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A visit to the doctor

Unit 8

Past lives Lesson

Framework Objectives

R1: Know how to locate resources for a given task, and find relevant information in them (skimming) R2: Use appropriate reading strategies to extract particular information (scanning) Main text type: Recount

1

Student Book pages 162­166

Starter

G

Ask the class if they know the difference between biography and autobiography. Make the difference clear by pointing out that autobiography is written in the first person: `I'. Then ask students to work out which person biography is written in. Emphasise that both biography and autobiography are recounts and are written chronologically.

Introduction

Key Reading G Before reading the Roald Dahl text to students, highlight two other significant features of autobiography: it is told in the past and it is concerned with memory. Read the extract from Boy, making sure that students understand the glossary terms. G Go through the features of autobiography in the text-type box. Check understanding by asking students these questions: ­ Which pronouns show that the writing is in the first person? ­ Why are recount texts written (mainly) in the past tense? ­ Can you think of memories from your own life and use time connectives to help sequence them? (For example, When I was five I started school.) G Get students to discuss questions 1 to 4 in pairs. Ask 2 or 3 pairs to feed back their answers and invite the class to comment. G To extend the work done on time connectives as a tool in ordering events, hand out copies of Worksheet 8.1 to pairs and ask them to construct the timeline and to write their own sentences using the list of time connectives.

Development

Purpose G Ask pairs to discuss why Roald Dahl wrote about this episode from his childhood. Ask students to consider why they would write their own autobiographical episode. Reading for meaning G Introduce the skills of skimming (questions 6 and 7) and scanning (question 8), and distinguish between the two. Encourage students to use the terms appropriately. Students should complete question 7a as soon as possible after reading the text. When students write their own questions for partners (question 7b), they should make sure that the events they choose are clear (i.e. could not be confused with other information in the extract) and that they can sequence them themselves. G When introducing scanning in question 8, emphasise the usefulness of focusing on key words as an aid to understanding. Initially, students may take some time to extract information. Practice will enable them to build up speed. (See Worksheet 1.1 for further practice in scanning.)

Plenary

G

Recap on the difference between skimming and scanning and the usefulness of both skills. Then elicit the main features of recount texts from the class, reinforcing these as necessary.

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Unit 8

Past lives

Worksheet 8.1: Roald Dahl's timeline

Roald Dahl wrote many books for adults and children. The dates below tell you when some of them were published. 1 Complete the timeline by writing the dates in the correct order. Going Solo (autobiography, 1986) Matilda (1988)

1940 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990

Boy (autobiography, 1984) The BFG (1982) The Gremlins (1943) James and the Giant Peach (USA 1961) (UK 1967) Royal Jelly (short story 1959)

2 Choose from the information in the timeline to write six sentences, using these connectives of time: before first after next then finally until

For example, you could write: The first book Road Dahl wrote was The Gremlins.

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A visit to the doctor

Unit 8

Past lives Lesson

Framework Objectives

S1c: Extend their use and control of complex sentences by deploying subordinate clauses in a variety of positions within the sentence R14: Recognise how writers' language choices can enhance meaning (emotive vocabulary) Wr8: Experiment with the visual and sound effects of language, including the use of imagery Main text type: Recount

2

Student Book pages 166­168

Starter

G

Remind the class of the extract from Boy, referring to it as a dramatic episode in Roald Dahl's childhood. Discuss with students the necessity for the writer to maintain the tension (and therefore the reader's interest) through the first paragraph of the extract (when the doctor performs the procedure).

Introduction

Focus on: Keeping up the tension G Read through the section. Refer to the example in the Student Book, which studies the construction of the final sentence in the first paragraph of the extract. Once students have understood the main point, complete question 9 with the whole class. Exploring further G This section explains main and subordinate clauses and asks students to identify parts of a main clause (question 10). In question 11, students examine their own sentences from question 9b and label the different clauses. Point out that using both simple and complex sentences gives variety to writing. To extend this work, give students Worksheet 8.2, which looks at subordinate clauses linked to time.

Development

Key Writing G For question 13, students work on their own to recount a dramatic memory from their early years in two paragraphs. Remind them to write in the past tense and to use time connectives to show the sequence of events. G Ask students to think about how they can hold back some information in key sentences, to keep the reader's interest. Revisit the work done on simple and complex sentences, emphasising that varying short and long sentences can add variety to their recount.

