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Flight Testing

Complex 2030 Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

Generic Data Request Alternative 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to Nevada Test Site

Summary

The Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), manages the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The historical mission for the NTS for over 50 years has been the development and testing of nuclear weapons, weapons effects, and weapons safety and reliability in support of the Nuclear Weapons Laboratories and the Department of Defense (currently the Defense Threat Reduction Agency). The NTS is a unique expanse of federally controlled land and facilities in a remote region of southern Nevada that was set aside by the U.S. for the purpose of testing nuclear weapons. The approximately 1,375 square miles that make up the test site are surrounded by the Department of Defense Nevada Test and Training Ranges and unpopulated land controlled by the Bureau of Land Management. The geology, hydrology, meteorology, and radiological environments are well characterized. The NTS Environmental Impact Statement and the associated Record of Decision allow for the execution of a variety of complex and unique projects and experiments while ensuring the protection of the workers, the public and the environment. The NNSA, through its Complex 2030 Vision, which is aimed at consolidating and reducing the footprint of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) operations and high hazard experiments to a few or even one site, requested the NNSA Nevada Site Office (NSO) to conduct a review of an alternative of transferring the Joint Test Assembly (JTA) Flight Test Program for the B61 and B83 gravity bombs from the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to the NTS. Because both the TTR and the NTS are in Nye County, Nevada, this action would result in combining the flight test portions of the Stockpile Assurance Program to the NTS mission. This would bring NNSA closer to achieving its goals of the Complex 2030. A rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost estimate for relocating the Flight Test Program from the TTR to the NTS is $7.6-million. This includes the physical transfer of current instrumentation and test equipment and the very modest costs for construction of several concrete pads for the reinstallation of tracking and photographic instruments on the proposed test bed. The ROM estimate for annual Program operating costs at NTS is $10.3-million, which includes $3.8million for the NTS support portion only. These costs are detailed in the Alternative Discussion. There will be only moderate NTS security costs compared to existing Tonopah security costs because the NTS Stockpile Stewardship Program has an existing on-site security force, so no other costs should be required other than campaign costs. The very moderate relocation costs would easily be recouped within a short period of time based upon the savings in security costs alone. This document provides an overview of the projected schedule and a breakdown of ROM estimates for both the transfer of the JTA Flight Test Program to the NTS and for continued operation of the Program at NTS. Additionally, we have included the proposed TTR new equipment costs.

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

Introduction

The current Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Joint Test Assembly (JTA) Flight Testing Program is being conducted on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Both the B61 and B83 gravity bombs are part of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. Both bombs are unguided and carried by United States Air Force (USAF) aircraft. Authority for the B61 and B83 joint Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and USAF Flight Test Program is contained in a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the NNSA and the USAF regarding Joint Test Assessment of the Nuclear Weapons Stockpile dated February 16, 2001. The purpose of the Flight Testing Program is to test the JTA in a normal "stockpile-to-target" sequence (STS). Data generated by this program is essential to certify the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. Part of the data request for input for the Complex 2030 Supplemental Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) is to examine an alternative of relocating the JTA Flight Testing Program from the TTR to the Nevada Test Site (NTS). 1 Per the NNSA HQ decision in October 2006, no B61 or B83 flight tests with SNM will be planned after completion of the current required set of tests. These tests are scheduled for completion before the end of FY08 at the TTR. If this decision is subsequently changed or an emergency variance in mission is required and cable pull-down testing is required, however, then these tests can be performed at the Nevada Test Site. Therefore, while SNM test units are not addressed in this document, there is inherent flexibility in the planning for future operations to allow for mission change/variation without subsequent prohibited consequences. This, indeed, parallels with the concept of Complex 2030 ­ reducing the footprint, strategically forecasting cost implications and potential challenges. Since the NTS is an NNSA facility with top priority for Stockpile related programs and has historically supported the testing needs for numerous "high hazard" tests, this alternative is logical and realistic. It supports the concept of the implementation of a responsive nuclear weapons infrastructure by increasing the NNSA test flexibility and responsiveness to rapidly changing environments. The addition of operations at the NTS provides numerous advantages. Among these, DOE expands upon a strategic asset that is available to meet short notice requirements for the DOE stockpile. NTS provides NNSA customers testing priority over other non-DOE programs that compete when testing at U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) test ranges. Recent experience of testing at DoD ranges indicates the original cost estimates are not well understood, and may be the "best case" at each test range. Additionally, it is thought that military drops done at DoD test ranges may not offer the same fidelity in testing requirements that is necessary for a JTA drop, given that the latter has significantly more scientific and engineering data requirements.

The Generic Data Request for the Complex 2030 SEIS requests two types of data: (1) site environmental baseline data; and (2) data for alternatives. Site environmental baseline data will be used to write the "affected environment" chapter. This data is generally readily available from other NEPA documents, Annual Site Environmental Reports, and other monitoring/permit reports. This will be gathered by the Complex 2030 NEPA team. Data for each alternative will be used to develop the descriptions of the SEIS alternatives and assess the environmental impacts. The alternatives addressed in this paper are 2.g. and 3.h. for the Transfer of Flight Testing to WSMR or NTS.

1

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

Additionally, the NTS Geology includes a myriad of soil alternatives including: dry lake beds, hard rock tunnels, permeable, and mixed soils which provide opportunities for many possible test conditions into the future. It is not possible to perform a direct cost comparison between DoD and DOE as potential relocation sites due to significant accounting practice differences between the DoD and DOE sites. (1) DoD treats all infrastructure costs as separate line item budgets and users are not charged for any of these costs. Conversely, (2) DOE requires that all project costs including infrastructure be distributed to all users. NTS falls under the DOE cost model. The advantages of moving the TTR JTA flight tests to the NTS include: · · · Scheduling of JTA flight tests will have top priority at the NTS as a key element of the Stockpile Stewardship Program, Scheduling additional tests beyond the number currently planned can readily be accomplished at a minimal cost increase to the Program, In response to Public Law 109-364, Section 3111, the NNSA has reported to congress that "NTS will be considered as a potential site for conduct of flight testing currently performed at the Tonopah Test Range," Initial one-time investment in relocation costs can be recovered (in less than two years) in savings in security costs as security already exists as part of the NTS Stockpile Stewardship Program, thus should require minimal additional campaign costs, The NTS security work force is in place and can handle manpower surge requirements to support both flight test and recovery operations as part of the NTS mission as has been demonstrated by their previous experience, Preserving 30 to 60 skilled jobs in Nye County, Nevada while maintaining the continuity of currently scheduled testing by moving the JTA testing from TTR to NTS, and increasing the work week to 4-10 hour days from 3-13 hour days, Expanding and enhancing the workforce capabilities for both the NTS and TTR missions in all areas including technical, security, construction and mining, The USAF (Nellis AFB) currently executes management controls for airspace only for both TTR and NTS since they represent a contiguous restricted airspace, JTA staff can immediately move into existing buildings (no new construction necessary), Significantly enhancing Complex 2030 mission by combining Stockpile Stewardship Test and Development work with the STS JTA flight tests portion of the stockpile assurance program plus potential consolidation of environmental testing needs of stockpile weapons (e.g., cable pull down facilities), and Reducing costs for transportation of personnel and equipment from Las Vegas or Pahrump to the NTS versus Tonopah (80 miles vs. 240 miles).

·

·

·

· · · ·

·

The NTS has continuously provided support for the National Laboratories and DTRA in conduct of specialized tests since its inception. Recent NTS experience related to the JTA Flight Test Program includes:

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

· · · ·

DTRA air drops of earth penetrating weapons (both inert and active), 2 Depleted Uranium (DU) tank rounds fired into hard targets on the NTS, Missiles fired from NTS to impact at TTR, and Routine interface with Nellis AFB Range Operation personnel and Explosive Ordinance Disposal (EOD) staff.

Since the cessation of active nuclear testing in 1992, the NTS has been used by the Nuclear Weapons Laboratories as a field laboratory for conduct of high-hazard and science based tests related to the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP). The current SSP infrastructure meets or is applicable to JTA program needs. The JTA drops contain classified components and the NTS is already in a position with Q-cleared personnel and facilities to support such operations. The Flight Test Program can readily leverage its current capabilities: · · · Expertise and process for movement of classified articles is in place; Radiation control and emergency response personnel are already in-place; and Procedures and operational documentation support existing NTS operations.

There are many opportunities for the Flight Test Program to leverage the infrastructure currently in place at the NTS with little cost impact to the program. The SSP also has an advantage since the Flight Test Program would utilize existing NTS infrastructure needed to support SSP Readiness while simultaneously increasing the utilization of existing infrastructure. Thus, both programs are enhanced. The facilities and personnel that might be immediately leveraged include: · · · · Existing microwave communications infrastructure, Existing site fiber-optic infrastructure between facilities and connection to the internet, Existing site power, roads, water, communication, feeding, etc., supporting all operations, and Existing workforce with engineering, design, and construction capabilities and associated equipment and facilities that currently support all NTS activities.

In addition to ready access to the existing NTS infrastructure, the NTS workforce has experience and the "can-do" attitude to support complex testing. This provides the Flight Test Program with an environment and additional pool of talent that is already quality, safety, and security conscious due to the nature of their work and years of experience on the job. Additionally, many of the technical and management staff and the security force at the NTS are already Q-cleared. Many also have Human Reliability Program (HRP) certification. The NTS security work force is in place and can support both flight tests and recovery operations as part of the NTS mission as has been demonstrated by their previous experience.

2

These included 25 flights (some were multiple delivery) which resulted in over 40 weapons successfully dropped on NTS targets.

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

Added Benefits for Complex 2030

Leveraging the consolidation envisioned under the Complex 2030 objective for testing other components of current and future weapons in the stockpile at the NTS would also enhance the opportunities for lowering overall costs to the Nation. There are a number of other Environmental Testing Facilities (ETFs) in the NNSA weapons complex whose purpose is to determine if stockpile weapons meet the STS requirements. As the stockpile has decreased, there is an excess in the number and capacity of these testing facilities. Consolidating many of these facilities on the NTS would enhance the opportunities for savings in labor and facilities to support testing needs. Within the weapons complex, the ETFs are used to perform physical testing and simulations of a variety of natural and induced environments on nuclear weapons' components, subsystems and full-up weapons. Additionally, ETFs are used for stockpile surveillance, resolving significant findings of investigation, model development and validation, and the development of diagnostics and measurement technologies required to qualify weapons system to meet the military characterization requirements. These facilities consist of sled tracks; centrifuges; aerial cable facilities; burn sites; shock, vibration, and electromagnetic test facilities; radiation testing sites; aeroscience and wind tunnels; and many small laboratories for component testing.

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

Alternative Description

The SNL flight test operations would be relocated as they now exist to the NTS. Several possible locations for the JTA Flight Testing Program on the NTS were considered; Mid-Valley, Frenchman Flats, and Yucca Lake. Other locations are also feasible, but have not been examined as yet. No location has yet been counted out, although a drop test site on Mid-Valley, Area 14 (Figure 1) was chosen for developing a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) estimate since it provides the greatest isolation from other NTS activities. Given this, it also would require the most infrastructure to support this operation.

Figure 1 ­ Mid-Valley, Area 14 was selected as the location for the Flight Test Program Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) estimate

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

The Mid-Valley location (Figure 2) was assumed to be the initial (primary) location for establishing the necessary facilities for conducting the JTA Flight Test Program. The Range Safety Footprint Analysis 3 was reviewed for the proposed tests and it was concluded that the Mid-Valley site met the necessary safety criteria to permit the program to use this area of the NTS. Mid-Valley site preparation includes test bed design, concrete pads, roads, and generator power. The NTS will provide a microwave data/video link from the SNL-provided technical systems in Mid-Valley to the NTS Control Point (CP) complex. Other sites are also available on the NTS offering a variety of geologic conditions for testing advanced weapons designs. Transition from TTR to NTS is planned to occur during the latter part of FY 2009 and the beginning of FY 2010. This permits the transfer costs to be spread over two fiscal years while providing adequate time for planning and engineering for the NTS to receive the transferred equipment from TTR. Construction of the needed pads and target would occur after the Record of Decision for the SEIS occurs. Figure 2 ­ View of NTS Area 14, Mid-Valley Flight Test Program system upgrades would only begin after transition is complete or at least not until 2010, recognizing that the funding for these upgrades would come after transition and would be phased in over several FY. The relevant milestones and activities are shown in Figure 3. It is planned to offer the current staff of approximately 30 to 60 persons continuing employment at NTS thus preserving these skilled jobs in Nye County, Nevada while maintaining the continuity of currently scheduled testing. The JTA Flight Test Program staff will be housed in CP-40, an existing facility that includes an available high-bay area and office space. Minor building preparation will be accomplished once the approval to proceed has been issued. A photograph of CP-40 is provided in Figure 4 and the current layout is shown in Figure 5. CP40 is an administrative type building with restrooms and sufficient space to house the Flight Test Program staff and data acquisition and communications equipment. It also contains two high bay (garage type) rooms that would be useful for equipment repair or storage. Another existing

High Altitude/High Speed and Low Altitude/High Speed drops were reviewed for the proposed NTS target area. These included: Range Safety Footprint Analysis for FTU-J10-1, Walt Wolfe, SNL, dated June 23, 2003; Range Safety Footprint Analysis for B83 JTA-109, Walt Wolfe, SNL, dated July 31, 2004; Range Safety Footprint Analysis for B61 SRM-3, Walt Wolfe, SNL, dated January 13, 2005; Range Safety Footprint Analysis for B61 JTA-433, Walt Wolfe, SNL, dated August 23, 2004.

