Read UNIVERSITATEA "BABE-BOLYAI" CLUJ-NAPOCA text version

UNIVERSITATEA "BABE-BOLYAI" CLUJ-NAPOCA

FACULTATEA DE BIOLOGIE I GEOLOGIE CATEDRA DE TAXONOMIE I ECOLOGIE COLECTIVUL DE BOTANIC GRDINA BOTANIC "ALEXANDRU BORZA"

SOCIETATEA MICOLOGIC DIN ROMÂNIA INSTITUTUL DE CERCETRI I AMENAJRI SILVICE ­ STAIUNEA CLUJ OCOLUL SILVIC EXPERIMENTAL LECHINA

SIMPOZIONUL NAIONAL DE MICOLOGIE

- EDIIA A XXI-A -

REZUMATELE LUCRRILOR

Cluj-Napoca

2 - 4 septembrie 2009

SIMPOZIONUL NAIONAL DE MICOLOGIE

- EDIIA A XXI-A -

CUPRINS

I. MOMENT ANIVERSAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 II. COMUNICRI TIINIFICE PE SECIUNI . . . . . .7 A. SECIUNEA MACROMICETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 B. SECIUNEA MICROMICETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 III. INDEX DE AUTORI. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

În cadrul acestui volum, s-a respectat coninutul rezumatelor expediate de autor(i). Comitetul de organizare

2

I. MOMENT ANIVERSAR

PROFESOR UNIV. DR. TATIANA EUGENIA ESAN LA A 65-A ANIVERSARE

CTLIN TNASE1, MARCEL PÂRVU2

Universitatea "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" din Iai, Facultatea de Biologie 2 Universitatea "Babe­Bolyai", Facultatea de Biologie i Geologie

1

Tatiana Eugenia ESAN, membru corespondent al Academiei de tiine Agricole i Silvice din România, este profesor universitar dr. la Facultatea de Biologie a Universitii din Bucureti, titularul cursurilor de Micologie i Fitopatologie, conductor de doctorat în tiine ale naturii, domeniul Biologie. A desfurat primii 8 ani de activitate în învmântul superior la Bacu, predând Botanic (Morfologia, Anatomia i Sistematica Plantelor), Protecia Plantelor, Tehnica Conservrii Materialului Didactic de Biologie .a. Urmtorii 30 de ani de activitate a lucrat în Institutul de Cercetri pentru Protecia Plantelor din Bucureti, sub egida Academiei de tiine Agricole i Silvice, ca specialist în domeniile Fitopatologie, Micologie, Dezvoltare Durabil, Biotehnologii i mai ales Combaterea biologic a bolilor plantelor i buruienilor. A publicat, singur sau în colaborare, 18 cri, dintre care una în strintate i peste 320 lucrri tiinifice, majoritatea intrate în circuitul naional i internaional, citate de specialitii din ar i strintate. Recunoaterea tiinific naional este concretizat în Premiul Traian Svulescu al Academiei Române, obinut atât în anul 1988, cât i în anul 1998 i Premiul Emanoil Teodorescu al Academiei Române, obinut atât în anul 2008

3

pentru lucrarea Concepte actuale în taxonomia ciupercilor. De asemenea, în anul 1999, este laureat a Premiului Mihai Constantineanu al Asociaiei de Ecosanogenez din România. A obinut burse de specializare în Rusia, Frana, Polonia, Olanda i a colaborat pe perioade lungi în cadrul unor programe internaionale care s-au desfurat în Olanda în domeniul combaterii biologice a bolilor plantelor (1993, 1995, 2000). În ar lucreaz la diferite proiecte din programele naionale de cercetare Relansin, Biotech, CEEX, PN II, CNCSIS Idei .a. Este membr a multor organizaii tiinifice din ar i din strintate i a fost invitat la numeroase congrese internaionale organizate în Danemarca, Olanda, Turcia, Polonia, Marea Britanie, Cehia, Grecia, Elveia, Austria, Israel, Ungaria, Frana, Spania, Taiwan, Africa de Sud, Rusia. Este vicepreedint a Societii Micologice din România, fiind unul dintre membrii fondatori ai acestei asociaii profesionale, la a crei dezvoltare, mai ales profesional, a contribuit permanent de la înfiinare. Este referent tiinific la prestigioase reviste de specialitate, precum Mycological Research (Marea Britanie), Phytoparasitica (Israel), Phytopathologia Polonica (Polonia) i în comitetul editorial al unor publicaii din ar, dar i din strintate, cum este revista de profil Phytopathologia Polonica (Polonia). A fost cooptat în comitetul de organizare i tiinific al unor manifestri tiinifice de Micologie i Fitopatologie în România i Polonia.

