadilobs... Jurnalebis magida, fexsacmelebis / pianino, roiali, tansacmelebis uTo, sauTao, karada, telefonis tansacmelebis aparati, sakidi, farda, musikaluri xaliCa, kedlis centri, video, saaTi, suraTebis magnitofoni, albomi. WurWeli, WurWlis Tasi, langari, Taro, Caidani, sapure, samarile, qvabi, tafa... WurWlis karada, macivari, gazqura, wylis gamacxelebeli skolis direqtori, saklaso oTaxi, skolis ezo, kabineti, biblioTeka, direqtoris sasadilo, sacurao kabineti, auzi; klaseli. sportdarbazi, didi dasveneba, sacurao auzi eqskursia saSleli; dafa, saxazavi, wignis / carci; merxi, rveulis furceli, Jurnali. dRiuri, saxatavi rveuli, funji, saRebavi, feradi fanqrebi. sufTa wera. xatvis qarTuli, gakveTili. Sromis saxelmwifo ena, gakveTili. pirveli mSobliuri ena, gakveTili, bolo maTematika, xatva, gakveTili... musika, sporti.

171

momsaxurebis obieqtebi

maRazia, bazari, gamyidveli.

sursaTi

nayini, kanfeti, namcxvari, torti

kveba, kvebis produqtebi transporti, personali

rZe,

avtobusi, taqsi, velosipedi.

kulturuli obieqtebi, personali fosta, personali dResaswaulebi, zeimebi

Teatri, kino, cirki, zooparki, simRera, cekva.

gasarTobi, Tavisufali dro,saTamaSoebi, TamaSebi 2.3 aqtivobebi Sin

dabadebis dRe, axali weli, saCuqari, naZvis xe, gilocav dabadebis dRes!/axal wels! saTamaSo, Tojina, manqana, doli, burTi, feradi fanqrebi, naxati.

puris maRazia, supermarketi, salaro, fuli, lari, TeTri... puri, karaqi, pomidori, xorci, yveli; kombosto, xili, bostneuli, stafilo, Warxali, kitri, stafilo; badrijani; vaSli, msxali, sazamTro, nesvi, atami, yurZeni. qliavi, mandarini, forToxali limoni Cai, yava, kvercxi, rZis nawarmi, axali, gemrieli. mawoni, karaqi, araJani, xaWo. matarebeli, Cemodani, rkinigza, tramvai, TviTmfrinavi, troleibusi, stiuardesa, metro. mZRoli, matareblis memanqane. gamcilebeli, opera, biblioTeka, balerina, msaxiobi, stadioni, kinomsaxiobi, momRerali, cirkis msaxiobi, sportsmeni. klouni, masxara, momTvinierebeli fosta, werili, safosto yuTi, marka. werilis gagzavna... torti, namcxvari, aRdgoma, wiTeli gozinayi, CurCxela. kvercxi, qriste gilocav Sobas! aRdga! _WeSmaritad aRdga! naZvis xis saTamaSo... zooparkSi. cxovelebi galiaSi. doli, sayviri, mozaika, konstruqtori, suraTebiani anbani, Tofi, wers, xatavs, televizors uyurebs, musikas usmens, kompiuterze TamaSobs, aferadebs amxanagebTan TamaSobs, maswavlebels pasuxobs, gakveTils imeorebs, Zerwavs ejibreba, Widaobs, Wadraks TamaSobs,

aris, dgeba, wveba, midis. aTvalierebs. Wams, svams, xedavs, swavlobs, laparakobs, usmens, kiTxulobs, ibans, icvams, Tmas ivarcxnis,

skolaSi

xatavs, wers, kiTxulobs, adeqi! dajeqi! ekiTxeba, pasuxobs, iTvlis.

imeorebs, zepirad ambobs...

sporti

172

TamaSobs, curavs, varjiSobs...

mirbis, xteba

dasveneba, garToba

TamaSobs, xatavs, aferadebs, seirnobs

cekvavs, mReris,

momsaxureba mgzavroba, gadaadgileba 2.4 individis orientirebi dro sezonebi

yidulobs midis, mgzavrobs.

igebs, agebs baRSi/parkSi seirnobs, saqanelaze zis, aTvalierebs, zooparkSi fuls ixdis avtobusiT mgzavrobs

kviris dReebi

saaTi (4 saaTia); dRes, axla. weli, weliwadis droebi; gazafxuli, zafxuli, Semodgoma, zamTari. kviris dReebi: orSabaTi, samSabaTi, oTxSabaTi, xuTSabaTi, paraskevi, SabaTi, kvira dila, saRamo, dRe, Rame dilas, saRamos... axla, 3 saaTia axlos, Sors skolaSi, saxlSi, magidaze, Taroze, aq, iq TeTri, Savi, wiTeli, mwvane, lurji, yviTeli. didi, patara cisferi, stafilosferi.

xuTis naxevaria... gazafxulis Tveebia... zafxulis Tveebia...

Tveebi dRe/Rame drois gansazRvra sivrce adgilmdebareoba

Tveebis saxelebi... SuadReze, Svidis naxevaria

skolisken... skolasTan, skolidan oqrosferi, yavisferi, baci, muqi feris uzarmazari, samkuTxa, oTxkuTxa kilo uamravi, mravali Tbili. grili rkinis, xis, plastmasis. 100-mde

maxasiaTeblebi feri

zoma forma wona raodenoba temperatura Semadgenloba ricxvebi

mrgvali, oTxkuTxedi... bevri, cota erTi, ori... cxeli, civi

1_20

20_50s

173

!

gramatika

metyvelebis nawilebi arsebiTi saxeli I klasi II klasi III klasi

micemiTi brunva, moqmedebiTi brunva saxelobiTi brunva. naTesaobiTi brunva mravlobiTi ricxvi (-ebiani mravlobiTi) dadebiTi xarisxis ufroobiTi forma xarisxis forma _ Zalian raodenobiTi raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi ricxviTi saxeli 1_50 1_20 piris piris nacvalsaxelebi nacvalsaxelebi (mas...) CvenebiTi (me, Sen, is, Cven, nacvalsaxelebi es Tqven, isini) _ is axlandeli drois axlandeli dro, forma; aris zmnis brZanebiTi kilo; Sekvecili forma. miyvars... momwons... drois zmnizeda drois zmnizeda erTxel, xSirad, (axla) adgilis xandaxan... zmnizeda (aq,iq) -Si, -ze -ken ara, diax, ar ki, ho... da

zedsarTavi saxeli ricxviTi saxeli

nacvalsaxeli

raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi 1-100 kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxeli (Cemi, Seni, misi, Cveni, Tqveni, maTi) kavSirebiTi kilo (unda/ar unda gaakeTo) zogjer, xSirad, iSviaTad... Tan, dan kargi imitom, rom...

zmna

zmnizeda

Tandebuli nawilaki kavSiri Sorisdebuli winadadeba winadadebis tipebi Sedgenilobis mixedviT winadadebis tipebi modalobis mixedviT

martivi winadadeba

martivi winadadeba

rTuli winadadeba (imitom, rom)

mtkicebiTi da kiTxviTi winadadebebi

mtkicebiTi da kiTxviTi winadadebebi

Zaxilis winadadeba, brZanebiTi winadadeba.

!

fonetika da orToepia zepiri metyvelebis dros yuradReba unda mieqces qarTuli specifikuri Tanxmovnebis sworad warmoTqmas, mJReri, yru mkveTri da yru fSvinvieri Tanxmovnebis opozicias (T _ t, d _ T, p _ f, Qq _ k, s _ z, y, W, w, C, c, Z, j, h...)

174

sametyvelo funqciebi

rubrika 1.1 socialuri urTierTobebi misalmeba mokiTxva

IV klasi

V klasi

VI klasi

damSvidobeba madlobis gadaxda

kargad iyavi! mSvidobiT! uRrmesi madloba! madlieri var!

mobodiSeba

Zalian vwuxvar!

mobrZandiT! Tavaziani dabrZandiT! mimarTva wardgena, gacnoba gaicaniT, es aris...

xom kargad brZandebiT? rogor gikiTxoT? xvalamde! momaval Sexvedramde! madlobas gixdiT! madlobas gixdiT daxmarebisTvis! madlobas gixdiT TanagrZnobisTvis! samwuxaroa! momiteveT! Tu SeiZleba momiteveT! brZaneT! icnobdeT, es aris... warmogidgenT, Cvens stumars, icnobdeT, es aris... gilocavT! gisurvebT yovelive kargs!.. araviTar SemTxvevaSi! fantastikuria! Tu SeiZleba wvniani damisxiT! _gemrielad miirTviT! umorCilesad gTxovT! amaze arc ifiqro!

milocva

momilocavs axali weli! (dRes kinoSi wamoxval?) ra Tqma unda! ara mgonia! saukeTesoa! kargad swavlas gisurveb! salaTi gadaiReT!

qriste aRdga! _ WeSmaritad aRdga! keTili!

daTanxmeba, uari

waxaliseba interaqcia sufrasTan

saocaria! Tu SeiZleba, salaTi momawodeT! _ inebeT! miirTviT! gemudarebiT! nu nerviulob!

Txovna damSvideba

Zalian gTxovT! nu dardob! nu fiqrob! ar idardo! icode, es saSiSia!

gafrTxileba

gafrTxileb, es saSiSia! es beriZis binaa? _ ara, sxvagan moxvdiT.

telefoniT saubari 1.2 informaciis gacvla piradi monacemebi:

Tu SeiZleba, ninos sTxoveT!

frTxilad iyavi, araferi SegemTxves! es beriZis binaa? _ ara, sxvagan moxvdiT. nomeri sworad akrifeT!

me Senze (masze) ufrosi, didi (patara) var...

me gaxlavarT ....

me gaxlavarT am organizaciis warmomadgeneli...

175

saxeli, gvari, asaki, misamarTi erovnebis da warmomavlobis Sesaxeb telefonis nomeri

me aqauri var / ar var

me moskovidan var.

rogoraa Seni telefonis nomeri? / ra aris Seni telefonis nomeri?

dabadebis dRe

ojaxi saqmianoba identificireba pirovnebis / sagnis janmrTelobis Sesaxeb

erT kviraSi / TveSi / ramdenime dReSi Cemi dabadebis dRea ufrosi, SuaTana, umcrosi is muSaobs... is diasaxlisia...

me warmoSobiT, qarTveli var, magram axla moskovSi vcxovrob. miTxari Seni Tu SeiZleba, telefonis nomeri. Tqvens telefonis nomers Caviwer. / Tu SeiZleba, Tqveni telefonis nomeri miTxariT. Seni dabadebis dRe Cven erT dRes (/ rodisaa? erT TveSi / erT wels( varT dabadebuli... warmogvidgineT Cemi ojaxis Tqveni ojaxi... wevrebi arian... umuSevaria.... droebiT umuSevaria... es gaxlavT Cveni axali moswavle. SeuZlodaa. (SeuZlod var / xar)

TariRi drois aRricxva saqmianobis, aqtivobis Sesaxeb amindis Sesaxeb survilis Sesaxeb

TviTgamoxatva sayidlebze yofnisas Tavisufali drois Sesaxeb 1.3 aRwera, daxasiaTeba 176

Tavi / kbili / muceli mtkiva Tavs kargad ver vgrZnob ukeTesad var axla aris 2005 wlis 17 aprili weliwadis ra droa axla? ras Svebi? ras Sveba gogona? _ is wers, kiTxulobs... dRes uRrublo / uqaro amindia wyali xom ar ginda? _ ara, gmadlobT, ar minda / diax. minda... me es arc ise Zalian momwons... Zalian iafia / Zviria... me minda viyido... vseirnob, cirkSi mivdivar, curvaze davdivar...

es moxda 1998 wels.

saSineli amindia. wyali xom ar gnebavT?

gadauReblad wvims... wyals xom ar inebebT?

ver vitan! me minda puris / yvelis... yidva kargad verTobi.

vgiJdebi! puri da kvercxi unda viyido. mosawyenia! momwyinda.

adamianis garegnoba adamianis Cacmuloba adamianis xasiaTi

ra lamazia! ra mSvenieria! ra lamazi kaba gacvia! ra kargi Sarvali gacvia! is braziania / Wkviania, mSvidia rogoria? didia, uzarmazaria, farToa, maRalia, dabalia... ZaRli yefs, kata knavis, lomi Rrialebs... Zalian kargia / sainteresoa /

ulamazesia... kargad / cudad acvia cudi / kargi xasiaTi aqvs... es magida xisaa / rkinisaa...

umSvenieresia! kargi Casacmelia...

sagnis aRwera

saSineli / brwyinvale xasiaTi aqvs... plastmasisaa...

cxovelis aRwera / ras Sveba cxoveli / frinveli? 1.4 gemovnebis gamoxatva 1.5 Sefaseba, damokidebuleba mowoneba, armowoneba dadebiTi, uaryofiTi Sefaseba sakuTari poziciis gamoxatva grZnobebis, emociis gamoxatva 1.6 SegrZnebebis gamoxatva

cxeni Wixvinebs...

dafrinavs, dacocavs...

mxiarulia

mosawyenia

mSvenieria, saSinelia... sworia? _ sworia, ar aris swori / araa swori me mgoni / ara mgonia... kmayofili var / ukmayofilo var Tavis tkivili mawuxebs fexsacmeli mawuxebs

ulamazesia

umSvenieresia saSinlad moiqca... gmirulad moiqca...

me vfiqrob...

Cemi azriT...

arc ise kmayofili var / arc ise ukmayofilo var bednieri var!

kargi iyo / ara uSavda ubednieresi var!

1.7 saWiroebis, survilis gamoxatva saWiroeba

saWiroa davalebis dawera / bevri kiTxva

aucilebelia es gaakeTo!

aucileblad gaakeTe, / wamodi...

1.8 emociis gamoxatva sixaruli sinanuli brazi

Zalian bednieria! dasanania, rom gatyda! _ nu brazob! _ ar vbrazob.

gaxarebuli var! / mixaria! cudia, rom ase moxda... gabrazebuli xar? _ ara, ara var gabrazebuli / ho gabrazebuli var...

ubednieresia... sawyenia...

177

eWvi, varaudi gakvirveba SiSi

me mgoni, ar mova

marTla? mSiSaraa / araa MmSiSara Zalian interesi mainteresebs, ar mainteresebs indiferentuloba rogorc Sen ginda...

ara mgonia, movides me vfiqrob, ar gaakeTebs namdvilad? seriozulad ambob? uSiSaria... Zlian meSinia, ase rom moxdes... minda gavigo... minda vicode...

1.9 droSi orientireba droSi ganTavseba cota xanSi, erTi qronologia sixSire

xangrZlivoba

maSinve wuTiT xuTs aklia aTi wuTi... mudam, sul.. TveSi orjer / yoveldRe kviraSi / samjer... dReSi / TveSi erTxel erTi wuTiT... ramdenime wuTiT / saaTiT / dRiT / wliT

im wuTas(ve)

weliwadSi erTxel...

ramdenime xniT...

1.10 sivrceSi orientireba adgilmdebareoba mimarTuleba 1.11 logikuri kavSiris gamoxatva mizezi, Sedegi, opozicia

saxlidan skolamde saxlis win / ukan

skolasTan axlos _ skolidan Sors skolisken.

skolis pirdapir / gverdiT /

1.12 nebarTva, valdebuleba, akrZalva 1.13 interaqcia saklaso oTaxSi maswavleblis miTiTebebi

mas ar aqvs wigni, amitom ver waikiTxa zRapari is Wkviania, magram zarmaci nu akeTeb! nu yri! nu yviri!

es advili ar aris, magram arc Znelia

skolaSi ver wavedi, radgan davaleba ar mqonda...

Tu SeiZleba, waval ar SeiZleba amis / waviReb / gakeTeba / dayra / momawodeT... gaxsna...

SegiZlia Seasworo? vin Seasworebs? vin gaimeorebs? vin ityvis sworad? vin ityvis leqss? vin mogviyveba? vin daaxasiaTebs? me kargad ver mimarTvebi, gavige/davwere/ver SekiTxvebi maswavleblisadmi davwere davaleba

aba, vin mipasuxebs... vin (ar) gaakeTa / Seasrula davaleba? ra ver gaigeT? SekiTxva xom ar gaqvT?

gasagebia? ra aris gaugebari? ra aris Zneli? SeZlebT davalebis Sesrulebas? Zneli xom ar aris?

kargad ver gavige. me mgoni, sworad ver davwere...

es gaugebaria... ver movaswari wakiTxva / dawera

178

leqsika

rubrika 2.1 individi sxeuli IV klasi

Sinagani organoebi (guli, adamiani filtvebiT sunTqavs...) qeraTmiani, SavTmiani, xuWuWTmiani... sasacilo, saSineli, mSvenieri, brwyinvale TeTrkabiani, Savpaltoiani sayure, beWedi, Rili, yelsabami, Tavsafari gripiT avad, surdo, gaciebuli, eqimi, eqTani, afTiaqSi wamlis yidva, xvelebis wamali, Tavis tkivilis wamali... kmayofili. gajavrebuli, dafiqrebuli...

V klasi

Sinagani organoebi (kuWi, RviZli...

VI klasi

Sinagano organoebi Tirkmelebi...

garegnoba

wiTuri

daxasiaTeba

ulamazesi, umSvenieresi...

sworTmiani, grZelTmiani, xuWuWTmiani axovani, warmosadegi

tansacmlis aqsesuarebi higiena janmrTeloba/ avadmyofoba

Rili (Rilebi), Tmis samagri...

qamari, gulsabnevi...

sicxiani, gripiani, avadmyofobs...

tkivilgamayuCebeli wamali

Sefaseba da emociuri reaqciebi 2.2 individis garemocva adamianebi ojaxi / naTesavebi cxovelTa samyaro zRapris samyaro

arc ise kmayofili var...

ukmayofilo var...

buneba

bunebis movlenebi

batoni / qalbatoni batono giorgi, qalbatono mariam SvilTaSvili, biZaSvili, rZali, siZe, deidaSvili, bicola... mamidaSvili ZaRli yefs, kata cxeni Wixvinebs... knavis... gareuli cxovelebi... wiTelquda, jadosnuri nacarqeqia, zRprebi cxovelTa zRaprebi... mTa, bari, goraki, maRlobi ucxoplaneteli, kosmosuri xomaldi qariani dRe, mSvenieri amindia Rrubliani dRe, wvimiani dRe,

batono giorgi, qalbatono mariam coli, qmari, rZali, siZe, bicola spilo udidesi cxovelia... filosofiuri zRaprebi...

momaRlo adgili...

gadauReblad wvims.... kokispirulad

179

geografiuli dasaxelebebi saxelmwifos atributebi qalaqi

sofeli

sacxovrebeli adgili

aveji, sayofacxovrebo nivTebi. aqsesuarebi, WurWeli skola, personali saswavlo nivTebi saswavlo sagnebi momsaxurebis obieqtebi, personalebi sursaTi kveba, kvebis produqtebi

mziani dRe somxeTi, azerbaijani, ruseTi, ukraina... mTavroba, qalaqis meri, gamgebeli qalaqis centri, parlamentis Senoba, gamgeoba, eklesia, qalaqeli venaxi, xexilis baRi, xili, bostneuli sakuTari saxli, ezoiani saxli, mravalsarTuliani saxli saweri magida, kompiuteri, audiomagnitofoni, video; mtversasruti, wvnianis TefSi, desertis TefSi, didi da patara kovzi samaswavleblo, klaseli, skoleli, saaqto darbazi fargali, flomaster(eb)i, buneba, istoria, afTiaqi, afTiaqari, gamyidveli, molare

amerika, inglisi., safrangeTi... qalaqis meria, gamgeoba kafe, bari, restorani....

wvims evropis qveynebi...

parlamentis Senoba mravalsarTuliani saxli

boseli, saRore, saqaTme bina, oTaxi, saZinebeli, samzareulo.... fotoaparati, videokamera

xexiliani ezo... yana sastumro oTaxi, samzareulo, sakuWnao, samuSao oTaxi, kabineti kompiuteri, musikaluri centri, sarecxi manqana, kombaini sufra, gadasafarebeli

finjani, lambaqi, dana-Cangali... yavis Wiq(eb)i, Cais Wiq(eb)i, Tanaklaseli, direqtoris moadgile feradi furclebi geografia, fosta, banki

qarTuli enis kabineti.... markeri... fizika, qimia... sasursaTo maRazia, naWrebis maRazia... Sebolili Zexvi mineraluri wyali, koniaki, wiTeli Rvino, Savi, TeTri Rvino avtobusis mZRoli, taqsis mZRoli samxatvro galerea, sagamofeno darbazi

kvercxi, Sokoladi Zexvi, sosisi jemi, muraba, xilis fanta, borjomi, wveni, civi Cai, Rvino, arayi koka-kola, gemi, mezRvauri, gemis kapitani, bargi, tvirTi naxatebis gamofena, gamofena, musikaluri Teatri, Tojinebis Teatri avtobusi, troleibusi, tramvai operis Teatri

transporti, personali kulturuli obieqtebi, personali fosta, personali

amanaTis gagzavna

dResaswaulebi, 180

dasvenebis dRe,

Soba, axali weli,

dazRveuli werilis gagzavna, miReba damoukideblobis

zeimebi

gasarTobi, Tavisufali dro, saTamaSoebi, TamaSebi 2.3 aqtivobebi Sin

dedis dRe, siyvarulis dRe, bavSvTa dRe barbis Tojina, distanciuri manqana, kompiuteruli TamaSebi sZinavs, iRviZebs, xumrobs, icinis, televizors uyurebs, megobrebTan erToba kiTxulobs, eTamaSeba, curvaze dadis, Sejibrebazea, waago, moigo daWerobanas TamaSoben, daxuWobanas TamaSoben, Tmas iWris, isinjavs; mimtani, gamyidveli, dalaqi (parikmaxeri) taqsis daWera, matarebels miuswro / ver miuswro, avtobusSi asvla, avtobusidan Camosvla

aRdgoma, navrozoba daWerobana, damalobana

dRe,

daxuWobana, wreSi burTi, fexburTi, kalaTburTi...

mecadineobs, kompiuters TamaSobas..

sauzmobs, sadiloba, vaxSmobs... Wams miirTmevs

skolaSi sporti

darbis, varjiSobs visken xar, vis mxareze xar? fexburTs TamaSoben....

dasveneba, garToba

pasuxobs, xels iwevs Cempioni, angariSi, fre, samiT ori, erTiT erTi.. musikas usmens... kinoSi, TeatrSi midis.... oficianti, policia, mexanZre, saswrafos eqimi gamiCereT, aq Cavdivar! Tqven xom ar CadixarT? CabrZandebiT? mZRols gadauxada fuli, ra Rirs mgzavroba?

momsaxureba

xelosani

mgzavroba, gadaadgileba

avtobusis, taqsis gaCereba...

2.4 individis orientirebi dro sezonebi kviris dReebi Tveebi dRe/Rame

xuTs aklia aTi wuTi; xval, guSin

guSinwin, guSinwiniswin orSabaTs, kviras... seqtemberSi, agvistoSi... dilas, saRamos, SuadReze... xuT saaTze, xuTis aT wuTze, xuTis naxevarze... Soriaxlos...

zeg, mazeg

am kviraSi, am TveSi...

drois gansazRvra

sivrce

SuadRe, SuaRame, SuadRisas, SuaRamisas dilis cxra saaTia, saRamos Svidi saaTia, Ramis ori saaTia arc ise Sors, arc ise axlos

Zalain adre, ganTiadze xuTisTvis saxlSi viqnebi

181

adgilmdebareoba maxasiaTeblebi feri zoma forma wona raodenoba temperatura Semadgenloba ricxvebi

skolamde rkinis, xis muqi yavisferi, Ria yavisferi didi maqvs, patara maqvs ovaluri, grami, kilogrami naxevari Zalin civi, Zalian cxeli 100-dan zemoT....

-ken plastmasis oqrosferi, vercxlisferi... 36 nomeri fexsacmeli

Ria feri, muqi feri (feris) 42 zoma Sarvali

mesamedi, mexuTedi

1000-mde

1000-is zemoT...

gramatika

metyvelebis nawilebi arsebiTi saxeli IV klasi

viTarebiTi brunva warmomavlobis saxelTa warmoeba (axalqalaqeli, axalqalaquri) uqonlobis saxelebi (uqaro...) -ian sufiqsiani saxelebi ufroobiTi xarisxis forma (yvelaze...) raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi (rTuli, Sedgenili) CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebi

V klasi

moTxrobiTi brunva saxelTa warmoqmna daniSnulebis saxelebi (sakabe, saavadmyofo) xelobis saxelebi

VI klasi

brunvaTa sruli sistema saxelTa warmoqmnis sruli sistema

zedsarTavi saxeli ricxviTi saxeli

ufroobiTi xarisxis formebi (udidesi...) rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi

odnaobiTi xarisxis formebi (modido...) wilobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi

nacvalsaxeli

uaryofiTi nacvalsaxelebi

zmna zmnizeda

nu nawilakiani brZanebiTi erTxel, mudam, sul -dan -mde, win, ukan nu, ver magram waxalisebis

warsuli dro viTarebis zmnizedebi zmnizedebi Sesaxeb, mimarT, aba, netav / neta sadac, romelic mowoneba-

kiTxviTi, gansazRvrebiTi da ganusazRvrelobiTi nacvalsaxelebi momavali dro zoma-odenobisa da jerobis zmnizedebi gamo, Tanave, mier, garda meTqi, Tqo, -o rom kavSiriani winadadebebi mwuxarebis

Tandebuli nawilaki kavSiri Sorisdebuli 182

Sorisdebulebi

sixarulis Sorisdebulebi

Sorisdebulebi

winadadeba winadadebis tipebi Sedgenilobis mixedviT winadadebis tipebi modalobis mixedviT

rTuli winadadeba (amitom), magram kavSiriani winadadebebi nu nawilakiani akrZalviTi brZanebiTi winadadeba `me mgoni~ konstruqcia

adgilis rom kavSiriani garemoebiTi, winadadebebi gansazRvrebiTi rTuli winadadebebi Zaxilis winadadeba TxrobiTi, kiTxviTi, Zaxilis, brZanebiTi winadadebebi

sametyvelo funqciebi

rubrika 1.1 socialuri urTierTobebi misalmeba mokiTxva

VII klasi

VIII klasi

IX klasi

mogesalmebiT,

gaumarjos

ra kargia, rom gnaxeT!

damSvidobeba

kargad!

madlobis gadaxda mobodiSeba

did madlobas mogaxsenebT! Tu SeiZleba, mapatieT!

Tu SeiZleba, mobrZandiT! gepatiJebiT, mobrZandiT! wardgena, gacnoba gaicaniT, es aris... icnob(T) giorgis?