3

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

facility, building CP-20 (Figure 6) could be used to house equipment and, if additional space is needed, the SNL Flight Test Program data acquisition systems and communications. The main NTS control point, Figure 8 and Figure 7, would be used by SNL during actual flight testing.

Figure 3 ­ Schedule of events and activities for the transition of the JTA Flight Test Program to the NTS in support of Complex 2030

Figure 4 ­ CP-40 includes administrative areas and a high bay that would be useful for assembling test hardware

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

Figure 5 ­ CP-40 plan view showing the basic existing layout of the facility

Figure 6 ­ CP-20 is an ideal facility for housing the electronics for the Flight Test Program

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

Figure 8 ­ The main control room in CP1 will be used during the actual flight tests

Figure 7 ­ Another view of the main control room in CP-1

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

Existing communications capabilities between the CP facilities located in the southeast portion of Area 6, include a fiber optic link between the CP microwave towers and CP-1, 20, and 40. Microwave data communications are available for connecting data and video requirements from the target area to the CP complex. Setup of the microwave data/video links is a routine test requirement on the NTS. These same communications infrastructure elements can readily be applied to other locations on the site should the JTA Flight Test Program desire to test in different geological regimes.

Construction and Operations Data

The estimated cost for the initial move from TTR and the setup of the facilities at NTS are shown in Table 1. Table 2 provides the initial ROM estimate for the NTS support costs for annual operation of the program including a ROM of the SNL Program, both labor and other direct costs, based upon the 2007 Program escalated at 2.8% per year. Also provided are the specific estimates for the SEIS Generic Data Request, Table 3 and Table 4. Note that the operations estimates are not yet complete and the SNL "No Action Alternative" should be used for a complete list of hazardous chemicals and waste categories.

TTR New Equipment Upgrade

Additionally, one of the assumptions is that upgrades to the equipment would need to be made in the same timetable as proposed by TTR. SNL's new equipment proposal estimate equals to a cost estimate of $14.5M. Figure 9 demonstrates graphically that new equipment costs will be recouped within three years.

Table 1 ­ Initial ROM estimate for moving the JTA Flight Test Program to the NTS ITEM 1 RELOCATION ITEM DESCRIPTION Pre-Readiness Project Management, Engineering, Testbed Design and Planning, Authorization Basis Documentation, 15 Months Pre-Readiness Testbed Construction, Facility Preparation, Communication Link Construction, 12 Months (excluding concrete target) Transfer of SNL Technical Systems, Data Acquisition, Data Reduction, and Miscellaneous Hardware to NTS, 6 Months* Installation and Startup of SNL Technical Systems in Testbed and Data Acquisition Equipment in CP-20, 6 Months Total Relocation Costs (FY 2009) ROM COST $3,700K

2

$2,200K

3

$600K

4

$1,100K

$7,700K

·

This assumes that the Sandia staff and O&M contractor at TTR are fully funded in FY09 & 1st 3 months of FY10 to support the disassembly of equipment at TTR, transportation to NTS, and re-assembly of flight test support equipment at NTS.

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

· ITEM 1

Table 2 ­ Initial ROM estimate for operating the JTA Flight Test Program on the NTS (including SNL program costs) JTA FLIGHT TEST PROGRAM NTS OPERATING ITEM DESCRIPTION Annualized Post-Readiness Operations Cost including Project Management, Test Safety Reviews, Airspace/OCC Coordination, Facility Charges, Test Execution Support, Radcon Support, RSL Photography Support, and JTA Recovery and Transportation to a Bunker, based on 14 JTA tests per year occurring on 7 drop days Annual Security (Based upon WSI memorandum dated 15 December '06) Support: ROM COST $3,700K

2

$100K

3

ARL/SORD SUPPORT: Air Resources Laboratory/Special Operations and Research Division (within NOAA) ­ Weather Service Support, included as overhead costs. Daily soundings taken at Desert Rock. Approximately $2K per sounding if Test Day soundings requested. Total NTS Operating Costs on Annualized Basis (FY 2010)

$0

$3,800K $6,500K

4

Current 2007 SNL annual Program operating costs ($6-million/year), escalated at 2.8% per year. Assumes starting at NTS January 1, 2010. Total Annual JTA Program Costs at NTS Beginning 2010

$10,300K

25

Program Cost at TTR w/SNM 20 No SNM Savings w/SNM Program Cost at TTR w/o SNM Millions of Dollars 15 Savings w/o SNM

10 Program Costs at NTS (includes relocation)

5

0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Fiscal Year

Figure 9 ­ Comparison of JTA Flight Test Program Costs at TTR and NTS

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

Table 3 ­ Construction data for SEIS Generic Data Request CONSTRUCTION

Data Required Peak Electrical Energy (Mwe) Diesel Generators (Yes or No) Concrete (yd3) Steel (t)

Consumption/Use 40,000 kwh Yes 800 cubic yards 1 Ton

Liquid fuel and lube oil (gal) Water (gal) Land (acre) Laydown Area Size Parking Lots Employment Total employment (worker years) Peak employment (workers) Construction period (years) Waste Generated Low level Liquid (gal) Solid (yd3) Mixed Low-level Liquid (gal) Solid (yd3) Hazardous Liquid (gal)

32,000 2,880,000 3,047 / 727 2 each 200' X 300' N/A 0 0 30 15 months Volume

0 0

0 0

0

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

CONSTRUCTION

Solid (yd3) Nonhazardous (Sanitary) Liquid (gal) Solid (yd3) Nonhazardous (Other) Liquid (gal) Solid (yd3)

0

0 6,000 gal

0 45 cubic yards

Table 4 ­ Annual Operations data estimates for SEIS Generic Data Request ANNUAL OPERATIONS 4

Data Required Annual Electrical energy (MWh) Peak electrical demand (Mwe) Fuel usage (gal or yd3) Other Process Gas (N, Ar, etc) Water (gal) Steam (tons) Plant footprint (acres) Employment (workers) Number of Rad Workers Average annual dose (per Sandia) Maximum worker dose (per Sandia)

Consumption/Use 480,000 40,000 kwh 32,150 480 1,680,000 0 3,047 29 1 <10Mrem Not answered

The operations estimates are not yet complete. Therefore, the SNL "No Action Alternative" should be used as a reference for a complete list of hazardous chemicals and waste categories.

4

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

ANNUAL OPERATIONS 4

Radionuclide emissions and effluents - nuclides and Curies NAAQS emissions (tons/yr) (per Sandia) Hazardous Air Pollutants and Effluents (tons/yr) (per Sandia Chemical Use (per Sandia) Maximum inventory of fissile material/throughout Waste Category Low level Liquid (gal) Solid (yd3) Mixed Low-level Liquid (gal) Solid (yd3) TRU Liquid (gal) Solid (yd3) HLW/Spent Fuel Liquid (gal) Solid (yd3) Hazardous Liquid (gal) Solid (yd3) Nonhazardous (Sanitary) Liquid (gal) Solid (yd3)

0 13.32 HCL - 3.7E-06 0 0 Volume

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

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Complex 2030 SEIS Generic Data Request Alt. 2.g. and 3.h. ­ Transfer Flight Testing to NTS March 12, 2007

ANNUAL OPERATIONS 4

Nonhazardous (Sanitary) Liquid (gal) Solid (yd3) 0 700 gal

Transportation

All post-test transportation from the NTS to the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX would be identical to the current TTR process. New agreements replacing NTS as the originating site would replace the TTR agreements. NTS has a long history including formal agreements with Albuquerque for the shipment of SNM and classified components to and from major DOE/NNSA sites and is therefore thoroughly familiar with the processes and procedures for these shipments.

Accidents

The JTA Flight Test Program will develop a program specific emergency plan. This plan will interface with the NTS Comprehensive Emergency Management Plan ensuring the integration of potential program concerns. This same process was used to address concerns associated with the DTRA Hard and Buried Target test program.

Terrorist Threats

Following the NNSA Design Figure 10 ­ Storage sites for the JTA are available on the NTS Basis Threat criteria for JTA drops, the NTS security contractor and NTS operations would provide appropriate storage sites and coverage for each test (Figure 10).

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Concept of Operations for joint US Air Force/NNSA Gravity Weapons Flight Test Program

The B61 and the B83 gravity bombs are part of the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. Both bombs are unguided gravity bombs carried and released by US Air Force aircraft. Authority for the B61 and the B83 Joint NNSA/Air Force Flight Test Program is contained in the Memorandum of Understanding between the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Department of the Air Force Regarding Joint Testing and Assessment of the Nuclear Weapons Stockpile, dated 16 February 2001. The purpose of both Flight Test Program is to test the Joint Test Assembly (JTA) in a normal "stockpile-to-target sequence" (STS). Data generated by this program is essential to certify the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. Currently, certain versions of the B61 bomb can be dropped from the B-2A and the B52H Bombers, while other B61 configurations may be dropped from the F-15E, F-16C and the PA-200 fighter aircraft. The B83 bomb can only be dropped from a B-2A or a B52H aircraft. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducts an assessment program to assure the reliability and safety of the nuclear weapons in the stockpile are maintained at the levels required by the NNSA and the DoD. Nuclear weapons are selected from the stockpile, returned to the Pantex plant near Amarillo TX, denuclearized, instrumented, and then tested. Coordination between SNL and the DoD is primarily handled by the Joint Test Working Group (JTWG) for each weapon. This group is co-chaired by DoD and NNSA, and is specifically concerned with stockpile testing and evaluation. Membership is comprised of representatives from all concerned agencies. Weapons are randomly selected from the stockpile each year for testing and evaluation. The weapons are transported from DoD locations and delivered to the Pantex plant where they are disassembled and inspected, with any defects recorded. The nuclear portion of the weapon is removed and relocated to separate areas for further analysis. The nonnuclear portion of the weapon is reassembled with instrumentation into a flight test configuration, called a Joint Test Assembly (JTA). Therefore, no JTA configuration is capable of providing a nuclear yield. Each year, anywhere between 2-6 bombs from each system will become JTAs. Joint Test Assemblies containing components from the stockpile together with data acquisition and transmission equipment provide as-realistic-as-possible tests for use with military delivery systems, without the nuclear package. Completed JTAs are then shipped to DoD operational bases where they are mated to their aircraft delivery systems, and then flight tested. Gravity bombs are flown by operational aircraft to various Test Ranges and dropped.

Prior to each weapon flight test, there is significant coordination between the SNL test engineer and the DoD test squadron. As much realism as possible is planned into each test while ensuring the primary objectives from both SNL and DoD are met. The bombs can be dropped from high or low altitude, and from a slow speed to a high speed. Test range radar and optical tracking systems record the aircraft performance until the JTA is released. Once the JTA is dropped from the aircraft, these systems track the JTA until it has landed on the ground. Before JTAs are released, formal joint DoD/NNSA procedures, called Non-Nuclear Verifications, are followed to assure the nuclear package is not present in the JTA. Most JTA configurations are highly instrumented. Others have minimal instrumentation to allow as many of the war reserve components to be tested in a realistic environment. The information provided by the range systems as well as the on-board recording systems provide performance and reliability information for both the SNL engineers and the DoD mission planners. The data generated by this program is essential to certify the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile.

Integrated Project Team Analysis Requirements & Assumptions IPT Designation:

1.Mission-related Requirements & Assumptions

Flight Test Alternatives (1) The requirements for the flight test mission are identified in the Official Use Only (OUO) Program Introductory Document dated October 3, 2005. The requirements are summarized here from that document to keep the input non-OUO. The requirements are for 10 to 12 flight tests for stockpile systems per year and 2 to 7 development flight tests per year.

2.Nature/size of the Stockpile Requirements & Assumptions

(1)

3.Capability/Competencyrelated Requirements Assumptions

&

(1)

4.Capacity/Throughputrelated Requirements Assumptions

&

(1)

5.Schedule/Timeline-related Requirements & Assumptions

(1)

6.Location/Configurationrelated Requirements Assumptions

&

(1)

7.D&D ­related Requirements & Assumptions

(1)

The WSMR and NTS options are options that will require that D&D be accomplished prior to turn over of the TTR to the Air Force. The other three options keep the flight test mission at the TTR. The amount of D&D will be the result of a negotiated process with the Air Force.

8.External Influences/IPT Connectivity Requirements & Assumptions

(1)

Other (1) Environmental Restoration

(1)

The WSMR and NTS options are options that will require that NNSA determine what environment restoration is to be accomplished prior to turning the TTR over to the Air Force. The other three options keep the flight test mission at the TTR. The amount of environmental restoration will be accomplished in accordance with the Sandia Land Use Permit and other applicable requirements.

