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April 19, 2007

Beginning to heal


Hoduck Kim, Taewon Kim and Sunny Park react to the events that occurred Monday on the Virginia Tech campus while at a memorial on the Drillfield yesterday.

"If we don't meet again, your final assignment from me is perhaps the most important lesson you will learn in life. ...

Tributes helping community cope


Ross Abdallah Alameddine Jamie Bishop Brian Bluhm Ryan Clark Austin Cloyd Jocelyne Couture-Nowak Daniel Perez Cueva Kevin Granata Matthew Gregory Gwaltney Caitlin Hammaren Jeremy Herbstritt Rachael Hill Emily Jane Hilscher Jarrett Lane Matthew Joseph La Porte Henry Lee Liviu Librescu G.V. Loganathan Parahi Lumbantoruan Lauren Ashley McCain Dan O'Neil Juan Ortiz Minal Hiralal Panchal Erin Peterson Michael Pohle Julia Pryde Mary Read Reema Samaha Waleed Mohamed Shaalan Leslie Sherman Maxine Turner Nicole White


... Go to your mother, father, brothers and sisters and tell them with all your heart how much you love them. And tell them that you know how much they love you too. Go out of your way to make good memories. ...

... At some point, these memories may be all you have left. May God bless you all, Bryan" -- Professor Bryan Cloyd's e-mail to his students. Cloyd's daughter, Austin, died Monday.

t a time when it's easy to feel alone and isolated, walking around campus reminds the Virginia Tech community that the country is offering thoughts, prayers and words. Squires Student Center appears normal from the outside until you walk into the doors of any entrance, which are filled with posters, printed e-mails and flower arrangements. Radford University showed their condolences by sending orange posters covered in notes and signatures of every color that are now posted outside Colonial Hall and Commonwealth Ballroom on the second floor. "Stay strong and hopeful. You all will remain in our thoughts and prayers," reads one of the posters. "VT, we love you! Praying for you always," reads another. "VCU Expressions for VT," Virginia Commonwealth's signature-covered poster had no white space to be found. "Stay strong, stick together!" a poster reminds, "You're in our thoughts and prayers." Walking down to the Alumni Mall entrance, posters from the University of North Carolina reaffirms that "VT is not alone." Also on the same board are dozens of e-mails from college staff and students from local neighbors, such as James Madison University and, from across the world, including South Africa, Canada, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom. While the Drillfield is normally filled with students racing to class and talking on cell phones, it is now filled with silence. Trees that blossom in spring promising warm weather now have black, maroon and orange strips of cloth tied around their trunks. Near War Memorial Chapel is a small makeshift memorial with a collection of candles, flowers, signatures and cards. One small poster reads "In deep memory of Professor Kevin Granata." Two maroon and white tents punctuate the stillness, each housing eight boards covered in black signatures and messages. "Together we stand, united we fall," stood out on one board written in orange ink. Students, Blacksburg residents and families slowly encircle the boards soaking in every message. Thirty-two pieces of Hokie stone sit in a horseshoe around the podium at the head of the Drillfield, representing the 32 victims. Each stone is topped with flowers and a Virginia Tech pennant. More flowers rest around the stones, bringing a small piece of life to such a dark moment. Yet not every poster around campus sends a message of sorrow. A neon orange one posted on the front of Patton Hall reads "Hokie Nation Needs to Heal. Media Stay Away." Anywhere on campus, you aren't far from a physical representation of the emotions felt in Blacksburg. Whether writing a message, lighting a candle or simply reading the words of others, this campus' heart beats with Hokie pride. The lights of Tuesday night's vigil will not be extinguished as these memorials continue to grow, reminding the community of Nikki Giovanni's message that "We are Virginia Tech."


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Thursday, April 19, 2007

Cho sends package between shootings


A package containing videos and photos from gunman Cho Seung-Hui was mailed to NBC between the shootings at West Ambler-Johnston Hall and Norris Hall on Monday. NBC President Steve Capus said the package arrived to the studio in New York late on Tuesday and sent to headquarters at about 11 a.m. The return address said " Ishmael" instead of A Cho's name. The package contained a 1,800-word message in which Cho said, "When the time came, I did it, I had to." Thirty-two people were shot to death before Cho, a 23 year-old English major, took his own life on Monday. At a press conference held yesterday morning around 10:10 a.m., police reported that the gunman had been accused of stalking two females in 2005 and had been taken to a mental health facility the same year. The female from the first stalking incident filed in November and December of 2005 called in the police concerning Cho's phone calls and e-mails. The student declined to press charges. After these incidents, Cho had no further contact with her. The outcome of that report is outside the scope of the police department, Flinchum said. At a press conference at 4:30 p.m., Vice President of University Relations, Larry Hincker, announced a small list of the confirmed victims in Norris Hall. Of those identified include: sophomore Ross Abdallah Alameddine, master's student Matthew Gregory Gwaltney, freshman Emily Jane Hilscher, sophomore Matthew Joseph La Porte, sophomore Henry J. Lee, freshman Lauren Ashley McCain, master's student Minal Hiralal Panchal, Ph.D. student Waleed Mohamed Shaalan and professor Liviu Librescu. Hincker stated that he has spoken with these families, and that there have been student affairs liaisons assigned provide services for them. The parents of Cho Seung-Hui were worried that he might be suicidal. Out of concern for Cho, Virginia Tech Police asked him to speak with a counselor. An order was obtained, and Cho was taken to a mental health facility, said Tech Police Chief Wendell Flinchum. Cho was evaluated by a mental health agency called Access. He was not evaluated by the Cook Counseling Center on Tech's campus because Access has the power to commit people when they need to be committed, Flinchum said. Police believe that Cho's decision for counseling was voluntary, but they are not positive. Many of the records of the counseling sessions are not available, even upon death or to Cho's parents, said Chris Flynn, director of the Cook Counseling Center Tech police responded to a threat received by university operators. The increased presence of people led to many rumors, and a suspicious person was reported on campus. The building was cleared, and it was reported that the suspicious person was unfounded, Flinchum said. After police searched Cho's room in Harper Hall on Tuesday, writing samples were found, but they do not express any threatening intentions or criminal activity, Flinchum said. No official report was filed. No medication was found in the room either. The crime scene is wrapping up, possibly as early as today, said Virginia State Police Superintendent Col. Steven Flaherty, who also confirmed that authorities have talked to Cho's roommates. Neither of the two women who

Family emigrates to Centreville. Would eventually enroll and graduate from Westfield High School. Parents owned a dry cleaning business. Sister graduated from Princeton with an economics degree in 2004. Virginia Tech Police recieve complaints from two female students that Cho is stalking them. Cho is admitted to Carilion St. Alban's Behavioral Health Center in Radford. Admitted under a temporary detention order, under which the admitted is "mentally ill and in need of hospitalization or treatment" and "an imminent danger to himself or others." He is released shortly thereafter.


Yesterday afternoon NBC released a "media manifesto" sent to them by Cho.

were targeted were victims of Monday's shootings. The investigation is now an examination of evidence obtained from the scene. Police are still identifying victims by collecting information. They are speeding the process along, Flaherty said. Hincker stated that the Board of Visitors is not meeting to discuss later school closures. Class will continue on Monday and graduation commencements are still scheduled for May 11. Each college will be determining how to treat missed classes and final exams. The spring football game that was scheduled for this Saturday will be canceled. Steger is either in the process of meeting with the parents of victims or has already met with them, Hincker said. No other incidents since 2005 involving Cho are known to the police besides the Norris Hall shooting. There is still no connection between the shooting incident where a male resident advisor was killed in West Ambler-Johnston Hall and the shootings in Norris besides that one of the two firearms were used in both incidents. Funeral services for Librescu have been held in New York.

Giovanni remembers troubled class with Cho


Virginia Tech Distinguished Professor Nikki Giovanni was one of the professors who had Cho Seung-Hui, the 23-year-old gunman of Monday's shootings on the Virginia Tech campus, in her class. Giovanni stated that Cho, who was in her 9:30 a.m. Intro to Creative Writing Poetry class, was a disturbance, and that he had written "creepy" poetry. "He always wore a cap and sunglasses and I would always ask him to take them off in class," Giovanni said. Giovanni mentioned that cap and sunglasses incident became a morning ritual, with her always beginning class with requesting for him to remove the articles. She said he would always take his time in doing so. "I thought he was just a bully," she said. "It took the energy out of the class." Giovanni said that students began to feel uncomfortable after he snuck photographs of them in class with the camera on his cell phone. She confronted Cho about his actions, and he ceased. She went on to say that during poetry readings that she and many of the students in class were uneasy about the topics he wrote about. Some of these topics included body parts and "pink panties." Giovanni believes that Cho was writing about these topics on purpose to annoy, intimidate and offend students in the class. "I asked for his revision but he turned in the same poem," she said. This went on three times. After this situation, Giovanni confronted Cho trying to handle the matter herself about his presence in the class, telling him that she was wasting his time, and that he should consider transferring classes. However, Cho refused to transfer classes. Following the refusal Giovanni wrote a letter to the department stating what he was doing and threatened resignation if the student was not removed from her class. "I just did what I felt I had to do," she said. "I didn't think of him as violent, but as disruptive. I couldn't let him control the classroom." Lucinda Roy, the head of the English Department at the time and director of the creative writing program, removed Cho from the class and placed him into an independent-study-type program. Fred D' guiar, a professor in the English department was A involved in helping Roy with this. Cho remained on the roll for the class and Giovanni is documented as the official professor; however, it was Roy who assigned him grades. Giovanni repeatedly stated that she is proud to be part of the "Hokie Nation" and that the "Hokie Nation" has stood tall. She believes that the incidents could not be prevented and that the community should be interested in the welfare of the families, not the shooter. "I'm just a poet," she said. "I could not be prouder of being part of the Hokie Nation."