Tavaziani mimarTva

milocva

gilocavT dabadebis dRes/ axal wels!

daTanxmeba, uari

rogor moviqce?

xom kargad brZandebiT? rogor gikiTxoT? saRamomde! momaval momaval Sexvedramde! Sexvedramde! xvalamde! aba, kargad! udides (uRrmes) Tqveni didad madlobas madlieri var! mogaxsenebT! madlobeli var! gTxovT, mapatioT!! me Zalian vwuxvar Tu SegiZliaT, amis Sesaxeb! mapatieT! Cais (yavas) xom ar mobrZandiT miirTmevT? dabrZandiT, mirTviT! ras brZanebT! icnobdeT, es aris... gavicnoT erTmaneTi: me var... me Tqven gicnobT / ar gicnobT gilocavT am gilocavT! dResaswauls! gilocavT am brwyinvale dResaswauls! gisurvebT yovelive kargs!.. daeswariT mravals! kargi, aucileblad me mgoni ver

183

waxaliseba, Seqeba

interaqcia sufrasTan

interaqcia savaWro obieqtSi

interaqcia mgzavrobisas

moval! didi madloba dapatiJebisaTvis! aucileblad moval! albaT ver moval! Tu SevZleb moval! brwyinvalea! es marTlac kargia! saocrebaa! gadasarevia! swori xar! marTals ambob! Zalian sainteresoa! salaTi gadaiReT! Tu SeiZleba, cota Cai gnebavT Tu salaTi yava? ras gadmomiReT! _ miirTmevT? Tu inebeT! miirTviT! SeiZleba, momawodeT1 Tu mineraluri wyali SeiZleba! momitaneT! kidev namcxvars kidev miirTviT! ara, miirTmevT? didi gmadlobT, ar madloba, meti ar minda! minda! salaTi mogewonaT? _ Zalian! sayidlebze Zexvi ramdeni mivdivar! gnebavT? romeli sayidlebze xom ar Zexvi gaqvT? Tu wamoxval? ra unda SeiZleba rvaasi iyido? namcxvari grami amiwoneT. Tu axalia? namcxvari SeiZleba es yava ramdeni gnebavT? maCveneT! romeli ramdeni agiwonoT? feri mogwonT? ramdeni kargia, magram gadavixado? ra Zviria! ara, Zalian Rirs erTi kilo? Zviria / iafia. bileTebi aq taqsiT wavideT, iyideba? sad viyidi dagvagviandeba! bileTebs? ra Rirs samsaxurSi riT bileTi? dadixar? _ mgzavroba avtobusiT. taqsiT ormocdaaTi TeTri moxvedi Tu Rirs. sad aris avtobusiT? _ avtobusis avtobusiT. es gaCereba? taqsis avtobusi sad gaCereba sad aris? midis? metroTi Semdeg gaCerebaze wavideT, ufro CaxvalT? romelia swrafia. Semdegi gaCereba? _ samgzavro universiteti. bileTebi SeiZineT salaroSi! sad viyido bileTebi? dagexmarebiT! Tu kargad viqnebi, aucileblad wamoval! minda dagpatiJoT!

SevZleb mosvlas! me Zalian minda moxvideT! vecdebi, movide! Sevecdebi! SemogvierTdebiT? didi siamovnebiT SemogierTdebiT! fantastikuria! kargi ideaa! momwons! Sen Zalian yoCaRi xar! yoCaR, gamaxare!

Tu SeiZleba mineraluri wyali damisxiT! _ai, inebeT! miirTviT! _gmadlobT, marTlac Zalian mSia! ara, ar mSia, didi madloba! marTlac kargi sufraa! kargad miirTviT! ver viSove. iseTi ar aris, rogoric minda. sxvagan ufro iafad vnaxe da iq viyidi. iciT, me veZeb.... gaqvT? lamazi / kargi svitria, unda viyido... mixdeba? Zalian gixdeba. mgzavroba ra damijdeba? aeroportamde ra nomeri avtobusi midis? taqsi aeroportamde ra Rirs? TviTmfrinavis bileTebi sad SeiZleba viyido? romel saaTze Camofrindeba hamburgi_Tbilisi? rodis / romel saaTze mifrinav?

184

mimowera (mimarTva / gamomSvidobeba)

salami Zvirfaso mari! imedi maqvs, Senken yvelaferi kargadaa! rogor xar? rogor arian Senebi? albaT erTmaneTs male vnaxavT! mogikiTxa dedam da mamam! saukeTeso survilebiT... xval dagirekavT! xval damirekeT! albaT dagirekav, saxlSi iqnebi? vin gnebavT? cota xanSi dagirekav!

Zalian gamixarda Seni werilis mosvla. gisurveb yovelive saukeTesos! siyvaruliT mariami! didi siyvaruliT mariami! Tqveni mariami!

telefoniT saubari

SeiZleba Tqvengan davreko? Tu SeiZleba, damarekineT! sxvagan moxvdiT. Tqven arasworad akrifeT nomeri, SeamowmeT!

pativcemulo zurab! velodebi Tqvens werils! didi madloba werilisTvis! Zalian sasiamovno iyo Tqveni werilis miReba! didi madloba werilisaTvis! mapatieT amden xans rom ver mogwereT! saxlSi ar aris, cota xanSi kidev davrekav. saxlSi ar aris, cota xnis Semdeg darekeT! gadaeciT, rom giam dareka. gamarjoba, qeTi Sen xar?

1.2 informaciis gacvla piradi monacemebi: saxeli, gvari, asaki, misamarTi, dabadebis TariRi.

erovnebis da warmomavlobis Sesaxeb

Sen vin xar? me am skolis moswavle var! romel klasSi swavlob? me meaTeklaseli var! sad cxovrob? me quTaisSi vcxovrob / quTaiseli var. romel skolaSi dadixar? Seni telefonis nomeri Camawerine. saidan xar? sadauri xar? me javaxeTidan / qvemo qarTlidan var.

ra gvaris xar? romel TveSi xar dabadebuli? romel wels daibade? me gogebaSvilis 10-Si vcxovrob. romel korpusSi/saxlSi cxovrob?, romel sarTulze cxovrob? me somexi / azerbaijaneli / qarTveli / rusi / ebraeli / ukraineli... var sad isveneb? sad midixar xolme dasasveneblad? eqskursiaze midixar? eqskursiebze dadixarT? qalaqgareT dasvneba giyvars?

me gaxlavarT am organizaciis warmomadgeneli... am skolaSi aTi welia vaswavli, vmuSaob.

Tavisufali dro

ra giyvars? ra gexerxeba? ra aris Seni hobi? gaqvs hobi? me momwons cekva me vagroveb markebs raze ukrav? TxilamurebiT srialeb? curav? cekvav? is maswavlebelia is maswavleblad

profesia

mamaCemi arqiteqtoria,

ra erovnebis xar? romeli qveynis moqalaqe xar? mamaCemi erovnebiT rusia, deda qarTveli laSqrobaze dadixarT xolme? ra gainteresebs? teqnika gainteresebs? _ ara teqnika ar mainteresebs. xelovneba mainteresebs. me kompiuterze TamaSi miyvars. Cemi megobari modelioria,

185

muSaobs sad muSaobs mamaSeni? rad muSaobs mamaSeni? _ inJinrad kerZo firmaSi

janmrTeloba

rogor xar? Tavs rogor grZnob? dRes Tavs rogor grZnob? gmadlobT, kargad. dRes ukeTesad var. dRes ara miSavs.

musikosia., fotografia, mZRolia, advokatia... ra unda gamoxvide? _ eqimi, maswavlebeli, msaxiobi, mocekvave... kargad ver var. Tavs kargad ver vgrZnob. ori dRea kbili saSinlad mtkiva. Tavis tkivili mawuxebs. ukve gamovjanmrTeldi. saSineli amindia. gaTovdeba? albaT gaTovdeba. gawvimdeba? _ ara mgonia. wvima albaT male gadaiRebs. baTumSi xSirad wvims.

eqTania, stilistia, me minda gavxde kosmonavti, iuristi, Jurnalisti, astronomi, gamomgonebeli, programisti.... gavcivdi da Tavs saSinlad vgrZnob. Tavbru mexveva. bolo dros avadmyofobs. alergiuli xarT? ra gawuxebT/ araferi ar mawuxebs. saqarTveloSi zomieri havaa. mSrali klimatia. nestiani klimatia. aq nesti icis. zamTrobiT didi yinvebia. cvalebadi amindia.

amindi

dRes Zalian kargi amindia. qariani amindia. Zalian cxela? _ arc ise, Tbila. rogor fiqrob, iwvimebs? wvims, magram male gadaiRebs.

1.3 aRwera, daxasiaTeba: adamianis garegnoba

adamianis Cacmuloba

adamianis xasiaTi

186

mSvenieri qalbatonia. simpaTiuri mamakacia. maRalia, warmosadegia. dabalia, tanmorCilia. qera da xuWuWTmiania. SavTmiania Zalian lamazi kostumi gacvia. axali fexsacmelebia? kargia. kargi jinsebi gacvia. kargi xelTaTmanebi / qudi / yelsaxvevi viyide zamTrisTvis. ra zoma tansacmels fexsacmels icvam? is amayia. is Tavmdabalia. is Zalian

vis hgavxar/ mamaCems / dedaCems vgavar! es Seni bavSvobis suraTia. es misi axalgazrdobaa. mSvenivrad gamoiyureba karg formaSia. es kostumi kargad rogori gaqvs. es Sarvali fexsacmelebi didi gaqvs? mogwons? fexsacmelebi sportuli Tu patara maqvs. es klasikuri? kargi fexsacmelebi qurTuki gacvia. miWers. es magaria! es svitri fexsacmeli fexs dedaCemma mtkens. muqi lurji momiqsova, mogwons? gixdeba. Ria feris _ Zalian magaria... tansacmeli axali qurTuki mixdeba. Zalian gixdeba. magari feria. Cveni maswavlebeli is jiutia. daujerebeli Zalian mkacria. bavSvia. kargad arc ise mkacri rogor gamoiyureba? saTvaleebs atarebs. grZel Tmebs atarebs. msuqania. Zalian gamxdaria. sustia.

sagnis aRwera

megobrulia. is seriozuli adamiania. Zalian niWieria. gonieria. es sufTaa. WuWyiania. oTaxi dalagebulia. oTaxi areulia. rogoria Seni saxli / oTaxi? ramxelaa Seni oTaxi?

araa. sul araa mkacri. kargi xasiaTis adamiania.

aRzrdili adamiania. uzrdelia. Zalian zrdilobiania. ra sigrZisaa Seni magida mrgvalia. oTaxi? ra oTxkuTxedis siganisaa oTaxi? formisaa. ra simaRlisaa marTkuTxedis Weri? ramdeni formisaa. kvadratuli metria ovaluria. dana saklaso oTaxi? mWrelia. viwroa, farToa. galesilia. es dana kvadratuli blagvia, ar Wris. oTaxia.

1.4 Sefaseba, damokidebuleba mowoneba, armowoneba

sakuTari azris, STabeWdilebis, poziciis gamoxatva

mSvenieri ideaa. Zalian momwons. sul ar momwons. Zalian momewona dabadebis dRe. arc ise Zalian momewona. sworia! arasworia! Cemi azriT, me vfiqrob... me mirCevnia. jobia

1.5 saWiroeba survili gamoxatva

mogwons Tanamedrove estrada? mogwons klasikuri musika? jazi? Zalian kargia. mSvenieria. brwyinvalea. Sen swori ar xar. arasworad iqcevi! arasworad moiqca! me mjera Seni. ar mjera, rom es marTalia! me minda giTxra, rom... me minda... me me Zalian minda... mWideba... me kargi iqneboda, visurvebdi... rogor rom wavsuliyavi... jobia moviqce? ra me girCev... jobia, vqna? ra unda waxvide, uTxra... gavakeTo?

mosawyeni iyo; mosabezrebelia. es brwyinvale ideaa. momwons idea! wignis kiTxva giyvars? rogori filmebi mogwons? Cemi mosazrebiT... me ase ar vfiqrob. ara mgonia ase iyos.. me mainc mgonia... rogorc Cans... ra Tqma unda... Sen es dagWirdeba. me girCev, ase moiqce. ras mirCev? ra unda vqna? _ unda waxvide, gaakeTo...

1.6 emociis gamoxatva: sixaruli, kmayofileba

me Zlian bednieri var. me Zalian kmayofili var. ra bednieri var! me ar SemiZlia amaze ar vifiqro. marTla? ar mjera!

sinanuli

brazi

me arc ise kmayofili var. me ukmayofilo var. me saSinlad ukmayofilo var. me gaocebuli var misi saqcieliT. me gaognebuli var. Zalian samwuxaroa; me Zalian vwuxvar Zalian mwyins! vwuxvar! Zalian amis gamo! me vnanob saSinelebaa! ra vwuxvar! Zalian amis Sesaxeb! ra samwuxaroa! cud mdgomareobaSi sawyenia! var. me Zalian nu brazob! nu ra gafiqrebT? ra gabrazebuli var! nerviulobT! ratom gawuxebT? ra

is kmayofilia. es didi yuradRebaa Tqveni mxridan. es saocreba iyo! me ubednieresi var.

187

eWvi, varaudi

gakvirveba

saSinlad vbrazob! veWvob, ase ar aris. SeiZleba. SesaZlebelia. darwmunebuli ara var. me gakvirvebuli var. me gaocebuli var. ra siurprizia! ra moxda?

wuxxar? ganerviulebT? me mgoni... me ara mgonia, mgonia, ar mova. Sen movides. mas rogor fiqrob? SeeZlo, ase ar moqceuliyo. marTla ase iyo? mikvirs. ar megona. xumrob? nuTu marTla ase moiqca? ras gulisxmob? marTla? amas ver davijereb! cecxlis / wylis / SegaSineT? ar siswrafis meSinia. mindoda, arafris ar meSinia. SemeSinebineT. nu geSiniaT! me mainteresebs mas xatvis niWi qimia / fizika / aqvs. yvelaferSi biologia... niWieria.

SiSi

saSiSia. me meSinia am ambis. me misi meSinia.

me miyvars kiTxva. me mainteresebs deteqtivebi. me Zalian mexerxeba xatva. indiferentuloba me ar mainteresebs. sul ar mainteresebs.

interesi

CemTvis amas mniSvneloba ara aqvs.

aranair mniSvnelobas ar vaniWeb.

1.7 droSi orientireba droSi ganTavseba dilas / diliT

saRamos / saRamoTi, SuadRisas, RamiT, SuaRamisas mere, Semdeg, jer.. Semdeg... pirvelad ..., meored... xSirad, iSviaTad, yovelTvis, zogjer

dilaobiT saRamoobiT orSabaTobiT... SabaTobiT... Tavidan bolomde, SarSan, SarSanwin, SarSanwiniswin

TveobiT kviraobiT wlobiT

qronologia

wels, gaisad, mermiss, momavalSi

sixSire

xangrZlivoba

siCqare

erTxel yoveldRe yovelTve / yovelTviurad yovel wels / yovelwliurad ramden xans mTeli dRis grZeldeba? sul ganmavlobaSi. oci wuTi sWirdeba. orSabaTidan. didi erTi saaTs xniT. aqamde. mTeli ganmavlobaSi. dRiT / RamiT. sanam ramden xans gavakeTeb... darCebi? mudam. mudmivad, Cqara. swrafad. mTeli siswrafiT. nela. iCqare! nu Cqarob!

yovel or weliwadSi, yovel meore dRes, yovel meore kviras, TiTqmis yovelTvis mTeli dRiT. mTeli RamiT. mTeli TviT / wliT. dilidan saRamomde. adre dilidan gvian Ramemde. ra neli xar! swrafad gaakeTe! saocrad swrafad. ra siCqariT / siswrafiT?

188

swrafad, magram frTxilad.

1.8 sivrceSi orientireba adgilmdebareoba

gverdiT. axlos. aqve / iqve sad aris SuaSi aq / iq metro? metros marjvniv / marcxniv pirdapir Sors / axlos

mimarTuleba

rogor mivide aeroportSi? wadiT pirdapir mouxvieT marjvniv / marcxniv romeli gziT mival? am / im gziT...

1.9 mizezi, Sedegi, is maSin iq ar iyo, amitom ar icis ra pirobiToba, mizani, opozicia moxda. wigni ar

minda, imitom rom maqvs. is avadaa, amitom ver mova. is kargad moiqca, ase rom, jildosac miiRebs. fuli rom mqondes, viyididi. Tu wavedi, aucileblad giyidi. is saqarTveloSi daibada, magram berZenia. Tu SeiZleba, miTxariT... Tu SeiZleba, maTxoveT wigni. Sexeba / axlos misvla akrZalulia!

xom ver metyviT, rogor mivide? es aeroportis gzaa? miwisqveSa gadasasvleli fexiT mosiaruleTa gadasasvleli wvimis gamo samsaxurSi ver wavedi. aq imisTvis movida, rom es saqme gaakeTos. eka ise dakavebuli iyo, rom kinoSi ver wavida. me rom iq vyofiliyavi, ase ar moxdeboda. ca mowmendili iyo, magram cioda. es CemTvis Zalian advilia, radgan am enaze vlaparakob. SeCerdiT! gza Tavisufalia.! frTxilad, karebi iketeba!

metros mopirdapire mxares iciT sad aris metro? xom ver mimaswavliT metros? SegiZliaT miTxraT, sad aris...? axlosaa, fexiT savalzea rogor mivide uaxloes gaCerebamde?

1.10 nebarTva, valdebuleba, akrZalva

fanjara gaaRe, axali haeri rom Semovides. me vicodi, rom es marTali ar iqneboda. Tu ar momewoneba, ar viyidi. me imisTvis wavedi, rom CemTvis raime meyida. is imdenad frTxilia, rom Secdomebi ar mosdis. rac manqana viyide, mas Semdeg samsaxurSi manqaniT davdivar. frTxilad iyavi! nu daanagvianebT! waikiTxeT instruqcia! daicaviT siCume! moxsenebaa, daicaviT siCume! moweva akrZalulia!

1.11 interaqcia saklaso oTaxSi: maswavleblis miTiTebebi

savarjiSo aris 25-e gverdze. Tu SeiZleba, gadaSaleT wignebi. gadaSaleT saxelmZRvanelo me-

axla Tqven gaagrZeleT. gadadiT Semdeg savarjiSoze. vin moyveba gakveTils? ana, daiwyeb? ana,

aba, daviwyoT! ra iciT amis Sesaxeb? vis SeuZlia daamatos? sakontrolo werisaTvis

189

40 gverdze. Tavidan daiwye! kidev erTxel waikiTxe! imuSaveT wyvilebad! ver gavige, Tu mimarTvebi, SeiZleba SekiTxvebi maswavleblisadmi gaimeoreT! Tu SeiZleba, kidev amixseniT! gTxovT, xelmeored amixsnaT! wavikiTxav.

gaagrZeleb? gaugebaria romelime sityva? yvelaferi gasagebia? ra aris gaugebari? gavagrZelo? wavikiTxo? romel gverdzea savarjiSo? saidan gavagrZelo? SegiZliaT, damexmaroT? rogoraa qarTulad...? ra hqvia qarTulad ....s?

geZlevaT oci wuTi. nu CqarobT, dro kidev gaqvT. iCqareT, dro aRar gaqvT. es sakiTxi ar vici. SeiZleba davamato? ver gipasuxebT. calke vimuSao Tu wyvilSi? romeli savarjiSo davwero? xelaxla davwero savarjiSo?

leqsika

rubrika 2.1 individi sxeuli VII klasi

Tavi, tani, mxrebi, xelebi, fexebi, muceli, mkerdi, zurgi, sisxli, TiTebi, frCxilebi, kefa... maRali, dabali, gamxdari, qeraTmiani, SavTmiani, xuWuWTmiani... mxiaruli, seriozuli, sevdiani, araseriozuli

VIII klasi

Sinagani organoebi: guli, filtvebi, RviZli, Tirkmelebi...

IX klasi

Sinagani organoebi elenTa, nawlavebi, brma nawlavi., naRvlis buSti, Tormetgoja nawlavi.. susti, mxarbeWiani, warmosadegi, lamazi...cisferTva leba, SavTvaleba, mwvaneTvaleba keTili, patiosani, samarTliani, usamarTlo, amayi, ampartavani, akuratuli, sufTa, binZuri... sportuli tansacmeli, jinsebi, jinsis qurTuki, saSinao tansacmeli, sagareo tansacmeli, sezonuri tansacmeli...yovel dRiuri tansacmeli... Cacma, gaxda, daxurva,

garegnoba

wiTuri, Seuxedavi, kargi Sesaxedavi

xasiaTi

guladi, mamaci, uSiSari, uxeSi, Tavaziani, zrdilobiani, uzrdeli... svitri, qurTuki, palto, mokle palto, Jileti, qolga, CanTa...

tansacmlis aqsesuarebi

sayure, beWedi, Rili, yelsabami, Tavsafari tansacmeli, fexsacmeli, perangi, kostiumi, halstuxi, cxvirsaxoci

190

higiena

dabana, davarcxna, dasufTaveba, varjiSi, kbilebis gamoxexva, Sxapis miReba... gripiT avad, surdo, gaciebuli, eqimi, eqTani, afTiaqSi wamlis yidva, xvelebis wamali, Tavis tkivilis wamali...

Sampuni, saponi, savarcxeli, kremi, Rrubeli,

janmrTeloba/ avadmyofoba

eqimis gamoZaxeba, wola, wamlis miReba, nemsis gakeTeba

Sefaseba da emociuri reaqciebi

kargad, SesaniSnavad vgrZnob Tavs, SeuZlod var...

gaxarebuli, Sewuxebuli, gaocebuli, gakvirvebuli, gaognebuli...

tareba... burTuliani dezodori, piradi higiena, piradi higienis dacva, civi Sxapis miReba, saparsi... angina, xveleba, surdo, sicxiani, xelis motexa, saavadmyofo, eqTani, eqimi, saswrafo daxmareba, awuxebs Tavis/kbilis/ muclis tkivili. sircxvili, SiSi, wyena, sixaruli, originaloba, sirTule, gabrazebuli, nawyeni, gajavrebuli, ukmayofilo, gancda, aRelveba...

2.2 individis garemocva aRqma da inteleqtualuri aqtivobebi

ojaxi / naTesavebi

adamianis cxovrebis etapebi

Sexedva, naxva, gagoneba, gaxseneba, daviwyeba, dafiqreba, mofiqreba, daTvla, Sedgena... naTesavebi, axloblebi, mSoblebi, ojaxis wevrebi, qaliSvili, vaJiSvili, winapari, STamomavali... bavSvi, axalgazrda, moxuci,

gaanalizeba, gamoangariSeba, SegrZneba, gancda, aRelveba, damSvideba... biZaSvili, deidaSvili, mamidaSvili, sanaTesao, axlo naTesavi, Soreuli naTesavi, disSvili, ZmisSvili, qali, kaci, moxuci, axalgazrda...

mofiqreba, gadafiqreba, winaaRmdegobis gadalaxva...

coli, qmari, rZali, siZe, bicola, biZaSvili, mazli, muli, qvisli, mazliSvili, muliSvili. zrdasruli, mozardi, Wabuki, qaliSvili, adamiani, xalxi, nacnobi, megobari, klaseli, skoleli, mezobeli, amxanagi. bavSvoba, sicocxle, sikvdili... dakaveba, avtomopasuxe,

telefoniT sargebloba

darekva, yurmili, yurmilis aReba,

satelefono wigni, nomris Cawera,

191

buneba da bunebis movlenebi

mosmena, pasuxi, nomris akrefa, daZaxeba/Txovna. xe, tye, mdinare, wyaro, qari, mze, wvima, Tovli, qaris qrola, cxovelebi, frinvelebi, mwerebi.

geografiuli dasaxelebebi, erovnebebi, religiuri mrwamsi saxelmwifo da sazogadoeba

qalaqi da sofeli, aqtivobebi

sacxovrebeli adgili aqtivobebi

zRva, okeane, xmeleTi, sanapiro, kunZuli, naxevarkunZuli, kontinenti, buneba, samyaro, bunebis dacva, xis dargva, morwyva. botanikosi, zoologi, biologi, amindis prognozi... somxeTi, kaspiis zRva, Savi kaxeTi, imereTi, azerbaijani, zRva... CrdiloeTi guria, samegrelo, ruseTi, ukraina kavkasia qarTli, fSavi, erevani, baqo, xevsureTi... kaxeli, Tbilisi, imereli, amierkavkasia, qarTleli, kavkasioni, megreli, guruli.... qalaqi, dedaqalaqi, xelfasi,stipendia, xelisufleba, prezidenti, pensia, daxmareba... politikuri mTavroba, diasaxlisi, partia, parlamenti, samsaxuri, inJineri, sasamarTlo, konstitucia, arqiteqtori, prokuratura, fuli, ekonomika, mZRoli, jari, policia, mrewveloba... maswavlebeli... saministro, administracia, departamenti... gzatkecili, quCa, maRali saxlebi, moqalaqe, Senoba, trotuari, farTo quCa, moedani, quCa, prospeqti, qalaqis sabavSvo baRi, prospeqti, centri, bazari, Teatri, sadguri, vaWroba, parlamentis kino, moedani, gantvirTva, Senoba, gamgeoba, Seneba... dajarimeba.. eklesia, qalaqeli, transporti, mosavali, xexilis baRi, bostneuli, moyvana, daTesva, dargva... Cveni saxli, bina, oTaxi, sastumro oTaxi, ezoiani saxli, saZinebeli, samzareulo, mravalsarTuliani samzareulo.... sakuWnao, samuSao saxli, Cemi oTaxi, saWmlis momzadeba, oTaxi, kabineti, samzareulo, daWra, moxarSva, abazana, tualeti, lifti, Sewva, gamocxoba, Sesasvleli, kibe, garaJi, lojia, mesame cxovreba, sarTulze, dalageba, dagva, daZineba, sadili, dasufTaveba, vaxSmoba, sauzme,

darekva, xelmeored darekva, yurmilis dadeba. buCqi, balaxi, udabno, mTa, klde... Sinauri cxovelebi, gareuli cxovelebi...

telefoni ar pasuxobs, zumeri...