Other (2)

(1)

Other (3)

(1)

Other (4)

(1)

COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS TTR Closure Alternative Review Information - Tonopah Test Range (No-Action Alternative) Per the NNSA HQ decision in October 2006, no B61 or B83 flight tests with SNM will be planned or conducted after FY08. Therefore, SNM test requirements are not addressed in this document. Since 1957, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has conducted flight tests of gravity bomb systems and supported testing of many military tactical systems at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). TTR was established through a land permit from the Nellis Air Force Base (Nellis AFB) and that permit was renegotiated and extended in FY 2001. During the early years, SNL operated the range for DOE, and conducted hundreds of tests annually. Beginning in the early 1990s, the number, and types of tests at TTR declined coincident with various international events.1 The current permit with the U.S. Air Force (USAF) extends the land-use permit to 2019. At that time, either a new permit must be negotiated, or the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) funded operations at TTR would end. If the NNSA closes the TTR operations prior to the end of the permit, NNSA would still be required to remediate the land to a specified level. There are ongoing discussions between the NNSA, USAF and the State of Nevada aimed to define the levels to which the area would have to be cleaned. This remediation is currently estimated to be between $100M and $500M and will be refined during this PEIS process. A demolition and disposal (D&D) activity would also be required to remove facilities and structures no longer required by the military services. Finally, in order to assess all options, an important variant need to be worked to ensure that all possibilities have been addressed. This variant is to examine the implications of terminating the permit agreement with the AF, and becoming a tenant on AF property. What are the financial and programmatic implications of such a change? Would it be possible to pay the AF for security, medical, fire protection services that are required by the Sandia operations at TTR and would the cost of these services be significantly less than the cost of NNSA providing those services? Would the operational areas and flight corridors be protected for the NNSA mission, or would encroachment jeopardize NNSA's ability to conduct the mission at TTR? Although there is no apparent environmental impact to this variant, it should be considered as part of both OPTION 1 and OPTION 2 to capture possible cost reductions to current forecast operations. CURRENT RANGE CAPABILITIES: a) Command and Control ­ The TTR Test Director (TD), along with the military test representative provides direction over the entire test. The TD is responsible for the safe conduct of the test, while ensuring all required test objectives are met. The TD is in constant communication with all range support groups to ensure all systems are fully operational. The TD is also in constant communication with the military personnel that have a communication link with the pilot of the aircraft delivering the test article, ensuring that delivery objectives will be achieved. 3 b) Optical/video ­ TTR provides complete range-wide optical tracking capabilities. All of the optical trackers have the Target Vector Translation System (TVTS) installed, which receives target acquisition and focusing data from each operating radar station to drive the tracking mounts.

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Cinetheodolites (Cine-T) are used to obtain precise time-space position information of the test unit. The Cine-T's can be set up at any of the existing 31 concrete pads, which ensures complete coverage of any test area and approach corridor on the range. Mobile tracking telescopes can be positioned at any accessible place on the test range. Tracking telescopes and hand track stations are used to obtain high quality photographic images on 35 mm and 70 mm film. They are also used to determine event times, position information, generate public relations photos, and provide standard and high-speed video imagery. The film is taken to the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas for processing. Reduction of optical data is usually completed in one to two weeks.3 c) Tracking Radars ­ The radars perform a primary tracking function, as well as, complement other instrumentation on the range. During flight tests, they continuously track in-bound aircraft and delivered targets. Most of the radars have been designed or modified for precision and reliability, and several are mobile and can be moved to accommodate all range targets and aircraft. Radar data provides real-time data for the graphic displays and provides time-space position information to the computer for posttest analysis. The radars are equipped with closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Video is recorded at each radar, transmitted to the Operations Center, and displayed for test engineers and observers to view the mission in progress. 3 d) Telemetry ­ The telemetry stations at TTR are used for data collection to monitor performance of the test vehicle during the course of the operation. Critical data is displayed in real time during the test. After the test, the data is reproduced and processed into quick-look records for preliminary engineering evaluation. A mobile trailer is typically positioned near the target area to enhance recovery of terminal data transmitted by the B83 during a contact fuzing test. Magnetic tapes are sent to the customer for comprehensive data reduction and archival. 3 e) Operations Control Center ­ The Operations Control Center sits atop the Operations building and has a 360-degree view of the range. The center houses alphanumeric and graphic LCD displays, video monitors, air traffic radar displays, camera controls, radio nets and telephone systems. During test operations, the test director, range safety officer, test project engineer, camera controller and range communicator staff the consoles in the center to control and coordinate all test functions. All of the operator consoles contain LCDs for alphanumeric, graphic or video displays along with telephone and radio communication links and time display. A camera controller's console contains the instrumentation for on/off control of all operational Cine-T's and light metering equipment. The range communicator's console has access to all TTR telecommunications and RF nets, and meteorological instrumentation. This position also provides a real time coordination and interface position for air traffic control/FAA agencies and emergency security response. 3 f) Photometrics and Photography ­ The photometrics group at TTR provides high speed motion picture and video coverage for data acquisition and Public Relations documentation. The post-test data reduction provides time-space position information, trajectory angles and angles of attack and rotational velocities. Data is available in a variety of media, including 35mm and 70mm formats, color reversal, color negative and black and white. They provide both prints in color and black and white, as well as video in tape formats or CD/DVD. High quality still photography is available for both pre- and posttest activities.3

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g) Communications ­ The TTR has a fully integrated communications system of ground-to-air and ground-to-ground radio links using both radio frequency (RF) and land line equipment that ensures support of test activities and emergencies. There are numerous "nets" that provide direct communications between selected groups. Each major range function, including radar, telemetry and cameras is assigned to one of the ground nets, and all key interfunction stations are tied together by the test operations net. The Sandia net is used for routine range communications. Additional radio links include high frequency single sideband for long-range communications and RF tie-ins with state police and medical emergency networks. 3 h) Aircraft Flight Safety ­ TTR is located in a very remote area of the Nellis Air Force Base Bombing and Gunnery Range. The remote location, situated between two mountain ranges, and with restricted airspace, ensures tests can be conducted with a high degree of safety. The high desert location varies from 5,300 to 5,600 feet mean sea level, providing a very large flat area for aircraft to traverse with a high degree of safety. 3 i) Airspace ­ TTR provides full coordination for all airspace requirements for each test. The TTR Test Director (TD) attends monthly meetings with local AF airspace coordinators to ensure all required on range and off range airspace is reserved and potential conflicts with other Range users are avoided. In the event a change in test planning requires a change in air or ground space utilization the TD will coordinate such changes with the responsible Nellis AFB agency. 3 j) Explosive Ordnance Disposal/Recovery ­ TTR has trained explosive operators on hand for all tests. They have basic explosives training and have specific training for each test article prior to the test. They have heavy equipment, including cranes, backhoes, and forklifts available for light construction, maintenance, material handling and test vehicle recovery. They pioneered and developed a unique method for recovery of penetrating test vehicles, so there is minimal ground disturbance. 3 k) Meteorology ­ Three weather stations and rawindsonde balloon launches generate the range metrological data. The weather station at the hard target measures wind speed and direction, temperature, dew point and barometric pressure. Instrumentation on a 300-foot tower measure wind speed and direction, and temperature at three levels. Data from these two stations are transmitted over land lines to the Operations Control Center for recording and display. When upper atmosphere weather conditions are require for specific tests, range personnel launch rawindsonde balloons. Measurements of temperature, relative humidity, wind speeds and direction can be obtained at altitudes up to 90,000 feet.3 l) TECCS (Test Evaluation Command and Control System) - TECCS is a real-time data acquisition program developed and distributed by Edwards AFB. TECCS provides graphics of aircraft flight paths in relation to other airborne vehicles and established ground points, supports mission control activities with altitude threshold, run-in lines for bomb drop missions, and push-over lines for high angle-of-attack missions. TTR Control Point operators monitor real-time TECCS data to ensure aircraft lines of flight and payload deliveries remain within predefined safe boundaries. TECCS obtains target information from FAA data sources and on site TTR Radar facilities. The graphics facility provides the operational and display environment for the aircraft control operator and the radar director. A map select system allows the operator to select from different map displays. The

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operator may also select which radar tracks are to be used, alphanumeric display (in feet, meters, or nautical miles), radar operational status, and hard copy production. Plotting data can be frozen at any point, and a playback capability permits multiple passes on recorded data files. The tracking data is superimposed on background maps that contain range boundaries, instrumentation locations, geographic features and mission-unique features, such as predicted track and run-in lines. Another system displays both FAA search radar data and range radar tracking data. This supports range safety by continuously monitoring the area airspace and provides a complete "air picture". 3 m) Security ­ Security at the range is provided by Q-cleared personnel. Classified storage areas and repositories are available for test items and documents. 3 n) Radiological Technician ­ Provided by SNL from Albuquerque. For any tests that require posttest radiography, the equipment and specialists are provided by one of the physics laboratories. Permits and logistics are coordinated by the TD and on-site range specialist. o) Emergency Services ­ Fire and Medical services are provided by a highly qualified staff of Paramedics, Emergency Technicians and Firefighters. The Medical Clinic and Fire Department are co-located in the Range Headquarters area. Emergency support equipment includes 2 ambulances, 2-1,000 gallon pumper fire trucks, a Fire Rescue truck with a 250-gallon pumper on-board, and a Haz Mat system comprised of 2 trailers, Response and Decontamination. A medical aid station with 2 ambulances, staffed by highly qualified Paramedics and Emergency Medical Technicians, is located near the range headquarters. A modern full-service hospital is located in the town of Tonopah about 35 miles from the range. 3 p) Shipping and Receiving­ TTR performs all requirements to ship hazardous and non-hazardous post-test assets and material off range. Coordination is performed with the NNSA Office of Safeguards Transportation for all Joint Test Assembly (JTA) shipments. These shipments include explosives and radioactive components. 3 q) Working Space ­ Work areas with computer access is provided for all customers in the Range Administration Building.3 r) Cost ­ The annual operations cost for the entire range is approximately $9.68M. The annual cost for Security (includes SNM test activity) at TTR is approximately $9.8M. The Air Force reimburses NNSA $2.7M annually for their use of those security services (the net cost to NNSA for security is $7.1M).4 The annual cost for maintaining fire protection and medical services is approximately $1.0 M per year s) Targets ­ TTR has a wide variety of targets located along a basic N-S line. The Antelope Lake in the southern part of the range provides a variety of penetration targets to a depth exceeding 150 feet. The Main Lake in the northern part of the range is comprised of a 750-ft diameter concrete target (Hard Target) and an extensive lake bed for all types of missions from low level penetration missions to retarded (parachute) impacts. t) Computer Facility ­ The range computer facility is the data gathering and distribution center for all test activities. Real-time data processing and control functions are handled by dual servers with

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automatic switch over capability, ensuring reliable back-up to meet demanding test schedules. The data processing servers acquire, store, and display radar tracking data. Range data is formatted and displayed in real time for use by the Test Director, Safety Officer and Project Engineer. In addition, camera, telescope and telemetry tracking stations are interfaced to the system allowing them to acquire multiple real-time targets. Data displays can be updated from 10 hertz to every 10 seconds, with radar data recorded at 100 hertz. Several options (e.g. radar choice, range in feet or meters) may be selected at any time. Telemetry displays provide 36 different sets of data pages with up to 40 channels per page. The computer facility can provide radar quick look data that has been translated, rotated or smoothed on a variety of input parameters within minutes of test completion.2 1. Alternative Description The first alternative is to continue flight test operations at the current Tonopah Test Range location. This "no-action" alternative has two options presented with different degrees of no action. The first option is to provide a minimal investment in the present equipment at TTR so that the range is capable of continued support of flight test operations through the current period of the Land Permit with the Air Force. The second option requires additional investment in a mobile solution. Neither of these options results in any significant changes to the current operational activities at the range. The retention of operations at the TTR would provide numerous advantages. Among these, DOE would retain a strategic asset that would be available to meet short notice requirements for the DOE stockpile. TTR provides NNSA customers testing priority over other non-DOE programs that compete when testing at U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) test ranges. Recent experience of testing at DoD ranges indicates the original cost estimates are not well understood, and are understated by each test range. Option 1. This option details the minimum one-time investment required to maintain the TTR through the year 2030. The Tonopah Test Range can be sustained to meet its present mission requirements with reasonable investment in technology and infrastructure. Current cost estimates for bringing the Range to a level of readiness capable of achieving this goal are slightly over sixteen million dollars, spread over several years. This estimate reflects the unloaded costs of investment in necessary technology and infrastructure only. Annual operating budgets and capital equipment life cycle replacement costs are not included in this request. It is anticipated that most costs in those categories will be handled through normal budget/process funding channels. The cost estimates associated with this section assume that all work will be accomplished by on-range employees or contractors already funded. The investment required covers the following areas. The details for each area are described. Radar -- $4.3M. This includes a transformation of one radar from a maintenance intensive unit to a modern fully functional unit, eliminating the prone to failure systems/parts ($3.3M); a future depotlevel maintenance effort for a second radar ($250K); and the acquisition of an Identification, Friend or Foe (IFF) system ($750K). The acquisition of this IFF system allows the elimination of 2 maintenance intensive radar systems and will save over $1M over the next 25 years.