Cho mails NBC news 43 photographs, 27 videos, one audio clip and a 1,800-word manifesto. Package arrives at NBC on Wednesday due to several errors in the address. NBC turns over contents to federal authorities while investigating its copy of the material. Blacksburg mail clerk told authorities that only one package was mailed.

Cho begins firing inside Norris Hall. Approximately 9:45 Police respond to Norris Hall where they find the doors barricaded. Once inside, the gunshots stop and the gunman is found dead. 9:55 a.m. Virginia Tech notifies the community of the scene in Norris Hall.

Thursday, April 19, 2007

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Kaine appoints independent board for review


Governor Kaine announced yesterday in an interview that he has appointed retired Superintendent of Virginia State Police Lt. Colonel Gerald Massengill to lead an independent committee review board on an investigation of Virginia Tech's handling of Monday's shootings. The idea of the committee review board came up in a conversation between Governor Kaine and Tech president Charles Steger. "Charlie has been acting as a very, very good president," Kaine said. Massengill worked for the Virginia State Police for 37 years, and Governor Kaine feels will bring a large amount of expertise to the committee board. Massengill's broad base of knowledge involved with the enforcement of Commonwealth law began in Dinwiddie County, and was later appointed Superintendent of the Virginia State Police by former Governor Jim Gilmore in 2000. Massengill served this position until his retirement on Oct. 1, 2003. Massengill was in the role of superintendent during both the Sept. 11 attacks on the Pentagon and the sniper attacks, which plagued northern Virginia in October 2002. While Massengill has been officially retired from his post with the police for almost four years, his activity within the Commonwealth has been extensive, and has participated on many advisory boards for different state organizations and privately endorsed ones as well. He was appointed by the Chairman of the Virginia State Crime Commission, Ken Stolle, to the Task Force on Sex Offenders in 2005. He also participated as the interim director of the Virginia Department of Gaming and Inland Fisheries until Nov. 1, 2006. And also currently sits on the Executive Council for "Virginian's for Better Transportation," an advocacy group aimed at improving the funding for the department of highways and transportation, and safety measures. This new post-action advisory board which Governor Kaine will be appointing one by one in the near future, will look to act as ombudsmen for Tech's actions concerning the massacre. Governor Kaine is positive the questions the students, and families of the victims are all relevant given the drastic manner in which the massacre occurred. "The students are acting appropriately to the situation," Governor Kaine said. "But I know the strong sense of community spirit won't let these questions divide this student body." "This kind of event could happen anywhere," he said, "On any campus, and there has been an innocence taken away from the students." "But the positive values, and academic tradition of this university will help the community stay strong, and keep this university attracting students," Kaine said. The Governor mentioned how his son is a junior in high school and Tech was one of the universities he was interested in. But Kaine emphasized his support of the university, "This is a wonderful place." Kaine noted the power of the student body, which was exemplified with the candlelight vigil organized by students of the university. "The vigil was very emotional," Kaine said. "It was a powerful thing." Yesterday the Governor, and first lady of the commonwealth Anne Holton, visited with families and students in local Blacksburg area hospitals who were in the events of Monday.


Gov. Tim Kaine visits with family members of victims at Montgomery Regional Hospital

Gun culture shapes heritage English department copes


Tense from the events on campus, Virginia Tech junior Cody Wilder sought release Wednesday morning by going to the Blacksburg Shooting Range -- where he and his father took a .22-caliber rifle for target practice. While Monday's massacre has made many shudder at the thought of firearms, for some -- especially in this part of the country -- it has not. In Virginia, the culture of gun ownership dates to colonial times, and the right to bear arms is considered a bedrock individual freedom -- fiercely protected by native son Patrick Henry during the founding of the republic and today by many Democratic and Republican lawmakers. "I don't know if you can find many states who had two candidates for U.S. Senate with an `A' rating from the National Rifle Association," said Jessica Smith, spokeswoman for Sen. James Webb, an avid gun owner and Democrat. In the days since Monday's shootings, more expressions of support for gun ownership have been evident on this shattered campus than have calls for stricter controls. On Wednesday, as mourners left orchids and white roses at a memorial marked by 32 stones on the campus' central Drill Field, Scott Heldreth, a member of the religious organization "Operation Save America," urged the crowd to realize "the issue isn't guns, it's sin." Speaking over a microphone, Heldreth said it "wouldn't matter if you got rid of all the guns." Instead, he said, events like the Columbine and Virginia Tech shootings are a result of the deteriorating morality of society. "It's a constitutional right our founding fathers (created)," he said. "It wasn't my decision. It was theirs." But the question of controlling possession of firearms was a hot topic at Virginia Tech last year, when the state legislature was debating a law that would have overturned campus regulations prohibiting firearms on campus. The bill was written in response to a dispute over a Virginia Tech student who was disciplined for bringing a firearm onto campus even though it was properly purchased and licensed. The bill eventually failed, but C. Todd Gilbert, the Virginia delegate who championed it, said the point was not to encourage students to tote guns but to restrict universities from infringing on rights granted by the Legislature. "I'm one of those people who believes that it's not the law-abiding citizen who goes through the background checks that we need to worry about," Gilbert said. "Safety and security are not threatened by people lawfully carrying firearms." Virginia gun ownership rules are relatively liberal, with most adults able to purchase firearms as long as they declare that they have not committed a felony or been involuntarily admitted to a mental hospital. A permit is needed only to carry a concealed firearm. Whether and how the shootings at Virginia Tech play into debates over gun control both here and in the rest of the nation remains to be seen. But when the time comes to debate the tragedy's affect on the right to bear arms, it's likely that Virginia will take few cues from the rest of the nation. "We're celebrating our 400th anniversary in Virginia this year and we have a unique history about our rights and how our rights were achieved," Gilbert said. " majority of A Virginians still believe that the right to bear arms is an individual right that the government should have a limited ability to infringe on." And for many, gun ownership is a natural part of life. At the firing range outside Blacksburg on Wednesday, as Wilder and his father fired at distant orange targets, the sound of gunfire crackled in the calm morning air. Virginians do not need any more restrictions on gun possession, Wilder said: "I just think they need to enforce what laws are already there." The way Cody's father, Duane Wilder, sees it, Virginia encompasses two cultures: an urban culture where guns are viewed as weapons used in violent crime and a rural one in which guns are seen as instruments of sport. Perhaps as a result, father and son agreed that Virginia Tech's ban on guns should remain in place. But at least some interest groups feel differently. Shortly after the shootings, a pro-gun rights group called the Virginia Citizens Defense League issued a statement on its Web site arguing that "if just one of those victims had been armed, this most probably would have turned out very differently." "The General Assembly turned a deaf ear to allowing college and university students to be able to protect themselves, and here we are today," the group said. Gov. Tim Kaine, a Virginia Democrat who supports the right to gun ownership, exploded in indignation during a news conference when asked about that statement. "People who want to take this within 24 hours of the event and make it their political hobbyhorse to ride, I have got nothing but loathing for them," Kaine said. Still, gun-control advocates argue that they have made headway in recent years, in part because of shifting demographics. Virginia has seen enormous population growth in its suburbs and exurbs, particularly those in the northern part of the state ringing Washington, D.C. The closer people live to big cities, the more they tend to support restrictions on gun ownership.

with tragedy on campus


The English department at Virginia Tech has agreed to meet as a single group tomorrow at 11 a.m. Two professors under the direction of Carolyn Rude, head of the English department, agreed on a single statement. "We are extremely proud of the action Rude has taken," They said. "We are very supportive of her efforts. She has been specifically wonderful ... We are also very proud of Nikki (Giovanni) and that she rallied people in exactly the appropriate manner. She got all of our attention." Virginia Fowler, the director of literature and culture for the English department, and colleague of Nikki Giovanni, was also very proud of everyone's recent efforts, especially Giovanni. "Nikki's poem was amazing," Fowler said. "It was very, very powerful, and gave us forward looking imagery." "Everyone was filled with a lot of emotions, and she allowed our release of that emotion. She filled us all with such a positive energy. It was just amazing," Fowler said. One teacher specifically today, was very moved by all the shows of concern she has been receiving of support from her colleagues from around the world. And that teacher is Katherine Graham, who had Cho Seung-Hui in her children's literature class in the fall of 2005. "The main thing I think everyone is feeling right now is devastation," Graham said. Graham had no comment on Cho as a former student of hers. "We are all moved by the shows of concern," Graham said. "People are calling me to learn of my personal safety, to make sure I'm alright; I appreciate all of that." "Even other English departments from other universities are posting condolences, thoughts, and prayers to us," Graham said. An organization to which graham is a subscriber, The Children's Literature Association, also offered its regrets to Graham on its website. And being an expert in children's lit, she understands the roles parents have to take in shaping their kids into adults. "Most people's first job is to be a parent," Graham said. " And parents send their kids away to these schools hoping that they have made the right choice, that their children will learn, and be safe. But no ever thinks it could happen here, realistically."