Plenary

G

G

Recap the main points of the lesson: ­ how tension can be maintained in a sentence by leaving the most important information until the end ­ how using simple and complex sentences adds variety to writing. Invite 3 or 4 students to share their memory recounts and invite the class to comment on how they illustrate all three points.

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Unit 8

Past lives

Worksheet 8.2: Subordinate clauses

Time-linked subordinate clauses

A subordinate clause can be linked to time. It can tell us when something happened. For example: We moved from April Road when I was five. 1 Underline the subordinate clause linked to time in the following sentences: a Mum and Dad cleaned the house while my brothers and sisters tidied the garden. b I put my toys in the car after everything else was done.

Making interesting sentences

You can make sentences more interesting by varying them. Consider the following example: We moved from April Road when I was five. Mum and Dad cleaned the house while my brothers and sisters tidied the garden. I put my toys in the car after everything else was done. To make this text more interesting, you could move some of the subordinate clauses to the beginning of the sentences: When I was five we moved from April Road. Mum and Dad cleaned the house while my brothers and sisters tidied the garden. After everything else was done I put my toys in the car. 2 a Add a sentence beginning `I felt sad...' Use a subordinate clause linked to time. I felt sad... b Now add another sentence beginning with a subordinate clause linked to time.

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It was long ago

Unit 8

Past lives Lesson

Framework Objective

R14: Recognise how writers' language choices can enhance meaning (repetition) Main text type: Poetry

3

Student Book pages 169­173

Starter

G

Students will need to take something of a cultural leap in reading the poem in this section. Explain that it is a classic poem, written and set in the past. As they listen to it, ask them to consider how it differs from their lives and how strongly it conveys time past. The poem offers simple but profound thoughts, accessible to everyone.

Introduction

Key Reading G Run through the features of poems in the text-type box. Check understanding by asking students these questions: ­ Are poems written in lines or sentences? ­ Does the poem rhyme or not? G Get students to discuss questions 1 to 3 in pairs. Ask 2 or 3 pairs to feed back their answers and invite the class to comment. Encourage pairs to refer to evidence from the poem to back up their answers. Point out that even though the poem is in the first person and about a distant memory, students should not assume that it is necessarily autobiographical.

Development

Purpose G In question 4, students explore how the poem makes them feel. Focus on the final line, `Then I grew up, you see', which abruptly brings the reader back to the present with a sense of loss. While the students may not be able to articulate this, they should detect the sadness in the last line. Reading for meaning G Discuss the effect of repetition in the poem with students. Begin by looking at the words `I remember'. Both the meaning of these words and their repetition emphasise the fact that this is a memory (as does, `It was long ago'). Students return to find other examples of repetition in question 6, including line lengths. G Continue by drawing attention to the simple rhyme pattern, showing students how it works in the poem (question 5): a/b/c is repeated throughout but is broken regularly in the third, sixth, ninth and twelfth verses with a/b/b. Emphasise that the rhyme and repetition in the poem work together to emphasise the importance of the key lines `I remember'/'It was long ago' and the feeling produced. G Students can extend this work on the effect of repetition and rhyme in Worksheet 8.3. Groups analyse three verses from The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, which also contains several examples of repetition. They then report their findings to the class. Exploring further G Different kinds of rhyme (end rhyme, beginning rhyme and internal rhyme) are introduced here as a contrast to the full end rhymes in It Was Long Ago. Discuss the various features, asking students to use internal rhyme in question 7. Note whether students grasp the appropriateness of the rhyme used in It Was Long Ago.

Plenary

G

Recap the main points of the lesson, eliciting from students, if possible, how repetition can bring out the central idea in a poem and evoke a feeling ­ in this case, sadness and the importance of the memory.

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Worksheet 8.3: Rhyme and repetition

In The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, a sailor returns from sea with a strange tale. He has killed an albatross ­ a bird that usually brings good luck. His act, it seems, has cursed the ship. In these verses from the poem, the heat described is intense. There is no wind to drive the sails and no fresh water.

From `The Rime of the Ancient Mariner' All in a hot and copper sky, The bloody Sun, at noon, Right up above the mast did stand, No bigger than the Moon. Day after day, day after day, We stuck, nor breath nor motion; As idle as a painted ship Upon a painted ocean. Water, water, every where, And all the boards did shrink; Water, water, every where, Nor any drop to drink.

by Samuel Taylor Coleridge no wind to drive the ship

1 How did the poem make you feel? Choose from the following words. You may choose more than one word if you wish.

G

worried

G

scared

G

thoughtful

G

want to know what happens

2 What is repeated in these verses? How many examples can you find? 3 Which repetition in the poem do you think is the most important? Why? 4 Work out the rhyme pattern in these verses.