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Telemetry (TM) -- $1.75M. The TM section at TTR consists of a main station and a mobile trailer system (B-67) that permits the collection of TM data throughout the flight path during test operations. There is also a repeater system that can be positioned in remote locations to capture and relay data back to the main TM station. The cost includes a main station upgrade including a depotlevel refurbishment on the TM dish ($100K), replacement of the system on the 8-foot dish with a refurbished antenna, controller, camera and pedestal ($100K), acquisition of two digital recorders to replace the analog magnetic recorders ($250K); refurbishment of the 8-foot antenna dish on the B67 TM station ($100K), replacement of the 2 analog recorders with digital recorders ($250K); acquisition of six new dual receivers ($560K) to support both the main and mobile stations; acquisition of a switching matrix to direct data to range systems ($250K); miscellaneous support accessories for the new recorders ($100K); acquisition of two discriminator chassis' replacing the obsolete system ($40K). Communications -- $2.0M. A new LAN-based system is currently being installed at the TTR. Communications is the heart of that system. This will provide wireless coverage of the TTR at a reasonable data rate and ensure effective communications during critical test periods. This wireless system is critical to the implementation and success of the new data master acquisition system, TRACS. The anticipated costs include procurement and installation of a Voice/Video Over IP (VOIP) communication net ($355K); emplacement of armored multi-strand fiber cable over the west and east side of the target corridor ($1M), procurement and installation of the towers, microwave links, switches, antennas, network client units and base stations ($444K); replacement of UHF radio transceivers to replace current system ($72K); and miscellaneous support cabling and connectors, etc ($129K). Data Reduction -- $500K. The anticipated cost is for a software engineer to support the transition of the UNIX system to a PC-based software processor ($500K). Optics -- $6.7M. The Optics group consists of three distinct functions. The Time Space Positioning Information (TSPI) section collects precise positional data using film cameras on Cinetheodolite mounts. The Event Optics section use telescope tracking mounts used to record event data for documentary purposes. The Photometrics section does both high speed fixed camera arrays and still photography (there are no upgrades anticipated in this area). The costs associated for this group include an upgrade to TSPI Cinetheodolite tracking mounts ($1.82M); and an upgrade to the Event Camera tracking telescope mounts ($4.88M). Facilities -- $1.0M. TTR will continue to use the existing facilities and maintain them within the normal budget process. The immediate costs include a new HVAC system for the control facility and a roof and siding repair on one building. It also includes a repair to the electrical grid and road surfaces. An annual commitment of $550K is required to maintain the infrastructure systems per agreement in the AF-NNSA Land Permit. The immediate needs would include major maintenance to buildings, and a new roof and siding for one facility. The immediate cost needs would be $450K for building repair. The permit requires SNL to maintain and upgrade a specific portion of the roads as well as the power grid on the range. The requirements for the roads would be $500K each year and the annual cost for the power grid would be $50K. The annual cost of the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) contractor is $550K.

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Graphics and Control Center -- $0. Any costs associated with these areas will occur as part of the normal operation and through the normal budget system. The total investment of $15.2M (excludes building upgrades and infrastructure maintenance costs) spread over a few years to maintain and upgrade the range will bring TTR to level of readiness necessary to support flight test operations. This is a small investment in a national asset. The risk associated with these changes is a reduced redundancy in radar coverage, but with the acquisition of the IFF radar, this becomes a very small operational risk. Operational funding. The current staffing levels at TTR will remain the same. The estimate for this area is $10M annually. With the cessation of SNM test activity, it should be possible to turn over range security to the AF and reimburse the AF for NNSA's use of that necessary service.

Option 2. This is referred to as the High-Tech Mobile (HTM) option. This option allows a reduction in the operational costs at TTR because of lower manpower test operational needs and because all test equipment should remain in a highly reliable and operational state between tests dates. With this investment, range campaign activities could be considered. This estimate reflects the unloaded costs of investment in necessary technology and infrastructure only. Annual operating budgets and capital equipment life cycle replacement costs are not included in this request. The cost estimates associated with this section assume that all work will be accomplished by on-range employees or contractors already funded. A vision of the HTM at TTR is shown in the picture below. It includes the acquisition of modern, digital equipment that is compatible with other national test range standards. The emphasis is on Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) equipment with turn-key integration where it is practical. This eliminates and/or reduces the cost significantly. The amount of equipment purchased and integrated into the new concept reduces the number of pieces to approximately 2/3 of today's equipment. A second savings is realized in the amount of time and support equipment required to maintain this state-of-the-art equipment.

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OFFICIAL USE ONLY

OFFICIAL USE ONLY

The investment required covers the following areas. The details for each area are described: Documentary / TSPI Optics ­ ($19.2M). This includes five combined mounts [TSPI and documentary telescopes] (5) units with a separate optics Control Trailer for remote control operations. Encryption capability is included. Radar -- $4.3M. The proposal is identical to that proposed in the minimum investment option. This includes a transformation of one radar from a maintenance intensive unit to a modern fully functional unit, eliminating the prone to failure systems/parts ($3.3M); a future depot-level maintenance effort for a second radar ($250K); and the acquisition of an Identification, Friend or For (IFF) system ($750K). The acquisition of this IFF system allows the elimination of 2 maintenance intensive radar systems and will save over $1M over the next 25 years. Telemetry ­ $5.0M. New telemetry trailers, fully equipped, and antennas will be purchased and all trailers will be DOT certified ($5.0M). This allows both assets to be fully mobile. Operations Control Equipment -- $2.7M. Two operational control trailers, fully equipped, would be acquired to replace the operations that currently take place in the operational control tower at TTR. Test coordination, communications, and safety would all be housed in these trailers. Operation displays would provide continuous coverage of the test in progress.

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Data Reduction -- $500K. The anticipated cost is for a software engineer to support the transition of the UNIX system to a PC-based software processor ($500K). Communications -- $2.0M. A new LAN-based system is currently being installed at the TTR. Communications is the heart of that system. This will provide wireless coverage of the TTR at a reasonable data rate and ensure effective communications during critical test periods. This wireless system is critical to the implementation and success of the new data master acquisition system, TRACS. The anticipated costs include procurement and installation of a Voice/Video Over IP (VOIP) communication net ($355K); emplacement of armored multi-strand fiber cable over the West and Each side of the target corridor ($1M), procurement and installation of the towers, microwave links, switches, antennas, network client units and base stations ($444K); replacement of UHF radio transceivers to replace current system ($72K); and miscellaneous support cabling and connectors, etc ($129K). The total investment of $36.0M cannot be spread over a long period of time due to the fact that the equipment is required to support on-going tests. A proposed development and integration schedule for this project will last approximately 3 years assuming full funding support over that time. Facilities -- $1.0M. TTR will continue to use the existing facilities and maintain them within the normal budget process. The immediate costs include a new HVAC system for the control facility and a roof and siding repair on one building. It also includes a repair to the electrical grid and road surfaces. An annual commitment of $550K is required to maintain the infrastructure systems per agreement in the AF-NNSA Land Permit. The immediate needs would include major maintenance to buildings, and a new roof and siding for one facility. The immediate cost needs would be $450K. The permit requires SNL to maintain and upgrade a specific portion of the roads as well as the power grid on the range. The requirements for the roads would be $500K each year and the annual cost for the power grid would be $50K. The annual cost of the Operation and Maintenance (O&M) contractor is $550K.

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ALTERNATIVE COST SUMMARY Upgrades Option 1 ($M) 6.7 4.3 1.75 .5 2.0 15.2 16.8 .450 .550 / yr Option 2 ($M) 18.2 4.3 5.0 3.2 2.0 32.7 36.0 .450 .550 / yr

Optics Radars Telemetry CP and other equipment IP Based Communication Systems TOTAL one-time cost W 10% contingency Building Upgrade Infrastructure (roads and power grid) -- annual cost __________

1. Audit of Alternatives to Testing at the Tonopah Test Range, DOE/IG Report, February 1998. 2. Tonopah Test Range report, dated 05/99; (capabilities report for new or potential customers), updated by Robert Sherwood, TTR Computer Lead via e-mail, dated Nov 27, 2006. 3. Tonopah Test Range report, dated 05/99; (capabilities report for new or potential customers), updated by Robert Sherwood, TTR Team Leader via e-mail, dated Nov 20, 2006. 4. Flight Test Continuity Briefing to Steve Goodrum, NA-12, November 14, 2006; Hank Witek.

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2. Graphics The following is a map of the proposed TTR target areas.

TTR Target Areas

Main Lake

Concrete Target

Antelope Lake

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3. Siting Locations The TTR offers numerous target locations ranging from the Main Lake in the north to Antelope Lake in the southern part of the range. The rising mountains on both sides of the flight path offer ideal locations for the location of radar antennae and optical tracking equipment to track the aircraft and the test unit. The dry climate provides ideal conditions for flight testing during most of the year. The concrete target located in the area of the Main Lake provides an ideal location for the recovery of units that are designed to use a parachute during the descent. Core sampling was conducted in the 2003 to 2004 timeframe over a large expanse of the Main Lake and Antelope Lake areas, to ensure that penetrating test units do not encounter unexpected conditions. TTR can accommodate all the large safety footprints for high altitude and/or high speed releases with no personnel or flight safety issues. 4. Construction and Operations Data There would be no construction required at the TTR for proposed SNL tests. The current facilities would continue to remain adequate, if funding is provided to maintain and repair them, when required. The numbers provided below are based on 14 annual tests, including both regular Stockpile Surveillance tests and any development tests required for each system. These tests will be combined into fewer test windows when possible. These figures are based on non-special nuclear material (SNM) testing. Data shown in the table is per reference 5. Air quality data shown in the tables is per reference 6.

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CONSTRUCTION DATA Data Required Peak electrical energy (megawatt electric [MWe]) Diesel generators (Yes or No) Concrete ( cubic yards [yd]) Steel (tons) Liquid fuel and lube oil (gallons [gal.]) Water (gal.) Land (acre [ac]) Laydown area size Parking lots Employment Total employment (worker years) Peak employment (workers) Construction period (years [yr]) Waste Generated Low-Level Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Mixed Low-Level Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Hazardous Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Nonhazardous (sanitary) Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Nonhazardous (Other) Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd)

HTM Option Consumption/Use 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 Volume 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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ANNUAL OPERATIONS Data Required Consumption/Use Annual electrical energy (megawatt-hours [MWh]) 595MWh Peak electrical demand (MWe) 812MWe Fuel usage (gal or cubic yd) Other process gas (N, Ar, etc.) 480cu.ft. Diesel generators 44 (about 20 per test) Water (gal.) *Yearly for entire range including AF 6 million Steam (tons) 0 Plant footprint (ac) 280 sq miles Employment (workers) 135 Number of rad workers 25 Average annual dose <10 Mrem Radionuclide emissions and effluents--nuclides and 0 curies NAAQS emissions (tons/yr) SEE TABLE 13.32 Hazardous Air Pollutants and Effluents (tons/yr) SEE 3.7E-06 TABLE Chemical use 0 Maximum inventory of fissile material/throughput 0 Waste Category Volume -Low-Level Liquid (gal.) 0 Solid (cubic yd) 0 -Mixed Low-Level Liquid (gal.) 0 Solid (cubic yd) 0 -Transuranic (TRU) Liquid (gal.) 0 Solid (cubic yd) 0 -High-Level Waste (HLW)/Spent Fuel Liquid (gal.) 0 Solid (cubic yd) 0 -Hazardous Liquid (gal.) 35 Solid (cubic yd) <1 -Nonhazardous (sanitary) Liquid (gal.) 0 Solid (cubic yd) 63 -Nonhazardous (Other) Liquid (gal.) 0 Solid (cubic yd) 15

HTM Option

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NAAQS TABLE

NAAQS Summary NOx CO PM10 SO2 VOC Generator tpy 0.31 12.36 0.02 0.02 0.61 JTA tpy 3.7E-06 Total tpy 0.31 12.36 0.02 0.02 0.61

HTM Option (Total)

HAPS TABLE

HAPs Summary Hydrochloric Acid JTA B83 tpy 1.1E-06 JTA B61 tpy 2.7E-06 Total tpy 3.7E-06

HTM Option (Total)

__________

5. E-mail from Jerry Elliston, TTR Contractor Lead, dated Nov 21, 2006. Note: used as basis for calculations. Data provided was for entire year, not just JTA tests. Data shown in this table is for B61 and B83 testing only. 6. E-mail from Joanna Eckstein, dated Nov 16, 2006.