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Thursday, April 19, 2007

Other universities join Tech in remembrance of fallen students

CHARLES R. BARRINEAU CT Associate Sports Editor

Vigils have been held on many campuses nationwide in observance of the shootings on the Virginia Tech campus Monday. One such vigil was held at in-state neighbor, University of Virginia. A candlelight ceremony was held at the Amphitheater. "It was actually pretty moving," said UVa student Stephen Eaton. "I knew there were going to be a lot of people that were going to show up to it, but there was still a lot more than I thought there was going to be. I would say there was close to 10,000." "It was just touching seeing everybody," Eaton said. "I actually saw our football players up on the side. There were a lot of athletes there. All sorts of people were there, all sorts of students. There were a lot of professors there." Demonstrations thus far have not been limited to universities in the Commonwealth. Students in Athens, at the University of Georgia, had vigils as well. " bunch of religious organizations on campus had vigils (Tuesday)," A said UGA sophomore Sanna Barrineau. "I'm not many there were." The UGA community has been especially touched by this event, given that one of its alumni is among the deceased. Jamie Bishop received both a bachelor's and master's degree from the school prior to being employed at Virginia Tech as an instructor of foreign languages of literature, specializing in German. "It was interesting because there much bigger reaction ... after that appeared in the paper," Barrineau said. "We were somehow connected to that. I think everyone else was more or less talking about it ... A couple days later was when people were more like `Oh my God, this is really horrible because this person from Georgia was killed.'"

Impromptu vigils also occurred at various college campuses across the nation. One occurred Monday evening at Washington University in St. Louis. "It was sort of a very powerful (image)," said Washington University student and Student Life staff member Sam Guzik. "Before it started, they distributed 32 or 33 roses and after a few people had spoken they laid those in front of the candles they had set out." Not only was there an impromptu vigil Monday evening at Washington University, there was a more organized event Tuesday evening as well. Campuses across America have already carried out vigils this week while others continue to plan their own memorials and vigils scheduled for the remainder of the week. Georgetown University held a vigil Tuesday night in St. William's Chapel where lit candles were placed on the altar to form a glowing "VT." The University of Southern California's Office of Religious Life is sponsoring an interfaith ceremony today where the names Monday's victims will be read. Even at a school that has had a lot to celebrate over the last several months, a somber mood has prevailed over the last few days. "It hit me hard, just knowing that it could've happened to anyone at any time," said University of Florida student and writer for The Independent Florida Alligator Erin Ehrlich. "There were 1,200 people at UF, who, most of them, had no connection with anybody at Virginia Tech, but just today are showing their support. And many of them were still crying, because we all feel so connected right now just because we lost students. It could've been any of us." The candlelight ceremony in Gainesville was moved inside due to weather conditions. The event included the university gospel choir and a non-denominational prayer. Florida State University held their vigil last night in front of Landis Hall. Students gathered with candles in front of a wall bearing the names of the victims on paper angels.


University of Florida students gathered in droves yesterday to pay tribute to the 32 Tech students killed on Monday.

Colorado State University experiences morning scare on campus


Just days after the Virginia Tech massacre of April 16, the students of Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colo., awoke today to learn of their own campus emergency. The event shocked some students worried about the safety of their campus after watching the developments unfold concerning the massacre at Virginia Tech. "It's weird to have it strike so close to home," Tom Phelan, a sophomore equine science major said. "You never think this could hit your campus." Last night at 4:04 a.m., The Colorado State University police department received a 911 call from a distressed student of the Edwards resident hall explaining a suspicious man was running rampant on the roof. An anonymous resident adviser in Edwards Hall described the events to the Collegiate Times. "Apparently (an individual) climbed on top of the roof of our dorm and threatened to commit suicide," the RA said. "He wasn't a CSU student, but I heard he had arrived on campus because he was fleeing from the scene of a house he attempted to break and enter into. He wanted to kill himself than rather be caught." After the recent tragic events on the Virginia Tech campus, unfortunate thoughts of a more drastic devastation occurring at her own university were hard to comprehend. "I'm still trying to deal with it happening," the RA said. "I'm still processing the information." "It's a shame it had to happen so quickly after the tragedy at Virginia Tech," Phelan said. "But I was glad to see the fast response from CSUPD and Fort Collins." The CSU police department responded to the event in two minutes. "The Campus police received the call at 4:04 a.m. and were on the scene at 4:06 a.m.," University Relations Officer Brad Bohlander stated. In an official document sent to all members of the university community the Campus Police Chief Yarbrough stated the following: "Charles Holland was seen on the roof of Edwards Hall a student residence on the main Colorado State University campus. The police began negotiating with the individual immediately and managed the situation until the individual was arrested at 6:14 a.m." "The man was not armed ... However, to ensure safety, the area was secured and remained in police control until Holland was arrested. In addition to CSUPD, Fort Collins police negotiators were called to the scene and Poudre Fire Authority and Poudre Valley Hospital ambulances." Bohlander described how about 100 students on the north east side of the dorm, where the assailant was located, were awoken and moved to the basement of Edwards. Yarbrough described that as a further precaution all the neighboring dorms surrounding Edwards Hall were notified and put on a lockdown status. "All entrances into Edwards and surrounding halls were locked down so no one could enter," Yarbrough said. "And staff was stationed at all doors to alert students of the situation wishing to leave. Surrounding roads and entrances onto campus were also blocked." "The campus police department were on the roof with the assailant by 4:11 a.m., five minutes after they arrived on the scene," Bohlander said. "The police isolated Holland to one part of the roof, and after two hours of negotiating, the suspect voluntarily surrendered and was arrested," Bohlander said. Students were returned to their rooms two hours after they were forced to leave. "As of 6:40 a.m. residents of Edwards Hall were cleared to return to their rooms," Yarbrough stated. "This student's actions are exactly what police rely on to help protect our campus community," Yarbrough said. "It is important for everyone in our community to take initiative in reporting anything that seems our of the ordinary, or suspicious, to the police. We all play a role in campus safety." The Colorado State campus is significantly smaller than Virginia Tech's 2,600 acre land mass; it only composes one block of the 134,000 person city. But as Bohlander pointed out, there isn't much traffic on the campus at four in the morning, however, he said the Colorado State police department average response time is two to four minutes. However, the event still shocked some students, worried about the safety of their campus after watching the developments unfold concerning the massacre at Virginia Tech. "It's weird to have it strike so close to home," Phelan said. "You never think this could hit your campus." When asked about security issues on campus, Phelan noted the heightened awareness on campus the authorities were demonstrating. "There were tons of extra police," Phelan said. "You can't go anywhere without seeing them." The events of the early morning occurred the day of Colorado State's "I Love CSU Day," a campus-wide university pride event. "While everyone was wearing their green and gold today," Bohlander said, "Our hearts were with (Tech) during our campus wide vigil that was held at noon our time. My eyes just tear up thinking about how amazing it was." The assailant arrested will face 2nd degree trespassing charges by the Colorado State Police Department. But these recent charges are not the first for Charles Holland. His rap sheet, includes: robbery, kidnapping, aggravated assault, harassment, burglary and felony menacing. The Fort Collins police will handle the outstanding warrant for Holland concerning these out of state counts.

Thursday, April 19, 2007

page 5


Chris Baumert guest columnist


Should we start gun control discussion anew? Even our president was quick to point out his political sympathy for the Second Amendment in his immediate responsorial speech. As a directly impacted Virginia Tech family member, however, I fail to see a single benefit in hastily pinpointing a social illness as a causation of the day's events. No amount of politicizing and finger-pointing can brighten the blackness of what transpired. A lone gunman fired, and he killed. Among the deceased was Dr. G.V. Loganathan, a frequent recipient of teaching awards and of students' smiles in the hallway. I will forever remember his excitable, thickly-accented manner of incorporating Star Trek's Mr. Spock into engineering problems when I think of fluid mechanics. Two of my close friends were more fortunate; they will suffer only minor physical scars as reminders of the day's events. The community's emotional scars, however, will linger long after their wounds heal. A day before the shootings, my sister visited Virginia Tech's pristine mountain campus and proclaimed it her college of choice. The large-school educational opportunities it afforded in a charming small-town setting were perfect for her, she declared. Yet the next morning, after she had excitedly donned her Tech sweatshirt in expectation of meeting warm congratulations from her classmates, she instead met a waterfall of media speculation concerning her newly chosen institution

Editorial Board: Amie Steele, Joe Kendall, Bobby Bowman, Laurel Colella, Joey Bernardo

Coming to terms with profound loss and tragedy

that seemed to funnel into one important question: How could we have allowed this to happen? Blacksburg is no different from the other countless towns in the United States that have experienced tragic loss, but the misfortune of the event lies in the fact that it is now the most recent of all losses in American history. As such, it will be subject to the generalizations and gossip that spring from the immediacy of news. However, in an age of instantaneous media coverage, it is all the more imperative that we consider when and to whom we are asking questions of an ideological nature. Blacksburg is not Washington, D.C., nor should it ever be made to answer the questions posed there. Like other members of the Virginia Tech community, I grieve. I grieve, but I also hope. I have lost acquaintances and professors in the shootings, but I have also been lucky enough to have friends who will soon come home from the hospital. They will recover, and I will recover, and I hope the nation will join us in remembering that one idea that should outshine all others: the idea of community. My sister will be one of the first to declare her intent not to let a random act of violence tarnish her ideal Blacksburg community. Monday's loss is not a defeat; we will come together as Virginia Tech alumni, students, and faculty with the local and international community we as Virginia Tech Hokies affect. I will never stop being proud to be a Hokie.