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It was long ago

Unit 8

Past lives Lesson

Framework Objective

Wr8: Experiment with the sound effects of language, including the use of rhythm and rhyme Main text type: Poetry

4

Student Book pages 174­175

Starter

G

Open the lesson with a discussion of rhythm and how it is present everywhere. Ask students to think of examples (the rhythm of music, of the heart, of a train, of the tides).

Introduction

Focus on: Rhythm G Ensure students understand what a syllable is. If they are uncertain, explain by referring to the example `re-mem-ber' in the Student Book. Point out that all speech has rhythm; refer to the example `re-mem-ber' to note the difference between stressed and unstressed syllables. Emphasise that many words in English are heavily accented. Students complete question 8 in pairs. As a follow up, ask students to alter the normal stress patterns of some common words. This can produce some comical results (for example, dra-ma/dra-ma; ta-pping/tapping). G To extend this work, students can complete Worksheet 8.4, which looks in greater detail at the stress patterns in individual words. (A regional dialect can make a difference to some stress patterns and you may wish to take this into account.) G In question 9, pairs examine the strong rhythm in the poem It Was Long Ago. Draw parallels between the rhythm of poetry and the `beat' of music. When pairs have established the nature of the poem's rhythm, encourage them to use the term `regular rhythm'. Emphasise that this regularity is another example of repetition (again serving to reinforce the importance of the memory in the poem). Pairs can then complete question 9d. You can also discuss the term `irregular rhythm' more fully and point to an example of a poem with an irregular rhythm (for example, Big Fears in Unit 1). G Once students have compared their findings (question 10a) they should complete question 10b on their own. You will notice whether or not they have grasped that the poem's regular rhythm serves to reinforce the central meaning of the poem ­ the importance of memory.

Development

Key Writing G For question 11, students should revisit their idea for a special memory from Lesson 2 (page 152), and use this to create a poem of four or five rhyming couplets. While most students will be able to rhyme, they may find it difficult to do so convincingly. Encourage them to create a range of five or six rhyming couplets and then discard those that do not work. G To make the composition more challenging, invite students to create couplets of differing line lengths and rhythms.

Plenary

G

Elicit from students what a syllable is and ask them to give examples of stressed and unstressed syllables. Recap on the rhythmic pattern of It was Long Ago and the effects of repetition within the poem. Invite 2 or 3 students to read out their couplets and have the class comment on the effectiveness of the rhyme and rhythm.

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Unit 8

Past lives

Syllables and stress

Worksheet 8.4: Where's the beat?

Look at the words in the left column of the table below.

Words again couplet music poetry regular repeating hip-hop garage fantastic

a/gain

1 Split the words in the table above into syllables. (The first has been done for you, as an example.) 2 Underline the syllable that is stressed (where the beat falls). If you are not sure which syllable is stressed, try stressing different syllables and seeing which sounds right. 3 In which word do the syllables have the same stress? 4 Which word can be stressed in more than one way?

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King Arthur: the truth (probably)

Unit 8

Past lives Lesson

Framework Objectives

S4: Keep tense usage consistent, and manage changes of tense so that meaning is clear R8: Infer and deduce meanings using evidence in the text identifying where and how meanings are implied Wr19: Write reflectively about a text, taking account of the needs of others who might read it Main text type: Analysis

5

Student Book pages 176­180

Starter

G

Introduce the word `analysis' and explain its meaning by referring to an everyday example (the study of a football team's potential for the season). Emphasise that students weigh up (analyse) evidence regularly, deciding what is reliable, perhaps without realising it. Point out that students can even learn to observe closely and ask the right questions to test out the evidence in areas where they have limited knowledge. Explain that students do this in a range of subjects, such as Science and History.

Introduction

The section looks at historical sources and their reliability. Students will almost certainly have studied source material in History and read commentaries about it. The main difference will be the tone of the King Arthur text, which is less serious than most textbooks. Key Reading G Read the text and refer students to the sources, then run through the features of analysis texts in the text type box. Check understanding by asking students these questions: ­ Why is evidence used for each main point? ­ Which tense is mainly used in analysis texts? ­ Which two connectives help when examining source material? G Put students in pairs to discuss questions 1 to 5, then ask 2 or 3 pairs to feed back their answers and invite the class to comment. Once students have located the examples in questions 3 and 4, explain how and why the present and past tenses are used. In question 5, elicit that a broad range of connectives are used, to help the reader unpick complex ideas.