PhD PROFESSOR TATIANA EUGENIA ESAN AT HER 65TH ANNIVERSARY

CTLIN TNASE1, MARCEL PÂRVU2

4

"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iai, Faculty of Biology 2 "Babe­Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Biology and Geology

1

Tatiana Eugenia ESAN, corresponding member of the Agricultural and Silvic Sciences Academy of Romania, is a PhD professor at the Faculty of Biology of Bucharest University, teaching classes of Mycology and Phytopathology, being a PhD thesis coordinator in Science of Nature, Biology Domain. The first 8 years she was teaching, in the higher education in Bacu, Botany (Morphology, Anatomy and Plant Systematic), Plant Protection, The Technique of Preserving Didactic Biological Material. The next 30 years she worked in the Research Institute for Plant Protection of Bucharest, conduced by the Agricultural and Silvic Sciences Academy, as an expert in Phytopathology, Mycology, Stable Development, Biotechnologies and especially in Biological Combating of plants and weeds diseases. She published, alone or with other authors, 18 books, one of them abroad, and more than 320 scientific papers, most of them being in the national and international web, cited by specialists in the country and abroad. She received Traian Svulescu Prize of the Romanian Academy on 1988 and on 1998 as a national esteem and Emanoil Teodorescu Prize of the Romanian Academy on 2008 for the work Actual concepts in fungi taxonomy. On 1999, she also received Mihai Constantineanu Prize of the Romanian Ecosanogenesis Association. She obtained specialization grants in Russia, France, Poland, Holland and collaborated long periods in international programmes developed in Holland in biological combating plant diseases (1993, 1995, and 2000).

5

In the country, she works on various projects of the national research programmes Relansin, Biotech, CEEX, PN II, CNCSIS Ideas etc. She is a member of numerous scientific organizations in the country and abroad and she was invited at numerous international congresses organized in Denmark, Holland, Turkey, Poland, Great Britain, Czech Republic, Greece, Switzerland, Austria, Israel, Hungary, France, Spain, Taiwan, South Africa, and Russia. She is the vice-president of the Romanian Mycological Society, being one of the foundation members of this professional association, permanently contributing to its development, especially from professional point of view, from the beginnings. She is a scientific referent for important specialty reviews, such as Mycological Research (Great Britain), Phytoparasitica (Israel), Phytopathologia Polonica (Poland) and in the editorial committee of some publications in the country, as well as abroad, such as Phytopathologia Polonica (Poland). She was requested to be part of the organizing and scientific committee of some scientific manifestations of Mycology and Phytopathology in Romania and Poland.

6

II. COMUNICRI TIINIFICE PE SECIUNI

A. SECIUNEA MACROMICETE

REPERE DIN ISTORIA INTOXICAIILOR CU CIUPERCI

LUMINIA AGOROAEI, CLAUDIA BUTNARU, LIANA GABRIELA MORARU, ELENA BUTNARU

Universitatea de Medicin i Farmacie "Gr. T. Popa" Iai, Facultatea de Farmacie, Disciplina de Toxicologie

Cel mai vechi document care se refer la ciuperci dateaz din anul 1450 î.e.n. i este o inscripie mural gsit în mormântul faraonului Amenemhet. Egiptenii antici considerau ciupercile "plante ale imortalitii", decretându-le "mâncare pentru regi" i interzicându-le oamenilor simpli s se ating de ele. Dramatismul unor intoxicaii a fcut ca ciupercile s fie numite generic "fungi". Termenul "fungus" provine de la "funus" (cadavru) i "agere" (a face). Diferenierea în ciuperci otrvitoare i ciuperci comestibile a fost propus de medicul grec Dioscoride, în secolul I e.n. În Europa, în Evul Mediu i în secolele urmtoare, s-au înregistrat epidemii de ergotism, intoxicaie cronic cu alcaloizii din ergot (miceliul ciupercii parazite cornul secarei ­ Claviceps purpurea). Formele intoxicaiei, gangrenoas i convulsiv, senzaia caracteristic de arsur i durerile cumplite a fcut ca intoxicaia s fie numit "boala ardenilor", "focul sacru" sau "focul sfântului Anton".

7

Albert Magnus (secolul XIII e.n) credea c toxicitatea unor ciuperci se datorete putregaiului pe care cresc, cuibarelor de erpi veninoi din vecintate, apropierii unui arbore otrvitor sau chiar unui cui ruginit. Ciupercile otrvitoare au provocat nenumrate decese dea lungul istoriei, cele mai celebre fiind cele ale lui: Buda, soiei i copiilor poetului grec Euripide, Împratului Claudiu, papei Clement al VII-lea, vduvei arului Alexei I al Rusiei, Împratului Carol al VI-lea, compozitorului Johann Schubert .a.