Having just graduated from Virginia Tech in December, I have known just about every emotion a college student can encounter, but Monday's mass shootings have added one more emotion to a list I thought I had completed along with my bachelor's degree: a sense of loss. Blacksburg, is a stranger to losing; its alumni refuse to forget its charm, its sports teams find pride in success, and its students even sometimes find it difficult to cross the stage as I did just a few short months ago. Blacksburg is a town that gives birth to success; it is a community that embraces its children and smiles as it watches them grow, change and affect change. It was my home for the better part of four years, and as reports continue to trickle in from friends and acquaintances, I have never felt more that it is truly an extended family in the guise of a rural college town. Monday, however, that family experienced a loss that is profound and unmatched. Not only has it lost several students, faculty and staff to an incomprehensible tragedy, but it has also had to face the scrutiny of an international media cross-examination and experience the pain of questions that it cannot and may never be able to answer. Was emergency response fast enough?

Letters to the Editor

Prayers for Virginia Tech

To the students and faculty at Virginia Tech University: I am writing this letter to you in hopes that my words may bring you some comfort, much the way your support brought my family comfort in the aftermath of my brother's untimely passing in March of 2001. (Michael C. Ziegler, Class of 2001) The two events are vastly different, of course. But as time passes, I have learned, there will be many similarities. When the dust begins to settle out of the horrific event you have just shared, you will continue to ask questions. As time goes by, certain memories will not be able to be erased from your minds. My hope and advice is for you to focus on the good that will come from this infamous event. That may sound silly and maybe impossible to some, but it is there. The healing process has already begun for many. We at home can see the images of students gathering together, hugging, praying and leaning on each other for emotional support. It brings back a wave of images that have come burning back from the depths of my memories when I traveled to Blacksburg for my brother's memorial service. Students that I had never met, went out of their ways to talk with me and convey their thoughts and feelings, on how even though they were just classmates of my brother, his passing had an impact on their lives and made them reevaluate things in their own lives. I can also recall the faculty and staff members who also went out of their way to see if there was anything that could be done to help. To this day, I still correspond with Dr. Brian Kleiner, one of Mike's former professors. Then, there was the graduation ceremony that took place about a month later. During the commencement, the university posthumously awarded Mike his degree and presented it to our family. That was a moment when the true greatness of your school shown at its brightest, because during that presentation, all of his classmates stood silently in his honor. It will always stand as a very positive memory in light of a very heartbreaking event for my family. There are no good answers for this awful tragedy, only the comfort in knowing that time does eventually heal all wounds. I hope that you are able to ultimately focus on the good that comes from this event and allow it to solidify your belief that in times like these, the human spirit will triumph in the darkest of hours. Lastly, I wanted to let you know that there are thousands, if not millions of people like myself, who are hurting with you. I hurt for the school that my brother loved very much, and for the school that loved him back when we needed it the most. May God Bless You All. Bill Ziegler Pittsburgh, PA and uncommon episodes like this is illogical and won't solve anything; it's because I'm worried Tech will never be the same place again, won't offer the same level of education it used to. If Virginia Tech becomes controlled by fear, like the rest of the nation and the world about all "terrorist" activities, then it will no longer be the great learning environment it once was. If this leads to heightened security and puts strict restrictions on the beautiful freedoms we now have, the educational value of Tech will be diminished. I'm not afraid of gunmen, but I am afraid that many of us might be, and might try to change the way Tech is run. If we do this, put up metal detectors at all building entrances, and have more police officers patrolling the grounds, then Tech will lose the strong character it has always had. If those of us who have survived this crime live in fear from this day forward, become scared and weak, then the gunman didn't just kill 32 of our friends and family, he has killed us as well, and the spirit of Virginia Tech. We cannot let his actions cause more damage than they already have. Those who flew planes into the Twin Towers weren't interested in killing a couple thousand people; they were interested in transforming those who survive into frightened, pitiful creatures. We must not be shaken. Time must be taken to heal the wounds caused by these events, but we must look ahead now and promise that once we have healed and we are back on our feet we will go on loving the education and environment at Virginia Tech just as we always did. We must always remember these events, and learn from them, but we cannot let them change us. Alex Chapple Sophomore, English corny but I do want to take time to remind everyone, especially the current suffering students, of what the Pylons say: Loyalty. Continue to keep an attitude of faithfulness, affection and devoted attachment to your entire campus family, from fellow students to faculty and administrators-for the short time you are on campus, you are all family. Honor. I'm sure I do not need to tell you to respect the fallen but I do hope to encourage you to respect each other, respect authorities, and respect the truth-the slow, contemplative, revelation of truth. Remember too, Honor is a privilege remember always you had the honor of knowing your fallen friends, and have had the honor of attending one of the premier institutions of higher learning. Never let those memories be sad or bitter. Leadership. Show the world what it means to be a Hokie-Lead the way toward recovery and healing with elegance, and grace. Sacrifice. Do not question why these innocent had to be sacrificedthat is simply beyond all human comprehension, but instead sacrifice your need for hatred. Brotherhood. I am surprised at my connection to all of your hearts with my own grief. Remember you are part of a brotherhood that extends far beyond Blacksburg. Reach out as you need it. Your brothers and sisters will be there. Service. Serve each other; serve your school; serve your God. In these things you will find peace and love. Duty. Remember your duty to yourselves-take time to heal. Remember your duty to your education. When you can, get back to the books and show them that a Virginia Tech graduate is one to be reckoned with. Remember your duty to represent Virginia Tech respectfully and with integrity. I want to leave you with the memory of another community of mourners. They are striking because in this world of blame and lawsuits and media circuses, they led with honor and sacrifice and brotherhood. I am talking about the Amish community whose children were massacred in their school haven. Remember what they did? As a whole, this introverted community forgave the shooter -- can you just imagine? Be assured that they are grieving no less -- that they have no more sense of closure - than victims of other crimes. However, they have found a healthy peace -- this is my wish for you. My prayers are in Blacksburg (which was my second hometown too) and with all those that are hurting across the country and the globe. Here we go Hokies -- We will prevail -- We are ALL Virginia Tech! Martha (Bailey) Shields Germantown, MD



Blacksburg tragedy shocks students and community

I find myself in a state of shock, and so many emotions are coming to the surface that I can't distinguish one from another. I'm left feeling empty and I believe many of us feel this way. We are searching for emotion so we can begin to make sense of what has happened, but as we attempt to figure this out we must stay strong and united to avoid despair. I worry many people have lost faith in humanity or that their ability to trust was damaged. However, we must step back to see that in the face of the worst side of humanity, the best is allowed to blossom. The most impressive human traits push through, and we choose love in response to hate. We cherish life in the face of death. People say there are no words, but there are always words. We just haven't found them yet. There is no rush; we have time. This is a situation that above all else inspires confusion. There is no emotion to comprehensively encapsulate what we are going through. Our world has been turned upside-down and shaken. Our trust has been betrayed and our friends have been killed. Those who seemed constant and reliable parts of our lives have disappeared, and we haven't had a chance to reconcile this yet. There is no student here who will not be grieving the death of a friend or helping others through their grief. We can no longer be strangers; we must be friends if we are to get through this. What has happened to Virginia Tech is an unprecedented tragedy. We as a school will never be the same. However, in our time of need we must accept the love around us. We must not forget as we mourn that life is beautiful and worth cherishing. We must not question that Virginia Tech is strong and resilient and that we will rise from our grief and overcome. We are Hokies and we are strong, and this too shall pass. Michael Newman, Junior, English

University should not take the blame

Virginia Tech is facing excruciating grief and tragedy. In the aftermath of Monday's events, the pain is still very much raw and real. Cho Seung-Hui selfishly took the lives of thirty-two innocent victims and injured a number of others, before taking his own. His actions have inflicted unimaginable pain and grief on so many, and the outcome of Monday's events is no one's fault but his own. In the wake of such a tragedy, we are impressed by how our community has banded together in such solidarity to show the world that we are Virginia Tech, and we will overcome this. So many of us are left with unanswered questions about the events that took place on that fateful day. When the pain gets intense, when we struggle with the reality of what has happened to our innocent college campus, so many people try to place blame. When a tragedy penetrates the core of our campus, someone needs to take responsibility. President Charles Steger's reaction time, the prevalence of violence in the mass media; so many are quick to blame. But these excuses are just that; excuses for the behavior of a mentally deranged 23-year-old, who took out his anger and hatred in a classroom of innocent victims. The administration of Virginia Tech cares first and foremost for the safety of its students. Any decisions made on that fateful Monday were made for what they believed to be our well-being. We don't look to Steger with feelings of disappointment and abandonment, but rather, we look to a man, struggling to come to terms with loss of so many innocent lives, just as the rest of us are. We cannot look to him to take the blame for a rampant killer. In wake of the Virginia Tech tragedy, the Summit on Media Violence took place in Indianapolis on Tuesday, where key stakeholders discussed the trends of emerging violence in the media on adolescents and teenagers. According to Newswire, Bart Peterson, mayor of Indianapolis said, "certainly a number of factors contribute to these disturbing trends, but a prominent concern that is increasingly capturing the attention of both researchers and policymakers is the heightened exposure of children to graphic violence in video games, television, movies, and music." While these trends are more than likely verifiable, they still do not account for the actions of a madman, whose sole purpose was to kill and inflict pain. While violence in the media is undeniably prevalent it is something we all face and must deal with. Hostility in movies, music and television does not make someone kill. Cho Seung-Hui made his own decisions -- he outlined his purpose and knew his goal. To blame this heartbreaking tragedy on anyone but Cho Seung-Hui is an insult. He is responsible; he is at fault, he is to blame. No one else is to blame for the loss of 32 beautiful lives.