G

Development

Purpose G Questions 6 and 7 should be answered in pairs, so that students look closely at the nature of the four sources and find the main purpose of the text (to examine whether Arthur existed). Reading for meaning G Students work through questions 8 to 12 in pairs. For question 8, elicit from students how the layout with its sub-headings (often posed as questions) helps to break up the King Arthur analysis. Explain that when complex information is staged the reader can follow ideas more easily. Refer students to the use of bullet points and questions. G For questions 9 and 11, discuss how the text shows the unreliability of the evidence; point out that asking the right questions will help with problem solving. Detailed discussion of sources 1, 2 and 4 (questions 9, 10 and 11) will help to prepare students for the `Key Speaking and Listening' task. Highlight how the questions help deduce the answer. For question 12, students return to the text to look at the humorous tone adopted by the writer. Ask students to work in pairs to find two examples of this. Questions 13 and 14 examine the use of the past and present tense in the text. G Conclude by asking students to complete Worksheet 5, which offers further examples of how tense choices are made to best suit certain contexts.

Plenary

G

Elicit from students the main points of the lesson: what an analysis is; presenting points clearly in a text; looking at evidence by observing closely and asking the right questions; reasons for using both the present tense and the past tense.

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Unit 8

Past lives

Worksheet 8.5: Past and present

If you were writing a historical novel you might want to write it in the present tense. In this way the historical events would be brought to life, and the reader would feel as though he or she were really there. 1 The following extract is written in the past tense. Read it through carefully. 2 Underline all the past tense verbs. 3 Now change all the past tense verbs to the present tense. Write the present tense verbs underneath the past tense verbs, in the spaces provided. The first has been done for you, as an example. 4 What is the effect on the extract of changing the verb tense?

Julius Caesar was a brilliant soldier. He was also a clever politic ian and was is used to getting his own way. There were those who thought he was becoming

too powerful, that he wanted to become supreme ruler. So there were plots

against him. There were schemes to murder him. But Julius Caesa r did not

appear to care about such threats, despite warnings.

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129

King Arthur: the truth (probably)

Unit 8

Past lives Lesson

Framework Objectives

W20: Expand the range of link words and phrases used to signpost texts, including links of cause R8: Infer and deduce meanings using evidence in the text, identifying where and how meanings are implied S&L1: Use talk as a tool for clarifying ideas Main text type: Analysis

6

Student Book pages 181­182

Starter

G

Ask students to recall the main features of analysis texts. Recap in particular the idea that connectives can help to express complicated ideas. Refer students back to the examples in the text-type box (on page 178) to explain that connectives of cause and effect link the reason for something happening with what happens, while other connectives show contrasting views on evidence.

Introduction

Focus on: Using connectives of cause, effect and contrast G Run through the boxed sentences from the text on page 181, which give concrete examples of causal relationships, focusing on the connectives `so' and 'because'. Explain that the link between cause and effect can be expressed in more than one way. Then ask students to complete question 15, which focuses on the difference in meaning between `so' and `because'. For question 16, students select alternative causal connectives to link the two sentences. (Please note that the adverb `so' can be used to join parts of a sentence; strictly speaking, in this context, it is a conjunction. However, it can also link sentences in a paragraph, where it would be regarded as a connective.) G Students then study how connectives that contrast views are used in the text. For question 17, they work with connectives that present contrasting views of a single source. G Students can extend this work by completing Worksheet 8.6, which reinforces the usefulness of connectives.

Development

Key Speaking and Listening G For question 18, small groups discuss in an organised way whether King Arthur existed and why the legend has survived. Encourage students to refer closely to the text; they can also draw on their knowledge of the sources from the `Reading for meaning' section. Students should use the connectives `so' and `because' to express causal relationships, and the connective `but' to show contrasting views. Groups then evaluate how well they worked together and expressed their views, using the bullets provided in question 18c. Challenge G Question 19 challenges students to summarise their findings to a member of another group. Those students can then feed back to the whole class.

Plenary

G

Invite 2 or 3 group representatives to feed back the main points of their group's discussion. Encourage students to use the language of analysis.

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Unit 8

Past lives

Worksheet 8.6: Using connectives

1 Complete the following sentences about the sources you have been studying.

Firstly, the history book De Excidio Bri tanniae mentions an important soldier but... So this tells us that... Secondly, the Modena Cathedral Carvin g of 1120 probably pictures `Arthur of Britannia' because... It is unreliable because everyone... Thirdly, the main problem with the His toria Regum Britanniae (a 12th century text) is that... Therefore the source is ... because... Lastly, Arthur's grave at Glastonbu ry seems convincing because... However, the monks... Consequently, we can say that it is most likely

that King Arthur...