5. Transportation Data All B61-3/4/10 pre-test shipments from Pantex to the designated military locations and post-test shipments from the test location to the Pantex Plant in Amarillo TX are authorized in the DOE/AL/200103/JTA, "Offsite Transportation Authorization, Revision 4; Shipment Authorization of pre-test and post-test Shipment of B61-3/4/10 Joint Test Assemblies (JTA) 1/3/6/9/15." All B617 pre-test shipments from Pantex to the designated military locations and post-test shipments from the test location to the Pantex Plant in Amarillo TX are authorized in the DOE/AL/99007/JTA, "Offsite Transportation Authorization, Revision 4; Shipment Authorization of pre-test and post-test Shipment of B61-7 Joint Test Assemblies (JTA) 1/3/5/6/8/15." All B83-1 pre-test shipments from Pantex to the designated military locations and post-test shipments from the test location to the Pantex Plant in Amarillo TX are authorized in the DOE/AL/92011/JTA Revision 9; "Shipment Authorization for pre- and post-test B83 JTA2 and Pre-test JTS2 Units". This revision expires August 1, 2007. The pre-test shipment is similar to a War Reserve (WR) shipment in that it contains as much WR material as possible. The unit must be inspected and certified by the Pantex Site Office (NNSA) prior to delivery to the AF. The hazards for all configurations are appropriately documented. If there are development units or modifications to existing units, the OTA and the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) for that system will be updated or specific hazard and transportation documentation will be provided to NNSA for approval. 6. Accidents In the development of the Offsite Transportation Authorizations, the SER is prepared in accordance with DOE Order 461.1A and Safety Guide (SG) 500 and documents the review of the Joint Test Assemblies. The SER looks at the potential and the consequences of accident scenarios for the test

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units while in transit in a DOE truck. Refer to the following Safety Evaluation Reports for detailed information. (a) Safety Evaluation Report for B61 Modifications 3, 4, 7, 10 and 11 High Fidelity Joint Test Assembly (U), Revision 4, dated January 26, 2005. Classified SECRET/RD. (b) Safety Evaluation Report for B61-7 Joint Test Assemblies (U), Revision 5, dated September 20, 2005. Classified SECRET/RD. (c) Safety Evaluation Report for b61-3/4/10 Joint Test Assemblies and B61-3 Flight Test Units (U), Revision 4, Dated November 2, 2006 (DRAFT). Classified SECRET/RD. Terrorist Threats. The NNSA Design Basis Threat provides the threats that must be guarded against for all sites that where specific materials and/or assets are temporarily or permanently stored. The responses for Tonopah Test Ranges are in the Counterintelligence Threat Assessment "The Terrorist Threat to Tonopah Test Range (TTR)" dated August 2006. The document is classified SECRET/RD.

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1 What Company are you employed with ? SNL US Security Westinghouse Other 2 Where is your primary residnece? City Tonopah 89049 Henderson 89012 Albuquerque 87109 Santa Clara 84765 Las Vegas 89102 Reno 89512 Deeth 89823 Boulder City 89005 Meadview 86444 Carson City 89701 Fernley 89408 Pahrump 89041 Rio Rancho Fallon 89442 Caliente Enterprise 84771 County Nye Clark Berrillo Washington Washoe Elko Mohave Carson City Lyon Sandoval Churchill Lincoln

Other 25 59 25 1 110

Sandia

Weshinghouse

US Security

71 3 1 1 18 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 109 74 23 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 110

1

6 3 1 1 9 1 1 1 1 1

22

42

2

8

1 1 1 2 2 3

7 13 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

22 2

45 8 1

1 28 25

1 2 57

1

State Nevada New Mexico Arizona Utah

103 2 1 4 110

23 2 1 1

25

57

1

3 If not Tonopah, where do you reside while working? Mancamp 4 Are you married? Yes No

37

24

3

10

81 29 110

23 3

16 9

42 17

5 Do you have a significant other? Yes 6 Is your spouse/significant other employed? Yes No 7 If 6 is yes, are they employed by an NNSA afficiated contractor? Yes No

14

2

5

7

89 15 104

19 5

21 5

48 6

1 30

1 14

16

8 List the ages of any dependents residing with you. Pre-school Grade school Middle school High school College 9 Do you own or rent your residence Own Rent

34 40 23 24 4 125 86 24 110 1

3 6 10 3

5 7 9 13 1

16 30 12 8 2

25

20 5

40 19

2

10 Is your residence stick built? manufactured housing? mobile housing? apartment?

Own 65 23 6 94

Rent 6 5 1 2 14

21 3 1

15 8 3 1

29 17 3 7

11 How many vehicles do you ro your dependents operate? 12 List organizational affiliations you have in your community of primary residence. GLVAR Realtors Association Church Outdoor club Business owner Scouts PTA Booster Club Tonopah Little League MSBL Baseball League Elks VFW Beta Sigma Phi HS Basketball Coach 4 R Kids Nye County Search & Rescue Central NV Officials Assn (NCOO) HS Wrestling Coach MS Wrestling Coach Tonopah Volunteer Fire Department Trap Shoot Assn Nye County Regional Ambulance Svs Average Annual Salary *With fringe

266

1 1 19 3 3 26 24 2 7 3 10 2 1 1 3 31 2 1 1 19 2 1

1 1 5 1 2 4 2 2 2 1 2 1 1

5 4 6 4 2 20 26 4 10 2

1 1 2

1 1 1

1 1 1 2

5 30

2 1

17 1 3 70000

*106547

58000

3

COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

The Plan

An alternative to immediately relocating the entire Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to another site would be to conduct the Joint Test Assembly (JTA) tests at TTR on a campaign basis from the Nevada Test Site (NTS), while doing Work for Others (WFO) as time and work permits. Sandia would continue to be the mission owner while National Security Technologies (NSTec) would then be the Maintenance and Operations (M&O) contractor. This accomplishes multiple 2030 objectives, not the least of which is "to maintain the national security mission, and in particular the science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), as the primary mission of the national security laboratories while optimizing the WFO activities of those laboratories to support other national security objectives in fields such as intelligence and homeland security."1 The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has indicated that a limited permanent staff at TTR would be required to continuously maintain the facilities and equipment at TTR once equipment investments have been made. For a drop test the permanent staff at TTR would be augmented by technical staff members integrated into NTS operations. Currently there is approximately $300K annual WFO support performed by SNL at TTR. It is believed that NSTec can grow WFO significantly at TTR as it provides a unique location for expanded air-to-ground activities as well as larger scale Department of Defense (DoD) ground operations. By the end of 2015 a decision could be made to: 1. Close TTR in 2019 and use the interim period between 2015 and 2019 to transition equipment and further build-up infrastructure needs at NTS, or 2. Renew the United States Air Force (USAF) ­ Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) permit at TTR and continue work at that site, managed by the Nevada Test Site and mission driven by SNL with the flexibility to alter what is necessary, given the requirements at that time.

ROM Estimated Annual Operating Cost Comparison, FY07 $

TTR SNL M&O Contract TTR NSTec M&O SNL Full-Time TTR TTR Annual Power/Road Maintenance TTR IES SNL Campaigners SNL Security Reimbursement to AF WSI Campaign Security Total Annual Cost TTR No Action, No SNM 27 FTE, $2.6M 25 FTE, $7.2M $600K $1.1M TTR Campaign-In-Place 18 FTE, $4.4M 4 FTE, $1.2M $600K $.9M 21 FTE, 1/2 time, $3M $2.5M $300K 12.9M

$2.5M $14.0M

1

Report on the Plan for Transformation, January 31, 2007

Approach

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COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

NSTec and SNL will prepare a detailed staffing requirements study to address both maintenance of the existing TTR systems on a continuous basis, as well as staffing for each specific drop test campaign. Given the interdependence with the local Air Force Base, NNSA also wants to ensure that they have considered the obligations NNSA has to be a "good neighbor" in assuming 1/3 of the maintenance of roads, power lines, water systems, and septic tanks and any other infrastructure overlaps. This study will also work to identify positions that would continue to be staffed by SNL, critical personnel from existing TTR contracts, and new positions from NSTec resources. Per the NNSA Head Quarters decision in October 2006, no B61 or B83 flight tests with Special Nuclear Material (SNM) will be planned after completion of the current required set of tests. These tests are scheduled for completion before the end of FY08 at the TTR. If this decision is subsequently changed or if cable pull-down testing is required, then either an emergency variance will be called for at SNL or these tests could be performed at the Nevada Test Site. Therefore, while SNM test units are not addressed in this document, there is inherent flexibility in the planning for future operations to allow for mission change/variation without subsequent prohibitive costs. In this way, this proposal does indeed, "support current stockpile while transforming to a future stockpile and infrastructure." 1

Decision at 2019 ­ Two Options

Option 1

The first proposed alternative is to continue flight test operations at the current TTR location with SNL as the Mission Owner and NSTec serving as the M&O Contractor. Replacements and upgrades of the legacy systems are required. The preferred solution requires additional investment in mobile equipment so that by 2019 the equipment and the site of operations will be transitioned to NTS. This option does not result in any significant changes to the current operational activities at the range at this time and the investment can be spread over a three year period. The main disadvantage to the campaign in place proposal is the conversion of the existing M&O contract to the NSTec NTS M&O contract which would require union affiliation for all craft and application of the NTS full recovery cost model to the M&O costs. A primary assumption of this proposal includes a minimally staffed, full-time M&O caretaker maintenance crew to maintain the required facilities and reduced equipment fleet, and a small full-time Sandia cadre to maintain the technical systems. The staffing of the M&O could fluctuate based on facility condition and equipment failures, and the Sandia staffing could also fluctuate due the system integration required for new and upgraded system purchases, installation, and commissioning. Security costs will decrease with the completion of the SNM testing after FY08. The Air Force base security costs will remain the same, but the security contract will belong to the Air Force, with Sandia reimbursing the Air Force for a negotiated amount. The campaign security support will be provided by the NTS security contractor who will staff the requirements for JTA tests at an estimated $300K per year.

1

Report to Armed Services Committee, D'Agostino, April 5, 2006 Page 3 of 18

COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

The retention of operations at the TTR would provide numerous advantages. While the JTA mission would be allowed to continue, the TTR WFO would grow stronger as a combined program with NSTec. Additionally, the impact to the town of Tonopah will be minimal. Further, DOE would retain a strategic asset that would be available to meet short notice requirements for the DOE stockpile. It is important to note that TTR does provide NNSA customers testing priority over other non-DOE programs that compete when testing at U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) test ranges. It is also of significance to note that, given the age of the technology used in the JTA test articles, more test assets and different optical technical abilities are required for test documentation than are normally used at DoD ranges to meet customer requirements. Option 2 The second alternative is to continue flight test operations at the current TTR location beyond the 2019 scope, reapplying for a land-permit with SNL continuing as the Mission Owner, while NSTec will continue to serve as the M&O Contractor. This action will also require additional investment in a mobile equipment solution (described below). This option does not result in any significant changes to the current operational activities at the range and can be spread over a three to five year period. This option enhances NSTec's capabilities as sited in Option 1, assists in minimizing any socioeconomic impacts to Tonopah and elongates the period necessary to remediate the TTR landsite. The only difference between Option 1 and Option 2 is simply that we extend the land permit beyond 2019. The disadvantage to this is that it does not fit within the Complex 2030 Goal of reducing the footprint or remediation of the land.

Advantages

There are multiple advantages to continuing SNL's mission while allowing NSTec to be the M&O contractor at TTR side by side with the Air Force, either until 2019 or beyond: · Minimizes the socioeconomic impact on the town of Tonopah by maintaining the core cadre of craft (who appear to be in the early to mid- forties and have families) who are familiar with TTR facilities, operations, and maintenance. Allows opportunities for those not fully employed with the TTR M&O and/or WFO Projects to be integrated into the NSTec workforce, thereby allowing them to keep their homes in the Tonopah area, while giving them expanded work-scope and additional opportunities. While at NSTec during the workweek, they could stay at the Mercury housing. The objective is to limit the socioeconomic impact to Tonopah. Maintains the existing and long standing, unwritten "good neighbor" relationship with Air Force Range Command, which allows for shared resources and support that benefits SNL, the Air Force, and NSTec. Eliminates the Air Force range cost increases to themselves by maintaining the road, water and power costs per the Land Use Permit requirements.

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·

·

·

COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

·

Maintains existing flight paths, which the Air Force is highly confident in flying, thereby reducing the mission risk incurred in flying over more challenging topography presented at other potential test sites. Increases the NTS adaptability for future weapons complex testing. In the case that RRW work is done at NTS and/or cable pull-down testing is required, transport/land use will not be an issue. Additionally, flight testing may be done, as required. not be limited to the present support capabilities by the present TTR M&O.

·

· Increases the NTS WFO capabilities (it is anticipated this could grow substantially) and

· Maintains the present relationship between NNSA and the TTR M&O for occasional support required for TTR Industrial Sites and Soils projects which are active NSTec projects. Takes advantage of a flight test area that is near a unique testing range area. Provides a window of opportunity for NNSA to ramp up in its planning of either moving or integrating TTR capabilities into NTS, thereby developing the most advantageous way to accomplish this while doing the least damage to the town of Tonopah and having the least impact to its good neighbor, the Air Force. The drop zones and targets at TTR cannot be readily duplicated at other sites. In addition to the already discussed well known flight paths, of equal importance is the fully characterized and well understood geology of the impact areas. The very large restricted airspace and extremely sparse population readily support low fast military aircraft operations as well as higher altitude drops. The range accommodates long run-ins at low altitude to insure all tracking is fully locked-on prior to a drop. The existing critical tracking radar, optical, and telemetry systems have been maintained in place for many years and continue to meet quality requirements for the assurance testing program. However, most of these equipments are no longer supported by the original vendors' therefore current TTR highly skilled staff of SNL and contractor personnel are essential to continuing operations until new equipment is bought and transitioned in actual drop test situations. The testing requirements for the purposes of collecting stockpile assurance analytical data are substantially different from military test and development needs for new munitions. These differences may not appear obvious since both involve radar tracking, optical documentation, and telemetry data. However, the precision and detail required by SNL are essential when comparing the performance of nuclear system components over many years.

· ·

·

·

·

·

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COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

·

At the end of this process a next generation, fully mobile test system will have been developed and certified that can allow campaign style operations to occur at several test ranges where unique target geologies and terrains including sand, mixed soils, hard-rock, tufts, and granite normally occur.