Blacksburg tragedy breaks hearts

My heart aches for the senseless and mind-numbing loss in Blacksburg. Given that I'm suffering so badly even across a complete degree of separation (I lived in West Ambler Johnston years ago, spent countless hours in Norris, and took classes from Dr Loganathan), I can't fathom the shock on campus, let alone for the families, friends, and community members of the victims-these dear precious people were shining lights in others' lives and now they have been extinguished! Additionally, I cannot help but feel devastated that this one tortured individual has stained not only my memory but also the stellar reputation of my alma mater! Please, please, please-everyone has the power to NOT allow this to be Tech's legacy! Some will find this

We all need time to heal

One of the worst parts about all this is the effect it will have on Virginia Tech's image. I can't really blame people who are applying for colleges if they take Tech off of their lists now, because I probably would have also. It's not because I am afraid of a gunman, I know fearing bizarre

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page 6

Thursday, April 19, 2007

Blacksburg residents feared for those on campus


While students, faculty and staff were locked down in buildings across campus, residents were left in shock when various TV channels flashed breaking news across their screens, informing them of the tragedy that had occurred at Virginia Tech on Monday morning. "I was home watching the news as I usually do in the mornings," said Jennifer Mullin, resident of Blacksburg for eight years. She said that she felt safe at home, but was scared for all the people on campus. The anxiety hit later in the morning and in the afternoon though, as the death count jumped exponentially. "It was more of a shock," she said. She knew three of the people on the confirmed deceased list, and two of those were graduate students with whom she had worked. Yesterday, she stayed off campus for the security because it would be very serious and potentially dangerous there. "I thought, if I didn't need to be there, then I wouldn't go," said Mullin. The hair stylists at Hokie Hair heard the wail of police and ambulance sirens that morning, but thought it was a car accident and didn't think much more of it. "We were here and heard of the actual shootings on a news report on TV," said Karina East, stylist at Hokie Hair and resident of Radford. " first I didn't feel any danger," East said. "It seemed like it was just within the At campus, and I didn't feel like anything was going to happen here." At the Corporate Research Center, Dale Kipp, resident of Blacksburg for 12 years, said that the number of police and ambulance sirens was what alerted him to the fact that something was wrong. He and his officemates immediately went to the Tech website to see what was happening. "I felt secure where I was," Kipp said. "We were probably two miles away with lots of open areas from where the shootings occurred and didn't feel we were in much danger." Others heard of the shootings from their loved ones. "My husband works as an electric engineer researcher for Tech," said Kiera Cass, resident of Blacksburg for four years and elementary school substitute teacher. "He called me from Whittemore to tell me what happened and to let me know where he was." She said that the first thing she did was immediately try to call and contact as many people as she could. Most of her friends are students. "I couldn't really think of my own safety, just of those on campus where it was happening," said Cass. Monday night, Cass said she felt like she had to do something. She wrote the words "Need someone to talk to? I'll listen. (Free hugs)." On Monday morning and in the evening after the convocation, she was on the corner of College Ave. and Main St. sitting on a bench, waiting to help anyone who needed her. She came back again on Tuesday morning at 10:30 a.m. "I wanted to do something kind," Cass said. " After tragedy, you need kindness."


Gail Senatore, a sophomore in agriculture science, pins a ribbon on her mother, Barbara, while shopping at the Campus Emporium.

Austin Cloyd was always smiling. Her friends saw her as a happy, go-lucky girl. Monday's shootings left Cloyd dead, as she was one of the victims in the French class held in Norris Hall. "We all have our little angels and Austin's definitely ours," said Danielle Gully, a freshman at New River Community College and one of Cloyd's friends from high school. Her senior year, Cloyd transferred to Blacksburg High School, where she quickly made friends. Talmadge Flinchum, a freshman business major at Bridgewater College also graduated from Blacksburg with Cloyd last spring and said she may have seemed shy at first, but she was always easy to talk to and kind to everyone. "She was one of those people that was always reliable. You knew you could always count on her," Flinchum said. Gully said she was liked by everyone she met. "I remember the first night I met her. We went out to dinner with a group of friends and she came along. She fit right in with us and it was like she'd known us forever," she said. Gully said aside from Cloyd's friendly personality, she will also be remembered for her intelligence. A freshman international studies and French double

Friends remember warm personality Universities try to monitor students' mental health

ELLEN BILTZ CT Senior Reporter

major, Cloyd was fluent in French, was a member of multiple honor societies in high school and graduated with honors. She also played for the varsity basketball team and Gully said all of her teammates had come to the vigil Tuesday night in remembrance. Flinchum and Gully said the shootings on Monday were extremely hard, not only on Virginia Tech, but the whole Blacksburg community. "People hear about it and tell us how it hits so close to home, but for us, this is home," said Gully who grew up down the street from Flinchum. The friends said the death is sinking in with them, but the whole experience still seams ultimately surreal. "Everything is just so unbelievable. I've been getting calls from across the nation from people just checking in," Flinchum said. Gully said it took some time for them to realize they had lost a friend in the shooting. Monday night, she and Flinchum had exchanged phone calls when they heard she was missing and again when they heard she was in critical condition. "I found out (she died) right after the convocation. I went to give a friend a hug and they said, `did you hear about Austin?' And I said I'd heard she was hurt and then I found out she had actually died. I couldn't even believe it at first. I'd never had a friend die before," Gully said. Flinchum said many of their friends returned from their first years of college to spend the week at home and mourn the death of their friend together. "It's sad to have to come back for something like this," he said.


For university administrators, it is an alarmingly familiar story: A student's roommates find him to be sullen and uncommunicative. He writes violent stories in his English class that alarm his instructor. He is accused of harassing a female student. Do campus officials see the pattern of behavior? And if they identify a student who poses a threat to others, what can they do? In short, the answer depends on the campus. As U.S. universities deal with a surge in mental health problems among students, some campuses have taken an aggressive approach in how they monitor problem behavior and intervene in the lives of students who might pose a danger to themselves or others. With counseling centers at many universities understaffed and swamped by students seeking help, some schools urge students and faculty to be more active in reporting students who show signs of depression or display aberrant behavior. "What we've tried to establish is an early warning system where we gather information about students who are in difficulty," said Michael Young, University of California, Santa Barbara vice chancellor for student affairs and co-chairman of a UC committee that examined mental health issues systemwide. "It's proven from our point of view, the earlier you can identity a problem and respond appropriately, the better off the campus is," said Young. At Virginia Tech, where student Cho Seung-Hui is believed to have killed 32 people and himself, officials saw warning signs as early as 2005. That year, after Cho was accused of stalking two young women, he was briefly hospitalized for psychiatric evaluation. His roommates found him to be withdrawn. Later, the violent plays he wrote for his creative writing class disturbed fellow students and his professor. But for universities, putting such pieces together and knowing when a student is nearing a crisis can be a daunting task. "You won't stop every suicide, you won't stop every homicide, but you can have a significant effect," Young said. "It's better to over-respond and overreact than to under-respond and under-react." Young said the university, with an enrollment of 20,000, collects information on troubled students from all over campus, creating a clearinghouse that allows officials to spot links between unusual activities or behaviors. UC Santa Barbara suffered its own tragedy in 2001 when student David

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Newman Library is hiring students to fill temporary positions to assist with end of semester projects. Duties will include sorting and shelving library material. You must be available to work Thursday, May 10th, Friday, May 11th, and Monday thru Friday, May 14th thru May 18th. Two shifts are available: a 10am-1pm shift and a 2pm-5pm shift. Applicants may apply to work one or both shifts per day. To be eligible, you must be enrolled as a VT student and provide documents proving employment eligibility. Applications will be available Monday, April 23rd thru Thursday, April 26th. Apply at the Dean's office, 6th floor, Newman Library, 8am-5pm.


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Attias drove his car into a crowd of pedestrians, killing four. After the crash he raged that he was the "angel of death." A judge found him guilty of seconddegree murder, ruled him insane and committed him indefinitely to a mental hospital. At smaller universities, where students often have smaller classes, more contact with faculty and a more intimate setting, there is less chance of problems going unnoticed, officials say. At Pepperdine University, for example, with about 4,000 students at its Malibu campus, administrators say there is a culture of students supporting one another. "When someone faces difficulties or extraordinary challenges, it is likely more than one person will ask if they are OK," Pepperdine spokesman Jerry Derloshon said. "In the aftermath of the tragedy that took place at Virginia Tech, it has become obvious that it is important that we all try to help each other out." But how to balance the freewheeling ethos of college with the need for vigilance? Consider the dilemma posed by creative writing assignments. Cho's plays prompted Virginia Tech to pull him from an English class and give him private instruction. Joseph Duemer, who teaches creative writing at Clarkson University in Potsdam, N.Y., expressed concern that universities might overreact to the Virginia Tech tragedy and inhibit creative freedom. "One of the things you do when you teach the arts is encourage students to take aesthetic (& thus emotional) risks -- to extend themselves," he wrote in an online discussion on the Inside Higher Education Web site. "Sometimes this involves the sort of self-revelation that makes an instructor -- to say nothing of fellow students -- uncomfortable. But that freedom to explore is a fundamental part of the project; without it, we might as well not teach the arts." The issue of whether artistic depictions of violence cross the line from healthy self-expression to pathological obsession also arises in high schools. Arlette Crosland, who teaches English and journalism at Garfield High School in east Los Angeles, said she has had only one student whose writing so disturbed her that she notified administrators, but that her students frequently depict violence. "They love horror," she said. "They have their death metal drawings, and, yeah, they have their Goth crosses and everything, but this is their subculture." Students can see gruesome movies, such as "Saw II," but "still smile and still have friends," Crosland said. She would worry more, she said, if the students' violent imagery were combined with the sort of anti-social behavior seen in Cho.