MOMENTS IN THE HISTORY OF MUSHROOMS POISONINGS

LUMINIA AGOROAEI, CLAUDIA BUTNARU, LIANA GABRIELA MORARU, ELENA BUTNARU

University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" Iai, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology

The oldest document that refers to mushrooms dates from 1450 BC; it is a mural inscription found in the tomb of pharaoh Amenemhet. Ancient Egyptians believed mushrooms "plants of immortality", deciding them "food for kings" and interdict their people to achieve them. The dramatism of poisonings made the mushrooms are called generically "fungi". The term "fungus" comes from "funus" (corpse) and "agere" (to make). Differentiation in poisonous mushrooms and edible mushrooms was proposed by the Greek physician Dioscorides in the 1st Century AD.

8

In Europe, in the Middle Ages and in the following centuries, there have been epidemics of ergotism, chronic poisoning with alkaloids from ergot (mycelium of parasite fungus "horn rye" - Claviceps purpurea). The gangrenous and convulsive forms of poisoning, the characteristic burning sensation and terrible pains make poisoning to be called "holy fire" or "Saint Anthony's fire". Albert Magnus (XIII century) believed that the toxicity of mushrooms is due to the rot where them increase, venomous snakes in the neighborhood, proximity to a poisonous tree or to a rusty nail. Poisonous mushrooms have caused countless deaths in the history, most famous being those of: Buddha, wife and children of Greek poet Euripides, Emperor Claudius, pope Clement VII, widow of Alexei I of Russia, Emperor Charles VI, composer Johann Schubert etc.

SPECII ALE GENULUI CORTINARIUS, SUBGENUL TELAMONIA DIN MLATINILE DE TURB SITUATE ÎN JUDEUL SUCEAVA (CARPAII ORIENTALI)

CLAUDIU VASILIC CHINAN, MIHAI MITITIUC

Universitatea "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" Iai, Facultatea de Biologie

Mlatinile de turb reprezint habitate restrictive în ceea ce privete diversitatea macromicetelor. Investigaiile micologice efectuate în mlatinile de turb situate în zona montan a judeului Suceava au pus în eviden faptul c genul Cortinarius este bine reprezentat prin numrul de specii

9

identificate. Din subgenul Telamonia au fost identificate o serie de specii higrofile sau acidofile, care se dezvolt îndeosebi în acest tip de habitat: Cortinarius brunneus (Pers.) Fr. var. brunneus, Cortinarius evernius (Fr.) Fr., Cortinarius striaepilus J. Favre (,,Tinovul Mare" aru Dornei), Cortinarius armillatus (Alb. & Schwein.) Fr. (,,Tinovul Mare" Csoi Poiana tampei), Cortinarius fulvescens Fr. ss. Favre (Tinovul Drgoiasa) i Cortinarius paleaceus (Weinm.) Fr. (Tinovul Cristior). Observaiile din teren au pus în eviden o abunden foarte redus a acestora. Fiecare specie menionat a fost identificat într­un numr redus de exemplare i doar o singur dat în perioada 2004­2008. Date anterioare privind prezena acestor specii, ce aparin subgenului Telamonia, în mlatinile din zona montan a judeului Suceava sunt puine, fiind publicate de M. Toma (1972) i C. Tnase (2000). Specimenele analizate se gsesc depuse în colecia Herbarului Facultii de Biologie de la Universitatea "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" din Iai [I].

SPECIES OF CORTINARIUS, SUBGENUS TELAMONIA FROM THE PEAT BOGS SITUATED IN SUCEAVA COUNTY (EASTERN CARPATHIANS)

CLAUDIU VASILIC CHINAN, MIHAI MITITIUC

"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iai, Faculty of Biology

Peat bogs are restrictive habitats for the macromycetes diversity. The mycological investigations performed in the peat bogs situated in the mountainous zone of Suceava County emphasized that Cortinarius genus has a good representation

10

through the number of the identified species. From Telamonia subgenus we registered some hygrophilous or acidophilous species, which grows especially in this kind of habitat: Cortinarius brunneus (Pers.) Fr. var. brunneus, Cortinarius evernius (Fr.) Fr., Cortinarius striaepilus J. Favre (,,Tinovul Mare" aru Dornei peat bog), Cortinarius armillatus (Alb. & Schwein.) Fr. (,,Tinovul Mare" Csoi Poiana tampei peat bog), Cortinarius fulvescens Fr. ss. Favre (Drgoiasa peat bog) and Cortinarius paleaceus (Weinm.) Fr. (Cristior peat bog). Into the investigated area, we observed that these species have a very low abundance and are rare, because we registered them only one time during 2004­2008 period. Previous data concerning to the Telamonia subgenus species from the peat bogs situated in Suceava County are scarce and were published by M. Toma (1972) and C. Tnase (2000). Specimens used in the present study are deposited in the collection of Faculty of Biology, "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi [I].