Comparison of JTA Flight Test Program Annual Operating Costs (2007 Dollars) No Action vs. NTS/SNL Campaign Mode (No Equipment Upgrades)

25

20

SNM Operations Cease

$ x 1-million

15

TTR No Action, No SNM

Campaign Mode, NTS (NSTec) and SNL 10 Record of Decision

~ $1.1-Million Savings per Year

5

TTR Land Withdrawal Decision

0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Fiscal Year 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020

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COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

Discussion of TTR Technical Capabilities 2

Command and Control ­ The TTR Test Director (TD), along with the military test representative provides direction over the entire test. The TD is responsible for the safe conduct of the test, while ensuring all required test objectives are met. The TD is in constant communication with all range support groups to ensure all systems are fully operational. The TD is also in constant communication with the military personnel that have a communication link with the pilot of the aircraft delivering the test article, ensuring that delivery objectives will be achieved. Optical/Video ­ TTR provides complete range-wide optical tracking capabilities. All of the optical trackers have the Target Vector Translation System (TVTS) installed, which receives target acquisition and focusing data from each operating radar station to drive the tracking mounts. Cinetheodolites (Cine-T) are used to obtain precise time-space position information of the test unit. The Cine-T's can be set up at any of the existing 31 concrete pads, which ensures complete coverage of any test area and approach corridor on the range. Mobile tracking telescopes can be positioned at any accessible place on the test range. Tracking telescopes and hand track stations are used to obtain high quality photographic images on 35 mm and 70 mm film. They are also used to determine event times, position information, generate public relations photos, and provide standard and high-speed video imagery. The film is taken to the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Las Vegas for processing. Reduction of optical data is usually completed in one to two weeks. Tracking Radars ­ The radars perform a primary tracking function, as well as, complement other instrumentation on the range. During flight tests, they continuously track in-bound aircraft and delivered test articles. Most of the radars have been designed or modified for precision and reliability, and several are mobile and can be moved to accommodate all range targets and aircraft. Radar data provides real-time data for the graphic displays and provides time-space position information to the computer for posttest analysis. The radars are equipped with closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Video is recorded at each radar; transmitted to the Operations Center, and displayed for test engineers and observers to view the mission in progress. Telemetry ­ The telemetry stations at TTR are used for data collection to monitor performance of the test vehicle during the course of the operation. Critical data is displayed in real time during the test. After the test, the data is reproduced and processed into quick-look records for preliminary engineering evaluation. A mobile trailer is typically positioned near the target area to enhance recovery of terminal data transmitted by the B83 during a contact fuzing test. Magnetic tapes are sent to the customer for comprehensive data reduction and archival. Operations Control Center ­ The Operations Control Center sits atop the Operations building and has a 360-degree view of the range. The center houses alphanumeric and graphic LCD displays, video monitors, air traffic radar displays, camera controls, radio nets and telephone systems. During test operations, the test director, range safety officer, test project engineer, camera controller and range communicator staff the consoles in the center to control and

2

Capabilities Report for New or Potential Customers, Tonopah Test Range report, dated 05/99; updated by Robert Sherwood, TTR Team Leader via e-mail, Nov 20, 2006. Page 7 of 18

COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

coordinate all test functions. All of the operator consoles contain LCDs for alphanumeric, graphic or video displays along with telephone and radio communication links and time display. A camera controller's console contains the instrumentation for on/off control of all operational Cine-T's and light metering equipment. The range communicator's console has access to all TTR telecommunications and RF nets, and meteorological instrumentation. This position also provides a real time coordination and interface position for air traffic control/FAA agencies and emergency security response. Photometrics and Photography ­ The photometrics group at TTR provides high speed motion picture and video coverage for data acquisition and Public Relations documentation. The posttest data reduction provides time-space position information, trajectory angles and angles of attack and rotational velocities. Data is available in a variety of media, including 35mm and 70mm formats, color reversal, color negative and black and white. They provide both prints in color and black and white, as well as video in tape formats or CD/DVD. High quality still photography is available for both pre- and posttest activities. Communications ­ The TTR has a fully integrated communications system of ground-to-air and ground-to-ground radio links using both radio frequency (RF) and land line equipment that ensures support of test activities and emergencies. There are numerous "nets" that provide direct communications between selected groups. Each major range function, including radar, telemetry and cameras is assigned to one of the ground nets, and all key inter-function stations are tied together by the test operations net. The Sandia net is used for routine range communications. Additional radio links include high frequency single sideband for long-range communications and RF tie-ins with state police and medical emergency networks. Aircraft Flight Safety ­ TTR is located in a very remote area of the Nellis Air Force Base Bombing and Gunnery Range. The remote location, situated between two mountain ranges, and with restricted airspace, ensures tests can be conducted with a high degree of safety. The high desert location varies from 5,300 to 5,600 feet mean sea level, providing a very large flat area for aircraft to traverse with a high degree of safety. Airspace ­ TTR provides full coordination for all airspace requirements for each test. The TTR Test Director (TD) attends monthly meetings with local AF airspace coordinators to ensure all required on range and off range airspace is reserved and potential conflicts with other Range users are avoided. In the event a change in test planning requires a change in air or ground space utilization the TD will coordinate such changes with the responsible Nellis AFB agency. Explosive Ordnance Disposal/Recovery ­ TTR has trained explosive operators on hand for all tests. They have basic explosives training and have specific training for each test article prior to the test. They have heavy equipment, including cranes, backhoes, and forklifts available for light construction, maintenance, material handling and test vehicle recovery. They pioneered and developed a unique method for recovery of penetrating test vehicles, so there is minimal ground disturbance. Meteorology ­ Three weather stations and rawindsonde balloon launches generate the range metrological data. The weather station at the hard target measures wind speed and direction, temperature, dew point and barometric pressure. Instrumentation on a 300-foot tower measure wind speed and direction, and temperature at three levels. Data from these two stations are transmitted over land lines to the Operations Control Center for recording and display. When

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COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

upper atmosphere weather conditions are require for specific tests, range personnel launch rawindsonde balloons. Measurements of temperature, relative humidity, wind speeds and direction can be obtained at altitudes up to 90,000 feet. TECCS (Test Evaluation Command and Control System) - TECCS is a real-time data acquisition program developed and distributed by Edwards AFB. TECCS provides graphics of aircraft flight paths in relation to other airborne vehicles and established ground points, supports mission control activities with altitude threshold, run-in lines for bomb drop missions, and pushover lines for high angle-of-attack missions. TTR Control Point operators monitor real-time TECCS data to ensure aircraft lines of flight and payload deliveries remain within predefined safe boundaries. TECCS obtains target information from FAA data sources and on site TTR Radar facilities. The graphics facility provides the operational and display environment for the aircraft control operator and the radar director. A map select system allows the operator to select from different map displays. The operator may also select which radar tracks are to be used, alphanumeric display (in feet, meters, or nautical miles), radar operational status, and hard copy production. Plotting data can be frozen at any point, and a playback capability permits multiple passes on recorded data files. The tracking data is superimposed on background maps that contain range boundaries, instrumentation locations, geographic features and mission-unique features, such as predicted track and run-in lines. Another system displays both FAA search radar data and range radar tracking data. This supports range safety by continuously monitoring the area airspace and provides a complete "air picture." Security ­ Security at the range is provided by Q-cleared personnel. Classified storage areas and repositories are available for test items and documents. Radiological Technician (provided by SNL from Albuquerque) ­ For any tests that require post-test radiography, the equipment and specialists are provided by one of the physics laboratories. Permits and logistics are coordinated by the TD and on-site range specialist. Emergency Services ­ Fire and Medical services are provided by a highly qualified staff of Paramedics, Emergency Technicians and Firefighters. The Medical Clinic and Fire Department are co-located in the Range Headquarters area. Emergency support equipment includes 2 ambulances, 2-1,000 gallon pumper fire trucks, a Fire Rescue truck with a 250-gallon pumper on-board, and a Haz Mat system comprised of 2 trailers, Response and Decontamination. A medical aid station with 2 ambulances, staffed by highly qualified Paramedics and Emergency Medical Technicians, is located near the range headquarters. A modern full-service hospital is located in the town of Tonopah about 35 miles from the range. Shipping and Receiving ­ TTR performs all requirements to ship hazardous and non-hazardous post-test assets and material off range. Coordination is performed with the NNSA Office of Secure Transportation for all Joint Test Assembly (JTA) shipments. These shipments include explosives and radioactive components. Working Space ­ Work areas with computer access is provided for all customers in the Range Administration Building. Targets ­ TTR has a wide variety of targets located along a basic N-S line. The Antelope Lake in the southern part of the range provides a variety of penetration targets to a depth exceeding 150 feet. The Main Lake in the northern part of the range is comprised of a 750-ft diameter

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COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

concrete target (Hard Target) and an extensive lake bed for all types of missions from low level penetration missions to retarded (parachute) impacts. Computer Facility ­ The range computer facility is the data gathering and distribution center for all test activities. Real-time data processing and control functions are handled by dual servers with automatic switch over capability, ensuring reliable back-up to meet demanding test schedules. The data processing servers acquire, store, and display radar tracking data. Range data is formatted and displayed in real time for use by the Test Director, Safety Officer and Project Engineer. In addition, camera, telescope and telemetry tracking stations are interfaced to the system allowing them to acquire multiple real-time targets. Data displays can be updated from 10 hertz to every 10 seconds, with radar data recorded at 100 hertz. Several options (e.g. radar choice, range in feet or meters) may be selected at any time. Telemetry displays provide 36 different sets of data pages with up to 40 channels per page. The computer facility can provide radar quick look data that has been translated, rotated or smoothed on a variety of input parameters within minutes of test completion. 3 The following is a map of the TTR target areas.

Capabilities Report for New or Potential Customers, Tonopah Test Range report, dated 05/99; updated by Robert Sherwood, TTR Computer Lead via e-mail, Nov 27, 2006.

3

Page 10 of 18

COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

Main Lake

Concrete Target

Antelope Lake

Page 11 of 18

COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

Description of High-Tech Mobile (HTM) Option

This option allows a reduction in the operational costs at TTR because of lower manpower test operational needs and because all test equipment should remain in a highly reliable and operational state between tests dates. This estimate reflects the unloaded costs of investment in necessary technology and infrastructure only. Annual operating budgets and capital equipment life cycle replacement costs are not included in this request. The cost estimates associated with this section assume that all work will be accomplished by on-range employees or contractors already funded. A vision of the HTM at TTR is shown in the picture below. It includes the acquisition of modern, digital equipment that is compatible with other national test range standards. The emphasis is on Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) equipment with turn-key integration where it is practical. This eliminates and/or reduces the cost significantly. The amount of equipment purchased and integrated into the new concept reduces the number of pieces to approximately 2/3 of today's equipment. A second savings is realized in the amount of time and support equipment required to maintain this state-of-the-art equipment.

OFFICIAL USE ONLY

OFFICIAL USE ONLY

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COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

The investment required covers the following areas. The details for each area are described: Documentary / TSPI Optics ­ ($18.2M). This includes five combined mounts [TSPI and documentary telescopes] (5) units with a separate optics Control Trailer for remote control operations. Encryption capability is included. Radar ­ $4.3M. The proposal is identical to that proposed in the minimum investment option. This includes a transformation of one radar from a maintenance intensive unit to a modern fully functional unit, eliminating the prone to failure systems/parts ($3.3M); a future depot-level maintenance effort for a second radar ($250K); and the acquisition of an Identification, Friend or For (IFF) system ($750K). The acquisition of this IFF system allows the elimination of two maintenance intensive radar systems and will save over $1M over the next 25 years. Telemetry ­ $5.0M. New telemetry trailers, fully equipped, and antennas will be purchased and all trailers will be DOT certified ($5.0M). This allows both assets to be fully mobile.

Page 13 of 18

COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

Operations Control Equipment ­ $2.7M. Two operational control trailers, fully equipped, would be acquired to replace the operations that currently take place in the operational control tower at TTR. Test coordination, communications, and safety would all be housed in these trailers. Operation displays would provide continuous coverage of the test in progress. Data Reduction ­ $500K. The anticipated cost is for a software engineer to support the transition of the UNIX system to a PC-based software processor ($500K). Communications ­ $2.0M. A new LAN-based system is currently being installed at the TTR. Communications is the heart of that system. This will provide wireless coverage of the TTR at a reasonable data rate and ensure effective communications during critical test periods. This wireless system is critical to the implementation and success of the new data master acquisition system, TRACS. The anticipated costs include procurement and installation of a Voice/Video Over IP (VOIP) communication net ($355K); emplacement of armored multi-strand fiber cable over the West and Each side of the target corridor ($1M), procurement and installation of the towers, microwave links, switches, antennas, network client units and base stations ($444K); replacement of UHF radio transceivers to replace current system ($72K); and miscellaneous support cabling and connectors, etc. ($129K). The total investment of $32.7M cannot be spread over a long period of time due to the fact that the equipment is required to support on-going tests. A proposed development and integration schedule for this project will last approximately three years assuming full funding support over that time. Facilities ­ $1.0M. TTR will continue to use the existing facilities and maintain them within the normal budget process. The immediate costs include a new HVAC system for the control facility and a roof and siding repair on one building. It also includes a repair to the electrical grid and road surfaces. An annual commitment of $550K is required to maintain the infrastructure systems per agreement in the AF-NNSA Land Permit. The immediate needs would include major maintenance to buildings, and a new roof and siding for one facility. The immediate cost needs would be $450K. The permit requires SNL to maintain and upgrade a specific portion of the roads as well as the power grid on the range. The requirements for the roads would be $500K each year and the annual cost for the power grid would be $100K.