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Thursday, April 19, 2007

page 7

Students garner mixed reactions to media


In the midst of all the grieving and sorrow, Virginia Tech students roamed campus today to find hundreds of visitors with cameras and recorders. Since 32 people were shot to death on Monday, media outlets all over the world parked their cars and vans and infiltrated campus, stopping students to get their reaction to events. However, student reactions to the media have been mixed. "Some people were really nice and understanding and others were really evasive," said Colby Flinchum, junior psychology major. Flinchum also thought that foreign media was sometimes not as understanding as national media. "Some of the foreign reporters might have not understood the situation because it didn't hit so close to home for them," Flinchum said. Dane Gedney, Radford University student and Blacksburg resident thought the experience of having so many media outlets on campus was surreal. "It's unreal," Gedney said. "You look around and you think of what campus looks like normally, and now it's mayhem." Most reporters showed the appropriate concern, Gedney said. "We were walking on the Drillfield and some news anchors were asking how we were," Gedney said. "(The reporter) was nice for the most part. He was sympathetic, talked softly and I didn't feel violated." For the most part, reactions to the media's reporting methods were mixed depending on who was doing the interviewing. Steve Day, sophomore engineering major, thought that a lot of reporters were being too aggressive. "I felt like you could tell a lot of them were just there to get a story and it was annoying to get stopped by seemingly every minor newspaper or station to be asked questions with obvious answers," Sensationalized reporting was also a concern with students. "Really it seems to be hit or miss with different stations and even different programs within the same stations," Day said. "Some seem to be able to keep the facts straight and update you with relevant information and others seem to just be putting extra drama into something that is already incomprehensible." Some reporters were blunt with students. "We had just left the Drillfield and went to the Inn to see what was going on and this guy comes over and just was blunt," Gedney said. "He was quick and to the point. I thought he could have had more sympathy." Most of the media were at the Inn at Virginia Tech. Trucks with satellites, vans and cars filled the parking lot over capacity. There were not many reporters on the Drillfield, said Gedney.


Hampton Roads' WAVY reporter, Jason Marks, conducts interviews at the Drillfield memorial walls.

Some students stay in Blacksburg for support


The small town of Blacksburg used to be a quiet and peaceful place, but after the tragic events of Monday morning, not only is it under the nation's eye, it is flurrying with activity. With the presence of high officials and their security on Tuesday to the flood of the media, Virginia Tech has been filled with people, but it is the residents of the community and the students at Tech who have kept the university alive. Though classes have been cancelled for the rest of the week and many students have gone home, many others remain in town for support and to finish what they have started. "I just don't feel like going home," said Ryan Budd, senior biology major and resident of New Residence Hall. "If I went home, I probably wouldn't get anything done." Budd said that he would be attending classes as soon as they begin in order to graduate this spring. Not only are students remaining on campus to finish up the year, but they are here with hopes of supporting the university. "I want to be here to help support the school and Steger," said Aaron AL FAYEZ/SPPS Perlewitz, junior psychology major Cary Kravets, a junior engineering major and Liam Renaghan, a senior and resident at Hunter's Ridge Apartments. engineering major, eat dinner at Hokie Grill. His friend Jonathon Hostetler, sophomore construction major and also a resident of Hunter's Ridge, donned a white T-shirt with a picture of a large maroon and orange ribbon on the front and the date "4/16/07" across the back in tribute to those lost. "I feel like I need to be here right now with everyone else," Hostetler said. Parents and family have also been making their way to the campus to bring students home or to be with them. "My dad is making his way up here on Thursday to come visit," Perlewitz said, "and my family trusts that if I feel I'm safe, I should be here." Walking along College Avenue past the Squires Student Center, Vic Di Mantova and his wife were enjoying being on campus. The two residents of downtown Blacksburg were on their way to grab a late lunch. "I live here," said Di Mantova, Tech graduate of '76. "This is my home. This is Tech. We've always been the best, and we won't be anything less." The community has banded together, students, residents and parents united to keep the university standing strong. As Nikki Giovanni cried throughout the convocation at Cassell Coliseum, the Tech community has shown that "We will prevail."

Donations to Tech flow in

DREW JACKSON CT Associate Features Editor

Several funds have been set up in the region to help victims' families cope with any expenses associated with their losses. Michael Vick made his own impact with a gift of $10,000 by way of the Vick Foundation, and encouraged other Atlanta residents to do the same. The United Way of Montgomery, Radford and Floyd, which is located in downtown Christiansburg, established the United in Caring Fund for Victims of the Virginia Tech Tragedy. This fund is designed to aid families with funeral fees, transportation for the families and mental health services. "Whatever the family needs is what we're there for," said Melissa Davis, Executive Administrative Assistant and Referral Specialist for the area's United Way. At the university, the administration established the Hokie Spirit Memorial Fund, a similar, but somewhat restricted fund in that it cannot pay out directly to the families. "The Virginia Tech Foundation is going to go through us. They don't have nonprofit status, so they could not pay out to the families whereas we could," Davis said. "(The university) is going to be a collection site for us, and we are going to be the payer." Another fund the United Way's is working with is the Virginia Criminal Injuries Compensation Fund (CICF). "What the CICF can't cover, we'll cover," Davis said. "They don't want the family to have to wipe themselves out to cover burial expenses." According to Davis the CICF has a $15,000 per victim cap, which includes a $5,000 cap for funeral expenses, and whatever they are unable to cover, the United Way's fund will attempt to cover. Donations are not being raised specifically for the victims' families, although that is their primary application. "Everyone in the affected dorm and in the classrooms, anyone that was involved in the shooting is eligible for services," Davis said. Less apparent uses of the donated money include moving expenses, storage, relocation, medical co-pay and counseling. "It will be more of an individualized thing. It really depends on the family member and what they need. We'll try to tailor everything to their needs." On Wednesday alone, Davis said the United Way's fund had received at least $4,000. The United in Caring Fund is accepting credit card donations on their website at, and in person at their office in downtown Christiansburg. The Hokie Spirit Memorial Fund is accepting donations at

Steger maintains focus on aftermath, receives praise from some Tech students


There was little surprise here when Charles Steger became president of Virginia Tech in January 2000, charged with leading the university into a new millennium. He was a very modern architecture professor at a very modern school and had spent nearly all his life there since he was an undergraduate. "Charles was the unanimous choice of the board," said James Turner, rector of the university's Board of Visitors, at the time. "He has the energy, experience, and vision to launch Virginia Tech into the top tier of the nation's finest universities." In many respects, higher education experts said, the reserved and cerebral Steger has met expectations. Applications to Virginia Tech have soared; its engineering graduates are snapped up by companies all over the world; and Steger has launched planning for a medical school. But Monday's massacre confronted Steger, 59, with a crisis that could overshadow the rest of his tenure. Many students reacted like Robert Adams, 22, who was in class that day in Randolph Hall not far from the dormitory where the first murders occurred. "When they found out what was happening ... they should have notified people faster," Adams said Wednesday. "My (teaching assistant) who was teaching the class had no idea what was going on." The first hours of panic and horror put Steger in a bad light. He was drawn into an awkward back-and-forth with reporters over possible missteps in the university's initial response. Although Virginia Tech had issued a 17-page emergency response plan in May 2005, a university official who spoke on condition of anonymity because of the sensitivity of the matter said there had been no practice lockdowns this school year of the whole campus. Experts such as Jonathan Bernstein, a Sierra Madre, Calif.-based crisis-management consultant, saw potential management lapses. "The possibility of violence on campus is a totally predictable scenario," he said. But since that first day, Steger has seemed to recover, focusing on helping students and families and bringing his community together, as professional crisis managers all recommend leaders do after such tragedies. Steger received a standing ovation Tuesday from students, faculty and others gathered for a convocation on campus to begin a period of mourning. Joseph Ball, a math professor, said he thought critics were too hard on the Tech president. "He's level-headed. He's competent and he really seems to be trying hard to do the best he can for the university," Ball said. Kerry Redican, president of the faculty senate, said the approximately 1,600-member faculty is still reeling from the events, but he has heard few complaints about Steger. "He made the best decisions he could under the circumstances," Redican said. "He really cares for the university. He really cares for the faculty and the students." Most management courses for business and university leaders provide little guidance on how to anticipate catastrophe. Instead, managers like Steger are rewarded for embracing growth and creativity, not for worrying about undergraduates with firearms. Steger's is a classic academic success story. He earned a bachelor's degree in architecture in 1970, a master's in architecture the next year and a doctorate in environmental sciences and engineering in 1978--all from Virginia Tech. He became dean of Tech's College of Architecture and Urban Studies in 1981, the youngest architectural school dean in the country at that time. He won acclaim for establishing an urban study and work center in Old Town Alexandria. At Virginia Tech, he also served as vice president for development and university relations, completing a major fundraising campaign in 1998 with 35 percent more than the target amount of $250 million. Redican said he is less concerned about Steger's performance during the shootings than with the school's inability to steer troubled students like Cho Seung Hui to counseling. Tiffany Turrentine, 27, a graduate student in agricultural education, expressed support for Steger. "It's the first time he's had to deal with something like this. So it's a learning experience for him," she said.