192

aveji, sayofacxovrebo nivTebi.

magida, skami, sawoli, divani, savarZeli, kari, fanjara, saweri magida, kompiuteri, audiomagnitofoni, video; mtversasruti, yavis Wiqa, Cais Wiqa, miqseri, wvnianis TefSi, desertis TefSi, didi da patara kovzi samaswavleblo, klaseli, skoleli, saaqto darbazi, davaleba, savarjiSo, davalebis dawera, cxrili...

wignebis Taroebi, feradi televizori, dividi, fotoaparati, videokamera

aqsesuarebi, WurWeli

yavis finjani, lambaqi, danaCangali...

skola, personali, aqtivobebi

ucxo enis maswavlebeli, organizatori, mdivani, klasis xelmZRvaneli, laboranti, damlagebeli, gadmowera, kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema, savarjiSos Sesruleba... feradi furclebi geografia, fizika, qimia... esTetika, istoria, saqarTvelos istoria,

saswavlo nivTebi saswavlo sagnebi

momsaxurebis obieqtebi, personalebi, aqtivobebi

sursaTi, kveba, kvebis produqtebi, kvebis obieqtebi,

kalami, fargali, flomaster(eb)i, maTematika, algebra, geometria, geografia, biologia, ucxo ena...buneba, istoria, supermarketi, Sesasvleli, gamosasvleli, sakaso aparati, xurda, afTiaqi, afTiaqari, gamyidveli, molare gazomva, arCeva, yidva, gadaWra, moWra, Sexveva, produqti, puri, lavaSi, yveli, karaqi, jemi, muraba, xilis

WurWlis darecxva. xaliCa, gasaTbobi saSualeba, sarke, xelsabani, kompiuteri, musikaluri centri, sarecxi manqana, kombaini, gazis qura, eleqtroqura qvabi, tafa, haerRumeli, wvensawuri, TeTreuli, sufra, gadasafarebeli, sawolis gadasafarebeli... qarTuli enis kabineti.... mSobliuri enis kabineti, geografiis kabineti... anketis Sevseba, saxelmZRvanelos wakiTxva, dRiuris Sevseba, gamokiTxva, sakontrolo wera, testireba markeri... msoflio istoria, qarTuli ena...

fostalioni, fosta, banki, bankomati, fulis gamotana, fulis Setana

fulis gadaricxva, safunTuSe, saxaWapure, sasursaTo maRazia, naWrebis maRazia... gamocxoba, SekveTa, fulis gadaxda... fexsacmlis SekeTeba,

xorci, Semwvari, moxarSuli, xili, Zveli produqti, axli xorci,

kafe, restorani, bari, piceria, sasadilo, saxaWapure, SekveTa,

193

aqtivobebi

koka-kola sasmeli, yavis moxarSva, Cais aduReba, momzadeba

gayinuli xorci, gamocxoba...

transporti, personali

transporti, SuqniSani, moZraobis wesebi, avtobusSi asvla, Camosvla, gadaxda, gaCereba, adgilis daTmoba, avtobusis mZRoli, taqsis mZRoli

kulturuli obieqtebi, personali

Teatri, dekoracia, reJisori, msaxiobi, anSlagi, premiera, piesis avtori, Semsruleblebi, taSi, piesis dadgma,

masmedia

gazeTi, Jurnali, televizia, radio

metro, wriuli transporti, dajarimeba, mgzavri, mgzavrebiT datvirTuli, fexiT mosiaruleTa gadasasvleli, gzajvaredini, patruli. operis Teatri, antraqti, parteri, iarusi, libreto, orkestri, pianisti, momRerali, balerina, baleroni, violino, diriJori, presa, statia, Jurnalisti,

safirmo kerZi, barmeni, mzareuli... sadResaswaulo sufra, civi kerZebi, cxeli kerZebi, mwvadi, xinkali, xinklis moxveva, gatarebuli xorci, msubuqi manqana, satvirTo manqana, benzingasamarTi, samarSruto taqsi, avtobusi, metros vagoni, avtosamrecxao,

gasarTobi, Tavisufali dro, saTamaSoebi, TamaSebi

kompiuteruli TamaSebi

diskoTeka, kafeSi wasvla, fexburTi, CogburTi, sportze siaruli, mwvrTneli, goli, Cempionati, fexburTeli,

samxatvro galerea, sagamofeno darbazi, portreti, peizaJi, naturmorti, zeTis saRebavebi, akvareli, grafika, gamofena, qandakeba... mowinave statia, saTauri, reportaJi, qronika, sensacia, danaSauli, dajildoeba, korespondenti, respodenti, reklama, sareklamo gancxadeba... gazeTebi: `24 saaTi~, `rezonansi~, `sityva da saqme~, `saqarTvelos reqspublika~... laSqroba, eqskursia, mxiarulTa da sazrianTa klubi, gamarjveba, mogeba, wageba,

194

dResaswaulebi, zeimebi

dabadebis dRis aRniSvna, qalTa dRe, milocva, saCuqari, mirTmeva

kalaTburTeli.... ojaxuri zeimi, stumrebi, stumrebis dapatiJeba, miReba

Tbilisoba, erovnuli dResaswauli, damoukideblobis dRe, religiuri dResaswauli, dResaswaulis aRniSvna....

2.3 individis orientirebi dro sezonebi

xuTs aklia aTi wuTi; xval, guSin gazafxuli, zafxuli, Semodgoma, zamTari.

guSinwin, guSinwiniswin zamTar-zafxul

zeg, mazeg

kviris dReebi Tveebi dRis monakveTebi, dila, saRamo, SuadRe, SuaRame, dRe/Rame

dilas, saRamos, RamiT, SuadRisas, SuaRamisas dilis cxra saaTia, saRamos Svidi saaTia, Ramis ori saaTia CrdiloeTi, samxreTi, aRmosavleTi, dasavleTi. skolaSi, skolasTan, skolamde rkinis, xis muqi yavisferi, Ria yavisferi

orSabaTs, kviras... seqtemberSi, agvistoSi... dilas, saRamos, SuadReze...

am kviraSi, am TveSi... seqtembrisTvis, noembrisTvis Zalian adre, ganTiadisas

drois gansazRvra

xuT saaTze, xuTis aT wuTze, xuTis naxevarze... CrdiloeTiT, samxreTiT, aRmosavleTiT, dasavleTiT. axlos, Sors, Soriaxlos, marcxniv, marjvniv... plastmasis oqrosferi, vercxlisferi...

xuTisTvis saxlSi viqnebi, xuTamde, xuTidan Svidamde... CrdiloeTisken, samxreTisken, aRmosavleTisken, dasavleTisken. moSorebiT. simaRleze, siRrmeSi... Ria feri, muqi feri (feris) momwvano, mocisfro, moTeTro, moSavo.... 42 zoma Sarvali, yvelaze patara zoma, yvelaze didi zoma, kvadratuli, marTkuTxa... tona mesamedi, mexuTedi plius-minus 5

sivrce

adgilmdebareoba

maxasiaTeblebi feri

zoma

didi maqvs, patara maqvs

36 nomeri fexsacmeli

forma wona raodenoba temperatura

ovaluri, grami, kilogrami naxevari Zalian civi,

samkuTxedis formis, centneri celsiusiT 30

195

Semadgenloba ricxvebi

Zalian cxeli, Tbili, grili, nel-Tbili. Salis, bambis, qaRaldis, 1000-dan zemoT....

gradusi...

gradusi....

plastmasis, xis, rkinis, brinjaos, 10000-mde

oqros, vercxlis, platinis... 10000-is zemoT... 1.000 000 ....

gramatika

metyvelebis nawilebi arsebiTi saxeli VII-X klasebi

1. mxolobiTi da mravlobiTi ricxvi, warmoeba. 2. moTxrobiTi, micemiTi brunvebi 3. micemiTi brunvis Tandebulebi: -viT, -Tan, -ze, -Si 4. naTesaobiTi brunvis Tandebulebi: -Tvis, -gan, -ken... 5. viTarebiTi brunvis Tandebulebi -mde, -idan -mde. zedsarTavis xarisxis formebi: odnaobiTi mo-o, da ufroobiTi u-es. raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi (rTuli, Sedgenili) rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi, wilobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi. piris, kuTvnilebiTi, CvenebiTi, kiTxviTi, nacvalsaxelebi zmnis uRleba pirisa da ricxvis mixedviT; axlandeli, warsuli, momavali dro. drois, adgilis, viTarebis zmnizedebi micemiTis, naTesaobiTis, moqmedebiTis da viTarebiTis Tandebulebi. calke mdgomi Tandebulebi: mimarT, Sesaxeb, mier... Ar, ver, nu Da, Tu, magram, rac, vinc sixarulis, wyenis, Seqebis, wyenis gamomxatveli Sorisdebulebi 1. kiTxviTi winadadeba 2. Zaxilis winadadeba. 3. martivi gavrcobili winadadeba 4. rTuli Tanwyobili winadadeba 5. rTuli qvewyobili winadadeba.

zedsarTavi saxeli ricxviTi saxeli

nacvalsaxeli zmna zmnizeda Tandebuli

nawilaki kavSiri Sorisdebuli winadadeba winadadebis tipebi Sedgenilobis mixedviT

punqtuacia da orTografia

metyvelebis nawilebi arsebiTi saxeli zedsarTavi saxeli ricxviTi saxeli 196 VII-X klasebi

1. saxelTa brunvis formebis marTlwera 2. Tandebulian saxelTa marTlwera.. 3. sakuTar saxelTa marTlwera 1. xarisxis formaTa marTlwera. 2. msazRvrel-sazRvrulis brunvaSi SeTanxmeba. 1. raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelebis marTlwera. (rTuli, Sedgenili) 2. rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelebis marTlwera 3.

wilobiTi ricxviTi saxelebis marTlwera. nacvalsaxeli piris, kuTvnilebiTi, CvenebiTi, kiTxviTi, nacvalsaxelebis marTlwera 1. piris formaTa marTlwera. 2. mravlobiTi ricxvis formaTa zmna marTlwera. drois, adgilis, viTarebis zmnizedebis marTlwera zmnizeda micemiTis, naTesaobiTis, moqmedebiTis da viTarebiTis Tandebuli Tandebulebi. calke mdgomi Tandebulebi: mimarT, Sesaxeb, mier... am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli marTlwera. ar, ver, nu nawilaki punqtuaciis sakiTxebi kavSirian winadadebaSi. . kavSiri Sorisdebuli punqtuaciis sakiTxebi SorisdebulebTan dakavSirebiT.

winadadeba punqtuaciis wesebi rTul winadadebaSi. winadadebis tipebi Sedgenilobis mixedviT

sociokultura da kultura

VII-X

· dResaswaulebi da zeimebi · erovnuli dResaswaulebi · tradiciebi, zneCveulebebi (sufrasTan, sazogadoebaSi moqcevis wesebi, ufros-umcrosoba...) · Tanamedrove cxovreba (masobrivi kultura, sakomunikacio saSualebebi, kulturis, savaWro centrebi...) · axalgazrduli yofa (dRis reJimi, Tavisufali dro, garToba, dasveneba, sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebi, gatacebebi, saymawvilo Jurnalebi, gadacemebi, sabavSvo centrebi...) · amierkavkasia (zogadi cnobebi) · geografiuli cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb · cnobebi saqarTvelos politikuri wyobis Sesaxeb · dedaqalaqi da misi RirSesaniSnaobebi · cnobebi saqarTvelos warsulisa da kulturis Sesaxeb · cnobili adamianebi (mwerlebi, xelovanebi, sportsmenebi, mecnierebi, istoriuli pirebi...) · mniSvnelovani istoriuli movlenebi · literatura _ leqsebi, adaptirebuli moTxrobebi, igav-arakebi, legendebi, qarTulad Targmnili maTi mSobliuri enis literaturuli nimuSebi...) · cnobebi regionis Sesaxeb · cnobebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis warsulidan da maTi urTierTobis Sesaxeb · saqarTvelos moqalaqis ufleba-movaleobani

sametyvelo funqciebi

rubrika 1.1 socialuri urTierTobebi misalmeba X klasi XI klasi XII klasi

mokiTxva

gamarjoba, dila mSvidobisa, saRamo mSvidobisa axali ra xdeba? rogor xarT?

gaumarjos

ra kargia, rom gnaxeT!

xom kargad Tqvenken ra xdeba? brZandebiT? rogor yvelaferi

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rogor arian Tqvenebi? rogoraa saqmeebi?

gikiTxoT?

damSvidobeba

madlobis gadaxda

mobodiSeba

kargad! kargad iyavi! kargad brZandebodeT! gemSvidobebiT! did madlobas mogaxsenebT! madlieri var! Tqveni didad madlieri var! ukacravad! mapatieT!

momaval Sexvedramde! bednierad! madlobas mogaxsenebT! udides (uRrmes) madlobas mogaxsenebT! mapatieT SewuxebisaTvis! Tu SeiZleba, miTxariT, sad aris fosta? brZaneT, ra gnebavT? riT SemiZlia dagexmaroT? rogor gekadrebaT! ras brZanebT! me didi xania mindoda Tqveni gacnoba!

kargadaa? ras SvebiT? rogor xarT? rogor brZandebiT? rogor gikiTxoT? naxvamdis! kargad! kargad brZandebodeT! madlobeli var! Tqveni wyalobaa! gmadlobT!

vwuxvar, rom ver gexmarebiT! ukacravad SewuxebisaTvis! didi siamovnebiT dagexmarebiT, brZaneT, ra gnebavT! ra Sewuxebaa! axlave mogarTmevT! vicnobdeT erTmaneTs: me var zurab maCabeli! Tqven? _ sasiamovnoa! me gaxlavarT amiran gelovani!

Tavaziani mimarTva

batono daviT, mobrZandiT, dabrZandiT! qalbatono mariam, SemobrZandiT!

wardgena, gacnoba me minda gagacnoT

Cemi megobari! icnobdeT, es Cemi megobaria, vaxtang orbeli!

milocva, keTili survilebis gamoxatva.

informaciis dazusteba, cudad gagebulis garkveva SeTavazeba, dapatiJeba, daTanxmeba, uari

gilocavT! mravals daeswariT! gisurvebT did bednierebas, janmrTelobas da DdRegrZelobas! ver gavige, gTxovT, gaimeoroT! samwuxarod ver gavige, gamimeoreT, Tu SeiZleba! Tu SeiZleba Tqveni telefonis nomeri aq damiwereT! siamovnebiT! gepatiJebiT dabadebis dReze!

daglocavT! gadRegrZelebT! mraval axal wels (dabadebis dRes....) daeswariT! ver gavige, iqneb gaimeoroT! mapatieT, ver gavige! me mgoni, sworad ver gavige, iqneb gamimeoroT! Tu SeiZleba, xelmeored TqviT, ver gavige! modi dRes sadme wavideT! kargi ideaa, wavideT! samwuxarod, ver SevZleb, xval wavideT! xval, # saaTze, CvenTan mobrZandiT am misamarTze!

Zalian gTxovT, mobrZandeT CvenTan! didi siamovnebiT! didi siamovnebiT geaxlebiT! Sevecdebi, magram ver gpirdebiT!

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waxaliseba, Seqeba

yoCaR ase unda moqceuliyavi! me SeniT vamayob! kargia, YyoCaR! gemrielad miirTviT! yvelaferi Zalian gemrielia! Tu SeiZleba, es naWeri amiwoneT! Tu SeiZleba es kostumi momawodeT!

interaqcia sufrasTan interaqcia savaWro obieqtSi

Zalian kargad gamoiyurebi! karg formaSi xar! Zalian lamazi ram gacvia! Tu SeiZleba, kidev momawodeT!

interaqcia mgzavrobisas

TviTmfrinaviT mifrinav Tu matarebliT midixar? saxlSi taqsiT mivalT. samsaxurSi metroTi davdivar. fostamde fexiT moival axlosaa.

mimowera (mimarTva / gamomSvidobeba)

telefoniT saubari

interaqcia kamaTisas, diskusiisas

vimedovneb, Senken yvelaferi kargadaa! imedi maqvs, erTmaneTs male vnaxavT! mokiTxva gadmogca dedam da mamam! gemSvidobebi saukeTeso survilebiT... xval aucileblad dagirekav! xvalisTvis damirekeT! vin gnebavT? cota xanSi xelmeored davrekav! me Tqven ar geTanxmebiT. me ase ar vfiqrob. ver dageTanxmebiT.

fantastikuria! kargi ideaa! momwons! Sen Zalian yoCaRi xar! yoCaR, gamaxare! Zalian gemrielia! _SegergoT! gemrielad miirTviT! es Sarvali ra zomaa es momwons, viyidi. kostiumi? fasi da fuli sad zoma iarliyze gadavixado? aweria, Tu _salaroSi SeiZleba, naxeT! gadaixadeT. gadaixadeT 65 lari! es samarSruto aeroportamde ra taqsi sad midis? nomeri avtobusi samgzavro midis? bileTebi unda TviTmfrinavis SeiZinoT bileTebi sad unda salaroSi! viyido? romel saaTze mofrinavs hamburgi_Tbilisi? aeroportSi romel saaTze unda iyo? registracia romel saaTze mTavrdeba? Zalian mixaria velodebodi Tqvens Seni ambebi. werils! didi gisurveb yovelive madloba minda kargs! saukeTeso gadagixadoT survilebiT, werilisTvis! mariami! Zalian sasiamovno iyo Tqveni werilis wakiTxva! bodiSs gixdiT pasuxis dagvianebisaTvis SeiZleba Tqveni axla saxlSi ar telefoniT aris, mogvianebiT visargeblo? darekeT! gadaeciT, nomeri SecdomiT rom giam daureka. akrifeT. Tqven me saministrodan arasworad akrifeT girekavT. nomeri, SeamowmeT! Tqveni azri Zalian Tqveni mosazreba sainteresoa, magram sainteresoa. Tqveni ver dageTanxmebiT. damokidebuleba naTqvams minda sainteresoa, magram davumato... me mainc Cven amis Sesaxeb mgonia, rom... sxva azri gvaqvs. geTanxmebiT da

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1.2 informaciis gacvla piradi monacemebi: saxeli, gvari, asaki, misamarTi, dabadebis TariRi.

Tqvens naTqvams unda davumato Semdegi:

Tqven vin brZandebiT? me gaxlavarT... sad moRvaweobT? me skolaSi vmuSaob. Tqveni telefonis nomeri, Tu SeiZleba.

erovnebis da warmomavlobis Sesaxeb

Tavisufali dro

profesia

janmrTeloba

ra gvaris brZandebiT? Tqveni dabadebis TariRi? Tqveni sacxovrebeli adgili? Tqveni zusti misamarTi da safosto indeqsi: saidan brZandebiT? me somexi / sadauri azerbaijaneli / brZandebiT? me qarTveli / rusi / javaxeTidan / qvemo ebraeli / qarTlidan ukraineli... gaxlavarT. gaxlavarT, magram saqarTveloSi vcxovrob / saqarTvelos moqalaqe var. Tu SeiZleba, sad isvenebT Tqveni hobis xolme? sad Sesaxeb gviTxariT? dadixarT xolme me momwons cekva me dasasveneblad? vagroveb monetebs, qalaqgareT maqvs didi dasvneba giyvarT? koleqcia me minda is xelovania is maswavlebeli direqtorad gavxde, imitom rom muSaobs. is Zalian miyvars mTargmnelia / bavSvebi. Tarjimania. is bavSvTa eqimia. Tavs kargad ver Tavs rogor grZnob? dRes Tavs vgrZnob. SeiZleba wavide? Tavi rogor grZnobT? gmadlobT, kargad. saSinlad mtkiva. axla cota ukeTesad var.

me gaxlavarT... amJamad me vswavlob...vmuSaob...

ra erovnebis brZandebiT? romeli qveynis moqalaqe brZandebiT? mamaCemi erovnebiT somexia, deda -rusi Cven saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi varT. ukrav? srialeb? ra gainteresebT? mainteresebs xelovneba.

_sad moRvaweobT? _me vmuSaob biblioTekaSi.

amindi

1.3 aRwera, 200

dRes kargi, Tbili amindia. uqaro amindia. arc ise Zalian cxela, kargi amindia. didi / Zlieri qari amovarda.

kokispirulad wvims. yinavs, albaT gaTovdeba. wvimam ukve gadaiRo. mTaSi zvavia.

dRes eqims unda gavesinjo, Tavs kargad ver vgrZnob. Tvalebi mibneldeba alergiuli var / alergia maqvs mtverze. amindis prognozi rogoria? wvimaa gamocxadebuli. cvalebadi moRrublulobaa gamocxadebuli.

daxasiaTeba adamianis garegnoba, Cacmuloba

Zalian lamazia, simpaTiuria. tanadia. kargi Tmebi aqvs. qeraTmiania.

Txovnis gamoxatva

adamianis xasiaTi

sagnis aRwera

Tu SeiZleba... gTxovT... Zalian gTxovT... gemudarebiT... gexvewebiT... ampartavania. moridebuli adamiania. megobrulia. seriozuli pirovnebaa. niWieria. uniWieresia. sufTaa. binZuria.. dalagebulia. daulagebelia. oTaxi areulia.

vis hgavs mSvenivrad gamoiyureba, karg formaSia. aristokratuli garegnoba aqvs. kargi garegnobisaa. keTili neba umorCilesad gamoiCineT. iqneb gTxovT. Tu TqvenTvis Zneli ar SeZloT... iqneba... msuqania. Zalian gamxdaria. sustia. lamazi Tvalebi aqvs. kargi Rimili aqvs. gemovnebiani adamiania mkacria. umkacresi jiutia. adamiania kargi daujerebelia. pirovnebaa. uzrdelia. zrdilobiania. samarTliania. usamarTloa. umaduria. didia, modidoa, udidesia, uzarmazaria, veeberTelaa... pataraa, momcroa, erTi cicqnaa... moxatulia, moCuqurTmebulia, mopirkeTebulia, mooqrovilia, movercxlilia, monikelebulia...

1.4 Sefaseba, damokidebuleba mowoneba, armowoneba

sakuTari azris, STabeWdilebis, poziciis gamoxatva 1.5 saWiroeba survili gamoxatva

brwyinlale ideaa. Zalian momewona. arc ise Zalian momewona. mosawonia. araa mosawoni. samwuxarodD Cemi azriT, me vfiqrob... me mirCevnia. jobia

Zalian kargia. mSvenieria. brwyinvalea, umaRlesi donisaa. saSualo donisaa. dabali donisaa. arasworia. daujerebelia! warmoudgenelia! fantastikuria

me minda... me mWideba... me visurvebdi... ra SeiZleba gavakeToT?

kargi iqneboda, sxvagvarad gagvekeTebina... me girCev... jobia, waxvide, uTxra...

mosawyeni. mosabezrebeli. gasarTobia. seriozuli nawarmoebia. Sedevria. Cemda samwuxarod, sazogadod Cemi mosazrebiT... rogorc Cans... ra Tqma unda... rasakvirvelia.. Sen es ar gamogadgeba. me girCev, ase moiqce. verafers girCev, Sen unda gadawyvito!

1.6 emociis gamoxatva sixaruli, kmayofileba

bednierebaa. kmayofili var. SesaniSnavia! brwyinvalea!

is kmayofilia. Zalian yuradRebiania. es saocreba iyo! me

sakmaod kmayofili var. saukeTeso gamosvla iyo! damakmayofi-

201

lebelia! aradamakmayofileb elia! samwuxaroa. me Zalian vwuxvar Cvenda samwuxarod! sinanuli vwuxvar! Zalian amis gamo! me vnanob Cvenda savalalod! vwuxvar! Zalian amis Sesaxeb! Zalian mwyins! cud mdgomareobaSi Zalian sawyenia! Cvenda var. amaze fiqric ki ar saubedurod!! ra minda. Zneli samwuxaroa! saTqmelia. gafiqrebac ki Znelia... Zalian samwuxaroa! nu brazobO! nu arc ifiqroT! brazi saSinelebaa! nerviulobT! amaze rogor gabedeT? es nu fiqrobT! ra sakadrebelia?! veWvob, as ar aris. me mgoni... me ara mgonia, eWvi, varaudi SeiZleba. mgonia, ar mova. Sen movides. mas SesaZlebelia. rogor fiqrob? SeeZlo, ase ar darwmunebuli ara moqceuliyo. var. me gakvirvebuli marTla ase iyo? xumrob? nuTu gakvirveba var. me gaognebuli mikvirs, marTla ase var. ra siurprizia! gasaocaria. ar moiqca? ras ra moxda? megona. gulisxmobT? risi Tqma gsurT? marTla? amis dajereba ar SemiZlia, daujerebelia... saSiSia. me meSinia cecxlis / wylis / SegaSineT? ar SiSi am ambis. me misi siswrafis meSinia. mindoda, meSinia. arafris ar meSinia. SemeSinebineT. nu geSiniaT! nu SegeSindebaT! me miyvars kiTxva. me mainteresebs mas xatvis niWi interesi me mainteresebs qimia / fizika / aqvs. yvelaferSi deteqtivebi. me biologia... niWieria. Zalian mexerxeba uniWieresia. xatva. aranair indiferentuloba me ar mainteresebs. CemTvis amas sul ar mniSvneloba ara mniSvnelobas ar mainteresebs. aqvs. vaniWeb. ara mgonia, es saintereso iyos. amaze ar mifiqria.

saukeTesoa! saSinelebaa!

ubednieresi var. moxaruli var.

1.7 droSi orientireba droSi ganTavseba dilas / diliT

qronologia

202

dilaobiT saRamoobiT orSabaTobiT... SabaTobiT... arc ise didxans, cota xans, cota xniT mere, Semdeg, jer.. Tavidan bolomde, pirvelad... meored... SarSan, SarSanwin, saRamos / saRamoTi, SuadRisas, RamiT, SuaRamisas

TveobiT, kviraobiT, wlobiT, wlidan wlamde, drodadro

Wels, gaisad, mermiss, momavalSi

sixSire

xangrZlivoba

siCqare

xSirad, iSviaTad, erTxel, yoveldRe, yovelTvis, zogjer yovelTve / arasdros yovelTviurad yovel wels / yovelwliurad yovelkvireulad yoveldRiurad ramden xans mTeli dRis grZeldeba? sul ganmavlobaSi. oci wuTi sWirdeba. orSabaTidan. didi erTi saaTis xniT. aqamde. mTeli ganmavlobaSi. dRiT / RamiT. sanam ramden xans gavakeTeb... darCebi? mudam. mudmivad, samudamod Cqara. swrafad. mTeli siswrafiT. nela. uswrafesad iCqare! nu Cqarob!

yovel or weliwadSi, yovel meore dRes, yovel meore kviras, TiTqmis yovelTvis, yovelTvis, sul, ganuwyvetliv mTeli dRiT. mTeli RamiT. mTeli TviT / wliT. dilidan saRamomde. adre dilidan gvian Ramemde.