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COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

CONSTRUCTION DATA Data Required Peak electrical energy (megawatt electric [MWe]) Diesel generators (Yes or No) Concrete ( cubic yards [yd]) Steel (tons) Liquid fuel and lube oil (gallons [gal.]) Water (gal.) Land (acre [ac]) Laydown area size Parking lots Employment Total employment (worker years) Peak employment (workers) Construction period (years [yr]) Waste Generated Low-Level Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Mixed Low-Level Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Hazardous Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Nonhazardous (sanitary) Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Nonhazardous (Other) Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd)

Consumption/Use 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 Volume 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

ANNUAL OPERATIONS

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COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

Data Required Annual electrical energy (megawatt-hours [MWh]) Peak electrical demand (MWe) Fuel usage (gal or cubic yd) Other process gas (N, Ar, etc.) Diesel generators Water (gal.) *Yearly for entire range including AF Steam (tons) Plant footprint (ac) Employment (workers) Number of rad workers Average annual dose Radionuclide emissions and effluents--nuclides and curies NAAQS emissions (tons/yr) SEE TABLE Hazardous Air Pollutants and Effluents (tons/yr) SEE TABLE Chemical use Maximum inventory of fissile material/throughput Maximum inventory of fissile material/throughput Waste Category Low-Level Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Mixed Low-Level Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Transuranic (TRU) Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) High-Level Waste (HLW)/Spent Fuel Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Hazardous Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Nonhazardous (sanitary) Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Nonhazardous (Other) Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd)

Consumption/Use 595MWh 812MWe 480cu.ft. 44 (about 20 per test) 6 million 0 280 sq miles 43 25 <10 Mrem 0 13.32 3.7E-06 0 0 0 Volume -0 0 -0 0 -0 0 -0 0 -35 <1 -0 63 -0 15

NAAQS TABLE

NAAQS Summary NOx Generator tpy 0.31 JTA tpy Page 16 of 18 Total tpy 0.31

HTM Option (Total)

COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007 CO 12.36 3.7E-06 12.36 PM10 0.02 0.02 SO2 0.02 0.02 VOC 0.61 0.61

HAPS TABLE

HAPs Summary Hydrochloric Acid JTA B83 tpy 1.1E-06 JTA B61 tpy 2.7E-06 Total tpy 3.7E-06

HTM Option (Total)

__________

5. E-mail from Jerry Elliston, TTR Contractor Lead, dated Nov 21, 2006. Note: used as basis for calculations. Data provided was for entire year, not just JTA tests. Data shown in this table is for B61 and B83 testing only. 6. E-mail from Joanna Eckstein, dated Nov 16, 2006.

Transportation Data All B61-3/4/10 pre-test shipments from Pantex to the designated military locations and post-test shipments from the test location to the Pantex Plant in Amarillo TX are authorized in the DOE/AL/200103/JTA, "Offsite Transportation Authorization, Revision 4; Shipment Authorization of pre-test and post-test Shipment of B61-3/4/10 Joint Test Assemblies (JTA) 1/3/6/9/15." All B61-7 pre-test shipments from Pantex to the designated military locations and post-test shipments from the test location to the Pantex Plant in Amarillo TX are authorized in the DOE/AL/99007/JTA, "Offsite Transportation Authorization, Revision 4; Shipment Authorization of pre-test and post-test Shipment of B61-7 Joint Test Assemblies (JTA) 1/3/5/6/8/15." All B83-1 pre-test shipments from Pantex to the designated military locations and post-test shipments from the test location to the Pantex Plant in Amarillo TX are authorized in the DOE/AL/92011/JTA Revision 9; "Shipment Authorization for pre- and post-test B83 JTA2 and Pre-test JTS2 Units". This revision expires August 1, 2007. The pre-test shipment is similar to a War Reserve (WR) shipment in that it contains as much WR material as possible. The unit must be inspected and certified by the Pantex Site Office (NNSA) prior to delivery to the AF. The hazards for all configurations are appropriately documented. If there are development units or modifications to existing units, the OTA and the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) for that system will be updated or specific hazard and transportation documentation will be provided to NNSA for approval.

Accidents In the development of the Offsite Transportation Authorizations, the SER is prepared in accordance with DOE Order 461.1A and Safety Guide (SG) 500 and documents the review of the Joint Test Assemblies. The SER looks at the potential and the consequences of accident

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COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS, Tonopah Test Range (TTR) Closure ­ Alternative Review Information (Operating in a Campaign Mode) April 10, 2007

scenarios for the test units while in transit in a DOE truck. Refer to the following Safety Evaluation Reports for detailed information. (a) Safety Evaluation Report for B61 Modifications 3, 4, 7, 10 and 11 High Fidelity Joint Test Assembly (U), Revision 4, dated January 26, 2005. Classified SECRET/RD. (b) Safety Evaluation Report for B61-7 Joint Test Assemblies (U), Revision 5, dated September 20, 2005. Classified SECRET/RD. (c) Safety Evaluation Report for b61-3/4/10 Joint Test Assemblies and B61-3 Flight Test Units (U), Revision 4, Dated November 2, 2006 (DRAFT). Classified SECRET/RD. Terrorist Threats. The NNSA Design Basis Threat provides the threats that must be guarded against for all sites that where specific materials and/or assets are temporarily or permanently stored. The responses for Tonopah Test Ranges are in the Counterintelligence Threat Assessment "The Terrorist Threat to Tonopah Test Range (TTR)" dated August 2006. The document is classified SECRET/RD.

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COMPLEX 2030 SPEIS TTR Closure Alternative Review Information - White Sands Missile Range Per the NNSA HQ decision in October 2006, no B61 or B83 flight tests with SNM will be planned after completion of the current required set of tests. These tests are scheduled for completion before the Complex 2030 Record of Decision. Therefore, SNM test units are not addressed in this document. 1. Alternative Description The second alternative location would be the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR). Located in south central New Mexico, White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is the largest installation in the DoD. WSMR is a Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) under the Department of the Army Test and Evaluation Command, Developmental Test Command providing test and evaluation services to the Army, Air Force, Navy, other Government agencies and industry. The Range spans 3420 square miles of land space and 10,026 square miles of contiguous restricted airspace fully managed, scheduled and controlled by the WSMR. Holloman Air Force Base is located within and contiguous to the range east boundary with capabilities for aircraft support and staging. Size, topography, low population, and great community support renders WSMR virtually free of all elements of encroachment. Extension areas comprised of sparsely populated ranch, BLM, and state land (2,453 sq miles/1,569,925 acres) border the installation to the north and west and are often used for safety and test areas enabled by long standing use agreements. The Range's terrain ranges from the high desert valley at 4,000' MSL to desert and wooded mountains at approximately 9,000' MSL. WSMR contains all terrain types except littoral. The climate is generally dry clear air with an average high of 61oF in winter to 92oF in summer and an average low of 36oF in winter to 69oF in the summer with very few non-test days due to inclement weather. WSMR has a full suite of flight test instrumentation including radar, telemetry and optical equipment, which allows complete coverage of a National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) gravity weapons flight test. As an MRTFB, the range infrastructure and instrumentation modernization and maintenance is funded under the DoD Test Resource Management Center and Army Test and Evaluation Command including additional investments made for Air Force, Navy and Joint test missions. WSMR has extensive experience conducting flight tests, such as those for the Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM), Small Diameter Bomb (SBD) Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) among others, with requirements and flight test scenarios similar to the NNSA flight test program to include penetrating weapons, weapons recovery and handling classified and special materials. WSMR has the DoD's only Nuclear Reactor for research, test and evaluation and is licensed and accustomed to special security and handling of special materials. The Air Force 46th Test Group, a detachment of the 46th Test Wing at Eglin AFB is the primary sponsor and resident range liaison for Air Force flight tests at the range. WSMR has proven capability to provide both real-time and post-test time, space, and position information (TSPI) data on the aircraft and the test article, from release to impact. The data are commonly acquired utilizing optical tracking systems capable of providing accuracies up to +/- 6

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inches (in.) and/or a monopulse Doppler radar to provide range, azimuth, and elevation to within +/- 0.1 mil. Other TSPI products include GPS pods on aircraft, system telemetry and laser tracking. The range has extensive experience and state of the art technology for providing highly accurate and reliable TSPI measurements of in-flight systems. The WSMR has an extensive network of radar, global positioning system (GPS), telemetry (TM), and optics sites (fixed and mobile), which interface with the Real Time Data Display System located in the Range Control Center and can be provided to remote locations both on and off range via the test support network and Defense Research Engineering Network. TM data can be provided on digital media as well as analog or digital tape, strip chart, and reduced forms, including any standard or custom formats required. The WSMR has a full suite of communications control and coordination for the entire test range. This includes Air to Ground communications as well as ground control. Range frequency coordination and authorization is included for all test programs. The WSMR provides the entire suite of support functions required by a customer. Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD), post-test asset recovery and storage, static and/or remote controlled targets, and shipping and receiving of equipment and test articles are only a few of the capabilities. The NNSA tests would utilize EOD, recovery and storage, and the shipping of equipment.1 RANGE CAPABILITIES: a) Command and Control ­ The WSMR range control center is a state of the art facility with real-time graphics and telemetry displays, an air traffic control center meteorological data displays, as well as communications centrally connected through the range network infrastructure for data acquisition and distribution across the entire test range. The WSMR Test Director (TD), along with the test representative provides direction over the entire test. The TD is responsible for the safe conduct of the test, while ensuring all required test objectives are met. The TD has constant communications with all range support groups to ensure all systems are fully operational. The TD and the test representative are in constant communication with the aircraft, ensuring the test unit is ready for the test as well.1 b) Optical/video ­ WSMR has a complete range of optical tracking and video capabilities for event detection, documentation and TSPI data including position, altitude, aspect angle and roll rate. WSMR's optical tracking capabilities include mobile and fixed tracking mounts capable of multiple visible, near IR and far IR sensors. Tracking mounts are controlled via external pointing data from telemetry, radar or system under test and are all capable of closed loop video tracking. Each mount is capable of hosting multiple apertures with various sensors and focal lengths for long range detection and tracking. WSMR utilizes simulation planning software for optimizing locations and configurations for data reliability and repeatability. Capabilities include digital imagers in the visible and IR at taxes up to 4800 frames per second and film cameras in excess of 20,000 frames per second. Digital data are available in real time for test control and quick look analysis via the WSMR RF and fiber network and are all correlated to IRIG time standards. WSMR has numerous recording, control and relay vans for configuration

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and coverage of trajectories covering the entire range. Film data are converted to digital format for analysis and distribution. Data include TSPI to +/- 6 inches accuracy.1 c) Tracking Radars ­ The radar suite at WSMR consists mostly of C-band, gated CW, metric radars capable of tracking in skin or beacon mode. There are ten (10) Single Object Tracking radars of which eight are mobile. In addition, WSMR has two mobile Multiple (40) Object Tracking radars. WSMR also has one mobile Weibel radar Doppler radar. All the mobile radars can be deployed at any of several hundred sites distributed throughout the range and can also support off-range programs. WSMR has mission simulation and planning software to optimize radar positioning for track quality of service and accuracy based on mission scenarios. All metric radars are configured to pass track data to each other and to the Range Control Center (RCC) for cueing instrumentation, systems under test and track improvement through data fusion. Radar data is processed (filtered and smoothed) at the RCC and can be relayed to the test site, displayed on the monitors in the mission control room, or sent to other radars for cueing. Tracking radars provide TSPI data, test team motion and multi-gate data for miss distance, event detection and debris tracking. WSMR operates a radar transponder test and validation facility and the ability to integrate transponders into test mission for closed loop tracking.1 d) Telemetry ­ WSMR has an array of fixed telemetry sites to provide coverage of flight tests across the range and a set of mobile telemetry stations for receiving, recording and relaying telemetry information at custom locations to meet test requirements. Telemetry data acquisition capabilities include fixed and mobile local and long range secure, multi-stream and high data rate (excess of 20mb/s) telemetry, FM, PCM, PAM, 1553, RS232, 422, IRIG 106, JTIDS/Link 16 and other standard analog and digital data protocols and formats. All telemetry data is recorded for required detailed data reduction. The data products of the telemetry data center (TDC) consist of solid state digital recordings, analog and digital linear tape, compact disks, jazz drive, zip disk and strip charts. Additionally, the TDC provides reduction capabilities in concert with systems analysts for automated scaling, threshold, change detection, cross plots, relational measures, 2D/3D graphical and solid model representation and play back post-test, real time and quick look data reports. Each of these capabilities are centrally available at the range control facility, each of the range test sites and via mobile instrumentation and test control vans.1 e) Operations Control Center ­ The Range Control Center (RCC) is a state-of-the-art digital data facility central to test operations, data collection and distribution. The center houses the operations control and data facility, telemetry data center, air traffic control radar facility, network operations center, flight safety engineering, real-time data display and reduction facility, instrumentation controllers, meteorological data center and test customer and analyst cells. During tests, the range controller executes the test countdown and master schedule to coordinate all test entities readiness and synchronization, test safety and test operations parameters. In addition to the main range control facility, WSMR operates a mobile test range control facility and test operations vans at remote sites for on-site control and conduct.1 f) Photometrics and Photography ­ WSMR has an extensive capability to provide photographic data acquisition, editing and production for on-demand and planned documentary photo of the test setup and any incidents of interest. Photographic support includes still photography, closed circuit video surveillance and non-track optical data video in the visible, image intensification