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Thursday, April 19, 2007

Don't leave your University balances delicate issues health behind

ERIN FRANCE & ERIC JOHNSON Daily Tar Heel Senior Writers KIM BERKEY CT Associate Features Editor

With so much racing through a person's head in the aftermath of Monday's events, how does one stay on track with coping? In the process of letting go and the grief process taking over, many people tend to additionally let their bodies go -- not realizing that keeping up with nutrition, sleep and exercise can help ease this difficult process. "During this time, people are going to be eating the wrong things and having trouble sleeping. By letting themselves go, it creates more stress on their bodies," said Ali Arner, fitness coordinator for department of recreational sports, a division of student affairs. "I worry that a lot of students think they are being selfish or insensitive of the events that happened if they go to the gym. But the thing is, a student can't expect to take care of other people if they don't take care of themselves ... we are trying to encourage students to implement exercise while all of this is going on ... to get people together to play basketball or go with a small group of students for some cardio." Arner and others are encouraging students to get out and get active for many reasons. "Emotionally and psychology it's going to help them a lot. A person's change in body temperature after any kind of aerobic exercise such as cycling, walking or running has a calming effect and can sometimes help as a sleep aid. It also increases endorphins. It has been shown in statistics that exercise helps in coping with depression and anxiety -- exercise really does help on its own." Facilities at Tech are doing their best to encourage a type of routine during this emotional period. "Right now we have both of our facilities open for people to stay mentally and physically healthy (hours may vary)," said Cathy Kropff, Marketing Manager for the Department of Recreational Sports. Despite their efforts of keeping all aspects of the faculties up and running, some adjustments have been made to accommodate student workers who need emotional time off or left town to be with their families. "We have canceled most group exercise classes because many students run them. We are trying to make a balance work by accommodating students who want to come in and exercise and not overtaxing the students who work for us. Right now we have limited staff and a few students who did want to work during this time. We don't want to put a toll on any of our students by asking them to come into work of the do not want to. We will return back to regular hours on Sunday," Kropff said. "We just want to let students know we are available for them if they want to talk or walk," she said. By being active, one can actively aid in the coping process. "Many people exercise as an active form of treatment instead of taking a passive one," Arner said.

The following story was written by Erin France and Eric Johnson, senior writers from the Daily Tar Heel of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

The revelation that Virginia Tech shooter Cho Seung-Hui had a documented history of psychological problems is likely to intensify an already heated debate about how campuses handle troubled students. A number of high-profile court cases in recent years have centered on the constraints and responsibilities university officials confront in deciding whether to take preemptive action on behalf of at-risk students. Christopher Flynn, Director of the Cook Counseling Center at Virginia Tech, alluded to that difficulty in discussing Cho's history of strange behavior on campus. "There are lots of issues that are present on a college campus," Flynn said during a Wednesday press conference. "The extent to which we can make a judgment about whether someone is a danger is a separate issue." For universities, it is an issue fraught with moral and legal complications. Officials have to balance a strong concern for campus safety with an obligation to protect individual privacy, often working under vague guidelines. "Schools walk a real fine line," said Johnne Armentrout, Assistant Director of counseling services at Wake Forest University. "The tricky thing is that they face lawsuits on both sides, either from not doing enough or from violating their

students' privacy rights." Federal law prohibits universities from revealing a student's psychological problems, even to parents, unless they have a signed waver or believe the student poses an imminent danger to himself or others. Deciding when to break that confidentiality is difficult, but universities typically have erred on the side of protecting student privacy. In several recent cases, universities have prevailed in court against parents arguing that they should have been better-informed about their children's psychological problems. "When in doubt, my decision is to respect the student's right to privacy," said Michael Jorge, director of health services at Western Carolina University. "The students' right to privacy is mandatory training for all faculty." But already in the wake of Monday's tragedy at Virginia Tech, there are calls for revisiting the circumstances when counselors can disclose potential threats. Flynn and other campus officials faced tough questions Wednesday about why Cho was not forced to seek additional help when professors complained about his disturbing behavior. "We certainly are always sensitive to the potential for violence," Flynn said. "That's a very difficult thing to predict clearly." That uncertainty is what puts counselors in such a challenging position, and many universities already are planning to review their guidelines. In the meantime, high-profile incidents such as Monday's shootings only serve to increase the pressure on counselors and university administrators. "It's easy to see these kinds of things in retrospect," Armentrout said. "But we can't be seers of the future."

Collective guilt all too common after tragedies

SANDY BANKS Los Angeles Times

The sense of shock and shame that has engulfed the Korean-American community in the wake of the murderous Virginia Tech rampage might seem overdone to some, but its roots are familiar to many minorities. "My first thought when I heard initial reports (of the shootings) was `Oh my God, I hope it's not a black person,'" said black commentator Earl Ofari Hutchinson. "It's a visceral reaction, a reflection of this country's long history of typecasting all minorities." When the spotlight settled on Cho Seung-Hui on Tuesday, Korean-Americans in Los Angeles wasted no time denouncing the crime, hosting a candlelight vigil and prayer service -- extending, in effect, a collective olive branch to a society they worried might judge them all harshly. "It is during these times that we need to remind each other how far we have come as a multicultural nation and continue to help each other heal past wounds," said Grace Yoo, of the Korean-American Federation of Los Angeles. That kind of response prompted confusion, even derision, in some quarters. "It's a lack of intelligence to think that one lunatic shoots up a university and we're going to go after all the Koreans," Los Angeles radio talk-show host John Kobylt told his audience Tuesday afternoon. He poked fun at Korean-American mea-culpas, accusing them of "playing the race card. ... Now look who's stereotyping." But the sensitivity of Korean-Americans' -- and that of other minorities -- is rooted in culture and history, and reflects the reality that distinctive events, with distinctive players, tend to leave a unique mark on our collective psyche, bolstering innate tendencies toward bias and stereotyping. "People will never forget that it was a Korean that committed the crime," said social psychologist Joel D. Lieberman, chairman of the criminal justice studies department at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. "When you've got a white guy going crazy, (his ethnicity) doesn't stand out, because most mass killings are done by whites. But when you have two rare things occurring like this, people tend to over-estimate the frequency of the occurrence" and make a connection between group membership and behavior that doesn't exist. The psychological phenomenon is called "illusory correlation." Lieberman said he "can't imagine" people holding the Korean-American community accountable. But their impulse toward a public display of contrition is also rooted in psychology, he said. "People's sense of identity rests not just on your own accomplishments but the failures and accomplishments of your group. If you're a Mets fan and the Mets are doing well, you feel good about yourself. When a person from your group does something that reflects negatively, you feel bad about yourself. You have a desire to distance yourself from the person." The feeling might be more pronounced among minorities who feel more vulnerable to being judged by society. Each group nurses its own concerns, specific to its history and place in society. Blacks might fear that events like this will bolster stereotypes that they are violence prone. Jews' fears might reflect a history of being scapegoated for society's ills. The spotlight on immigration causes many Hispanics unease. And hate crimes against Muslims in America have soared since the World Trade Center attacks cast them as terrorists. For Korean-Americans, the sense of shame might be particularly acute because of their cultural commitment to interdependence. "Here in America, we think of ourselves as much more separate and autonomous," said Stanford University professor Hazel Markus, an expert in cultural psychology. "Foundational to Korean thinking is the sense that you need to ... adjust yourself to expectations. It's very, very important that you protect your family face and reputation, recognize that whatever you do has consequences not just for you, but for others as well." Their concerns are compounded by the feeling that they haven't yet made it into America's mainstream, Markus said. "Koreans are very aware, especially in Los Angeles, that they are sort of looked at as Koreans first. They worry that they'll be stigmatized." Asian-Americans of many nationalities are sensitive to the possibility of repercussions, said Rene Astudillo, executive director of the Asian-American Journalists' Association. His group sent out an unusual advisory to media outlets as coverage of the killings unfolded Tuesday, urging them to "avoid using racial identifiers unless there is a compelling or germane reason." In early reports of the shooting, "the only identifier put out there was that he was Asian," Astudillo said. "That was premature as far as we are concerned, and it cast a cloud on the entire race." But the Korean-American community is by no means of one mind on the issue. "Many Koreans are upset that some members of their community are accepting this as a collective guilt," Astudillo said. "They are saying `This is an act of one person who may have some mental issues who may happen to be from South Korea. There is no reason for us to say we are sorry for that.'"