CONTRIBUII LA CUNOATEREA DIVERSITII MACROMICETELOR LIGNICOLE (BASIDIOMYCETES) DIN MUNII CPÂNII

IOANA CIORTAN

Grdina Botanic "Al. Buia", Universitatea din Craiova

Lucrarea de fa prezint rezultate pariale ale cercetrilor efectuate între anii 2005-2008 în diverse pduri (pduri de fag, pduri de amestec fag cu molid, molidiuri pure) din M-ii Cpânii. Sunt prezentate un numr de 81 de specii de

11

macromicete (basidiomicete), atât saprotrofe cât i parazite, identificate pe lemnul diverselor specii de arbori. De asemenea, sunt incluse în lucrare i basidiomicetele saprotrofe care numai în anumite condiii folosesc ca substrat nutritiv lemnul, în mod obinuit fiind saprotrofe pe resturi vegetale de alt natur.

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE DIVERSITY LIGNICOLOUS MACROMYCETES (BASIDIOMYCETES) FROM CPÂNII MOUNTAINS

IOANA CIORTAN

"Al. Buia" Botanical Garden, University of Craiova

This paper presents partial results to the research conducted between the years 2005-2008 in various woods from Cpânii Mountains (beech forests, mixed beech with spruce forests, spruce forests). In this researches are being presented a number of 81 macromycetes taxa (basidiomycetes), and both saprotrophic and parasite species, identified on the wood of various trees species. Also included in the paper are saprotrophic basidiomycetes only under certain conditions using wood as food substrate, usually being saprotrophic, on vegetable scraps of other nature.

12

CONTRIBUII PRIVIND ATACUL CIUPERCILOR LIGNICOLE ÎN UNELE ARBORETE DIN JUDEUL SUCEAVA ­ studiu de caz

MARGARETA GRUDNICKI

Universitatea "tefan cel Mare" Suceava, Facultatea de Silvicultur

Lucrarea trateaz impactul produs de ciupercile lignicole asupra speciilor forestiere din unele arborete ale Judeului Suceava. Studiile aduc o serie de contribuii privind pagubele produse de aciunea acestor ciuperci i influena lor asupra stabilitii ecosistemelor forestiere.

CONTRIBUTIONS REGARDING WOODS FUNGI ATTACK IN SOME FORESTS FROM SUCEAVA DEPARTAMENT ­ case study

MARGARETA GRUDNICKI

"tefan cel Mare" University Suceava, Faculty of Sylviculture

The paper contents the impact of woods fungi of the forestry species in some forests of Suceava district. The study is to bring certain contributions regarding the fungi attack on beech species, focusing mainly on the attack produced by woods fungi, beyond the large economic damages, these fungi also affects the stability of the forest ecosystems.

13

CURIOZITI DIN LUMEA CIUPERCILOR

MARIANA HUANU

USAMV Iai

Lucrarea se refer la câteva specii de ciuperci care sunt mai deosebite, fie din punctul de vedere al aspectului lor morfologic, fie prin parteneriatele la care particip, fie datorit unor substane pe care le secret sau prin utilizrile pe care oamenii le-au dat acestor specii. Vor fi prezentate unele specii din genurile Ganoderma, Amanita, Psilocybe, Claviceps, Coprinus, Fistulina, etc., unele specii din familia Phallaceae, parteneriatul dintre unele ciuperci i furnici, specii de ciuperci cu mirosuri i culori deosebite.

CURIOSITIES FROM THE FUNGAL WORLD

MARIANA HUANU

USAMV Iai

The paper refers to a few species of fungi that are quite particular either from the point of view of their morphological aspect, or through their association with other organisms, or due to a series of substances they secrete, or due to the uses to which these species are submitted by people. The paper includes some of the species of the following genera: Ganoderma, Amanita, Psilocybe, Claviceps, Coprinus, Fistulina, etc., some species of the Phallaceae family, the association of some fungi and ants, and species of fungi with peculiar smells and colours.