1.8 sivrceSi orientireba adgilmdebareoba

ra neli xar! swrafad gaakeTe! saocrad swrafad. ra siCqariT / siswrafiT? swrafad, magram frTxilad.

gverdiT. axlos. SuaSi aq / iq marjvniv / marcxniv miwaze / caSi Sors / axlos Soriaxlos

mimarTuleba

1.9 logikuri kavSiris gamoxatva rTuli winadadeba: mizezi, Sedegi, pirobiToba, mizani, opozicia...

aqve / iqve. sad aris metro? metros pirdapir, metros paralelurad, metros mopirdapire mxares, metros pirispir rogor mivide xom ver metyviT, aeroportSi? wadiT rogor mivide? es pirdapir mouxvieT aeroportis gzaa? marjvniv / marcxniv miwisqveSa romeli gziT gadasasvleli. mival? am / im fexiT gziT... mosiaruleTa gadasasvleli

iciT sad aris metro? xom ver mimaswavliT metros? SegiZliaT miTxraT, sad aris...?

axlosaa, fexiT savalzea rogor mivide uaxloes gaCerebamde? im mimarTulebiT ra transporti dadis?

me davagviane, radgan dameZina. saxlSi imitom darCa, rom Tavs SeuZlod grZnobda. is avadaa, amitom ver mova. masTan wavida, raTa mis

saqmis gamo samsaxurSi ver wavedi. aq imisTvis movida, rom es saqme gaakeTos. kaci, romelic davinaxe, Cemi mezobeli aRmoCnda.

kacma, romelic Cem win idga, Cemi xma ver gaigo. kaci, romelmac gamarjoba miTxra, male wavida. kacs, romelic Cem win idga, gamarjoba

203

1.9 logikuri kavSiris gamoxatva

gverdiT yofiliyo. fuli rom mqondes, aucileblad viyididi. Tu wavedi, aucileblad viyidi. is male mova, magram maleve unda wavides. giorgim Tqva, rom xval skolaSi ver mova. kaci, romelsac ver vuTxari, Sevxvdi, Cemi radgan ver vicani. mezobeli aRmoCnda.

1.10 iribi naTqvami

dedam mTxova, rom maRaziaSi Sevsuliyavi..

1.11 nebarTva, valdebuleba, akrZalva

Tu SeiZleba, miTxariT... Tu SeiZleba, maTxoveT wigni. Sexeba / axlos misvla akrZalulia!

SeCerdiT! gza Tavisufalia.! frTxilad, karebi iketeba!

ramdenjer giTxari, ase nu akeTeb-meTqi! dedas vuTxari, puri wamoiRe-Tqo. gviTxra, ase ar unda moiqceTo. frTxilad iyavi! nu daanagvianebT! waikiTxeT instruqcia! daicaviT siCume! moxsenebaa, daicaviT siCume! moweva akrZalulia!

1.12 interaqcia saklaso oTaxSi maswavleblis miTiTebebi

waikiTxeT teqsti damoukideblad da SeasruleT Semdegi davaleba. amoiwereT teqstidan... waikiTxeT Semdegi abzaci. ra iyo gaugebari teqstSi?

rveuli saxlSi mimarTvebi, damrCa. me dRes SekiTxvebi maswavleblisadmi mzad ara var. Tu SeiZleba meore gakveTilze gipasuxebT. ver gavige, Tu SeiZleba gaimeoreT! Tu SeiZleba, kidev amixseniT! gTxovT, xelmeored amixsnaT!

miaqcieT yuradReba saTaurs da pirvel winadadebas. gamoyaviT abzacSi mTavari azris gamomxatveli winadadeba. gadmoeciT teqsti Tqveni sityvebiT. gadmoeciT teqstis Sesaxeb Tqveni damokidebuleba. SeiZleba gkiTxoT? ras niSnavs? teqstSi gaugebaria sityvebi... gavagrZelo? wavikiTxo? romel gverdzea savarjiSo? saidan gavagrZelo? SegiZliaT, damexmaroT? rogoraa qarTulad...? ra

daasabuTeT Tqveni mosazreba. SeadgineT Txrobis / msjelobis gegma.

ver gavige ra da rogor davwero. jer gegma SevadginoT? gegma rogor davwero? es sakiTxi ar vici. SeiZleba davamato? ver gipasuxebT. calke vimuSao Tu wyvilSi? romeli savarjiSo davwero? xelaxla davwero

204

wavikiTxav.

hqvia qarTulad ....s?

savarjiSo?

leqsika

individi

garegnoba nimuSebi X-XII klasebisaTvis

maRali, dabali, gamxdari, qeraTmiani, SavTmiani, xuWuWTmiani... wiTuri, Seuxedavi, kargi Sesaxedavi susti, mxarbeWiani, warmosadegi, lamazi... cisferTvaleba, SavTvaleba, mwvaneTvaleba swori cxviri, klasikuri garegnoba. mxiaruli, seriozuli, sevdiani, araseriozuli guladi, xasiaTi mamaci, uSiSari, uxeSi, Tavaziani, zrdilobiani, uzrdeli... keTili, patiosani, samarTliani, usamarTlo, amayi, ampartavani, akuratuli, sufTa, binZuri... higiena, aqtivobebi dabana, davarcxna, dasufTaveba, varjiSi, kbilebis gamoxexva, Sxapis miReba... Sampuni, saponi, savarcxeli, kremi, Rrubeli, burTuliani dezodori, piradi higiena, piradi higienis dacva, civi Sxapis miReba, saparsi... mkvebavi kremi, xelis kremi gripiT avad, surdo, gaciebuli, eqimi, eqTani, afTiaqSi janmrTeloba, wamlis yidva, xvelebis wamali, Tavis tkivilis wamali... avadmyofoba, eqimis gamoZaxeba, wola, wamlis miReba, daleva (wamlebs aqtivobebi vsvam) nemsis gakeTeba. angina, xveleba, surdo, sicxiani, xelis motexa, saavadmyofo, eqTani, eqimi, saswrafo daxmareba, awuxebs Tavis/kbilis/muclis...tkivili registratura, miRebaze Cawera... Sefaseba, emociuri kargad, SesaniSnavad vgrZnob Tavs, SeuZlod var... gaxarebuli, Sewuxebuli, gaocebuli, gakvirvebuli, reaqciebi gaognebuli... sircxvili, SiSi, wyena, sixaruli, originaloba, sirTule, gabrazebuli, nawyeni, gajavrebuli, ukmayofilo, gancda, aRelveba... rTuli xasiaTi, sirTule, ise ra, nel-nela, arc ise kargad, ara uSavs, gancda, gadatana nerviulobis, ubedurebis... Caketili pirovneba, komunikabeluri adamiani, gaxsnili, rTuli, cudi, kargi pirovneba

aqtivobebi

X

naxva, gageba, aRqma da inteleqtualu gagoneba, ri aqtivobebi gaxseneba, daviwyeba, mogoneba, gageba, mofiqreba, dafiqreba,

XI

gaanalizeba, gacnobiereba, SegrZneba, aRelveba, dawynareba, damSvideba, garToba, gulis gadayoleba.

XII

Cafiqreba, dafiqreba, gaanalizeba, winaswar ganWvreta, xedva, smena, gacnobiereba, gaziareba

205

telefoniT sargebloba

darekva, pasuxi, yurmilis aReba, yurmilis dakideba, gaTiSva, nomris akrefa, Txovna....

Jetonis Cagdeba, monos Casma, xelmeored darekva, dakaveba, gabmuli zumeri, wyvetili zumeri, avtomopasuxe.

informaciis datoveba, avtomopasuxis mosmena, nomris amocnoba, telefonis datena, elementi dajda, gadauxdelobis gamo gaTiSva...

individis garemocva

X adamianebi

qali, mamakaci, gogona, biWi, moxuci, axalgazrda, dabadeba, sikvdili, gazrda, aRzrda

XI

adamiani, xalxi, mozardi, zrdasruli, nacnobi, megobari, amxanagi, kolega, TanamSromeli, Tanaklaseli

XII

moqalaqe, naTesavi, axlobeli, mezobeli, Tanaqalaqeli, Tanamemamule, bavSvoba, axalgazrdoba, sibere, Rrmad moxucebuloba, gardacvaleba, TanagrZnoba...

ojaxi, naTesavebi mSoblebi,

sanaTesao, dedmama, da-Zma, bebia, papa, deida, mamida, biZa, bicola, mamidaSvili, biZaSvili, ojaxis wevri...

sazogadoeba da saxelmwifo

qalaqi, dedaqalaqi, prezidenti, mTavroba, parlamenti, konstitucia, fuli, ekonomika, mrewveloba... samaswavleblo, klaseli, skoleli, saaqto darbazi, davaleba, savarjiSo, davalebis dawera,

ganaTleba

qmari, coli, meuRle, ucolo, gauTxovari, gasaTxovari, rZali, siZe, patarZali, nefededofali, qorwili, daniSvna, niSnoba, Zeoba, gardacvaleba, dakrZalva... xelfasi, stipendia, pensia, daxmareba... diasaxlisi, samsaxuri, inJineri, arqiteqtori, mZRoli, maswavlebeli... ucxo enis maswavlebeli, organizatori, mdivani, klasis xelmZRvaneli, laboranti,

xelisufleba, politikuri partia, sasamarTlo, prokuratura, jari, policia, saministro, administracia, departamenti profesiis arCeva, saSualo ganaTleba, profesiuli ganaTleba, umaRlesi

206

cxrili...

kvebis obiqtebi, personali, aqtivobebi

kafe, bari, restorani, meniu, sadili, sasmeli, porcia, Semwvari, moSuSuli, mwvadi, soko, salaTi, xilis wveni, nayini, mimtani, angariSi...

damlagebeli.. gadmowera, kiTxvebze pasuxis gacema, savarjiSos Sesruleba... qarTuli enis kabineti.... mSobliuri enis kabineti, geografiis kabineti... anketis Sevseba, saxelmZRvanelos wakiTxva, dRiuris Sevseba, gamokiTxva, sakontrolo wera, testireba kafe-bari, piceria, erovnuli samzareulo, qarTuli kerZebi... safirmo kerZis SekveTa barmeni, mzareuli,

mgzavroba, gadaadgileba

transporti, SuqniSani, moZraobis wesebi, avtobusSi asvla, Camosvla, gadaxda, gaCereba, adgilis daTmoba, avtobusis mZRoli, taqsis mZRoli, piradi mZRoli, gamcilebeli...

kulturuli obieqtebi, personali,

muzeumi, xelovnebis eqsperti,

metro, wriuli transporti, dajarimeba, mgzavri, mgzavrebiT datvirTuli, fexiT mosiaruleTa gadasasvleli, gzajvaredini, patruli. msubuqi manqana, satvirTo manqana, benzingasamarTi, samarSruto taqsi, avtobusi, metros vagoni, sadguri, kinofestivali, Jiuri, prizi, gamarjvebuli,

saswavlebeli, erTiani erovnuli gamocdebi, atestati, arasruli ganaTleba, sruli saSualo ganaTleba, dawyebiTi skola, sabazo skola, saSualo skola, koleji, liceumi, gimnazia, instituti, universiteti, studenti, leqtori, xelmZRvaneli. sadResaswaulo sufra, civi kerZi, cxeli kerZi, sadili, nigvziani badrijani, soko kecze, xinkali, mwvadi, xaWapuri, lavaSi, tkbileuloba, qarTuli Rvino, limonaTi, Sampanuri, qarTuli koniaki, mineraluri wyali... bavSvis adgili, invalidis adgili, aeroflotis momsaxureba... sabaJo kontroli, SefuTva bargis, xelbargi, savizo reJimi, vizis gagrZeleba, sastumroSi dabinaveba, sadilis SekveTa, damuxruWeba, bargis Senaxva...

Teatri, sakoncerto darbazi, bileTi,

207

aqtivobebi

banki, personali, aqtivobebi

samxatvro galerea, ferwera, monumenturi xelovneba, portreti, gamofena-gayidva, mxatvari, moqandake... xelovani, estradis varskvlavi, fulis (valutis) gadacvla, dolaris, evros kursi larTan mimarTebiT...

nawyveti filmidan, mTavari rolis Semsrulebeli, varskvlavi, gamoCenili msaxiobi,

dajavSna, axali dadgma, debiuti, premiera, reJisori, operatori, scenaris avtori, mTavari roli, epizoduri rolis Semsrulebeli,

masmedia

presa, gazeTi, Jurnali, biuleteni, sareklamo furceli, sareklamo gancxadeba, statia, interviu, reportaJi, qronika, danaSauli, mkvleloba, organizebuli danaSauli, yviTeli presa, mkiTxvelTa werilebi, sazogadoebrivpolitikuri gamocema...

diskoTeka, garToba, Tavisufali dro, sportze siaruli, varjiSi, gundi, sporti, mogeba-wageba, aqtivobebi sportsmeni, msaji mwvrTneli, Cempioni xuTs aklia aTi wuTi; xval, guSin gazafxuli, zafxuli, Semodgoma,

sabanko momsaxureba, bankomati, kodis akrefa, sakredito baraTi, bankis mmarTveli, molare... televizia, radio, sazogadoebrivi televizia, komerciuli arxebi, teleprograma, sainformacio programa, specialuri gamoSveba, stiqiuri ubedureba, ekologiuri katastrofa, samecnieropopularuli gadacema, koncerti, prezidentis gamosvla, telexidi, wamyvani, teleJurnalisti, korespondenti... laSqroba, eqskursia, mxiarulTa da sazrianTa klubi, gamarjveba, mogeba, wageba guSinwin, guSinwiniswin zamTar-zafxul

sesxi, sesxis dafarva, sabanko angariSi, gadaricxva, angariSze Caricxva,angariSze Setana, interneti, eleqtronuli fosta, imeili, onlaini, internetiT sargebloba, werilis miRebagagzavna, kompiuteris daviruseba...

dro sezonebi

208

Tavisufali drois gatareba, drois kargad / cudad gatareba, olimpiada, olimpiuri saxeobebi... zeg, mazeg

zamTari.

kviris dReebi Tveebi dRis monakveTebi, dila, saRamo, SuadRe, SuaRame, dRe/Rame

dilas, saRamos, RamiT, SuadRisas, SuaRamisas dilis cxra saaTia, saRamos Svidi saaTia, Ramis ori saaTia CrdiloeTi, samxreTi, aRmosavleTi, dasavleTi. skolaSi, skolasTan, skolamde

orSabaTs, kviras... seqtemberSi, agvistoSi... dilas, saRamos, SuadReze...

am kviraSi, am TveSi... seqtembrisTvis, noembrisTvis Zalian adre, ganTiadisas

drois gansazRvra

xuT saaTze, xuTis aT wuTze, xuTis naxevarze...

xuTisTvis saxlSi viqnebi, xuTamde, xuTidan Svidamde... CrdiloeTisken, samxreTisken, aRmosavleTisken, dasavleTisken. moSorebiT, simaRleze, siRrmeSi...

sivrce

adgilmdebareoba

maxasiaTeblebi feri

CrdiloeTiT, samxreTiT, aRmosavleTiT, dasavleTiT. axlos, Sors, Soriaxlos, marcxniv, marjvniv... rkinis, xis plastmasis muqi yavisferi, Ria oqrosferi, yavisferi vercxlisferi...

zoma

didi maqvs, patara maqvs

36 nomeri fexsacmeli

forma wona raodenoba temperatura

ovaluri, grami, kilogrami naxevari Zalian civi, Zalian cxeli, Tbili, grili, nel-Tbili. Salis, bambis, qaRaldis, 1000-dan zemoT....

samkuTxedis formis, centneri celsiusiT 30 gradusi...

Ria feri, muqi feri (feris) momwvano, mocisfro, moTeTro, moSavo.... 42 zoma Sarvali, yvelaze patara zoma, yvelaze didi zoma, kvadratuli, marTkuTxa... tona mesamedi, mexuTedi plus-minus 5 gradusi....

Semadgenloba ricxvebi

plastmasis, xis, rkinis, brinjaos, 10000-mde

oqros, vercxlis, platinis... 10000-is zemoT... 1.000 000 ....

gramatika

metyvelebis nawilebi arsebiTi X-XII

1. mxolobiTi da mravlobiTi ricxvi, warmoeba. 2. moTxrobiTi, micemiTi brunvebi 3. micemiTi brunvis Tandebulebi: -viT, -Tan, -ze,

209

-Si 4. naTesaobiTi brunvis Tandebulebi: -Tvis, -gan, -ken... 5. viTarebiTi brunvis Tandebulebi -mde, -idan -mde. zedsarTavis xarisxis formebi: odnaobiTi mo-o, da ufroobiTi uzedsarTavi es. saxeli raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi (rTuli, Sedgenili) rigobiTi ricxviTi ricxviTi saxelebi, wilobiTi ricxviTi saxelebi. saxeli nacvalsaxeli piris, kuTvnilebiTi, CvenebiTi, kiTxviTi, mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxelebi zmnis uRleba pirisa da ricxvis mixedviT: axlandeli, warsuli, zmna momavali dro. brZanebiTi kilo, kavSirebiTi kilo drois, adgilis, viTarebis, zoma-odenobis, jerobis zmnizedebi zmnizeda micemiTis, naTesaobiTis, moqmedebiTis da viTarebiTis Tandebuli Tandebulebi. calke mdgomi Tandebulebi: mimarT, Sesaxeb, mier... ar, ver, nu nawilaki da, Tu, magram, rac, vinc, rom, romelic, radgan, raTa... kavSiri Sorisdebuli sixarulis, wyenis, Seqebis gamomxatveli Sorisdebulebi

winadadeba 1. kiTxviTi winadadeba 2. Zaxilis winadadeba. 3. martivi winadadebis gavrcobili winadadeba 4. rTuli Tanwyobili winadadeba 5. tipebi Sedgenilobis rTuli qvewyobili winadadeba. mixedviT

punqtuacia da orTografia

metyvelebis nawilebi arsebiTi saxeli zedsarTavi saxeli ricxviTi saxeli X-XII

1. saxelTa brunvis formebis marTlwera 2. Tandebulian saxelTa marTlwera... 3. sakuTar saxelTa marTlwera 1. xarisxis formaTa marTlwera. 2. msazRvrel-sazRvrulis brunvaSi SeTanxmeba. 1. raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelebis marTlwera. (rTuli, Sedgenili) 2. rigobiTi ricxviTi saxelebis marTlwera 3. wilobiTi ricxviTi saxelebis marTlwera. piris, kuTvnilebiTi, CvenebiTi, kiTxviTi, nacvalsaxelebis marTlwera 1. I piris formaTa marTlwera. 2. mravlobiTi ricxvis formaTa marTlwera. drois, adgilis, viTarebis zmnizedebis marTlwera micemiTis, naTesaobiTis, moqmedebiTis da viTarebiTis Tandebulebi. calke mdgomi Tandebulebi: mimarT, Sesaxeb, mier... am sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli marTlwera. ar, ver, nu punqtuaciis sakiTxebi kavSirian winadadebaSi. . punqtuaciis sakiTxebi SorisdebulebTan dakavSirebiT.

nacvalsaxeli zmna zmnizeda Tandebuli

nawilaki kavSiri Sorisdebuli winadadeba winadadebis tipebis punqtuaciis wesebi rTul winadadebaSi. Sedgeniloba 210

sociokultura da kultura

X-XII

· dResaswaulebi da zeimebi · erovnuli dResaswaulebi · tradiciebi, zneCveulebebi (sufrasTan, sazogadoebaSi moqcevis wesebi, ufros-umcrosoba...) · Tanamedrove cxovreba (masobrivi kultura, sakomunikacio saSualebebi, kulturis, savaWro cntrebi...) · axalgazrduli yofa (dRis reJimi, Tavisufali dro, garToba, dasveneba, sazogadoebrivi urTierTobebi, gatacebebi, saymawvilo Jurnalebi, gadacemebi, sabavSvo centrebi...) · amierkavkasia (zogadi cnobebi) · geografiuli cnobebi saqarTvelos Sesaxeb · cnobebi saqarTvelos politikuri wyobis Sesaxeb · dedaqalaqi da misi RirSesaniSnaobebi · cnobebi saqarTvelos warsulisa da kulturis Sesaxeb · cnobili adamianebi (mwerlebi, xelovanebi, sportsmenebi, mecnierebi, istoriuli pirebi...) · mniSvnelovani istoriuli movlenebi · literatura _ leqsebi, adaptirebuli moTxrobebi, igav-arakebi, legendebi, qarTulad Targmnili maTi mSobliuri enis literaturuli nimuSebi...) · cnobebi regionis Sesaxeb · cnobebi amierkavkasiis qveynebis warsulidan da maTi urTierTobis Sesaxeb · saqarTvelos moqalaqis ufleba-movaleobani

211

4 teqstis ti pebi

enis Semswavlels unda davexmaroT teqstis producirebisa da interpretirebis unaris CamoyalibebaSi. Semswavlels unda SeeZlos enis flobis miseuli donidan gamomdinare garkveuli teqstebis producireba da wakiTxuli Tu mosmenili teqstis interpretireba da Sesabamisad swori, adekvaturi gadawyvetilebis miReba Semdgomi qmedebis Sesaxeb. Semswavleli, romelmac gaiara enis flobis pirveli sami done da gadavida zRvruli ganviTarebuli donis masalis Seswavlaze, unda flobdes sakompensacio taqtikasac. magaliTad, werilobiTi da zepiri teqstebis aRqmisas mas unda SeeZlos: _ mTavari da meorexarisxovani informaciis gamoyofa _ faqtobrivi informaciis gamoyofa _ Sesabamisi informaciis identificireba ­ gagebis mizniT iseTi saorientacio maxasiaTeblebis gamoyeneba, rogoricaa saTaurebis, ilustraciebis, topografiuli niSnebis (mag. teqstSi Tavebis gamyofi niSani, paragrafebad dayofis niSani), zepir teqstSi amave mizniT diskursis iseTi markerebis gamoyeneba, rogoricaa fraza, emfaza, struqturul-relevanturi pauzebi, intonacia da sxva prosodiuli elementebi. werilobiTi Tu zepiri teqstidan informaciis amokrefis adekvaturoba ganisazRvreba komunikantis verbaluri Tu araverbaluri reaqciiT. verbaluri reaqcia mJRavndeba axali teqstis SeqmnaSi, araverbaluri _ moqmedebaSi, HJestikulaciaSi.. mxolod recefciisaTvis gankuTvnil teqstebs unda hqondes gamokveTili struqtura da ar unda iyos damZimebuli zedmeti specifikuri erTeulebiT. qvemoT mogvaqvs wakiTxvis, audirebis, weris teqstebis ti pebi yoveldRiuri Tu profesiuli urTierTobisaTvis, romlebsac TandaTanobiT unda daeuflos Semswavleli.

4.1 wakiTxva

abrebi (dawesebulebis, departamentis, ganyofilebis dasaxelebebi) amindis prognozi angariSi (sastumroSi, restoranSi, satelefono saubrebis) anketa (sastumroSi, sakonsuloSi, qarTuli enis Semswavlel kursebze misaRebad) afiSa (kinos, Teatris, gamofenis, koncertis) axsna-ganmartebiTi baraTi (yofiTi xasiaTis, samsaxurSi, policiaSi) bileTi (operis, muzeumis, cirkis) bileTi (TviTmfrinavis, matareblis, avtobusis) blanki (telegramis) broSurebi (prospeqtebi, meToduri SeniSvnebi); umaRlesi saswavleblebis, enis centrebis (miRebis wesebi, swavlebisa da sagamocdo pirobebi) 212

gancxadeba (Svebulebis aRebaze, binis yidva/gayidvaze, vizis miRebaze, samsaxuris vakansiebze periodul gamocemebSi, satelevizio reklamebSi) ganfaseba gzamkvlevi (muzeumSi, qalaqis, turistuli) gzis maCvenebeli (aeroportSi, rkinigzis sadgurze, metroSi, quCaSi, saavadmyofoSi, maRaziaSi) dokumenti (aeroportSi bargis Senaxvis, manqanis daqiravebis qviTari, saxlis arendis xelSekruleba) valutis gacvlis wesebi instruqcia (wamlis miRebis, telefonze darekvis) informacia, cnoba ganmarteba (leqsikonidan, enciklopediidan, cnobaridan) komerciuli winadadebebi (katalogebi, sareklamo prospeqtebi, saqmiani da oficialuri dokumentebi) meniu programa (tele-radio, Teatraluri) Jurnal-gazeTebis saxelwodebebi, statiebis saTaurebi reklama ( presaSi gamoqveynebuli, televiziiT gadacemuli _ tele-radio programebi, kinofilmebi, maRaziebi, momsaxureba, sayofacxovrebo saqoneli...) recepti (wamlis, kulinariuli) ruka (geografiuli, fizikuri, politikuri, sagzao, samarSuto) sabaJo deklaracia sagzao niSnebi savizito baraTi sainformacio werili (gazeTSi, JurnalSi) sakredito baraTi samomxmareblo saqonlis pasporti (moxmarebis wesi, sagarantio vada) samuSao dReebi da saaTebi (maRaziebis, muzeumebis, biblioTekebis, sagamofeno darbazebis) safosto misamarTi (konvertze, safosto baraTze, ubis wignakSi) statiebi ekonomikaSi sqema (transportis moZraobis marSrutis) qalaqis gegma Ceki cnobari (satelefono, samedicino) warwera (quCis saxelwodeba, metros, avtobusis gaCerebaze, saavadmyofoSi, poliklinikaSi, fostaSi, maRaziaSi, saqonlis dasaxeleba, fasi) werili, faqsi, eleqtronuli fosta, misaloci baraTi, telegrama (piradi, oficialuri)

4.2 audireba

amindis prognozi (radio-televiziiT) anonsi (radio da telegadacemebis) gancxadebebi (rkinigzis da avtosadgurebze, aeroportSi, TviTmfrinavSi, muzeumSi, stadionze, sazogadoebriv transportSi) informacia (sagzao, radio-televiziiT gadacemuli) komerciuli winadadebebi reklama (radio-televiziiT) 213

satelevizio da radio gadacemebi (iumoristuli, literaturuli, Teatraluri dadgmebi, mxatvruli kiTxva, Jurnal-gazeTebis mimoxilva, kulinariuli) satelefono informacia (avtomopasuxe) amindi, dro.

4.3 wera

weriT metyvelebaSi Semswavleli unda flobdes Semdeg unar-Cvevebs: aplikaciis, blankis Sevsebis unars ganacxadi vizis misaRebad, sabaJo deklaracia anketa (sastumro, kadrebis ganyofilebisaTvis) safosto gzavnilebisaTvis Sesavsebi formebi sabanko dokumentebi standartuli werilebis weris unars enis kursebze Caricxvis wesebisa da swavlis Rirebulebis Sesaxeb informaciis miReba binis daqiravebis pirobebis gageba; sastumros dajavSna saagarako saxlis aSenebis pirobebis, miwis nakveTis mdebareobis, xedis, mikroklimatis gageba saqmiani werilebis wera mimoweris unars misaloci baraTis miwera mosawvevi baraTis miwera pasuxis gacema milocvaze, miwvevaze (madloba, Tanxmoba, uari) vrceli werilis miwera piradi cxovrebis, sazogadoebrivi Tu yofiTi mxaris, ekonomikuri mdgomareobis, politikuri movlenebis Sesaxeb gancxadebis weris unars samsaxurSi miRebis an samsaxuridan gaTavisuflebis Sesaxeb bavSvis baRSi / skolaSi / kolejSi miRebis Sesaxeb weriT metyvelebaSi Semswavlelma unda icodes: werilSi / gancxadebaSi TariRis dawera misamarTis dawera konvertze / safosto baraTze werilis formis dacva, dasawyisis da daboloebis formulireba, standartuli frazebis gamoyeneba.