2 Underline in one colour the connectives that show cause and effect. 3 Which words are connectives of time? Underline them in a second colour.

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Unit 8 Assignment

Unit 8

Past lives Lesson

Assessment Focus

AF3: Organise and present whole texts effectively, sequencing and structuring information, ideas and events Main text type: Analysis

7

Student Book pages 183­185

Starter

G

Ask students to jot down three main features of analysis texts, then feed back to the class. Explain students' role as historians and the purpose of the assignment as outlined in the Student Book. Emphasise that students need to write in clear stages and study the evidence. Point to the information supplied about the sources (i.e. the writer, text and when it was written). Inform students that Henry Mayhew recorded the words of the poor, `from the lips of the people themselves'. Read Sources A and B to the class, explaining that being a `mud-lark' was a way of earning a living.

Introduction

Stage 1 G Students are asked to complete a list of questions that will help them to find appropriate information from the sources. Students could work in groups to complete the questions and record them. They should appoint a recorder who can use Worksheet 8.7 for this purpose. Another member of the group should report back. Suitable additional questions might include: ­ Who wrote the book? ­ Who or what is it about? ­ What details are we told? ­ Who tells us? The interviewee or someone else? ­ Is it good evidence? ­ What are its weaknesses? Stage 2 G Answer all the questions with the class, filling in any necessary information (for example, a weakness of the extract is its brevity).

Development

Stage 3 G Students should use their work from Stages 1 and 2, together with the writing frame and the advice in the Student Book, to write their three-paragraph analysis. Remind them to set out their ideas clearly so that the reader can follow the main points. Model how the writing frame can help students with paragraphing and cohesion, by using connectives to link paragraphs. Run through the bullet points to remind students of the main features of analysis texts.

Peer assessment

G

G G

When students have completed their writing, they should work in pairs to read each others' drafts. Write up the text-type features listed below and ask pairs to check if their drafts include them: ­ use of present tense for analysis ­ use of past tense to describe past events ­ use of evidence to back up main points ­ use of connectives of cause and contrast to bring out reasons and views. Students then fill in the Peer Assessment Sheet (see page 6) and feed back their findings. Students redraft according to suggestions.

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Unit 8 Assignment

Plenary

Give a copy of OHT 8.8 (top half only) to groups and get students to annotate the level 4 writing to show how well the student has used causal connectives, especially to contrast or qualify, used good punctuation, quoted examples from the text, as well as what needs improvement. Then display the whole of OHT 8.8 and ask for feedback on how to get the level 4 writing up to level 5. Show in the exemplar of level 5 how it can be done. Challenge G Help students to redraft their analyses by lengthening sentences and varying their structure. Refer students to examples given in the Student Book, including the use of past participles to begin a sentence.

G

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Unit 8

Past lives

Worksheet 8.7: The right questions

Use this to record the additional questions you would ask about Sources A and B in your Unit 8 Assignment. Questions about the information Focus on content and authorship

Questions about the written evidence Focus on reliability

Assessment of the evidence Focus on strengths and weaknesses

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Unit 8

Past lives

OHT 8.8: Peer assessment

Assessment Focus

AF3: Organise and present whole texts effectively, sequencing and structuring information

Level 4 Source A is written evidence that comes from `London Labour and the London Poor' by Henry Mayhew. It was written in 1861 and tells us about the life of a mud-lark. This was someone who searched in the mud on the riverbank for objects to sell. There is an interview with a mud-lark included. The words are his. So the writer's information is reliable. Overall, I think that this is useful evidence because it tells us about children's lives. However, the paragraph is short. So I think we should look for more evidence to back this up.

Level 5

semi-colon used to lengthen the sentence separates two pieces of information

Source A is written evidence that comes from `London Labour and the London Poor' by Henry Mayhew. It was written in 1861 and tells us about the life of a mud-lark; someone who searched in the mud on the riverbank for objects to sell. He collected such things as `old iron, rope' and `bones'. There is an interview with a mud-lark included and the words are his. So the writer's information seems reliable. Overall, this is useful evidence because it tells us about children's lives. However the paragraph is very short. So I would recommend we look for more evidence to back this up.

examples quoted from the source

formal style suited to analysis

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