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Thursday, April 19, 2007

Major leaguer pays tribute to Bluhm, Tech's fallen


The after effects of Monday's tragedy have been felt by those far away. In one case, by a man who lives 542 miles away and never knew the victim who knew him well. Brian Bluhm was a baseball fan. More specifically, he was a Detroit Tigers fan, and a rabid one at that. The midwesterner partnered with another online user to keep a blog dedicated to all things Tigers. Bluhm's favorite player on that squad was Curtis Granderson, the centerfielder and leadoff hitter for the 2006 American League Pennant winners. On Wednesday, Granderson took time after the Tigers' contest against the Kansas City Royals in Detroit to reflect on his feelings upon hearing about the tragedy at Virginia Tech, and on subsequently learning that Bluhm, a loyal fan of the boys from Motown, was among the victims in Norris Hall. "I reverted back to being in college and thinking of where I was when I heard about bad news, especially 9/11 happening when I was in school, and trying to put myself in the kids' shoes at Virginia Tech," Granderson said. "Then finding out that one of the (victims) was from Detroit and not only a fan of the Tigers, but also a fan of myself, it hit home even more. Thinking about it even more, the impacts we have on people whether you know it or not, that definitely goes a long way." Born in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Bluhm's family moved to Troy, Mich., 20 miles outside of downtown Detroit. His family once again uprooted and moved to Louisville, Ky., when he was seven. While Bluhm was at Tech, his family moved to Winchester. Granderson, who writes a blog on three times a week, used his April 18 entry to express his sorrow to Bluhm and other victims and took time to answer a question Bluhm e-mailed while he was still alive. Although the question was answered posthumously, Granderson hoped the message would reach the Tigers fan wherever he was. "The disappointing thing was that I'm answering the question when he's no longer with us. I wish I could have gotten to the question a little earlier, but hopefully wherever he's at he'll be able to read the answer somehow, someway." Bluhm, 25, had teamed to discuss the team from Motown with another poster during the season. His blog partner, "zacharyherman," left a message on their blog, http: //, on Tuesday. "My good friend and fellow contributor to this blog, Brian Bluhm, was among the 32 students killed in the massacre at Virginia Tech on Monday. I knew Brian exclusively through the Internet -- I never met him in person or spoke to him on the phone. Still, I considered him an important person in my life and I am deeply saddened by his death," according to an excerpt taken from the message. Bluhm's dedication to the Tigers and their campaign did not go unnoticed by Granderson. "That was the big thing, him thinking about different stuff like that, and how effective (my) life as a baseball player is on people who watch (me)," Granderson said. "He's at school studying to become an engineer, and at the same time he's still a big Tigers fan, reading up on my stuff, reading up the rest of the players, sending in comments and questions." Granderson furthered expressed his sympathies to Bluhm's family, and reiterated that his organization would continue to pray for them. Like other teams in baseball, the Tigers held a moment of silence before their Tuesday game. "Our prayers from the Tiger's organization are with their family, it's very unfortunate event, and we're disappointed with everything that's happened," said Granderson. "But again our prayers and thoughts are with them, and we're going to continue support them whatever way we can help out."


Curtis Granderson paid special tribute to the victims of Monday's tragedy on his personal blog.

NASCAR reaches out to Virginia Tech, Tech sports resume, all drivers to sport `VT' sticker in next race support from teams

CLARK RUHLAND CT associate Sports editor

Virginia Tech's recent tragedy is reaching far beyond college sports. On Wednesday, Senior Manager of Nextel Cup Branding & Industry Relations Chad Willis requested an opportunity for NASCAR to run a Tech logo on all of its series cars in the coming weeks, starting this weekend in Phoenix. "There are many Hokies who make up the NASCAR family," wrote Willis, a 1995 graduate from Tech. "(They) would like to utilize the mark in a show of support for the Blacksburg community." The community reaches far beyond the boundaries. Seven drivers in the Nextel Cup series hail from the state of Virginia. Now, being 2,000 miles from Blacksburg, longtime driver Ricky Rudd is thinking about the tragedy near home. Even before NASCAR brought up the idea of running the decal, his team was preparing for some sort of tribute. "I've been thinking of everyone involved at Tech. From an outsider looking in, it just doesn't make sense," said Rudd, who grew up in Chesapeake. "It hit close to me because when I grew up as a kid, Tech was a big school. I've had friends through the years that have graduated from Tech." Like Rudd, South Boston's Ward Burton has been watching the events unfold on television. Instead of running the small black decal on the side of his car, he will have a large "VT" logo on his hood. His cars are built only 100 miles from Blacksburg in Abingdon. "We wanted to take it a step further," Burton said. "Morgan-McClure Motorsports is so close to Tech, I am a resident Virginian, and there are guys on the team that graduated from Virginia Tech." Both Burton, Rudd and their respective pit crews plan to wear their Virginia Tech colors at the track this weekend. However, it will be difficult to find Hokie gear in Arizona. "We've been trying to run some of that stuff down," Rudd said. "I'm out here in Phoenix right now and we're trying to get some Tech hats at one of the local malls." The Tech hats and T-shirts will be easier to find when the series comes to Richmond on May 5. NASCAR plans to run the decals only through the Richmond race, but both drivers hope to show their Hokie spirit beyond the set date. "I'm not really sure how long the decal will be on there," Rudd said. "I don't control the car, but I hope we can keep it on there the rest of the year. I know we'll display it as long as we can." Burton wants to run the logo far beyond Richmond. As an avid outdoorsman, Burton's wildlife foundation works with Tech and organizations in Blacksburg. "I hope we can do it some more," Burton said. "I'll be wearing my Virginia Tech hat for the rest of the season. My wildlife foundation has a partnership with (the Conservation Management Institute) at Virginia

CLARK RUHLAND CT Associate Sports Editor

Virginia Tech's sporting world began to resume on Wednesday. The baseball and softball teams began to pick up the pieces and resumed practice. A baseball game will be the first sporting event on campus since the shooting tragedy on Monday when the Hokies host Miami at 7 p.m. on Friday night. Softball will play a double-header on Saturday against Maryland. Tech's lacrosse team will resume practice on Friday night in preparation for Saturday's scheduled contest against Maryland. The University of Miami baseball team wore black armbands and had a moment of silence on Wednesday in its home game against North Florida. The Hurricanes will travel to Blacksburg today in preparation for their weekend series against the Hokies starting on Friday night at 7 p.m. A check will be presented to the Hokie Spirit Memorial Fund for $10,000 from the University of Miami before Friday night's contest. The University of Virginia also


Tech and I've been there a couple of times during the last year." The circumstances are harsh, but every driver will be a Hokie this weekend, and their support will only grow with the black decals and the series coming to Richmond in May. "I'm glad the university is allowing us to do it," Burton said. "I hope to get to campus in the next couple of weeks with a show car or something and sign some autographs for students. We need to do all of the rallying we can. There will be positives that come out of this, particularly with everyone in Virginia that is rallying around Virginia Tech."

held a moment of silence before their sporting events on Wednesday. The Cavalier sports teams are working on a way to memorialize Monday's events on their teams' uniforms. Florida State also honored Virginia Tech with a moment of silence in its sporting events on Wednesday. The Seminole track, tennis and golf teams will all wear orange & maroon at this weekend's ACC championship events. The Richmond Braves, the Atlanta Braves AAA baseball team, wore Virginia Tech hats Wednesday night against Louisville. Braves players will wear the same hats again today, and following the game the hats will be auctioned off with 100 percent of the proceeds to the Hokie Spirit Memorial Fund. Penn State's students are planning to memorialize Virginia Tech during its annual football spring game this Saturday. Senior Bill Solomon has led the charge to set up the entire student section to wear orange & maroon Tshirts at the game.

The healing begins for Greenberg, others at Virginia Tech


He traveled from Plainview, N.Y., to New Jersey for his formal education and the pursuit of his profession has taken him to universities from coast to coast. It didn't take the tragedy at Virginia Tech to convince Seth Greenberg he is a member of a special community. Nonetheless, the reaction of the school and adjacent town of Blacksburg confirmed his belief in what he and others call Hokie Nation. "The respect and love people here have for each other is second to none," Greenberg said Wednesday from his office. "Virginia Tech is a place where people ask how you're doing and actually wait for an answer. Hokie Nation is a real entity." Only the previous night, at a massive candlelight vigil for the 32 victims of a deranged senior, Greenberg said he experienced the same vibes he and his wife received four years earlier when they first walked onto the sprawling campus nestled against the Blue Ridge Mountains. "I was just another guy there," the men's basketball coach said. "There were student, parents, coaches and people from the town. This is their school, their community. Everyone wants to take potshots at Blacksburg but, once you're here, you have a better understanding." Formerly the most remote outpost of the Big East Conference, Tech now is the most remote institution in the Atlantic Coast Conference. "People say if Blacksburg is not the end of the world, then you can see it from there," Greenburg related. "But this is a very good place. What happened here isn't reflective of Virginia Tech. It was just one sick individual who did this." Greenberg was drawn into the situation almost as soon as he walked into his office on Monday morning. The oldest of his three daughters, Paige, is a freshman whose dormitory was next to the residence hall occupied by the shooter. After the mass murders at Norris Hall became public, he and his assistants spent several hours contacting the members of their team and urging them to communicate with their parents. "Some of them have gone home," Greenberg said. "School is going to resume on Monday and we'll have a team meeting on Sunday. I'm going to visit with some of our incoming recruits tomorrow. It's not to reassure them. I just want to let them know what kind of place this is, that people feel a real ownership in this university, that people are here for each other." Greenberg's team recently concluded its most successful season in 11 years with a third-place finish in the ACC and a second-round loss in the NCAA tournament. The Hokies will lose the nucleus of that team to graduation and the coach has recruited six players to replenish the roster. But as much as that is a function of his job, he had a more immediate and personal concern. Like so many associated with the school, they wanted to do anything they could to help the survivors. Greenberg, 51, said he saw the same inclination in students interviewed on television throughout the ordeal although he finally felt the need to shut off the tube Wednesday. "We're living with it," he decided. "We don't have to watch it." What particularly irked him, he said, was the rush to lay blame for the incident on other than Cho Seung-Hui. "Let's use our energy," he said, "to help the people who need it the most." He left no doubt that the wounds to Virginia Tech would heal and pointed to the comments of Professor Nikki Giovanni, who spoke at the convocation in Cassell Coliseum, the basketball arena, before President Bush and other dignitaries on Tuesday afternoon. "The Hokie Nation ... will continue to invent the future through our blood and tears and through all our sadness," she said. "We are the Hokies. We will prevail." "It sounds corny," Greenberg said. "But that's who we are."


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Layout 1 (Page 1)
SCCC's 2010 Pre-Session Texas Handout