214

5 strategiebi

5.1 sakompensacio saSualebebi

enis flobis pirveli oTxi donis Semswavlelebis enobriv saSualebaTa SezRuduloba unda kompensirebul iqnas SemswavlelebSi mdgradi da moqnili sametyvelo Cvevebis CamoyalibebiT. ucxour enaze Tavisufali urTierTobis aucilebel pirobas warmoadgens pirovnebis iseTi fsiqologiuri Tvisebebi, rogoricaa kontaqturoba, gulRiaoba, yuradRebianoba, gulSematkivroba, unari sakuTari Tavis mosaubris adgilze Canacvlebis, misi ganwyobilebisa da xasiaTis mixvedra, enis matarebelTa sazogadoebaSi miRebuli qcevis erovnuli tradiciebisa da Cveulebebis codna. yvela am Tvisebas Tu ara, umetesobas mainc bevri adamiani flobs da iyenebs mSobliur enaze urTierTobisas specialuri xelSewyobis gareSe. magram arsebobs mTeli rigi enobrivi da sametyvelo Cvevebi (magaliTad, enobrivi da eqstralingvisturi mixvedriloba), romlebic unda Camoyalibdes an gamyardes ucxouri enis Seswavlis procesSi. Semswavlelebs unda ganuviTaroT sakuTari urTierTobis taqtikis mudmivad gaumjobesebisa da srulyofis survili. swavlebis Sedegad Semswavlelebs unda ganviTarebuli hqondeT iseTi zogadi Cvevebi, romlis saSualebiTac Tavisuflad SeZleben komunikaciaSi Sesvlas Sesaswavli enis matarebel qveyanaSi, Tanac iseT situaciebSi da pirobebSi, romlisTvisac winaswar ar momzadebulan. rogorc zepiri urTierTobis aqtis monawileebi, Semswavlelebi momzadebuli unda iyvnen maT winaSe wamoWrili komunikaciuri problemebis gadasaWrelad kargad Seswavlili enobrivi saSualebebiTa da enis matarebelTa sametyvelo qcevis erovnuli TaviseburebebiT. rogorc msmenelebsa da mkiTxvelebs, Semswavlelebs zustad unda esmodeT yoveli qarTuli winadadebisa da mTeli teqstis formalur-gramatikuli struqtura, rogorc socialurma pirovnebebma, maT ar unda daarRvion urTierTobaSi miRebuli normebi, wesebi, qarTuli sametyvelo qcevis Taviseburebebi. winamdebare naSromSi aRwerili qarTuli enis sametyvelo saSualebebis dajerebuli floba ucxoenovani sametyvelo qcevis sakompensacio taqtikis gamomuSavebis saSualebas iZleva. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces Sewyvetili komunikaciis aRdgena-ganaxlebis Cvevis Camoyalibebas. teqstis wakiTxvisas Semswavlels SeuZlia nacnobi elementebis saSualebiT (Ziri, sufiqsi, prefiqsi, daboloeba) mixvdes nawarmoebi sityvis mniSvnelobas im SemTxvevaSi Tu sityva produqciuli modeliTaa nawarmoebi da misi mniSvneloba SemswavlelTaTvis nacnobi nawilebidan gamomdinareobs; Semswavlelebs SeuZliaT sityvaSi Semavali ucnobi morfemis an winadadebaSi mocemuli ucnobi sityvis mniSvnelobis konteqstisa da im nacnobi elementebis saSualebiT mixvedra, romlebic gansazRvraven am erTeulis mniSvnelobas; aseve SeuZliaT 215

internacionaluri sityvebisa da gamoTqmebis da iseTi erTeulebis gageba, romlebic absoluturad eqvivalenturia qarTulsa da maT mSobliur enaSi; Temis, situaciis, konteqstis gaTvaliswinebiT isini SeZleben maTTvis nacnobi sxvadasxva mniSvnelobis mqone sityvis Sesabamisi mniSvnelobis mixvedras; Semswavlelebi gawafuli unda iyvnen leqsikonis xmarebaSi, maT unda SeeZloT ucnobi sityvisa Tu frazeologiuri erTeulis monaxva orenovan leqsikonSi, leqsikonis definiciis gageba; zRvruli ganviTarebuli donis Semswavlelebma unda SeZlon ganmartebiTi leqsikonis gamoyenebac. teqstis saxelwodebis, Janris, misi daniSnulebisa da gamoyenebis sferos gaTvaliswinebiT SedarebiT dabal doneze myof Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT misi Sinaarsis ganWvreta. teqstis mosmenisas Semswavlelma unda ganasxvavos qarTuli enisa da misi mSobliuri enis fonetikuri formebi. Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT teqstidan specialuri informaciis amokrefa da Tu is Seicavs ucnob elementebs, sagnis codnis, mSobliur enaze amgvari teqstis wakiTxvis gamocdilebisa da sxva unar-Cvevebis safuZvelze misi mniSvnelobis prognozireba. Semswavlelebs aseve Tamamad unda SeeZloT sametyvelo qmedebebis gamoyeneba imisaTvis, rom mosaubres sTxovos daxmareba (mag., zusti sityvis moZebna, frazis gamarTva, mis mier gamoTqmuli azris ufro martivad gamoTqma, ufro nel tempSi saubari da a.S.). rogorc saubris iniciators, Semswavlels unda SeeZlos sxvadasxva gamoTqmis xmareba Tavis metyvelebaSi koreqtivebis Sesatanad (mag., sxvagvarad rom vTqva, ukacravad, arasworad gamovTqvi, Tu SeiZleba miTxariT, rogor unda vTqva...), ganmartebis moSveliebiT sagnis daxasiaTeba, rodesac ar icis TviTon am sagnis saxelwodeba, mimarTvis formebis gamoyeneba yuradRebis misaqcevad, weriTi Tu zepiri metyvelebisas Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT imis gamoxatva, rom ar icis rogor daweros an gamoTqvas esa Tu is azri, winadadeba, sityva (mag., mapatieT, xom ver damexmarebiT, me ar vici rogor iwereba es sityva, defisiT Tu erTad; bodiSi, Tu SeiZleba SemaxseneT, aseT situaciaSi ras amboben qarTvelebi; me ar vici am nivTs ra hqvia, Tu arc Tqven gaxsovT, umjobesia leqsikonSi movnaxoT, CvenSi amas eZaxian...). Semswavlels unda SeeZlos oficialur situaciebSi Tarjimnis, Tavisi qveynis saelCos an sakonsulos warmomadgenlis moTxovna. Tu Semswavlelma ar icis sametyvelo qcevis miRebuli normebi, SeuZlia moibodiSos da iTxovos daxmareba (mag., bodiSi, ar vici saqarTveloSi rogor aris miRebuli, Cems samSobloSi aseT SemTxvevebSi ase iqcevian xom ver metyodiT, Tqveni tradiciis mixedviT rogor unda moviqce am situaciaSi). Semswavlelebs Zalian gamoadgebaT individualuri taqtikis gamomuSaveba. individualuri taqtika xels Seuwyobs, rom daugegmav situaciebSi Tavidan aicilos fsiqologiuri sirTuleebi ­ dabneuloba, uxerxuloba, daviwyeba, arcodnis problema.

216

5.2 swavlis swavleba

am aRwerilobaze orientirebulma swavlebam saSualeba unda misces Semswavlels miaRwios dasaxul miznebs da amasTanave xeli Seuwyos swavlis motivaciis zrdas. Semswavlels Tavidanve unda ganuviTaroT enaze damoukideblad muSaobis Cveva. is vinc qarTul enas ukve flobs zRvrul ganviTarebul, zRvrul, an Tundac safuZvel doneze, cxadia amis sakmao gamocdileba eqneba da aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi SeZlebs mis gamoyenebas. vTqvaT mas dasWirda qarTuli enis iseTi aspeqtebis Seswavla, rasac misi konkretuli saswavlo kursi ar iTvaliswinebs, is am amocanas martivad gaarTmevs Tavs SeZenili gamocdilebis xarjze. Semswavlelis mudmivi winsvlis uzrunvelyofa enis Seswavlis procesSi SeuZlia im Segnebis stimulirebas, rom mas Seswevs damoukideblad swavlis unari. erTi SexedviT damoukideblad swavlis unari komunikaciuri miznebis farglebs miRmaa, magram es mxolod erTi SexedviT Cans ase. sinamdvileSi ki Zalian martivia am unaris komunikaciur miznebTan integrireba. swavlebis fsiqologiaSi dadgenilia, rom motivirebuli swavleba ufro efeqturia da xangrZlivi efeqti aqvs, vidre gaucnobierebels. did efeqturobas ki codnis SeZenis motivacia ganapirobebs, e.i. ra unda gaakeTos Semswavlelma, ratom unda gaakeTos, rogor unda gamoiyenos. amasTanave swavlis unaris qona metad mniSvnelovania SemswavlelisaTvis im amocanebis gadasaWrelad, romelic mas SeiZleba Sexvdes enaSi gawafvis dros. imisaTvis, rom pirovneba sakmaod momzadebuli iyos aramSobliur enaze urTierTobisaTvis, mas kargad unda esmodes is teqnologia, romlis daxmarebiTac SesaZlebelia enis flobis xarvezebis likvidireba. aseTi teqnologia gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnas zogadi miznebis specifikaciaSi, im SemTxvevaSic ki Tu xarvezebi sakmaod seriozulia da misi likvidaciisaTvis saWiroa maswavleblis Careva. sakuTari saswavlo SesaZleblobebis gacnobiereba, sakuTari codnis farglebis gaazreba da misi efeqturi gamoyeneba Semswavlels did upiratesobas mianiWebs. evropis sabWos normebis mixedviT Semswavlelis damoukideblobis stimulireba erT-erT komunikaciur mizans warmoadgens. es ki niSnavs SemswavlelTa daxmarebas Sesabamisi motivaciis, codnisa da unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebaSi. vinaidan gasaRebi, safuZveli, zRvruli da zRvruli ganviTarebuli doneebi ara mxolod aRwers komunikaciuri kompetenciis farglebs qarTul enaSi, aramed adgens saswavlo miznebs, ris gamoc swavlis Cveva unda ganvixiloT rogorc am miznebis calke aspeqti, romlis Camoyalibebasac xeli unda Seuwyos saswavlo procesma. SemswavlelebSi damoukideblad swavlis Cvevis Camoyalibeba gulisxmobs, rom Semswavlelebis moTxovnilebebis saswavlo miznebTan Sesabamisobis dasadgenad maT kargad unda hqondeT gaazrebuli TavianTi komunikaciuri moTxovnilebebis arsi. maT aseve kargad unda esmodeT im saswavlo miznebis arsi, romelsac sTavazoben da SeeZloT imis gaanalizeba Tu ramdenad emTxveva isini erTaneTs. Semswavlelebs Semdgomi Seswavlis mizniT unda SeeZloT im komunikaciuri moTxovnilebebis gansazRvra da aRwera, romlebsac ar moicavs SeTavazebuli saswavlo miznebi 217

(magaliTad, me msurs, rom SevZlo naSromebis wakiTxva ekologiaSi. me minda, rom viswavlo saqmiani dokumentaciis Sedgena, saqmiani mimowera). Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT maTi nacionalobis, saqmiani sferosa da hobisaTvis specifikuri cnebebis gansazRvra, Seswavla da gamoyeneba situaciur-Tematurad ganpirobebuli sityvaTa jgufebis farglebSi. damoukideblad swavlisaTvis Semswavlelebs unda esmodeT gansxvaveba produqciisa da recefciis unarebsa da im Cvevebs Soris, romlebic Seefardeba TiToeuls am ti pTagan. maT unda esmodeT gramatikis, leqsikis, fonologiis da sametyvelo qmedebis elementebis roli komunikaciuri efeqtis misaRwevad. Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT leqsikonebis, gramatikuli cnobarebis, ucxoelebisaTvis gankuTvnili qarTuli enis saxelmZRvaneloebis damoukideblad gamoyeneba. maT unda SeeZloT TviTon amoirCion meTodi leqsikuri maragis gasamdidreblad. Semswavlelebma unda icodnen sakompensacio taqtika, rac maT daexmareba Tavi gaarTvan ucnobi elementebis Semcvel teqstebs. Semswavlelebs, rogorc msmenelebs an mkiTxvelebs unda SeeZloT maTTvis ucnobi sityvebisa da gamoTqmebis SemCneva, damaxsovreba, Cawera, maTi funqcionalur-azrobrivi Rirebulebisa da situaciuri konteqstis CaniSvna. maT aseve unda SeeZloT Tval-yuri adevnon im enasa da strategiebs, romlebsac qarTuli enis kargi mcodne pirovnebebi iyeneben. am gziT isini SeZleben TavianTi receptiuli da produciuli repertuaris gafarToebas. Semswavlelebs unda SeeZloT daubrundnen axal sityvebsa da gamoTqmebs, romlebsac saubris dros Sexvdnen imitom, rom momavalSi, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi damoukideblad SeZlon maTi gamoyeneba. Semswavlelebs komunikaciis asagebad sakuTari azrebis formulirebisas unda SeeZloT sxvadasxva enobrivi saSualebebis gamoyeneba; unda flobdnen Secdomebis TviTanalizisa da TviTkoreqciis unars. amasTanave maT unda SeeZloT saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi sasaubro strategiebis Secvla. sakompensacio strategiebis codna ki daexmareba Sewyvetili saubris aRdgenasa da gagrZelebaSi Tu mas SeuZlia Tavis metyvelebaSi igive sityvebisa da gamoTqmebis gamoyeneba, rac mis Tanamosaubres. ZiriTadad zemoaRwerili SesaZleblobebisgan Sedgeba SemswavlelTa damoukideblad muSaobis unari. sagulisxmoa, rom am SesaZleblobebs Semswavleli unda flobdes enis Seswavlis adreul safexurebze da yovelive amasTan erTad unda agrZelebdes qarTul enaze urTierTobis Seswavlas.

5.3 urTierTobis taqtika

konkretuli komunikaciuri amocanis gadasaWrelad gamoiyeneba calkeuli sametyvelo qmedeba, an ufro xSirad urTierTdakavSirebul sametyvelo qmedebaTa wyeba. magaliTad, Tu gvinda vi povoT qalaqSi raime obieqti, SeiZleba kiTxviT mivmarToT gamvlels: ­ geTayva, Tu SeiZleba mimaswavleT, sad aris stadioni? 218

es replika Sedgeba Sinaarsisa da misi verbalizaciis Semcveli Semdegi sametyvelo qmedebebisagan: geTayva yuradRebis miqceva Tu SeiZleba mimaswavleT Txovna sad aris stadioni? SekiTxva adgilmdebareobis Sesaxeb intenciebis Tanmimdevrobas, romlis saSualebiTac aigeba komunikaciuri aqtis nebismieri fragmenti, ewodeba sametyvelo urTierTobis taqtika. naTelia, rom erTi da igive miznis miRweva SesaZlebelia intenciebis varirebiT, zogierTi maTganis SecvliT, an axlis damatebiT. realur urTierTobaSi SekiTxva qalaqSi raime obieqtis mosaZieblad sxvadasxvagvarad SeiZleba daisvas: ­ geTayva, Tu SeiZleba mimaswavleT, sad aris stadioni? ­ mapatieT, mgoni gza amebna, ver metyviT sad aris stadioni? ­ axalgazrda, xom ar iciT, sad aris stadioni? TiToeul magaliTSi gamoyenebulia erTi da imave intenciisa da propoziciuri Sinaarsis gansxvavebuli verbalizacia: geTayva Tu SeiZleba mimaswavleT sad aris stadioni? mapatieT, mgoni gza amebna, ver metyviT sad aris stadioni axalgazrda, xom ar iciT, sad aris stadioni? yuradRebis miqceva Txovna SekiTxva adgilmdebareobis Sesaxeb yuradRebis miqceva eWvi Setyobineba Txovna informaciis misaRebad SekiTxva adgilmdebareobis Sesaxeb mimarTva Txovna informaciis misaRebad SekiTxva adgilmdebareobis Sesaxeb

komunikaciuri amocana, rogorc arasametyvelo mizani, samive SemTxvevaSi erTi da igivea. Tumca misi miRweva, sityvaTa sxvadasxva wyebiT SeiZleba, romlebic aq naCvenebia, rogorc gansxvavebuli intenciebi. realur cxovrebaSi komunikaciuri amocanis gadaWra es aris ara marto saWiro ramis warmoTqma, aramed am ramis iseTi TanmimdevrulobiT warmodgenis unari, romelic sasurvel Sedegamde migviyvans. sametyvelo urTierTobis taqtika miuTiTebs intenciebisa da sametyvelo qmedebebis Tavsebadobasa an SesaZlo Tanmimdevrulobaze, romelic gamoiyeneba komunikaciuri amocanebis gadawyvetisas da emsaxureba 219

partnioris komunikaciuri miznis gagebas normaluri urTierTobis dasamyareblad. amasTanave: gaSlili dialogi SeiZleba warmovidginoT iseTi intenciebis saxiT, romlebic komunikaciuri amocanebis gadaWris taqtikas warmoadgens. yoveli komunikaciuri amocanis gadaWra SesaZlebelia ramdenime gziT. mosaubris mier komunikacia igeba ara stiqiurad, aramed logikurad, alternatiuli formebiT, sxvadasxva faqtoris gaTvaliswinebiT. replikaSi sxvadasxva sityvebisa an gramatikuli konstruqciebis gamoyeneba savaldebulo araa, rom miuTiTebdes intenciaTa gansxvavebulobaze da piruku: replikebis identuroba enobrivi TvalsazrisiT sulac ar gulisxmobs maT komunikaciur igiveobriobas. erT-erTi partnioris mier taqtikis SerCevaze moqmedebs Semdegi ZiriTadi faqtorebi: ZiriTadi komunikaciuri amocana, romelic man daayena mocemul momentSi. sruliad ar aris aucilebeli, rom komunikaciuri amocanebi iyos zedmetad pragmatuli, yovelTvis ar xerxdeba maTi erTmniSvnelovnad formulireba. mocemul kulturaSi urTierTobis taqtikis agebisas miRebuli stereoti pis arseboba-ararseboba. yoveli calkeuli monawilis pirovnuli orientacia, romelic yovelTvis axdens gavlenas centraluri komunikaciuri amocanis, saSualedo amocanebisa da maTi gadaWris gzebis SerCevaze da zogjer gansazRvravs kidec maT. es aris adamianis individualuri saxis warmodgena: socialuri statusi, konkretuli partnioris mimarT misi damokidebuleba, misi pirovnuli Tvisebebi, aqtualuri mdgomareoba da a.S. (yvelaferi is, rac ganekuTvneba socialuri rolis gaformebas), is gamocdileba, rac sxva partniorebTan, an garkveul sferosTan urTierTobisas Camoyalibda da saidanac is iRebs misabaZ magaliTebs. zogadi situacia, sadac mimdinareobs sakomunikacio aqti. saqme is gaxlavT, rom sametyvelo qmedeba ar arsebobs TavisTavad, anu im garemos gareSe, rac akavSirebs partniorebs komunikaciisaTvis; amas garda moqmedebs garkveuli obieqturi mocemuloba, Sesabamisi adgilis, drois, sagnebis saxiT; iseTi pirobebis arseboba-ararseboba rogoricaa adrindeli kontaqtebi, saubris sagnis mimarTeba imasTan, rasac SeiZleba partniorebi saubris momentSi xedaven, mesame piris arseboba-ararseboba da sxva. partnioris qceva, anu is, ramdenad Seesabameba misi reaqcia mosaubris molodins da ramdenad unda mas monawileobis miReba saerTo 220

komunikaciuri amocanis gadaWraSi. garda amisa, gasaTvaliswinebelia isic, gaaCnia Tu ara partniors sakuTari komunikaciuri amocanebi. rogorc wesi, logikuri kavSiri partniorebis replikebs Soris sakmaod universaluria da araa damokidebuli mSobliur enasa da kulturaze. magram partniors SeuZlia Seatyobinos Tavisi arakompetenturobis Sesaxeb Semdegi fraziT: warmodgena ara maqvs, an me aqauri ara var. Tu am pasuxs ar gavaigivebT replikasTan ­ ar vici, anu ara CavdebT masSi im Sinaarss, rac wina or replikas utoldeba, komunikacia darRveuli iqneba. am SemTxvevaSi saubris iniciatorisagan saWiro iqneba damatebiTi sakompensacio taqtikuri gadawyvetilebebis miReba, magaliTad, kidev erTxel Txovna, rom ganumartos, Tu sad aris stadioni. rac ufro xangrZlivia dialogi, miT ufro Znelia taqtikis gaTvla. magram zRvruli donis mkacrad mocemuli lokaluri sakomunikacio amocanebis gadaWrisas SesaZlebelia ti piuri taqtikebis SezRuduli raodenobis gamoyofa da maTi dialog-nimuSebis saxiT warmodgena. aseTi dialog nimuSebi gvaZlevs saSualebas kiTxva ­ pasuxi, stimuli ­ reaqcia ti pis wminda sasaubro erTeulebidan gadavideT sakomunikacio taqtikaze, Tumca Tavdapirvelad maTac eqnebaT fragmentuli taqtikebis saxe, rasac sabolood moyveba zogadi komunikaciis gadaWra sakuTari srulyofili taqtikis agebiT. dialoguri taqtikis agebis safuZvels warmoadgens intenciebis Semdegi Tanamimdevroba: kontaqtSi Sesvla informaciis moTxovna (warmodgena) reaqcia miRebul informaciaze (misi warmodgena) es Tanamimdevroba universaluria, Tuki mas ganvixilavT rogorc logikur sqemas. is araa damokidebuli Semswavlelis arc kulturaze da arc mis enaze. es sqema SeiZleba gaiSalos mis Semadgenel nebismier nawilSi, misi elementebi ki SesaZloa gamovavlinoT nebismier taqtikaSi: kontaqtSi Sesvla informaciis moTxovna reaqcia miRebul informaciaze (an misi warmodgena) informaciis moTxovna reaqcia miRebul informaciaze (an misi warmodgena) kontaqtidan gamosvla kontaqtidan gamosvla dila mSvidobisa salami rogora xar, rogor aris saqme? gmadlobT, ara miSavs Sen rogor-Ra xar? ras Svrebi, Seni saqme rogor-Raa? gmadlobT, mec ara miSavs kai, meCqareba aba, kargad menaxe aba, bednierad 221

taqtikebis, anu intenciebis ufro SesaZlebeli kavSirebis warmodgenisas aucilebelia partnioris rogorc dadebiTi, ise uaryofiTi reaqciis gaTvla, magaliTad, Tu adamianma Txovnaze ­ damexmareT, miiRo pasuxi ­ samwuxarod es Cems SesaZleblobebs aRemateba, man unda icodes, rom es uaria, xolo, Tu pasuxi aris ­ raSia saqme? ­ es niSnavs, rom man SeiZleba miiRos daxmareba da amitom unda gaagrZelos saubari. da bolos, Semswavlels unda SeeZlos verbaluri komunikaciis araverbaluriT Secvla imgvarad, rom araverbaluri qmedeba partniorisTvis garkveuli mniSvnelobis mqone iyos, anu cvlides garkveul intenciaTa verbalizacias. magaliTad, Tu adamianma ar icis raime nivTis saxelwodeba, mas unda SeeZlos misi araverbalurad demonstrireba. maRaziaSi SeiZleba raimeze miTiTeba ­ Tu SeiZleba ai es momeciT, im nivTis saxelis Zebnis nacvlad leqsikonSi, romelic SeiZleba Tanac ar hqondes. rogorc wesi, Cveulebriv saubarSi gamoiyeneba urTierTobaTa mdgradi stereoti pebi: erTi mizniT gaerTianebuli sametyvelo qmedebebis Tanmimdevruli Sesatyvisobebi. am modelebs axasiaTebs variantuloba, romelic sxvadasxva aspeqtSi sxvadasxvagvarad vlindeba. mxolod orisami replikisagan Semdgari mokle dialoguri erToblioba SeiZleba iyos mkacrad standartizebuli da qmnides urTierTobis mdgrad formulebs. es naTlad vlindeba etiketis replikebSi. aq moyvanil dialogur erTobliobaTa did nawils (romelTa flobas iTvaliswinebs winamdebare aRweriloba), axasiaTebs variantulobis garkveuli xarisxi. magaliTad dilis sauzme kafeSi/saxaSeSi: gamyidveli: myidveli: gamyidveli: myidveli: gamyidveli: myidveli: gamyidveli: gamyidveli: myidveli: gamyidveli: myidveli: gamyidveli: myidveli: gamyidveli: 222 gismenT, Tu SeiZleba, yava da namcxvari inebeT ramdeni unda mogarTvaT? sami lari awvdis fuls gmadlobT, gismenT, xaSi, arayi da puri ramdeni ulufa? ori xaSi da as-asi grami arayi aTi lari miiReT Ffuli, gmadlobT, survilTan dakavSirebuli SekiTxva, kontaqtis dasawyisi survilis gamoxatva moTxovnis dakmayofileba SekiTxva fasis Sesaxeb pasuxi fasis Sesaxeb ixdis safasurs miTiTeba kontaqtis dasasrulze survilTan dakavSirebuli SekiTxva, kontaqtis dasawyisi survilis gamoxatva SekiTxva informaciis dazustebis Sesaxeb Semdgomi dazusteba informacia fasis Sesaxeb safasuris gadaxda miTiTeba kontaqtis dasasrulze

dialogur erTobliobaTa didi nawili aSkarad, an impliciturad warmodgenilia zRvrul doneze. yvela maTgani asocirdeba Semdeg komunikaciur movlenebTan: sayidlebi maRaziaSi salarosTan, samgzavro bileTis aReba salaroSi sasmelisa da saWmlis SekveTa restoranSi, kafeSi, ludxanaSi, barSi...... SekiTxvebi garemoebaTa Sesabamisad (rogor mivides ama Tu im adgilamde; sad SeiZleba waixemsos; rodis ixsneba gamofena, konferencia; sayofacxovrebo momsaxurebis pirobebi...); pirovnebis mimarT (gvari, saxeli, misamarTi da a.S.) Sexvedrebi ucnob pirovnebasTan nacnobebTan, megobrebTan

gzis garkveva da miTiTeba drois dazusteba stumrad mowveva da masze reaqcia sastumroSi mowyoba garkveul qmedebaTa SeTavazeba da reaqcia am SeTavazebebze msjelobaSi monawileoba (Tanxmoba/uari, winaaRmdegoba) yoveldRiuri urTierToba savsea gauTvaliswinebeli movlenebiT. rTuli sakomunikacio aqti mimdinareobs idealuri sakomunikacio aqtis Semadgeneli zogierTi elementis uaryofiT. rutinuli aqtebis dros SeiZleba bevri ram iqnes gamotovebuli, an Canacvlebuli mdumarebiT, replikebis monacvleoba ki limitirdeba axali sityvebiT, an wyobis SecvliT. aseTi qmedebis yoveli etapi SeiZleba Sesruldes iseTi urTierTobis procesSi, romelic moicavs metyvelebis sxvadasxva elementebs. maTi SerCeva ki xdeba urTierTobis monawileTa mier (metyveleba, Jest-mimika da a.S.). yovel wuTs SeiZleba warmoiSvas siZnele, romelic gamoiwvevs dasabuTebis, gadaazrebis saWiroebas, rac gadaiWreba mosaubreTa xelT arsebuli saSualebebiT. rogorc socialur arsebas, adamians gaaCnia sakuTari socialuri komunikaciuri kompetencia, Tumca zogjer mas uCndeba saWiroeba, rom Tvali gaadevnos sakomunikacio process, romelic enobrivi gamoxatulebiTaa warmodgenili. qvemoT moyvanili sqema SeiZleba safuZvlad daedos sayofacxovrebo momsaxurebis urTierTobis process. 223

moZraoba urTierTobis adgilisaken gzis gagneba sadgurisken, sastumrosa an sxva obieqtisken gzis gagneba ofisisken, saavadmyofosa, an sxva obieqtisken kontaqtis damyareba Jest-mimikiT survilis miniSneba, saubari oficiantTan, an sxva pirTan momsaxure personalis sawyisi replika myidvelis sawyisi replika saqonlis SerCeva, momsaxureba saqonlis, momsaxurebis saxis gansazRvra informaciis garkveva informaciis gacema arCevanis SesaZleblobis garkveva saqonlis fasis, xarisxis, feris, zomis... garkveva da msjeloba mis dadebiT da uaryofiT mxareebze informaciis moZieba informaciis miReba rCevisTvis mimarTva rCevis miReba rCevis Sinaarsi ama Tu im saqonlisaTvis upiratesobis miniWeba yidvaze daTanxmeba produqtis fulze gacvla/sayidlebis, momsaxurebis safasuris gadaxda fasis mowoneba Tanxmoba damatebiT gadasaxadze fulis micema, saqonlis miReba urTierTmadlierebis gamoxatva (myidvelis/gamyidvelis) gasagebia, rom es procesebi araerTgvarovania: sastumrosa da restoranSi angariSsworeba xdeba urTierTobis procesis bolos, bankomatTan ­ usityvod, instruqciis SesrulebiT da a.S.