14

CERCETRI MICOCENOLOGICE ÎN ASOCIAIA PULMONARIO RUBRAE ­ FAGETUM DIN MUNII NEMIRA

ORTANSA JIGU

Complexul Muzeal de tiinele Naturii "Ion Borcea" Bacu

Munii Nemira fac parte din grupa central a Carpailor Orientali (Munii Trotuului), delimitând extremitatea ei sudic i se încadreaz în zona munilor sedimentari sudici, întinzându-se pe o suprafa de 700 km² în judeul Bacu, Covasna i Harghita. Asociaia Pulmonario rubrae - Fagetum (Soó 1964) Täuber 1987, face parte din clasa Querco ­ Fagetea Br.-Bl. et Vlieger in Vlieger 1937 ordinul Fagetalia sylvaticae Pawlowski in Pawlowski et al. 1928, aliana Symphyto cordati ­ Fagion Vida 1963. Arboretele de fag cu brad sau fag cu molid i brad, au o larg rspândire în Carpaii Orientali ai Moldovei, la o altitudine de 500-1200m, de regul pe versani moderat înclinai sau terenuri plane. Ele vegeteaz pe soluri brune sau brun- acide, având un pH variabil între 4,7- 6,2. Asociaia a fost identificat în zona de studiu: Slnic Moldova, Izvorul Alb, Dofeana ­ Srrie, Poiana Srat. Speciile edificatoare ale acestor fitocenoze sunt Fagus sylvatica i Abies alba, care se gsesc în raporturi de codominan. În urma cercetrilor micologice în asociaia Pulmonario rubrae ­ Fagetum au fost identificate 313 specii de macromicete, 221 specii (70,61%) în sinuzia tericol i 92 specii (29,39%) în sinuzia epixil. Speciile de macromicete din

15

sinuziile tericol i epixil au fost identificate i colectate din Slnic Moldova, Srrie - Dofteana, Izvorul Alb, Poiana Srat.

MYCOCOENOLOGICAL RESEARCH INTO PULMONARIO RUBRAE ­ FAGETUM ASSOCIATION IN NEMIRA MOUNTAINS

ORTANSA JIGU

"Ion Borcea" Natural Sciences Museum Complex

Nemira Mountains are part of the central group of the Oriental Carpathians (Trotu Mountains), making its southern border; they belong to the area of the eastern sedimentary mountains, spreading on a 700km² area in the counties of Bacu, Covasna and Harghita. Pulmonario rubrae ­ Fagetum (Soó 1964) Täuber 1987, is a part of class Querco ­ Fagetea Br.-Bl. et Vlieger in Vlieger 1937 order Fagetalia sylvaticae Pawlowski in Pawlowski et al. 1928, alliance Symphyto cordati ­ Fagion Vida 1963. Coppices of beech and fir or coppices of spruce fir, beech and fir, have a large spread in Orientals Carpathians of Moldavia, at an altitude of 500 ­ 1200m, usually on inclined versants and flat grounds. They vegetate on brown grounds or on brown acids grounds, having a variable pH between 4.7 ­ 6.2. This association was indentified in this zone of study: Slanic Moldova, White Spring (Izvorul Alb), Dofteana ­ Sararie, Poiana Sarata. Main species of these phytocenoses are Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba, which are in an interdominance relation.

16

Mycocoenological researches in Pulmonario rubrae ­ Fagetum association, led to the identification of 313 macroscopic fungal species among which 221 species (70,61%) belong to terricole synusium and 79 species (29,39%) belong to epixyle synusium.

BIOTEHNOLOGIE DE RECICLARE A DEEURILOR VINICOLE I VITICOLE PRIN CULTIVAREA IN VITRO A CIUPERCILOR EDIBILE I MEDICINALE

MARIAN PETRE, ALEXANDRU TEODORESCU, MONICA NEBLEA, EMANUELA STANCU

Universitatea din Piteti, Facultatea de tiine

Anual, cantiti uriae formate din deeuri vinicole i viticole genereaz grave efecte de poluare ambiental prin acumularea acestora atât în podgorii, cât i vecintatea combinatelor de vinificaie. Efecte mult mai negative se produc prin arderea acestor deeuri la suprafaa solului sau prin încorporarea lor în structura sa. Modalitatea optim i eficient de a soluiona aceste probleme este aceea de a utiliza biotehnologia de reciclare a acestor deeuri vinicole i viticole. În acest context, principalul scop al acestei lucrri a fost cel de a stabili cea mai bun variant de biotehnologie pentru reciclarea deeurilor vinicole i viticole prin utilizarea lor drept substraturi corespunztoare de cretere a ciupercilor comestibile i medicinale. În concordan cu acest scop, dou specii de ciuperci din Clasa Basidiomycetes, respectiv, Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst (denumire popular: Reishi), precum i Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin ex