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and IR bands at frame rates up to 2000 digital and over 20,000 frames per second film. Data measures include signature measurements, velocity, attitude, roll rates, impact aspect angles and position among others. Photographic capabilities also include chase aircraft with certified flight photographers. WSMR has automated data reduction and analysis capabilities for optical measurements and uncertainty analysis. Data media include tape, digital video disks, compact disc, film and print media.1 g) Communications ­ WSMR range communications operates the main switch for all telecommunications and network operations including fiber, Radio Frequency and hardwire networks. The range utilizes a trunking radio system with repeater systems to provide test conduct and local radio communication service. The integrated communications systems provides ground-to-air and ground-to-ground radio links using both radio frequency (RF) and land line equipment that ensures support of test activities test control operations and emergencies. The range operates a test support network and communications system to transport data, timing, command and control and voice nets for range control, project operations and instrumentations operations for each mission. Communications networks are configured for each test event scenario and include the ability to tie tactical communications to aircraft and other systems under test into the net. The inter-range control center operates the test support network and external connectivity for data distribution and distributed test control.1 h) Aircraft flight safety ­ Team WSMR has a renowned capability and experience in flight safety systems to include modeling and measuring instantaneous impact predictions, design and certification of flight termination systems (FTS) and safe test operations for aircraft and weapons systems. WSMR conducts mission analysis and real-time control and decision making for mission operations including meteorological data considerations, flight profile and instrumentation information for flight safety operations. Aircraft and test operations safety is highly afforded by the control, management and vast restricted air and land space.1 i) Airspace ­ WSMR controls and manages over 10,000 square miles of restricted airspace with the full authority of the FAA. Thus, WSMR is not required to call-up or schedule airspace operations or receive FAA approval for operations within the restricted airspace. WSMR operates an Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar facility in conjunction with the range control facility for management and control of the airspace. The ATC facility consists of state-of-the-art STARS radar scope and systems operated by the FAA certified air traffic controllers from the Air Force 49th Fighter Wing for conducting operations on the range and approach and departure from Holloman Air Force Base located on the range eastern boundary. The range is also the user of record of additional call-up airspace and military operations areas and is experienced in aircraft operations control on and off range.1 j) Explosive Ordnance Disposal/Recovery ­ WSMR has trained explosive ordnance disposal and recovery operations personnel for recovery and disposal of explosive ordnance that are utilized either on call or on standby for test operations as required by the test plan and safety operations. Capabilities include in-place disposal, recovery and disposal operations, determination and validation of disposal methodologies and assessments, Recovery operations include helicopter search and rescue, air lift operations, heavy transport equipment, cranes, front end loader, backhoes, forklifts both manned and robotic recovery and inspection systems including backhoe

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operations. WSMR recovers all penetrating test units by excavation techniques using front end loaders and backhoes.1 k) Metrology ­ WSMR has a meteorology section that provides a wide range of technical meteorological support including forecasts, warnings, and atmospheric observations and measurements for test data and control. Forecasts are tailored to project requirements and include cloud cover, upper level wind speed and direction, lightening threat, luminance and transmittance among others. Standard meteorological data is provided from fixed ground stations throughout the range, emplaced stations at test sites and rawindsonde balloons for altitude measurements up to 100K feet MSL. Additional altitude measurement capabilities exist for very high altitude measurements via met rocketsondes, Doppler weather radar data, wind profilers, and scintillation measures. Meteorological data and forecast information can be networked or transmitted in real time to the range control center or be distributed to test sites throughout the range for recording and display. Data are reference correlated to test data by IRIG timing.1 l) Trajectory Plotting ­ The graphics facility provides the operational and display environment for the aircraft control operator and the radar director. The displays and the facility are located in the RCC. The trajectory is projected in the RCC operations center for the TD and other test personnel on the same plot as the planned trajectory, allowing the test team to evaluate the aircraft and test unit flight safety.1 m) Security ­ WSMR has an integral security workforce for operations security, evacuation and roadblock services across the range. In association with the operation of the nuclear test reactor, WSMR personnel has personnel programs and special security training suitable for NNSA test operation requirements. However, the number of personnel available for a given test may require augmentation of the WSMR security force dependant on the threat analysis and security plan. WSMR has a variety of classified storage sites for temporary storage protection of the test articles. The majority of the WSMR personnel have the appropriate level of security clearances and are accustomed to secure test operations and conduct.1 n) Radiological Technician ­ Provided by SNL from Albuquerque. For any tests that require post-test radiography, the equipment and specialists are provided by one of the physics laboratories. Permits and logistics are coordinated by the TD and on-site range specialist. WSMR also has a radiation protection office with measurement survey capabilities and a metallurgy laboratory with portable radiography capabilities available as required.1 o) Emergency Services ­ A medical aid station with an ambulance, staffed by highly qualified medical technicians, is located at the Stallion range center within 10 minutes of the planned NNSA test area. A modern full service hospital is located in the town of Socorro, Alamogordo about 20 and 45 miles respectively, from the proposed test location on the range. Additionally, a full service fire station and EMS unit is located at the Stallion range camp. This and additional resources can be deployed to the test site as required by the test safety operating procedures and risk assessment. WSMR Army Air Operations provide air evacuation services to local and regional hospitals including Albuquerque as conditions dictate.1

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p) Shipping and Receiving­ WSMR performs all requirements to ship hazardous and nonhazardous post-test assets and material off range. Coordination is performed with the NNSA Office of Safeguards Transportation for all Joint Test Assembly (JTA) shipments. These shipments include explosives and radioactive components. 1 q) Working Space ­ Workspace for NNSA test operations can be provided by mobile facilities, at the Stallion range camp or at the Defense Threat Reduction Agency compound to the east of the proposed NNSA test area and including work areas with computer access and for classified operations.1 r) Cost ­ The annual operations cost for fifteen (15) flight tests at the WSMR is approximately $1.95M as a function of the test scenarios and mission type. The test scenarios are estimated to range in cost from $120K to $150K including test planning and set-up. For the purposes of this comparison cost estimate, $130K was used to calculate the annual cost assuming 15 flight test missions. 1 s) Targets ­ WSMR has a wide variety of targets located throughout the range. The planned NNSA targets are in the northern section of the range. The final determination of the targets will be determined by the geological study. Potentially, a concrete target will be constructed in the general area of the penetration target to facilitate all missions in the same location. The eastern and southern sections of the range are not suitable for penetration missions. The aircraft routing and planned targets can provide good sun and camera angles for data and video collection. 1 t) Computer Facility ­ The range computer facility is located inside the RCC. It provides support to all facets of the test, from safety calculations and basic communications support, to the coordinated real-time radar and video picture so the test team can make instantaneous decisions about range safety and test execution.1 ________

1. E-mail from Jerry Tyree, WSMR Business Office, to Lee Post, SNL 2951, dated 11/27/06.

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2. Graphics The following is a map of the proposed White Sands Missile Range target areas.

Proposed Target Areas

3. Siting Locations The northwest area of the WSMR would provide several target area options for flight testing. Pending completion of soil core sampling, it is anticipated that one or more locations in this area would meet the requirements for the penetrator testing. A review of the preliminary data indicates that this area of the WSMR could accommodate the safety footprints of all current flight test scenarios.

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4. Construction and Operations Data The only construction that would be required to support the JTA flight test operations at the WSMR would be the installation of a circular concrete target. The target would be used to aid in recovery efforts for all Retard Air and Retard Ground configurations. It would also be used for free-fall test units. The concrete target would be constructed of 4000 psi non-reinforced concrete, 500 feet (ft) in diameter with a depth of 12 in. The construction would be managed by the test range, but paid for by the test agency. The cost for this target in 2006 dollars is estimated to be approximately $8M.

Data Required Peak electrical energy (megawatt electric [MWe]) Diesel generators (Yes or No) Concrete ( cubic yards [yd]) Steel (tons) Liquid fuel and lube oil (gallons [gal.]) Water (gal.) Land (acre [ac]) Laydown area size Parking lots Employment Total employment (worker years) Peak employment (workers) Construction period (years [yr]) Waste Generated Low-Level Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Mixed Low-Level Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Hazardous Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Nonhazardous (sanitary) Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Nonhazardous (Other) Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) ANNUAL OPERATIONS 2 Data Required Annual electrical energy (megawatt-hours [MWh]) Peak electrical demand (MWe) Fuel usage (gal or cubic yd) Other process gas (N, Ar, etc.) Diesel generators Water (gal.) *Yearly for entire range including AF

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Consumption/Use 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Volume 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Consumption/Use 595MWh 812MWe 480cu.ft. 44 (about 20 per test) 6 million

Steam (tons) Plant footprint (ac) Employment (workers) Number of rad workers Average annual dose Radionuclide emissions and effluents--nuclides and curies NAAQS emissions (tons/yr) SEE TABLE Hazardous Air Pollutants and Effluents (tons/yr) SEE TABLE Chemical use Maximum inventory of fissile material/throughput Waste Category Low-Level Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Mixed Low-Level Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Transuranic (TRU) Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) High-Level Waste (HLW)/Spent Fuel Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Hazardous Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Nonhazardous (sanitary) Liquid (gal.) Solid (cubic yd) Nonhazardous (Other) Liquid (gal.)

0 280 sq miles 135 25 <10 Mrem 0 13.32

3.7E-06

0 0 Volume -0 0 -0 0 -0 0 -0 0 -35 <1 -0 63 -0

NAAQS TABLE 3

NAAQS Summary NOx CO PM10 SO2 VOC Generator tpy 0.31 12.36 0.02 0.02 0.61 JTA tpy 3.7E-06 Total tpy 0.31 12.36 0.02 0.02 0.61

HAPS TABLE

HAPs Summary JTA B83 JTA B61 Total tpy tpy tpy Hydrochloric Acid 1.1E-06 2.7E-06 3.7E-06 2. E-mail from Jerry Elliston, TTR Contractor Lead, dated Nov 21, 2006. Note: used as basis for calculations. Data provided was for entire year, not just JTA tests. Data shown in this table is for B61 and B83 testing only. 3. E-mail from Joanna Eckstein, dated Nov 16, 2006. 4. E-mail from Joe Bonaguidi, SNL, dated December 11, 2006. Page 9 of 10

5. Transportation Data There is not a current Offsite Transportation Authorization (OTA) from the WSMR for any B61 or B83 Joint Test Assemblies (JTA). A route must be established by NNSA for all JTA configurations planned for testing. This is not a significant issue, but must be coordinated well in advance. All B61-3/4/10 pre-test shipments from Pantex to the designated military locations and post-test shipments from the test location to the Pantex Plant in Amarillo TX are authorized in the DOE/AL/200103/JTA, "Offsite Transportation Authorization, Revision 4; Shipment Authorization of Pre-test and Posttest Shipment of B61-3/4/10 Joint Test Assemblies (JTA) 1/3/6/9/15." All B61-7 pre-test shipments from Pantex to the designated military locations and post-test shipments from the test location to the Pantex Plant in Amarillo TX are authorized in the DOE/AL/99007/JTA, "Offsite Transportation Authorization, Revision 4; Shipment Authorization of Pre-test and Posttest Shipment of B61-7 Joint Test Assemblies (JTA) 1/3/5/6/8/15." All B83-1 pre-test shipments from Pantex to the designated military locations and post-test shipments from the test location to the Pantex Plant in Amarillo TX are authorized in the DOE/AL/92011/JTA Revision 9; "Shipment Authorization for Pre- and Posttest B83 JTA2 and Pretest JTS2 Units". This revision expires August 1, 2007. The pre-test shipment must be inspected and certified by the Pantex Site Office (NNSA) prior to delivery to the AF. The hazards for all configurations are appropriately documented. If there are development units or modifications to existing units, the OTA and the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) for that system will be updated or specific hazard and transportation documentation will be provided to NNSA for approval. 6. Accidents In the development of the Offsite Transportation Authorizations, the SER is prepared in accordance with DOE Order 461.1A and Safety Guide (SG) 500 and documents the review of the Joint Test Assemblies. Transportation Risk Assessments are not required. The SER looks at the potential and the consequences of accident scenarios for the test units while in transit in a DOE truck. Refer to the following Safety Evaluation Reports for detailed information. (a) Safety Evaluation Report for B61 Modifications 3, 4, 7, 10 and 11 High Fidelity Joint Test Assembly (U), Revision 4, dated January 26, 2005. Classified SECRET/RD. (b) Safety Evaluation Report for B61-7 Joint Test Assemblies (U), Revision 5, dated September 20, 2005. Classified SECRET/RD. (c) Safety Evaluation Report for b61-3/4/10 Joint Test Assemblies and B61-3 Flight Test Units (U), Revision 4, Dated November 2, 2006 (DRAFT). Classified SECRET/RD. Terrorist Threats. The NNSA Design Basis Threat provides the threats that must be guarded against for all sites where specific materials and/or assets are temporarily or permanently stored. The specific responses to any activities are contained in various documents.

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