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6 qarTuli enis flobis doneebis nimuSi

qvemoT mocemuli deskri ptorebi dalagebulia unar-Cvevebis mixedviT A1-dan B2 donemde.

6.1 audireba A1.1 mesmis nacnobi sityvebi da martivi frazebi. rodesac qarTul enaze saubroben, SemiZlia im sityvebis garCeva, romlebic sxva enebSic aris (mag. internacionaluri, aqtiuri). SemiZlia martivi SekiTxvebis gageba, romelsac piradad me misvamen; mag., saxels, an misamarTs. mesmis martivi, garkveviT naTqvami, xSirad gamoyenebadi gamoTqmebi, mag. diax, ara, gamarjoba, naxvamdis, bodiSi, gmadlobT. martiv, garkveviT da nela naTqvam teqstebSi mesmis nacnobi sityvebi, cifrebi da saxelebi. rodesac sxva adamians macnoben, SemiZlia mniSvnelovani informaciis gageba: saxeli, asaki, warmomavloba. A1.2 mesmis nela, garkveviT da SigadaSig pauzebiT naTqvami teqsti. mesmis, roca vinme nela da martivi sityvebiT Tavis Tavze da ojaxze saubrobs. mikrofoniT warmoTqmul teqstSi mesmis cifrebi, dro da fasebi, mag. maRaziaSi, sadgurze an aeroportSi. maRaziaSi SemiZlia gavigo, ra Rirs nivTi, Tu Ggamyidveli cdilobs, rom garkveviT da nela mi pasuxos, raTa gavigo misi naTqvami. mesmis zogierTi sityva da gamoTqma, roca vinme Cemze, ojaxze, an samsaxurze nela da garkveviT saubrobs. mesmis internacionaluri sityvebi da gamoTqmebi.

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A2.1 roca vusmen nela da Zalian garkveviT naTqvam teqsts, SemiZlia sityvebisa da mokle winadadebebis daWera da gageba. (mag. gamyidvelisa da myidvelis dialogi maRaziaSi). mesmis, roca avtomobilis, an sxva raime nivTis fersa da zomaze saubroben. SemiZlia teqstebis gageba, Tu igi CemTvis nacnob Temebs exeba, (samsaxuri, Tavisufali dro, ojaxi) roca vinme saubrobs, vxvdebi Tu rogor grZnobs is Tavs, karg gunebazea, daRlilia, Tu avad aris. nela da garkveviT naTqvam Caweril (mag. magnitofonze) teqstSi mesmis ZiriTadi Sinaarsi, Tu igi sayofacxovrebo nivTebs exeba. mokle da martivi Setyobinebebidan mesmis mniSvnelovani informacia. A2.2 roca vismen Caweril, an zepirad naTqvam teqsts, SemiZlia gavigo, ras exeba igi. radiogadacemebSi Tu saubroben nela da garkveviT, vigeb ZiriTad informacias sportuli angariSis, amindis prognozis Sesaxeb. mokle, martivi Setyobinebebidan da istoriebidan gamomaqvs dedaazri, Tu nela da garkveviT aris naTqvami da CemTvis nacnob Temebs exeba. roca gzas maswavlian, vxvdebi, rogor unda mivide iq, fexiT, avtobusiT, Tu metroTi. roca maRaziaSi, an matarebelSi mesmis saubari, vxvdebi, ras exeba igi. mokle radiogadacemebSi mesmis ZiriTadi informacia im Temebis Sesaxeb, rac mainteresebs (sporti, musika). B1.1 mesmis, roca mesaubrebian nela da garkveviT yoveldRiurobaze, magram saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi viTxov, rom gaimeoron garkveuli sityvebi da winadadebebi. grZel diskusiaSi, romelic exeba yoveldRiur cxovrebas da CemTvis nacnob Temebs, mesmis ZiriTadi Sinaarsi, Tu ar aris swrafad da araliteraturuli eniT naTqvami.

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Tu Tema CemTvis nacnobia, mesmis martivi prezentaciebisa da moxsenebebis Sinaarsi. roca vismen mokle istoriebs, imdenad mesmis igi, rom SemiZlia winaswar vivaraudo, ra moxdeba Semdeg. mesmis radiogadacemebis ZiriTadi Sinaarsi, Tu Temebi CemTvis nacnobia. mesmis martivi teqnikuri instruqciebi, mag. rogor gamoiyeneba esa Tu is xelsawyo. B1.2 garkveviT da literaturul enaze warmoTqmuli radiogadacemebi da Canawerebi mesmis srulyofilad. roca CemTvis saintereso literaturul da garkveviT naTqvam moxsenebebsa da radiogadacemebs vusmen, mesmis ZiriTadi dedaazri da aseve mniSvnelovani nawilebi, mag., Temebi ­ bunebis dacva, kinovarskvlavebi da a.S. satelevizio gadacemebSi, romlebic CemTvis saintereso Temebs exeba (mag., interviuebi, axali ambebi), mesmis ZiriTadi nawili, Tu SedarebiT nela da garkveviT aris naTqvami. SemiZlia gavigo standartuli metyvelebis mTavari arsi. SemiZlia detaluri monacemebis gageba (mag., rogor unda miviRo monawileoba sportul SejibrSi). B2.1 Tu Zalian davZabav gonebas, SemiZlia gavigo, ori qarTulenovani pirovnebis saubari, magram maT saubarSi CarTvas umetesad ver vaxerxeb. televiziiT gadmocemul reportaJebSi, pirdapir Cvenebebsa da ToqSouebSi, romlebic exeba aqtualur Temebs da literaturuli eniT aris gadmocemuli, mesmis ZiriTadad yvelaferi, aseve varkvev mosaubris tonsa da ganwyobas. mesmis im sagnebis dawvrilebiTi aRwera, romlebic mainteresebs. (mag. snoubordis maxasiaTeblebis, axali mobiluri telefonis funqciebis). mesmis, roca saubroben didxans da sayveduris toniT, Tu Tema nawilobriv nacnobia CemTvis.

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B2.2 roca saubroben qarTuli enis matarebeli pirebi, mesmis imdeni, rom SemiZlia CaverTo maT saubarSi. mesmis filmebis ena maSinac, roca masSi gamoyenebulia salaparako da specifikuri ena. SemiZlia, Sinaarsobrivad da enobrivad rTul moxsenebebSi ZiriTadi dedaazris gageba.

6.2 wakiTxva A1.1 SemiZlia wavikiTxo da gavigo mokle da martivi miTiTebebi/pirobebi, Tu misi msgavsi manamde Semxvedria. SemiZlia wavikiTxo mosawvevi baraTi da gavigo, raze, sad, rodis da romel saaTze miwveven. SemiZlia wavikiTxo plakatebsa da abrebze dawerili informacia da gavigo ZiriTadi Sinaarsi, (mag., adgili, dro, an fasebi). A1.2 SemiZlia wavikiTxo da gavigo anketa, sadac iTxoven mniSvnelovan informacias Cems Sesaxeb (saxeli, gvari, dabadebis TariRi, misamarTi). SemiZlia martiv teqstSi gavigo mTavari Sinaarsi, gansakuTrebiT maSin, Tu darTuli aqvs ilustraciebi. teqstSi vigeb calkeul sityvebs, aseve rTul sityvebSi vcnob leqsikur nawilebs (mag., TavsarTebs, bolosarTebs, daboloebebs). SemiZlia abrebze dawerili sityvebisa da gamoTqmebis wakiTxva da gageba (mag., sadguri, parki, moweva akrZalulia, gasasvleli). SemiZlia komiksebSi martivi, mokle teqstebis gageba, raSic mexmareba ilustraciebi. SemiZlia RonisZiebebis programebsa da plakatebze mniSvnelovani informaciis povna da gageba (mag., ra Rirs, sad da rodis tardeba). SemiZlia mokle, martivi Setyobinebebis gageba (mag., Sexvedris drois daniSvna).

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A2.1 SemiZlia axalgazrdul Jurnal-gazeTebSi, internetSi ZiriTadi informaciis gageba, ras weren TavianT Tavze da vxvdebi, vis ra Tviseba gaaCnia. siebsa da sarCevebSi SemiZlia mTavari informaciis povna, romelic mainteresebs. SemiZlia Jurnal-gazeTebSi martivi statiebis dedaazris gageba, Temebze, romelic nawilobriv nacnobia CemTvis.

A2.2 SemiZlia gavigo mokle, martivi teqstis Tu Setyobinebis ZiriTadi azri. SemiZlia calkeuli frazebisa da xSirad xmarebuli sityvebis gageba maSin, roca teqsti CemTvis saintereso Temas exeba. SemiZlia advilad misaxvedri informaciis moZieba ganrigSi, cxrilSi, meniuSi, reklamaSi, gancxadebaSi... SemiZlia kerZo werilis gageba. B1.1 cnobil pirovnebebTan Jurnal-gazeTebis interviuebSi vkiTxulob da mesmis kiTxvebi da pasuxebi, Tu Temebi nawilobriv nacnobia CemTvis. SemiZlia gonebis didi daZabvis gareSe wavikiTxo da gavigo mogzaurobis dRiuri, sadac gadmocemulia mogzaurobis ambebi. SemiZlia mokle teqstebSi, sadac mocemulia mokle instruqciebi, mTavari informaciis gageba. SemiZlia mokle, martiv teqstebSi (mag., internetSi sadiskusio teqstebSi) ZiriTadi Sinaarsis gageba, Tu Temebi CemTvis nacnobia. SemiZlia wavikiTxo da gavigo (mag., aparatebis, telefonis, bankomatis) instruqcia. SemiZlia wavikiTxo da gavigo usafrTxoebis wesebi, romlebic ganTavsebulia sazogado transportsa da eleqtro mowyobilobebze. SemiZlia CemTvis saintereso martivi Temebis Sesaxeb teqstebis gageba. SemiZlia wavikiTxo da gavigo Jurnal-gazeTebSi dawerili gancxadebebis Sinaarsi da ZiriTadi informacia, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ar mxvdeba bevri abreviatura. 229

B1.2 SemiZlia wavikiTxo da gavigo piradi werilebi, romlebic exeba movlenebs, grZnobebsa da survilebs. SemiZlia wavikiTxo da gavigo sakvebis SefuTvebze/yuTebze dawerili informacia, Tu rogor mzaddeba igi. SemiZlia wavikiTxo da gavigo wamlebis instruqcia. SemiZlia wavikiTxo da gavigo mokle teqstebi nacnob Temebze, romelSic asaxulia sxvadasxva mosazrebebi (mag. kritikuli moxsenebebi, forumi internetSi, an werilebSi). SemiZlia wavikiTxo da gavigo aqtualur Temebze dawerili statiebi (mag., cxovelebi, mSenebloba). B2.1 SemiZlia wavikiTxo da detalurad gavigo sxvadasxva teqsti (mag. statia, saxelmZRvanelo, romani), saWiroebisamebr viyeneb leqsikons. SemiZlia wavikiTxo da gavigo aqtualur Temebze dawerili statiebi da sxva ti pis teqstebi da mivxvde avtoris pozicias. SemiZlia vixelmZRvanelo instruqciebiT (mag. kosmetikis, TamaSis, eleqtro xelsawyos). SemiZlia kompleqsuri da grZeli teqstebis swrafad gadakiTxva da mniSvnelovani informaciis povna. B2.2 SemiZlia wavikiTxo da gavigo internetSi, gazeTSi ganTavsebuli teqnikuri teqstebi, romlebic ar aris Zalian rTuli (mag., kompiuteruli TamaSebis, stereo mowyobilobebis yidvis Sesaxeb). SemiZlia swrafad wavikiTxo gazeTsa da JurnalSi ganTavsebuli teqsti da gavigo misi dedaazri.

SemiZlia wavikiTxo da gavigo grZeli, kompleqsuri instruqciebi CemTvis nacnobi sferoebis Sesaxeb.

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6.3 dialogi A1.1 SemiZlia, martivi sityvebiT misalmeba, vambob: diax, ara, bodiSi, gTxov, gmadlob. SemiZlia mivuTiTo rameze da vikiTxo, Tu ra aris is? SemiZlia, vinmes mivesalmo, gavacno Tavi da davemSvidobo. SemiZlia, vTqva, ra mqvia da vkiTxo sxvas, ra hqvia mas. A1.2 SemiZlia mivaxvedro mosaubre, rom saubrisas gamiwios angariSi da Seecados gamagebinos naTqvami. SemiZlia SevukveTo saWmeli da sasmeli (mag., kafesa da diskoTekaze). SemiZlia saubrisas gamoviyeno martivi cifrebi. SemiZlia vTqva, rom naTqvami ar mesmis. SemiZlia vTqva, ra ferisaa mag., kaba, an sxva nivTi, aseve vikiTxo, romeli sagani ra ferisaa mag., velosi pedi. SemiZlia vkiTxo sxvas, Tu rogor aris igi da vupasuxo me rogor vgrZnob Tavs. SemiZlia didebsa da patarebs mivesalmo da davemSvidobo. SemiZlia martiv kiTxvebze gavce pasuxi martivi sityvebiT, gamoTqmebiTa da winadadebebiT.

A2.1 SemiZlia mivmarTo sxvas zrdilobianad da vkiTxo rame. SemiZlia vikiTxo da vupasuxo SekiTxvebze Tu sad devs burTi, wigni, an sxva sagani; SemiZlia SevTavazo sxvas saWmeli da sasmeli. SemiZlia sayidlebze yofnisas vTqva, ras veZeb da vikiTxo fasi. SemiZlia vkiTxo vinmes, sad cxovrobs igi (sofeli, qalaqi), romeli qveynidanaa. 231

SemiZlia vikiTxo, ras akeTeben samsaxurSi da Tavisufal dros da roca msgavs kiTxvebs misvamen, SemiZlia gavce pasuxi. SemiZlia vinmes vusurvo bedniereba, mivuloco axali weli da dabadebis dRe. roca ar mesmis, ras meubnebian, SemiZlia vTqva, ver gavige; SemiZlia vikiTxo, ra hqvia amas qarTul enaze? A2.2 SemiZlia mokle satelefono saubris warmarTva, mag. Sexvedris adgilis daniSvna. SemiZlia martivi kiTxvebis dasma raime movlenis Sesaxeb da aseve mis garSemo pasuxis gacema, mag. ra sad da rodis Catarda, vin eswreboda da vin ara. SemiZlia, martivi sityvebiT gamovxato Cemi grZnobebi, mag. es CemTvis naTelia, meSinia, mSia. martivi sityvebiT SemiZlia gavce informacia yoveldRiuri Temebis Sesaxeb. SemiZlia vinmes vTxovo daxmareba da Sesabamisad vreagireb, roca me mTxoven daxmarebas. SemiZlia visaubro kviris dReebze, vTqva ra ricxvia, romeli saaTia da am yvelafris Sesaxeb davsva SekiTxvebi. SemiZlia vTxovo sxvas, rom damimarcvlos sityva amasTanave SemiZlia TviTon davmarcvlo sityvebi da saxelebi. SemiZlia vinmes rameze daveTanxmo, SevekamaTo, an uari vuTxra. SemiZlia vTxovo vinmes, gaimeoros naTqvami, an amixsnas ukeTesad. B1.1 SemiZlia, vinmes CamovarTva mokle interviu, Tu kiTxvebi winaswar maqvs momzadebuli; SemiZlia, didxans dafiqrebis gareSe davsva damatebiTi SekiTxvebi. SemiZlia vTxovo vinmes, maTxovos (mag., velosi pedi, fanqari) da gavce Sesabamisi pasuxi, roca mTxoven, rom me raime vaTxovo. SemiZlia sxvas SevTavazo Cemi nivTebi.

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mgzavrobisas SemiZlia ZiriTadi situaciebis daZleva. avtobusis an metros salaroSi SemiZlia vikiTxo martivi informacia da viyido bileTi. nacnob adamianebTan SemiZlia martivi satelefono saubrebis warmarTva. saubrisas SemiZlia davsva SekiTxva, esmis Tu ara Cemi mosaubres. SemiZlia CemTvis nacnobi Temebis Sesaxeb saubari (mag., kino, sporti, moda, televizia), azris gamoTqma da sxvisTvis SekiTxvis dasma Tu ras fiqrobs aRniSnul Temaze. SemiZlia Cems TanatolebTan visaubro da Sevadaro erTmaneTs musikaluri jgufebi, filmebi. SemiZlia nacnobs rCeva mivce, mag., tansacmlis yidvisas. B1.2 SemiZlia maswavlebels avuxsna, muSaobisas ra donis siZneleebi Semxvda. SemiZlia gamovTqva Cemi mosazrebebi da winadadebebi samuSao Sexvedraze, mag., proeqtze muSaobisas. SemiZlia diskusiebSi mokled gamovTqva Cemi azri. SemiZlia vTqva, rom arsebobs raRac problema da davasabuTo, ratom. SemiZlia viCxubo, mag., maRaziaSi, Tu rame gafuWebuli, an wuni Semxvda. SemiZlia axloblebTan visaubro saerTo interesebis Sesaxeb. SemiZlia TiTqmis spontanurad davusva mosaubres SekiTxvebi romelime movlenis, an gancdis Sesaxeb, mag., ardadegebis, zeimis, an ubeduri SemTxvevis irgvliv. B2.1 SemiZlia daviwyo saubari, gamovTqva azri da sxvasac davusva SekiTxvebi. diskusiis dros SemiZlia argumentebis, axsna-ganmartebebisa da komentarebis saSualebiT sakuTari mosazrebebis gamoTqma, dasabuTeba da damtkiceba. SemiZlia yvelasaTvis saintereso Temebze saubarSi aqtiuri monawileoba. SemiZlia gamoTqmiT, bunebrivad da daubrkoleblad saubari.

233

SemiZlia gamovxato sxvadasxva grZnoba da vTqva, romeli movlena an gamocdilebaa CemTvis mniSvnelovani. B2.2 SemiZlia, visaubro STabeWdilebebze, ideebsa da grZnobebze, mag., musika rogor moqmedebs adamianze. SemiZlia Cemi mosazrebebis zustad da darwmunebiT gamoxatva; aseve sxvis kompleqsur argumentebze reagireba. SemiZlia daubrkoleblad da zustad visaubro sxvadasxva Temebze. SemiZlia daubrkoleblad warvmarTo interviu kiTxvebis winaswar momzadebis gareSe, aseve, saintereso Temebze davsva damatebiTi SekiTxvebi.

6.4 monologi A1.1 SemiZlia mokled gavacno Tavi (saxeli, asaki, qveyana). SemiZlia gamovxato martivi sityvebiT, rogor vgrZnob Tavs. SemiZlia sakuTar Tavze mokle informaciis gacema (saxeli, gvari, misamarTi, telefonis nomeri). SemiZlia aRvwero, sad vcxovrob. SemiZlia sayidlad an SesakveTad Zalian martivi dasaxelebis saWmelisa da sasmelis dasaxeleba.

A1.2 SemiZlia martivi enobrivi saSualebebiT movyve axlobeli adamianebis an Cemi sacxovrebeli adgilis Sesaxeb. SemiZlia mokle, martivi winadadebebiT Cemi samsaxuris Sesaxeb saubari. martivi frazebiT SemiZlia avuxsna adamians, rogor mivides ama Tu im adgilas. A2.1 SemiZlia mokled warmovadgino sakuTari Tavi, ra mqvia, saidan var da sad vmuSaob. 234

SemiZlia vTqva ZiriTadi informacia Cemi ojaxis Sesaxeb, mag. vin, ra asakis da profesiis arian Cemi ojaxis wevrebi. SemiZlia vTqva romeli sasmeli da saWmeli miyvars. SemiZlia vTqva ra aris Cemi hobi da ra ar momwons (mag. musika, Teatri, sporti, ferebi). SemiZlia vTqva, romel garemoSi mirCevnia yofna da mokled davasabuTo mizezi (sofelSi, qalaqSi, zRvaze). SemiZlia winaswar momzadebul sityvaSi wakiTxvis gareSe warmovadgino CemTvis nacnobi sagani/obieqti (qveyana, musikaluri jgufi, gundi). A2.2 SemiZlia msmenels mivawodo safuZvliani informacia Cemi samsaxuris Sesaxeb. SemiZlia mokled gadmovce, ras vapireb kviris bolos, an ardadegebze. SemiZlia movyve Tu rogor aRniSnaven CvenTan Sobas da sxva dResaswaulebs. SemiZlia mokled da martivad gadmovce movlenis da sakuTari gancdis Sesaxeb (mag., wveulebaze, eqskursiaze, gakveTilze). SemiZlia, mokled aRvwero, sad vcxovrob da rogor SeiZleba CemTan mosvla (transporti, mgzavrobis xangrZlivoba, manZili). SemiZlia vinmes rukis gareSe avuxsna, rogor SeZlebs garkveul adgilamde misvlas. SemiZlia mokle istoriis moyola, da movlenebis Tanmimdevrulad warmodgena. SemiZlia dayovnebis gareSe warmovTqva cifrebi (weliwadi, TariRi).

B1.1 SemiZlia mokled vTqva ra momwons wignSi, an simReraSi. martivi sityvebiT SemiZlia aRvwero, rogor gamoiyureba romelime cxoveli. martivi sityvebiT SemiZlia aRvwero, sad da rogor vcxovrob (adgili/ garemo, saxli/bina, oTaxebi). 235

SemiZlia ramdenime winadadebiT vTqva, ra ganaTlebas viReb, an minda miviRo. SemiZlia ocnebebis, imedebis, miznebis aRwera. SemiZlia movyve, ra xdeba filmSi an wignSi da ras vfiqrob masze. sayofacxovrebo Temebze SemiZlia martivi sityvebiT visaubro da gamovTqva sakuTari azri (mag., fuli, nivTebis moxmarebis, qcevis wesebi). SemiZlia, sxvas avuxsna wesebi (mag. muzeumSi moqcevis wesebi). B1.2 SemiZlia vTqva, mimaCnia Tu ara, rom sworad moiqcnen da davasabuTo sakuTari azri. SemiZlia Cemi mosazrebebis, varaudebisa da gegmebis axsna da dasabuTeba. SemiZlia iseTi movlenis mniSvnelovani niuansebis gadmocema, romelic manamde ar momxdara (mag. ubeduri SemTxveva). SemiZlia sxvas mivawodo detaluri miTiTebebi, Tu rogor SeuZlia imis gakeTeba, rac me TviTon kargad gamomdis (mag. saWmlis momzadeba, Sinauri cxovelis movla). SemiZlia gasagebad aRvwero, rogor SeiZleba ama Tu im eleqtro xelsawyos gamoyeneba (mag. qseroqsi, fotoaparati). SemiZlia ramdenime winadadebiT gadmovce, ra damokidebuleba maqvs Cems axloblebTan da davasabuTo Cemi mosazreba. SemiZlia mokled da martivi sityvebiT gavakeTo Setyobineba (mag. stumrebs warvudgino programa).

B2.1 SemiZlia problemis kritikulad aRwera da problemuri situaciidan gamosavalis cudi da kargi mxareebis dasaxeleba. SemiZlia dawvrilebiT visaubro qveynis, an regionis msgavsebasa da gansxvavebaze. SemiZlia didxans visaubro CemTvis nacnob Temebze (mag., musika da musikaluri jgufebi) da niuansebi aRvwero dawvrilebiT da Sevadaro erTmaneTs. 236

SemiZlia detalurad gadmovce Cemi gamocdileba da aRvwero sakuTari grZnobebi. SemiZlia TanmimdevrobiTa da dawvrilebiT movyve istoria, an gancda. B2.2 SemiZlia CemTvis saintereso Temebis naTlad da detalurad aRwera. SemiZlia sxvadasxva radio da satelevizio gadacemebis zepirad gaanalizeba. SemiZlia garkveviT da sistemurad aRvwero momxdari ambavi mTavari detalebis win wamoweviT. SemiZlia sxvadasxva werilobiTi teqstebis informaciis zepirad warmodgena da komentaris gakeTeba.