17

Fries) Kummer (denumire popular: ciuperca scoic) au fost utilizate sub form de culturi pure în cursul experimentelor. Culturile de depozit au fost meninute pe medii agarizate înclinate, compuse din mal extract (20% extract de mal, 2% extract de drojdii, 20% agar-agar). Mediile înclinate agarizate au fost meninute la 25°C timp de 120 - 168 h i depozitate la 4°C. Apoi, culturile pure de ciuperci au fost multiplicate prin creterea miceliilor în baloane cu o capacitate de 250 ml, coninând 100 ml de mediu lichid compus din extracte ale unor semine de cereale, la 23°C, în incubatoare cu agitare rotativ la 110 rev min -1 timp de 72 - 120 h. Experimentele privind prepararea de inoculum au fost montate prin asigurarea urmtoarelor condiii: temperatur constant la valoarea de 23°C; viteza de agitare, 90 - 120 rev. min -1; nivelul de pH, 5.0 ­ 6.0. Toate culturile miceliene au fost incubate timp de 120 ­ 168 h. În cursul perioadei de incubare, aceste culturi miceliene au fost meninute în camere speciale de cretere, proiectate pentru o incubare optim la 230C. În stadiul urmtor al experimentelor, composturile de cultivare destinate creterii ciupercilor au fost preparate din deeuri lignocelulozice cum sunt fragmente rezultate din tierea coardelor de vi de vie i tescovina de struguri. În acest context, au fost utilizate trei variante de composturi de cultivare compuse din tescovin i coarde de vi de vie, în urmtoarele proporii de greutate: 1:1, 1:2, 1:4. Au fost atent studiate efectele induse de compoziia composturilor (carbon, azot, elemente minerale), precum i cele ale factorilor fizici i chimici (temperatura, cantitatea de inoculum, nivelul pH, durata de incubare etc.) asupra creterii miceliului i, în special, asupra formrii corpurilor de fructificare. Pe parcursul întregii perioade de formare i dezvoltare a corpurilor de fructificare ale ciupercilor cultivate au fost stabilii principalii parametri de cultivare i au fost meninui permanent la urmtoarele niveluri, în funcie de fiecare dintre speciile de ciuperci utilizate: temperatura aerului, 15­170 C; debitul de aer,

18

5­6m3/h; viteza fluxului de aer, 0.2­0.3 m/s; coninutul de umiditate relativ, 80­85%, intensitatea luminii, 500-1000 luci, timp de 8­10 h/d. Toate rezultatele obinute ce pot avea o influen asupra creterii miceliene, precum i asupra formrii corpurilor de fructificare aparinând speciilor P. ostreatus i G. lucidum au fost comparate cu probele martor reprezentate de aceleai culturi fungice, crescute pe substraturi constituite din butuci de lemn de plop.

BIOTECHNOLOGY OF WINERY AND VINE WASTES RECYCLING BY IN VITRO CULTIVATION OF EDIBLE AND MEDICINAL MUSHROOMS

MARIAN PETRE, ALEXANDRU TEODORESCU, MONICA NEBLEA, EMANUELA STANCU

University of Piteti, Faculty of Sciences

Annually, huge amounts of wine and vine wastes cause serious environmental pollution effects by their accumulation in vineyards as well as nearby winery factories. Much worse is their burning on the soil surface or their incorporation inside its structure. The optimal and efficient way to solve these problems is to use a biotechnology of recycling these wine and vine wastes. In this respect, the main aim of this work was to establish the best biotechnology for winery and vine wastes recycling by using them as appropriate growth substrata for edible and medicinal mushrooms. According to this purpose, two mushroom species of Basidiomycetes group, namely Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.:Fr.) P. Karst (folk name: Reishi) as well as Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacquin ex Fries) Kummer (folk

19

name: Oyster Mushroom) were used as pure mushroom cultures in experiments. The stock cultures were maintained on maltextract agar (MEA) slants (20% malt extract, 2% yeast extract, 20% agar-agar). Slants were incubated at 25°C for 120 - 168 h and stored at 4°C. Then, the pure mushroom cultures were expanded by growing in 250-ml flasks containing 100 ml of liquid multi-grain-extract medium at 23°C on rotary shaker incubators at 110 rev min -1 for 72 - 120 h. The experiments of inoculum preparation were set up under the following conditions: constant temperature, 23°C; agitation speed, 90 120 rev min -1; pH level, 5.0 ­ 6.0. All mycelia mushroom cultures were incubated for 120 ­ 168 h. During the incubation time period, all the spawn cultures were maintained in special growing rooms, designed for optimal incubation at 230C. In the next stage of experiments, the culture composts for mushroom growing were prepared from the lignocellulose wastes as vineyard cuttings and marc of grapes in order to be used as substrata in mycelia development and fruit body formation. In this respect, there were prepared three variants of culture composts made of marc grapes and vineyard cuttings in the following ratios: 1:1, 1:2, 1:4 (w/w). The effects of compost composition (carbon, nitrogen and mineral sources) as well as other physical and chemical factors (temperature, inoculum amount, pH level and incubation time etc.) on mycelia growing and especially on fruit body formation were investigated. During the whole stage of fruit body formation and development the main culture parameters were set up and continuously maintained at the following levels, depending on each mushroom species: air temperature, 15­170C; the air flow volume, 5­6m3/h; air flow speed, 0.2­0.3 m/s; the relative moisture content, 80­85%, light intensity, 500-1000 luces for 8­ 10 h/d. The registered results that could influence the mycelia growing as well as fruit body formation of P. ostreatus and G. lucidum were compared to the same fungal cultures that were

20

grown on poplar logs used as control samples.

CLATHRUS ARCHERI (BERK.) DRING ­ O SPECIE NOU DE MACROMICETE PENTRU ROMÂNIA

RADU MIHAI-IULIAN

Universitatea Bucureti, Facultatea de Biologie

Lucrarea aduce o nou contribuie la cunoaterea speciilor de macromicete din România. Clathrus archeri (Berk.) Dring este a doua specie din genul Clathrus citat în România. Ciuperca prezentat este considerat rar i este prezent i în Lista roie a macromicetelor din Bulgaria. Originar din Australia, specia a fost prima oar depistat în 1914 în Frana i s-a extins treptat în mai multe ri din Europa.

21

CLATHRUS ARCHERI (BERK.) DRING - A NEW MACROMYCETES SPECIES FOR ROMANIA

RADU MIHAI-IULIAN

University of Bucharest, Faculty of Biology

The paper gives a new contribution to the knowledge of the macromycetes species from Romania. Clathrus archeri (Berk.) Dring is the second reported species belonging to Clathrus genus in Romania. The presented mushroom is considered rare and is also present in the Red list of macromycetes for Bulgaria. Originary from Australia, the species was first observed in 1914 in France and gradually spreading throughout Europe.

EFECTUL EXTRACTULUI DE POLIZAHARIDE DIN CIUPERCA GANODERMA LUCIDUM ASUPRA BURSITEI INFECIOASE AVIARE

MIRCEA SELEGEAN1, MIHAI PUTZ2, TATIANA RUGEA3

Laboratorul de Biotehnologie, Universitatea de Vest din Timioara 2 Laboratorul de Chimie i Fizic Structural i Computaional, Universitatea de Vest din Timioara 3 Laboratorul de Virusologie, Direcia Sanitar Veterinar i de Sigurana Alimentelor, Timioara

1

Extractele polizaharidice din Ganoderma lucidum au efecte imunomodulatoare asupra biosintezei i profilului de anticorpi specifici IgM i IgG anti IBD în raport de dozele

22

administrate. Titrul seric al anticorpi specifici IgM i IgG anti IBD este meninut la un nivel ridicat post-vaccinare prin utilizarea unor valori mici (5 i 15%) de extracte polizaharidice din ciupercile Ganoderma lucidum în dieta hidric a puilor. Între vaccinurile BIAVAC i BIAROMVAC i extractele polizaharidice s-au stabilit relaii sinergice (r > 0.9) materializate prin nivel ridicat de anticorpi anti IBDV pe toat durata experimentului post vaccinare. Testele imunoenzimatice, FlockCheck IBD (testul ELISA) utilizate, sunt eficiente în determinarea titrului de anticorpi specifici anti IBD i uureaz monitorizarea statusului imun în efectivele de psri.

EFFECT OF THE POLYSACCHARIDES EXTRACT FROM THE EDIBLE MUSHROOM GANODERMA LUCIDUM AGAINST INFECTIOUS BURSAL DISEASE VIRUS

MIRCEA SELEGEAN1, MIHAI PUTZ2, TATIANA RUGEA3

Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Biology Department, West University of Timioara 2 Laboratory of Computational and Structural Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Department, West University of Timioara 3 Laboratory of Virusology, National Agency for Sanitary Veterinary and Food Safety, Timioara Branch

1

The polysaccharides extracts from Ganoderma lucidum have immunomodulatory effects upon the biosynthesis and the profile of specific antibodies anti IBD (IBD ­ AB infectious bursal disease antibody) in accordance with the administered dozes. The serumal titer of the specific antibodies anti IBD

23

(IBD ­ AB infectious bursal disease antibody) is maintained at a high post-vaccination level through the usage of small values (D1 to D2) of polysaccharides extracts from Ganoderma lucidum mushrooms in chicken hidric diet. Synergic relations (r > 0.9) have been established between BIAVAC and BIAROMVAC vaccines, on the one hand, and polysaccharides extracts on the other hand. These relations were materialized through a high level of antibodies anti IBDV throughout the post-vaccination experiment. The immunoenzimatic tests utilized -FlockCheck IBD (ELISA test) - are efficient in the determination of antiIBD specific antibody titer (IBD ­ AB infectious bursal disease antibody) and ease the immune status monitoring in bird effectives.