6.5 wera A1.1 SemiZlia leqsikonis, saxelmZRvanelos, savarjiSo rveulis daxmarebiT ramdenime sityvisagan Semdgari martivi winadadebis dawera. SemiZlia mokle da martivi winadadebebiT davwero, vin var da sad vcxovrob. SemiZlia Zalian martivi sityvebis Cawera, mag., adamianebi, cxovelebi, nivTebi, romlebsac suraTebze vxedav. SemiZlia mwiri piradi monacemebis dawera (mag., asaki, misamarTi, hobi). A1.2 SemiZlia martivi sityvebiT sayofacxovrebo nivTebis aRwera (mag., manqanis feri, zoma). SemiZlia aRvwero, rogor aris mowyobili Cemi oTaxi. SemiZlia martivi formiT davwero informacia sakuTar Tavze (mag., saxeli, gvari, sacxovrebeli adgili, warmoSoba, asaki, hobi), aseve SemiZlia sxvas vkiTxo igive. SemiZlia mokle winadadebebiT davwero, ra miyvars yvelaze metad da ras visurvebdi (mag., saWmeli, tansacmeli, cxovelebi). 237

SemiZlia mokle martivi baraTebis dawera. SemiZlia Zalian martivi, mokle winadadebebiTa da gamoTqmebiT davwero im adamianebsa da sagnebze, romlebsac yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi vxvdebiT (samsaxuri, ojaxi, hobi, xalxi, romelTac vicnob, dRis reJimi). SemiZlia naxazis meSveobiT avxsna sad vcxovrob da rogor SeiZleba iq misvla. SemiZlia misaloci da madlobis Sinaarsis baraTis dawera. SemiZlia piradi miznebisaTvis movlenebisa da vadebis Sesaxeb martivi Canawerebis gakeTeba. SemiZlia megobrebisaTvis mokle Setyobinebis miwera, romelic Seicavs kiTxvas, an informacias. A2.1 SemiZlia martivi sityvebiT davwero Cemi saqmianobis Sesaxeb (mag., samsaxuri, sporti da Tavisufali dro). SemiZlia axloblebis saxelze davwero mosawvevi. SemiZlia martivi sityvebiT mivwero, rom gadavifiqre Sexvedra; SemiZlia miwvevaze werilobiT reagireba. SemiZlia mokle da martivi sityvebiT megobrebs Sevatyobino, rom magviandeba, rom avad var, rom ar SemiZlia misvla. SemiZlia CemTvis davwero samecadino gegma (kviris dReebiT, ricxvebiT). SemiZlia martivi winadadebebiT aRvwero movlena, aseve rodis moxda igi. SemiZlia mokle, martivi winadadebebiT sagnebisa da adgilebis aRwera, romlebic CemTvis nacnobia. A2.2 SemiZlia E-mail-iT, SMS, an mokle weriliT nacnobebsa da megobrebs saWiro martivi, informacia gavucvalo (mag., sxvadasxva maRaziaSi ra Rirs romelime disketi, romeli sportuli klubi jobia). SemiZlia martivi istoriis moyola (mag., lamazi ardadegebis, an momavali cxovrebis Sesaxeb). SemiZlia nacnobi Temebis Sesaxeb martivi teqstebis Sedgena da aseve sakuTari azris dawera. 238

SemiZlia martivi, gadabmuli winadadebebiT aRvwero movlena (mag., Catarebuli eqsperimenti, Sejibreba, TxilamurebiT sriali, velosi pedebis qurdoba). SemiZlia suraTebiTa da mokle teqstebiT davwero mogzaurobis mizani. SemiZlia martivi gancxadebis dawera da aseve CemTvis saintereso gancxadebaze reagireba (axalgazrdul gazeTsa Tu veb-gverdze) SemiZlia saswavlo dRiurSi martivad davwero, ra rodis gavakeTe da ra maqvs saswavli. B1.1 SemiZlia personaluri werilis dawera da masSi grZnobebis, gamocdilebebisa da movlenebis gadmocema. SemiZlia sagnebisa da movlenebis kargi da cudi mxareebis aRwera (mag., sacxovrebeli saxlis); SemiZlia sakuTari azris martivi sityvebiT dasabuTeba. SemiZlia gazeTisaTvis gavakeTo gancxadeba mniSvnelovani movlenis an piradi gancdis Sesaxeb (mag., saintereso mogzaurobis Sesaxeb an sainformacio xasiaTis). SemiZlia garkveviT aRvwero sagnebi, romlebic mainteresebs (mag., video an kompiuteruli TamaSi, aqtualuri moda an romelime sportis saxeoba) da aseve maTi kargi da cudi mxareebis win wamoweva. B1.2 mosmenisas SemiZlia gavakeTo Canaweri, mag. roca ainteresebT informacia, an aRweren problemas. SemiZlia erTmaneTze gadabmuli winadadebebiT davwero yoveldRiuri sagnebisa da movlenebis Sesaxeb. (mag., adgilebze, profesiul gamocdilebasa da adamianebTan Sexvedris Sesaxeb). SemiZlia werilis saSualebiT movi povo informacia, romelic mWirdeba garkveuli miznisaTvis. SemiZlia am informaciis werilobiT Sedgena da sxvisTvis gadacema. SemiZlia werilobiTi reagirebis gakeTeba gancxadebaze, romelic mainteresebs (mag., kursebi, ardadegebi). SemiZlia qronologiuri princi piT davwero Cemi biografia.

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B2.1 SemiZlia CemTvis saintereso, aqtualur Temebze teqstis dawera (mag. bunebis dacva, cxovelTa dacva, msoflios axali ambebi), da aseve aRniSvna, gansakuTrebiT romelia CemTvis mniSvnelovani. SemiZlia sakuTari gamocdilebebis werilobiT gadmocema. SemiZlia kargad Camoyalibebuli, detaluri teqstis dawera wakiTxuli an mosmenili informaciis safuZvelze. SemiZlia Txzulebis/Sinaarsis dawera filmis, wignis, an speqtaklis Sesaxeb. B2.2 SemiZlia werilis dawera, sadac detalurad avsaxav sakuTar gamocdilebebs, sxvadasxva mosazrebebsa da grZnobebs. SemiZlia mravalgverdiani moTxrobis, an istoriis naTlad, zusti wyobiT dawera (mag. mogzaurobis istoria, kriminaluri, an fantastikuri ambavi). SemiZlia bevri saintereso Temebis Sesaxeb detaluri teqstebis dawera, informacias gadacema, sxvadasxva poziciis asaxva da erTmaneTTan Sedareba, sakuTari azris gamoxatva. SemiZlia werilobiT gamovxato Cemi problema. SemiZlia werilobiT sistemurad avsaxo problema, win wamovwio mniSvnelovani sakiTxebi da gavmarTo diskusia; SemiZlia teqstebSi damokidebulebaze, mizezebsa da Sedegebze varaudebis gamoTqma werilobiT;

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7 qarTuli enis fonetikisa da gramatikis konspeqturi aRweriloba

enis erT-erTi ZiriTadi funqcia sakomunikacio funqciaa. bgera enis umartivesi struqturuli elementia. fonetika aris enaTmecnierebis dargi, romelic swavlobs adamianis sametyvelo bgerebs, enis bgeriT Semadgenlobas, cvlilebebs da am cvlilebaTa kanonebs. winadadebis sworad ageba gramatikuli normebis Sesabamisad xdeba. gramatika ori nawilisagan Sedgeba _ es aris morfologia da sintaqsi. Sesabamisad, am TavSi warmodgenilia qarTuli enis fonetikuri, morfologiuri da sintaqsuri aRweriloba. gramatika warmoiSva ucxouri enebis SeswavliT mizniT. am ti pis gramatikas preskri ptuli ewodeba. igi cnobilia aseve tradiciuli gramatikis saxelwodebiT. tradiciuli gramatika gvaZlevs mzamzareul wesebs ama Tu im metyvelebis nawilis sxvadasxva formebis warmoebisa da xmarebis Sesaxeb. igi didad mniSvnelovania, radganac iZleva sworad laparakisa da weris saxelmZRvanelo wesebs. tradiciuli gramatika srulad ver asaxavs im enobriv realobas, romelic enis ganviTarebis Sedegad warmoiSoba xolme. deskri ptiuli (aRweriTi) gramatika aRwers enaSi realurad arsebul formebs da maT funqcionirebas. misi mizania agreTve am formaTa xmarebis mizezebis axsna. Tanamedrove etapze metad aqtualuria e.w. komunikaciuri gramatika. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom komunikaciuri gramatika aris gramatika piriqiT anu, igi arkvevs, Tu rogori gramatikuli struqturebi ixmareba ama Tu im enobrivi mniSvnelobis gadmosacemad. komunikaciuri gramatika axali ti pis gramatikaa. igi pasuxobs SekiTxvas - rogor vixmaroT esa Tu is gramatikuli forma komunikaciis mizniT. amdenad, ZiriTadi yuradReba gamaxvilebulia gramatikuli formebis xmarebaze, gamoyenebaze da ara sxvadasxva formis agebis wesebze. gramatikaSi didi adgili ukavia istoriul kvlevas rogorc erTi enis, ise sxvadasxva enis farglebSi. amis Sesatyvisad gvaqvs istoriuli gramatika da istoriul-SedarebiTi gramatika. istoriuli gramatika ikvlevs sxvadasxva enobrivi elementebis ganviTarebas diaqroniaSi, anu warmoSobidan dRemde. rac Seexeba istoriul-SedarebiT gramatikas, igi ikvlevs sxvadasxva enis msgavsi struqturebis Taviseburebebs istoriul WrilSi. SedarebiTi gramatika monaTesave elementebs ikvlevs. aramonaTesave enebis mimarT msgavs kvlevas SepirispirebiTi gramatika awarmoebs.

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amgvarad, arsebobs gramatikis Semdegi ZiriTadi saxeebi: preskri ptiuli (tradiciuli), deskri ptiuli (aRweriTi), istoriuli, istoriul-SedarebiTi, SepirispirebiTi da komunikaciuri. gramatika saSualebaa da ara mizani (miTumetes TviTmizani). funqciuri (praqtikuli da pragmatuli) gramatikis umTavresi princi pia wina planze sametyvelo erTeulis funqciuri da ara formaluri mxaris wamoweva. misTvis mniSvnelovania, rom enobrivi kanonebi funqcionalurad iyos aTvisebuli. amgvari midgomis SemTxvevaSi enis Semswavlelis yuradReba mimarTulia funqciaze, xolo formas igi qvecnobierad iTvisebs. garkveuli muSaobis Semdeg, masalaze dakvirveba mas Tavad aZlevs saSualebas esa Tu is funqcia konkretul formas daukavSiros. funqciuri gramatikisTvis arsebiTia, rom enobrivi saSualebebi, gramatikuli formebi SeirCes sametyvelo miznis mixedviT.

7.1 fonetika

sametyvelo bgera warmoiTqmis, aso ki iwereba. dabeWdili an dawerili aso, anu grafikuli niSani pirobiTi simboloa ama Tu im sametyvelo bgerisa. erT bgeras erTi Sesabamisi grafikuli niSani aqvs, anu warmoTqma ekvivalenturia dawerilobisa. am TvalsazrisiT qarTuli enis Semswavlels saqme Zalian gaadvilebuli aqvs. sametyvelo bgeraTa raodenoba sxvadasxva enaSi ar aris erTnairi, igi sxvadasxvagvaria. Tanamedrove qarTul enaSi 33 bgeraa. maTgan 5 xmovania, 28 Tanxmovani. qarTul bgeriT sistemas axasiaTebs xmovanTa simartive da TanxmovanTa mravalferovneba. qarTulSi yvela xmovani a, e, i, o, u martivia. qarTul enaSi ar aris arc grZeli da arc umlautiani xmovnebi. qarTuli anbanis swavlebisas yuradReba unda mieqces specifikur (w, W, y, Z, R...) bgerebs, romlebic qarTulisTvis (resp. kavkasiuri enebisTvis) aris damaxasiaTebeli, aseve im opozicias, rasac qmnis p ­ f (papa ­ fafa), T ­ t (Taro ­ taro), q ­ k (qudi ­ kudi), g ­ R (geri ­ Reri)

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7.2 morfologia

morfologia swavlobs calkeul sityvas misi aRnagobis TvalsazrisiT. morfe berZnulad formas niSnavs, logos ki moZRvrebas. morfologiuri kategoriebis gamoxatvis saSualebebia afiqsebi _ prefiqsebi da sufiqsebi. afiqsebis gamoyenebis princi pi aglutinaciuria ­ TiToeuli morfologiuri kategoria gamoixateba damoukidebeli afiqsebiT.

qarTuli morfologiis zogadi sqema

7.2.1 arsebiTi saxeli

morfologiuri sqema 1. 2. 3. 4. fuZe fuZe fuZe fuZe ­ wyaro + br. niSani ­ wyaro-m + mr. niSani + br. niSani ­ wyaro-eb-i + mr. niSani + br. niSani + Tandebuli ­ wyaro-eb-is-Tvis

fuZe fuZe SeiZleba iyos martivi, Sedgenili, afiqs(eb)iT nawarmoebi. martivi _ kac-i Sedgenili _ vaJiSvili afiqsiT nawarmoebi _ Cox-osani, sa-col-e

brunva saxeli gvxvdeba ama Tu im brunvis formiT TandebulTan erTad an mis gareSe (Tandebulis ZiriTadi funqciaa sagnis adgilmdebareobis an mimarTulebis aRniSvna). mxolobiTi ricxvi s a x e l o b i T i mawarmoeblebi: -i, ­, (mag., kac-i, deda); dairTavs -viT Tandebuls (mag., bavSvi-viT iqceva). 243

funqciebi: I seriaSi gardamavali zmnis subieqti II seriaSi gardamavali zmnis pirdapiri obieqti III seriaSi gardamavali zmnis pirdapiri obieqti yvela seriaSi gardauvali zmnis subieqti m o T x r o b i T i mawarmoeblebi: -m(a), (mag., kac-ma, deda-m) funqcia: II seriaSi gardamavali zmnis subieqti m i c e m i T i mawarmoebeli: -s, (mag., kac-s) dairTavs Tandebulebs: -viT, -Tan, -ze, -Si (mag., klde-ze < klde-s-ze, klde-Si < klde-s-Si, kldes-Tan, klde-sa-viT,) funqciebi: I seriaSi pirdapiri obieqti II seriaSi iribi obieqti III seriaSi gardamavali zmnis subieqti n a T e s a o b i T i mawarmoeblebi: -i(s), -s (mag., kac-is, metro-s (Tandebulebi: -Tvis, -gan, -ken. mag., qal-is-Tvis, qal-is-gan, qal-is-ken). ZiriTadi funqcia: gamoxatavs kuTvnilebas (mag., bavSv-is burTi) m o q m e d e b i T i mawarmoeblebi: -iT, -Ti, (mag., Cangl-iT, metro-Ti daerTvis Tandebulebi: urT, -gan (>-dan) (mag., saxliT-urT, saxl-i-dan < saxl-iT-gan < saxlidgan). ZiriTadi funqcia: instrumentis gamoxatva. v i T a r e b i T i mawarmoeblebi: -a(d), (mag., kac-ad, Tve-d), -mde, -mdis Tandebulebi, (mag. skola-mde < skol-ad-mde, saxl-a-mdis < saxl-ad-mdis). ZiriTadi funqcia: gardaqceviTobis gamoxatva w o d e b i T i mawarmoeblebi: -o, -v, ­, (mag., kac-o, mebaRe-v, nana) funqcia: gamoxatavs mimarTvas 244

mravlobiTi ricxvi mravlobiTis mawarmoebelia -eb. igi sufiqsis saxiT erTvis fuZes da mas mosdevs brunvis mawarmoebeli. mravlobiTi ricxvi sxvagvaradac iwarmoeba. es warmoeba ufro Zvelia, magram Tanamedrove enaSic gamoiyeneba: sufiqsi -n-i, saxelobiTi (mag., kacni), -n-o, wodebiTi (mag., Svil-no). -T(a): moTxrobiTi, micemiTi, naTesaobiTi (mag., kac-Ta Tqves, bavSv-Ta undaT, Semswavlel-Ta jgufi).

mxolobiTi ricxvi saxelobiTi kac-i moTxrobiTi kac-ma micemiTi kac-s naTesaobiTi kac-is moqmedebiTi kac-iT viTarebiTi kac-ad wodebiTi kac-o

mravlobiTi ricxvi kac-eb-i kac-n-i kac-eb-ma kac-Ta kac-eb-s kac-Ta kac-eb-is kac-Ta kac-eb-iT kac-eb-ad kac-eb-o kac-n-o

7.2.2 zedsarTavi saxeli

zedsarTavi rogorc substantivi, funqcionirebs iseve, rogorc arsebiTi saxeli, mag., kargi. calke mdgomi zedsarTavi saxeli ibrunvis ise, rogorc arsebiTi. qvemoT mogvaqvs brunebis magaliTi TanxmovanfuZiani da xmovanfuZiani zedsarTavebisTvis. saxelobiTi moTxrobiTi micemiTi naTesaobiTi moqmedebiTi viTarebiTi wodebiTi karg-i/- - karg-ma karg-s - karg-is karg-iT karg-ad - karg-o/v uSno uSno-m uSno-s uSno-si uSno-Ti uSno-d uSno-v

245

7.2.3 nacvalsaxeli

piris nacvalsaxelebi

I mx. r. saxelobiTi me moTxrobiTi me micemiTi me naTesaobiTi Cem moqmedebiTi - viTarebiTi - wodebiTi -

II mx. r. Sen Sen Sen Sen - - Se

I mr. r. Cven Cven Cven Cven - - -

II mr. r. Tqven Tqven Tqven Tqven - - -

saxelobiTi moTxrobiTi micemiTi naTesaobiTi moqmedebiTi viTarebiTi

III mx. es aman amas amis amiT amad

III mx. eg magan magas magis magiT magad

III mx. is iman imas imis imiT imad

III mr. eseni amaT amaT amaT amaT amaT

III mr egeni magaT magaT magaT magaT magaT

III mr isini imaT imaT imaT imaT imaT

CvenebiTi nacvalsaxelebi

saxelobiTi moTxrobiTi micemiTi naTesaobiTi moqmedebiTi viTarebiTi

es am am am am am

eg mag mag mag mag mag

is im im im im im

kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebi vin, ra, rogori, romeli, ranairi, ramdeni, sadauri, rodindeli saxelobiTi moTxrobiTi micemiTi naTesaobiTi moqmedebiTi viTarebiTi vin vin vis vis (vis-iT) (vis-ad) ra ra ras ris riT rad

246

kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebi I mx. r. Cemi Cemma Cems Cemi Cemi Cems Cemo II mx. r. Seni Senma Sens Seni Seni Sens - I mr. r. Cveni Cvenma Cvens Cveni Cveni Cvens Cveno II mr. r. Tqveni Tqvenma Tqvens Tqveni Tqveni Tqvens Tqveno

saxelobiTi moTxrobiTi micemiTi naTesaobiTi viTarebiTi moqmedebiTi wodebiTi

saxelobiTi moTxrobiTi micemiTi naTesaobiTi moqmedebiTi viTarebiTi

III mx. amisi amisma amis amisi amisi amis

III mx. magisi magisma magis magisi magisi magis

III mx. misi misma mis misi misi mis

III mr. maTi maT maT maTi maTi maT

mimarTebiTi nacvalsaxelebi vinc, rac, romelic, rogoric, ranairic, ramdenic, rodindelic, sadauric, visic, risic, risac. kiTxviT-kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebi visi, ris, risa. gansazRvrebiTi nacvalsaxelebi TviTon, TviT, Tavad, TiToeuli, yoveli, yvela, sxva, mavani. ganusazRvrelobiTi nacvalsaxelebi vinme, rame, romelime, rogorime, ramdenime, viRac, raRac, romeliRac. uaryofiTi nacvalsaxelebi ar, ver, nu, aRar, veRar, nura, nuRar. urTierTobiTi nacvalsaxelebi erTmaneTi, erTurTi, erTimeore, urTierTi.

247

7.2.4 ricxviTi saxeli

ricxviTi saxeli arsebobs sami ti pis ­ raodenobiTi, rigobiTi, wilobiTi. qarTuli Tvlis sistema ASereuli ti pisaa. igi nawilobriv aTobiTia, nawilobriv - ocobiTi.

raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxeli ricxviTi saxeli sagnis raodenobas, rigs an nawils aRniSnavs. raodenobiTi ricxviTi saxelis fuZe SeiZleba iyos martivic da rTulic. martivfuZianebia: erTi, ori, sami, oTxi, xuTi, eqvsi, Svidi, rva, cxra, aTi, oci, asi... rTuli fuZeebia: TerTmeti (<aT-erT-meti), Tormeti (<aT-or-meti), ormoci (<or-me-oci)... ocis Semdeg oceulebis farglebSi ricxviTi saxelebi SeerTebulia da kavSiriT (mag., oc-da-erTi...).

rigobiTi ricxviTi saxeli rigobiTi ricxviTi saxeli iwarmoeba raodenobiTisagan me- _ -e afiqsis meSveobiT: oTxi > me-oTx-e, TerTmeti > me-TerTmet-e. Tu sawarmoebel fuZed aRebulia da kavSiriani rTuli ricxviTi saxeli, me- _ -e TavsarTbolosarTi erTvis kavSiris Semdeg (mag., oc-da-me-xuT-e, sam-oc-da-me-aT-e).

wilobiTi ricxviTi saxeli wilobiTi ricxviTi saxeli iwarmoeba rigobiTi saxelis viTarebiTi brunvis formisgan, romelic fuZedaa gamoyenebuli da xelmeoredaa nabrunebi (mag., meSvide _ meSvided > meSvidedi). raodenobiTi xuT-i kac-i xuT-ma kac-mas xuT kac-s xuT-i kac-is xuT-i kac-iT xuT kac-ad xuT-o kac-o rigobiTi meore kac-i meore kac-ma meore kac-s meore kac-is meore kac-iT meore kac-ad meore kac-o wilobiTi mesamed-i mesamed-ma mesamed-s mesamed-is mesamed-iT mesamed-ad mesamed-o

saxelobiTi moTxrobiTi micemiTi naTesaobiTi moqmedebiTi viTarebiTi wodebiTi

248

7.2.5 zmna

zmnas erTdroulad randenime morfologiuri kategoria moepoveba: piri, ricxvi, dro, kilo, gvari qceva, kontaqti. piris gamoxatva subieqturi (moqmedi) piris niSnebi:

mxolobiTi ricxvi I piri v ................................... II piri x ................................... III piri ...................................... s, a, o

mravlobiTi ricxvi v .................................... T x .................................... T ..................................... en, nen, an, n, es

mag., v-wer, v-wer-T, x-ar, x-ar-T akeTeb-s, gaakeT-a, aq-o akeTeb-en, akeTebd-nen, garbi-an, gaakeTo-n, aq-es.

obieqturi (samoqmedo) piris niSnebi: pirdapiri mimarTeba mxolobiTi ricxvi I piri m ................................... II piri g .......................... III piri ..................................... iribi mimarTeba mxolobiTi ricxvi I piri m .................................. II piri g ................................ III piri h, s .........................

mravlobiTi ricxvi I piri gv ................................ II piri g ................................. (T) III piri ....................................... magaliTad: m-aqebs; gv-aqebs g-iyvars; g-iyvar-T xatavs; xatavs

mravlobiTi ricxvi I piri gv ............................... II piri g ................................ (T) III piri h, s ........................... (T)

m-axsovs; gv-axsovs g-axsovs; g-axsov-T h-yavs; s-Zinavs; s-Zinav-T axsovs; axsov-T

249

kilo kilo sami saxisaa: TxrobiTi, kavSirebiTi da brZanebiTi. TxrobiTi - vcxrob, vcxovrobdi, vicxovre, micxovria, vicxovreb kavSirebiTi - swyurodes, vakeTo, sjobdes brZanebiTi - wadi, iare, nu ixmaureb, ar gaafuWo, momitaneT, grcxvenodes. aspeqti aspeqti oria: usruli da sruli. usruli apeqti i)Aawmyo: vwer, vTamaSob, vWri (axla) ii) momavali: vwer, vTamaSob, vWri, vwero, viTamaSo, vWra (xvalac) iii) warsuli: vwerdi, vTamaSobdi, vWridi, vwere, viTamaSe, vWeri, miweria, miTamaSia, miWria, meweros, meTamaSos, meWras. sruli aspeqti i) momavali: davwer, viTamaSeb, gavWri, davwero, viTamaSo, gavWra ii) warsuli: davwere, viTamaSe, gavWeri, damiweria, miTamaSia, gamiWria, dameweros, meTamaSos, gameWras. arsebobs uaspeqto zmnebic: i) uzmniswino zogierTi gardauvali zmna (aris, zis, uyvars...) da zogierTi vnebiTis forma (weria, xatia...). ii) zmniswiniani formebi (adis, amodis, gamodis, gadmodis, Camodis, modis, midis, Cadis, Sedis, gadis...), ZiriTadad moZraobis gamomxatveli zmnebi. mwkrivebi zmnuri formebi SeiZleba warmovadginoT sistemis saxiT, romelsac seriaTa da mwkrivTa sistema ewodeba. qvemoT mogvaqvs seriebisa da mwkrivebis CamonaTvali qarTulSi. mwkrivebis gagebisaTvis TiToeul maTgans axlavs SekiTxva, romelzec igi pasuxobs. I i) 1. 2. 3. ii) 1. 2. 3. seria awmyos wre awmyo uwyveteli awmyos kavSirebiTi myofadis wre myofadi xolmeobiTi myofadis kavSirebiTi

ras vSvrebi? ras vSvrebodi? ras vSvrebode? ras vizam? ras vizamdi? ras vizamde?

II seria 1. wyvetili 2. II kavSirebiTi

ra vqeni? ra vqna?

250

III seria 1. I TurmeobiTi 2. II TurmeobiTi 3. III kavSirebiTi

ra miqnia? ra meqna? ra meqna?

gardamavloba qarTuli zmna SeiZleba iyos gardamavali (xatavs, zrdis, aSenebs, iSenebs, uSenebs, aSenebinebs...) da gardauvali (ixateba, exateba, Sendeba, uSendeba, dgas, zis, wevs...). gardamavlobas garegnuli niSnebi aqvs: namyo (ra qna?) obieqti saxelobiTSi daesmis, subieqti - moTxrobiTSi (daxata, gazarda, aaSena _ man is. dauxata, gauzarda, auSena, daaxatvina, gaazrdevina, aaSenebina _ man mas is. gardauval zmnebs an sul ar gaaCnia obieqti, an Tu aqvs, mxolod micemiT brunvaSi, subieqti ki yovelTvis saxelobiTSia: daixata, gaizarda, aSenda _ is. daexata, gaezarda, auSenda _ is mas. mravlobiTis mesame pirSi emateba sufiqsi -en: daixatn-en, gaizardn-en, aSendn-en. erTpiriani zmna yvela gardauvalia, sampiriani zmna yvela gardamavalia, orpiriani zmna SeiZleba iyos gardamavalic da gardauvalic.

gvari qarTul enaSi subieqtis aqtiurobisa Tu pasiurobis xarisxis gamosaxatavad gvaris sami forma arsebobs: moqmedebiTi, vnebiTi da saSuali. moqmedebiTi _ vagoreb, vacureb, vawuxeb... (subieqti aqtiuri piria); vnebiTi _ gordeba, curdeba, wuxdeba (subieqti Tavad ganicdis moqmedebas); saSuali _ goravs, curavs, wuxs (subieqtis aqtiurobis xarisxi gardamavalia)

qceva kuTvnilebiT-daniSnulebiTi mimarTebebis gamosaxatavad qcevis sami forma arsebobs: saarviso (neitraluri), saTaviso (sasubieqto) da sasxviso (saobieqto). saarviso _ vaSeneb, vxatav, vzrdi saTaviso _ viSeneb, vixatav, vizrdi sasxviso _ vuSeneb, vuxatav, vuzrdi kontaqti kontaqtis kategoria gulisxmobs subieqturi piris pirdapir an irib CarTulobas moqmedebaSi. arsebobs uSualo da SualobiTi kontaqtis formebi. 251

uSualo _ vxatav, vzrdi, vaSeneb SualobiTi _ vaxatvineb, vazrdevineb, vaSenebineb

zmniswini zmniswini win erTvis zmnas da mas 4 funqcia gaaCnia: 1. uCvenebs mimarTulebas (midis, modis...) 2.awarmoebs mwkrivs (akeTebs _ gaakeTebs) 3.awarmoebs sruli aspeqtis formas (akeTa _ gaakeTa) 4.gamoiyeneba axali leqsikuri erTeulis sawarmoeblad (waagebs _ moigebs). agebulebis mixedviT zmniswini martivia (mi-, mo-, a-, da-, Ca-, Se-, ga-, wa-) an rTuli (amo-, Camo-, Semo-, gamo-, mimo-, gada-, gadmo-).

7.2.6 saxelzmna

saxelzmna zmnis upiro formaa. igi saxelis niSnebsac atarebs da zmnisasac, magram misi adgili ufro zmnaTa sistemaSia. saxelzmna orgvaria: sawyisi (xatva, wera...), romelic winadadebaSi arsebiTi saxelis funqciiT gxvdeba da mimReoba (daxatuli, dawerili...), romelic winadadebaSi zedsarTavi saxelis funqcias asrulebs. sawyisi. qarTul enaSi sawyisi brunviania. amitom mas SeuZlia iyos winadadebis wevri _ subieqti, obieqti (pirdapiri, iribi), damateba, garemoeba. mag.: male xatvas viwyeb; aqamde xatvisTvis ar mecala; xatvam Zalian gamitaca. sawyiss aqvs kategoriebi: mimarTuleba, aspeqti, kontaqti, iSviaTad gvaric. mimarTuleba: gzavna _ Cagzavna, gagzavna, gamogzavna... aspeqti: gzavna (usr.), gagzavna, Segzavna, migzavna, gadagzavna (sruli). kontaqti: gzavna (uSualo), gzavnineba (SualobiTi). mimReoba zmnis uuRlebeli formaa, romelic ibrunvis da gamoiyeneba rogorc zedsarTavi: amSenebeli, asaSenebeli, auSenebeli. mimReobas aqvs is kategoriebi, romlebic sawyiss gaaCnia: mimarTuleba, aspeqti, kontaqti, gvari. sawyisisagan gansxvavebiT mimReobas aqvs drois gageba. mimarTuleba - gzavnili - Cagzavnili, gagzavnili, gamogzavnili, gadagzavnili, gadmogzavnili, agzavnili. aspeqti - gzavnili (usr.) - gagzavnili (sruli) gvari - gamgzavneli (moqm.) - gagzavnili (vnebiTi) kontaqti - gagzavnili (uSualo) - gagzavninebuli (SualobiTi)

252

7.2.7 formaucvleli sityvebi da nawilakebi

formaucvleli srulmniSvnelovani da damxmare sityvebia: zmnizeda, Tandebuli, kavSiri, nawilaki da Sorisdebuli.

zmnizeda zmnizeda gamoxatavs moqmedebis adgils, dros, mizezs, mizans da a.S. gamoiyofa zmnizedaTa Semdegi ti pebi: adgilis zmnizeda (sad?): win, ukan, TavSi, SuaSi, boloSi, zeviT, qveviT, maRla, dabla, garSemo, irgvliv, aq, iq, aRma, daRma... (saidan?) - aqedan, iqidan, zevidan, maRlidan, gverdidan, Signidan, Soridan... drois zmnizeda (rodis?): axla, dRes, wuxelis, weRan, jer, Semdeg, erTxel, odesRac, odesme, gvian, xandaxan, mudam... viTarebis zmnizeda (rogor?): kargad, mSvidad, ueWvelad, Cqara, nela, almacerad, nakuw-nakuw, gulaRma, Tavdayira, gardi-gardmo... zoma-wonisa da odenobis zmnizeda (ra zomiT? ra odenobiT? ramdenad? ramdenjer?): amdenad, magdenad, egzom, metad, nakleb, erTgzis, erTjer, orjer, asjer, cotad, sruliad, yovlad, mTlianad... mizezis zmnizeda (ratom?): amitom, imitom, magitom... miznis zmnizeda (rad? risTvis?): amisTvis, magisTvis, imisTvis, amad... kiTxviTi zmnizeda: sad? rodis? saidan? saiTken? ratom? rad? risTvis? mimarTebiTi zmnizeda. kiTxviTi zmnizeda c nawilakis darTviT kiTxvis tons kargavs da mimarTebiTad iqceva: sadac, rodesac, saidanac, saiTkenac, radac, risTvisac...

Tandebuli Tandebuli Sedgenilobis mixedviT SeiZleba iyos martivi (-gan, -Tvis...) an rTuli (gamo, mimarT...). yvelaze gavrcelebuli Tandebulebia: micemiTi br + -Si, mag., qalaqSi micemiTi br + -ze, mag., mTaze micemiTi br + -Tan, mag., saxlTan micemiTi br + -viT, mag., cxeniviT micemiTi br + Sua, Soris, mag., or zRvas Sua, Cven Soris naTesaobiTi br + -Tvis, mag., adamianisTvis naTesaobiTi br + -gan, mag., sixarulisgan, xisgan, Zmisgan naTesaobiTi br + -ken, mag., soflisken 253

moqmedebiTi br + -dan, mag., universitetidan viTarebiTi br + -mde, mag., samsaxuramde, SuadRemde

kavSiri akavSirebs winadadebis or wevrs an or winadadebas. igi mniSvnelobas iZens mxolod sxva sityvebTan erTad xmarebisas. kavSiri funqciis mixedviT SeiZleba or jgufad daiyos _ maerTebeli da maqvemdebarebeli. maerTebeli kavSiri SeiZleba iyos: i) majgufebeli: da, Tu (kata da ZaRli; saTamaSoebi, saxatavi rveulebi Tu feradi fanqrebi sul iatakze iyo gabneuli); ii) macalkevebeli kavSirebi: Tu, an, gind, Tund (Cais miirTmevT Tu yavas?; dedas an mamas vetyvi; gind ase Tqvi, gind ise; Tunda gabrazdes mainc waval); iii) mapirispirebeli kavSirebi: magram, xolo, ki, Torem, aramed, (Tovs, magram ar civa; nino pataraa, xolo misi Zma ukve col-Sviliania; me Sen giTxari, Sen ki qveyana Semiyare; wamodi, Torem dedas davuZaxeb; is sofelSi ki ar yofila, aramed parizSi seirnobda); iiii) maigivebeli kavSirebia: anu, ese igi (dentaluri bgerebi; bileTebi aviReT e.i. mivdivarT). maqvemdebarebeli kavSirebi Sinaarsis mixedviT SeiZleba iyos: adgilis (sadac, saiTac...), drois (rodesac, vidre...), mizezis (radganac, imitom, rom), miznis (raTa...), daTmobis (Tumca). maqvemdebarebeli kavSiri akavSirebs or winadadebas, romelTagan erTi mTavaria, meore ki - damokidebuli.

nawilaki win uZRvis, an mosdevs sityvas. win uZRvis: ar, ver, nu... mosdevs: me, ve, Ra, ca, ode... zogi nawilaki marto zmnasTan ixmareba (ar, ver, nu), zogi ricxviT saxelTan (ode), zogi yvelanair sityvasTan (o). zogierTi nawilaki calke iwereba (xolme, Turme, nu, ar, ver...) funqciebis mixedviT nawilakebi SeiZleba gamoiyos Semdegi saxis: kiTxviTi: gana, nuTu, xom (gana ar ici? nuTu marTalia? xom giTxari?) mimarTebiTi: c (ca). am nawilakis funqciaa kiTxviTi sityva mimarTebiTad aqcios: vinc, rac, romelic, sadac... ganusazRvrelobiTi: kiTxviTi sityva (vin? ra? romeli? ramdeni? rogor? sad? saidan?) ganusazRvrelad iqceva, Tu mas daerTo nawilaki me: vinme, rame, romelime, ramdenime, rogorme, sadme, saidanme... ukuTqmiTi: ar(a), ver, nu. sityva-sityviTi: meTqi, Tqva, Tqo, o. migebiTi: ho, ki, diax, ara, vera. 254

Sorisdebuli adamianis grZnobis, gancdis, neba-survilis gamomxatveli bgera, bgeraTa jgufi an sityvaa (oh, uh, ah, oi, ui, vai, vaime...). igi gankerZoebiT dgas winadadebis TavSi, SuaSi an boloSi. Sorisdebulis xmarebisas xSirad axlavs saTanado Jestikulaciac. mag., oh, ra Zvirfasi nivTia. biWos! es ra Widaoba gaumarTavT!

7.3 qarTuli enis sintaqsuri aRweriloba

sintaqsi swavlobs winadadebaSi sityvaTa SekavSirebis wesebs (sintaqsis ­ berZ. Sedgena) winadadeba aris ama Tu im enis kanonebis mixedviT erTmaneTTan Sexamebuli sityvebis jgufi an calke sityva, romelic dasrulebul azrs gamoxatavs. azris dasrulebulobasTan erTad winadadebis erTerT ZiriTad damaxasiaTebel niSnad predikatulobaa miCneuli. cxadia, zmna-Semasmenlis gareSe verc dasrulebuli azri ver gadmoicema da verc winadadeba Seiqmneba. winadadebas garkveuli intonacia axasiaTebs, romelic werisas sasveni niSnebiTaa gadmocemuli. winadadebis damaxasiaTebeli ZiriTadi niSnebidan (azris dasrulebuloba, predikatuloba, intonacia) azris dasrulebuloba da predikatuloba aucilebeli komponentebia komunikaciis dasamyareblad.

7.3.1 winadadebis saxeebi Sinaarsis mixedviT

Sinaarsis mixedviT winadadeba SeiZleba iyos TxrobiTi, kiTxviTi, brZanebiTi, Zaxilisa da kiTxviT-Zaxilisa. TiToeuli maTgani Sinaarsis mixedviT an warTqmiTia (dadebiTi) an ukuTqmiTi (uaryofiTi). TxrobiTi winadadeba TxrobiT winadadebaSi gadmocemulia realuri an irealuri faqti an movlena. mag., JuJuna wvima movida, didi mindori danama, warTqmiTi winadadebaa. mdinare aRma ver wava ­ ukuTqmiTia. TxrobiTi winadadebis bolos wertili iwereba. qarTul enaSi TxrobiTi winadadebis intonacia Tavidan amaRlebulia, magram TandaTan dabldeba da mTavrdeba dabali toniT. Tumca komunikacia intonaciis wesebis codnis gareSec SeiZleba damyardes. TxrobiTi winadadeba amis saSualebas iZleva. yuradReba ZiriTadad gadatanili unda iyos zmnis gaformebaze. kiTxviTi winadadeba SekiTxvis Semcvel winadadebas kiTxviTi hqvia. mag., vin movida? kidev wvims? kiTxviTi winadadeba orgvaria: kiTxviTsityviani da ukiTxviTsityvo. kiTxviT sityvebSi moiazreba: 255

kiTxviTi nacvalsaxelebi ­ vin? ra? romeli? rogori? ramdeni? sadauri? rodindeli? kiTxviT-kuTvnilebiTi nacvalsaxelebi ­ visi? risi? risa? kiTxviTi zmnizedebi ­ sad? saidan? saiTken? rodis? rogor? ratom? risTvis? ramdenad?.. kiTxviTi nawilakebi ­ xom, gana, nuTu. kiTxviTsityvian winadadebaSi maxvili kiTxviT sityvaze unda daisvas. intonacia ki daRmavali unda iyos. Tu kiTxviT winadadebaSi kiTxviTi sityva ar aris, SekiTxvis maxvili zmna-Semasmenlis bolo marcvalze daismis da intonacia odnav aRmavalia. magaliTad, ginaxavT feri dabindul qliavis? kiTxviT winadadebas, romelSic sityva ar aris warmoTqmis dros TxrobiTi winadadebisagan mxolod intonacia ganasxvavebs. magaliTad, giorgi movida, TxrobiTia, giorgi movida? maxvili zmnaSemasmenlis bolo marcvalzea da aRmavali intonaciaa, Sesabamisad, winadadeba kiTxviTia. kiTxviTi winadadebis bolos kiTxvis niSani iwereba.

brZanebiTi winadadeba brZanebiT winadadebaSi gamoxatulia mTqmelis neba-survili, rom zmnaSemasmeneliT gadmocemuli moqmedeba Sesruldes an ar Sesruldes. amdenad, brZanebiTi winadadebac SeiZleba iyos warTqmiTi da ukuTqmiTi. magaliTad, warTqmiTia ­ gaswi, gamiZexi win. ukuTqmiTia ­ nu gamijavrdebi, ar wameCxubo, nurafers metyvi. brZanebiTi winadadeba yovelTvis brZanebas ar gamoxatavs. man SeiZleba gadmosces Txovna (RmerTo, miSvele), rCeva-darigeba (frTxilad, cecxls nu eTamaSebi.), mowodeba (rTveli daiwyo, aba, SevesioT venaxs!), dalocva (dailocos saqarTvelo, idide marad, Cemo samSoblo), wyevla (Se aragasazrdelo, Sena), gamxneveba (nu geSinia, guls nu gaitex, yvelaferi kargad iqneba). brZanebiTi winadadebis bolos yovelTvis Zaxilis niSani ar iwereba, Tu is TxrobiTis msgavsad warmoiTqmis, boloSi wertili ixmareba.

Zaxilis winadadeba Tu winadadebaSi gadmocemul azrs mTqmelis grZnobadi damokidebuleba axlavs, mas Zaxilis winadadeba ewodeba. adamianis grZnobebi sxvadasxvagvaria: aRfrTovanebis gamomxatveli (ra mSvenieria, zRapruli silamazea), gaocebis gamomxatveli (Sexede, ra xdeba), aRSfoTebis gamomxatveli (ui, ui, es xom yovlad dauSvebelia!), mwuxarebis gamomxatveli (oh, es ra ubedureba datrialebula!), sixarulis gamomxatveli (gilocav am did warmatebas, ra bednierebaa!), natvris gamomxatveli (ax, netavi SenTan viyo!), sinanulis gamomxatveli (guSin aResrula Cveni mgosani!) 256

Zaxilis winadadeba SeiZleba SinaarsiT warTqmiTi iyos, formiT ki ukuTqmiTi. magaliTad, Zlivs gaRimebuli ar vixile meri! e.i. Zlivs gaRimebuli vixile meri! am or winadadebaSi intonaciis iseT monacvleobasTan gvaqvs saqme, romelic araqarTvelisTvis sakmaod rTulia da komunikaciis dasamyareblad misi codna savaldebulo namdvilad ar aris. Zaxilis winadadebis bolos aucileblad Zaxilis niSani iwereba. kiTxviT-Zaxilis winadadeba Tu winadadeba erTsa da imave dros kiTxvasac Seicavs da garkveul grZnobasac, aseTi winadadeba kiTxviT-Zaxilisaa. magaliTad, gana SeiZleboda am ambis dafarva?! kiTxviT-Zaxilis winadadeba SeiZleba upasuxo darCes. aseTi winadadebis bolos kiTxvis da Zaxilis niSani iwereba.

7.3.2 sintaqsuri urTierTobis saxeebi

sintaqsuri urTierTobis ZiriTadi saxeebia: SeTanxmeba, marTva da mirTva. SeTanxmeba sityvaTa sintaqsuri urTierTobis iseT saxes, roca daqvemdebarebuli sityva im formas iRebs, romelic aqvs mTavar sityvas, ewodeba SeTanxmeba. magaliTad, Zveli burTi ori burTi Cemi burTi samive wyvilisaTvis burTi mTavari sityvaa, maszea daqvemdebarebuli Zveli (zedsarTavi saxeli), ori (ricxviTi saxeli), Cemi (nacvalsaxeli). mTavari sityvis brunebisas imave brunvis formas iRebs damokidebulic. magaliTad, Zvelma burTma, orma burTma, Cemma burTma... Tu mTavar sityvas -eb-ian mravlobiTSi CavsvamT, masze daqvemdebarebuli sityva mxolobiT ricxvSi darCeba. magaliTad, Zveli burTebi, Cemi burTebi ­ Zvelma burTebma, Cemma burTebma... SeTanxmebisTvis aucilebelia, rom wyvilis wevrebs hqondeT erTi da igive kategoria brunvis da ricxvis an mxolod ricxvis. saxelma saxeli SeiZleba SeiTanxmos brunvaSic da ricxvSic, magram saxels SeuZlia SeiTanxmos zmna mxolod ricxvSi. marTva marTva ewodeba sintaqsuri urTierTobis iseT saxes, romlis drosac mTavari sityva moiTxovs daqvemdebarebulisgan im formas, romelic mas ara aqvs mocemul SemTxvevaSi an ara aqvs saerTod. magaliTad, konstruqtoriT TamaSobs TamaSobs konstruqtoriT iTamaSebs konstruqtoriT iTamaSos konstruqtoriT uTamaSia konstruqtoriT 257

aq zmna moiTxovs saxelisagan imas, rac TviTon saerTod ara aqvs e.i. zmna marTavs saxels brunvaSi. zogierT SemTxvevaSi mmarTavma sityvam marTuli sityvisagan SeiZleba moiTxovos is forma, romelic mas ara aqvs mocemul SemTxvevaSi. magaliTad, xis xis xis xis xis xis xis tot-i tot-ma tot-s tot-is tot-iT tot-ad tot-o

am SemTxvevaSi mTavari sityvis yvela brunvasTan masze daqvemdebarebuli msazRvreli (xis) mxolod naTesaobiTi brunvis formiTaa Sewyobili. es niSnavs, rom aq marTvaa brunvaSi da ara SeTanxmeba. SeTanxmeba da marTva zmnisa da saxelis sintaqsuri urTierTobisas uaRresad saintereso ormxriv damokidebulebas ganapirobebs: qarTul enaSi zmna polivalenturia; Sesabamisad, masTan Sewyobili saxelebi garkveul sintaqsur damokidebulebaSi imyofebian zmnasTan: saxeli marTavs zmnas pirSi (me v-ar; Sen x-ar, is ari-s) da iTanxmebs ricxvSi (Sdr.: kac-i modi-s - kac-eb-i modi-an); Tavis mxriv, zmna marTavs saxels brunvaSi (imisda mixedviT, dro-kiloTa romel seriaSia zmnuri forma da rogoria masTan Sewyobili saxeli ­ subieqturi piri, iribobieqturi piri Tu pirdapirobieqturi piri): I seria II seria III seria uSenebs kac-i saxl-s megobar-s auSena kac-ma saxl-i megobar-s auSenebia kac-s saxl-i (megobr-isTvis)

mirTva mirTva ewodeba sityvaTa SekavSirebis iseT saxes, rodesac mTavari sityva masze daqvemdebarebuls mxolod azrobrivad ikavSirebs. amgvari SekavSireba maSinaa SesaZlebeli, Tu daqvemdebarebuli sityva formaucvlelia, e.i. mas aranairi cvlilebis unari ar gaaCnia. mirTvis dros sintaqsur wyvilSi mTavari sityva ZiriTadad zmnaa (mag., aq davibade), magram SeiZleba Segvxvdes sxvac. magaliTad, zmnizeda (Zalian nela, ise uecrad...) zedsarTavi saxeli (odnav ganieri, ase mSvenieri...) sawyisi (ase wera, amgvarad saubari...) mimReoba (iq misatani, naklebad seriozuli...)

258

7.3.3 winadadebis saxeebi agebulebis mixedviT

agebulebis mixedviT winadadeba SeiZleba iyos sami saxis: martivi, Serwymuli da rTuli. martivi winadadeba martivia winadadeba, romelic gadmoicema erTi (magaliTad, Tovs, gaavdrda, daRamda) an ramdenime sityviT, romlebsac erTmaneTTan marTva akavSirebs, Tumca maT Soris SeiZleba iyos mirTvac. magaliTad, uceb Camobnelda - esaa or wevriani martivi winadadeba, romelic mirTviTaa dakavSirebuli. daviTma amayad miugo nikos - am martivi winadadebis oTxi wevridan erTi wyvili amayad miugo mirTviT ukavSirdeba erTmaneTs, xolo danarCen or wyvilSi daviTma miugo, miugo nikos marTva gvaqvs. martiv winadadebaSi ar SeiZleba iyos erTze meti zmna-Semasmeneli. Serwymuli winadadeba Serwymulia winadadeba, Tu masSi warmodgenilia erTi da imave funqciis ori an meti wevri. es erTgvari wevrebi erTsa da imave wevrs miemarTebian xolme. magaliTad, ano, vano da kato damegobrdnen. aRniSnuli sami wevri miemarTeba sityvas damegobrdnen. rTuli winadadeba rTulia winadadeba, Tu igi Sedgeba ori an meti martivi an Serwymuli winadadebisagan, mag., Semodgoma movida wiTel-yviTel ferebiT, mosavaliT aivso saqarTvelos velebi. am rTul winadadebaSi gaerTianebulia erTi Serwymuli da erTi martivi winadadeba. rTuli winadadeba SeiZleba iyos Tanwyobili da qvewyobili: Tanwyoba aris iseTi martivi an Serwymuli winadadebis rTul winadadebad SekavSireba, romlebic sintaqsurad Tanasworni arian erTmaneTis mimarT. magaliTad, bazaleTisa tbis Ziras oqros akvani ariso da mis garSemo wylis qveSe ucxo walkoti yvaviso. rTul qvewyobil winadadebaSi erTi mTavaria, danarCeni ki masze daqvemdebarebuli. magaliTad, is quCebi, romliTac unda gaetarebinaT mgosani Teatramdis, dilidanve gaWedili iyo xalxiT.

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Reference Level Description for the Georgian Language

Now Reference Level Descriptions for European Languages has grown with the Reference Level Description for the Georgian Language. I would like to express my gratitude and respect to the Council of Europe for giving me possibility to evaluate and publish this work. Interest is being shown in the preparation of RLD for national and regional languages of the multilingual Europe. I hope that RLD for the Georgian Language, like other descriptions, will contribute to the implementation of the Council of Europe Language policy to incrpease European mobility and mutual understanding by giving better access to the diversity of European Languages across European continent. Georgia is situated in Southern Caucasus. The neighbours from North are the republics of Russian Federation, from East -Azerbaijan and from South -Turkey and Armenia. Apart from Georgia, the Georgian Language is more or less spoken on the territory of Turkey, Iran and Azerbaijan, as well. Besides, Georgian is spoken in Europe and America by the Georgian diasporas, which have quite increased during last twenty years. Georgian Language belongs to the group of Kartvelian Languages and this group belongs to the family of Ibero-Caucasian Languages. Georgian is the oldest written and literary language in this family. Georgian alphabet is one of the oldest in the World. There are several theories about its origin, but according to the most popular opinion it arose in the 3rd century B.C. There are 33 letters and the same number of sounds in the modern Georgian alphabet. The difference from other alphabets is that every sound has its own graphic symbol and we write as we pronounce and vice versa. Reference Level Description for the Georgian Language is aimed at those concerned with the teaching and learning of Georgian: curriculum planners, course designers, teachers, test constructors, learners, publishers and authors of textbooks for Georgian as a second or foreign language. It deals with the language required by foreign businessmen, tourists on a temporary visit to Georgia, Georgian families living abroad. It will also be useful for the minorities living in Georgia. Georgia is a multinational country. Georgian as a state language is a second language for non-Georgians living on the territory of Georgia, but there are some villages in Georgia where mostly minorities live and they hear Georgian very frequently. They don't have Georgian environment. It means that teaching of Georgian there is conducted as a foreign language. This work will be a good support for them, as well. RLD for the Georgian language consists of foreword, 7 parts and 22 chapters. In the foreword, general description of the Georgian language, first written sources and alphabet is given. Part 1 -The general description of the work. There is given the necessity of creating RLD for the Georgian language, the idea of communicative language teaching and the components of communicative competence -linguistic, sociolinguistic, discursive, sociocultural, social, strategic is explained. The theoretical description of reference levels is given. 260

Part 2 -Communicative competences for adult learners are the most interesting and useful for everybody because it includes not only the list of the material, but it is illustrated by many examples and phrases for the possible circumstances in which learners may find themselves. We started from A1 and worked up to B2 and showed the progress from level to level. This chapter consists of four parts: Speech acts, General notions, Thematic vocabulary and Cultural aspects. Each part is classified according to the functions, e.g. Speech acts contain: Imparting and seeking information, expressing and finding out attitudes, socializing, deciding on and managing the course of action, assuring and repairing communication and structuring discourse. General notions include: existence, space, time, quantity, qualities of things and peoples and logical relationships. Thematic vocabulary includes: identification of a person, place of residence, environment, everyday life, professional context, leisure and recreation activities, travel and transportation, weather, education, shopping, food and drink, health and career plans. Cultural aspect covers sociocultural behavior; customs and traditions, art, dances, religious beliefs; current issues; economic issues, political issues, employment... Part 3 includes communicative competences for schoolchildren established by the Ministry of Education and Science of Georgia. Part 4 -The types of text. There are given the types of texts and genres for listening and reading, the skills of writing. This part will contribute the learner to create the sense of text producing and interpreting, so that he could produce the texts of different types according to his level of language competence and to make correct, adequate decisions on further behaviors. The emphasis is made on the point that a learner could use compensative tactics while understanding written and oral texts. Part 5 -The strategies. There is emphasized that we should develop in a learner self-learning and strategic skills. There are described the possibilities from which these skills consist. It is discussed that speaking and compensative strategies help the learner to continue the interrupted conversation, if he can use the same words and expressions as his interlocutor; attention is paid to non-verbal communication as well. Part 6 -There are given the samples of descriptors, which show the progress from level A1 to level B2 according to listening, reading, spoken interaction, spoken production and writing skills. Part 7 -There is given the Georgian sound system, explained the idea of communicative grammar, that the grammar is the means and not the aim, there are analyzed functional and systematic grammar principles and are given the morphologic and syntactic description of the Georgian language. Marika Odzeli Professor, national representative of Language Policy to the Council of Europe

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