OPTIMIZAREA PRODUCIEI DE EXOPOLIZAHARIDE LA GANODERMA LUCIDUM PRIN UTILIZAREA 1TRIACONTANOLULUI

MIRCEA SELEGEAN1, MIHAI PUTZ2, TATIANA RUGEA3

Laboratorul de Biotehnologie, Universitatea de Vest din Timioara 2 Laboratorul de Chimie i Fizic Structural i Computaional, Universitatea de Vest din Timioara 3 Laboratorul de Virusologie, Direcia Sanitar Veterinar i de Sigurana Alimentelor, Timioara

1

Producia de exopolizaharide (EPS) la Ganoderma lucidum a fost optimizat prin folosirea unor medii de cultur cu compoziie variat. 1- triacontanol (1mg/L-1) a oferit o producie mare (400mg/100ml) dup o incubaie de 10 zile într-un mediu de cultur cu extract de mal (1.5%, w/v), glucoz (0.4%,w/v) i la un pH 5.5. Produciile de EPS i biomasa au fost stimulate i

24

prin suplimentarea mediului de cultur cu diferite surse de azot. Caracteristicile fizicochimice ale EPS au fost studiate i confirmate prin analizele spectroscopice.

THE OPTIMIZATION OF EXOPOLYSACCHARIDES PRODUCTION IN GANODERMA LUCIDUM BY USING 1 ­TRIACONTANOL

MIRCEA SELEGEAN1, MIHAI PUTZ2, TATIANA RUGEA3

Laboratory of Plant Biotechnology, Biology Department, West University of Timioara 2 Laboratory of Computational and Structural Physical Chemistry, Chemistry Department, West University of Timioara 3 Laboratory of Virusology, National Agency for Sanitary Veterinary and Food Safety, Timioara Branch

1

The production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) in Ganoderma lucidum has been optimized by using nutritive media with a varied composition. 1 ­ triacontanol (1mg/L -1) has offered a great production (400mg/100ml) after an incubation period of 10 days within a nutritive medium with malt extract (1,5%, w/v), glucose (0,4%, w/v) and with a pH of 5.5. Biomass and EPS productions have been also stimulated by supplementing the culture medium with different sources of nitrogen. The physicochemical features of EPS have been studied and confirmed by the spectroscopic analyses.

25

SPECII DE TRUFE DIN TRANSILVANIA

VIOREL CRISTIAN ANDRU

Universitatea "Babe-Bolyai" Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Biologie i Geologie

Din pduri de foioase situate în diferite judee ale Transilvaniei au fost colectate specii de trufe, precum Tuber aestivum Vittad. (CL 660370), Tuber aestivum var. uncinatum (Chatin) I.R.Hall (CL 660369), Tuber brumale Vittad., Tuber excavatum Vittad., Tuber macrosporum Vittad. i Choiromyces mendriformis Vittad. (syn. Tuber album Sowerby). Dintre aceste specii, valoare gastronomic prezint Tuber aestivum, T. aestivum var. uncinatum, T. macrosporum. O parte din materialul colectat a fost introdus în Herbarul Universitii "Babe-Bolyai" Cluj-Napoca.

TRUFFLE SPECIES FROM TRANSYLVANIA

VIOREL CRISTIAN ANDRU

"Babe-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Biology and Geology

Truffle species like Tuber aestivum Vittad. (CL 660370), Tuber aestivum var. uncinatum (Chatin) I.R.Hall (CL 660369), Tuber brumale Vittad., Tuber excavatum Vittad., Tuber macrosporum Vittad., and Choiromyces mendriformis Vittad. (syn. Tuber album Sowerby) were collected in deciduous forests from different counties of Transylvania. Out of these, Tuber

26

aestivum, T. aestivum var. uncinatum, T. macrosporum have gastronomical importance. Some of the collected material is found in the Herbarium of "Babe-Bolyai" University of ClujNapoca.

PRESIUNEA ANTROPIC ASUPRA DIVERSITII FUNGILOR

CTLIN TNASE1, CIPRIAN BÎRSAN2

1

Universitatea "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" din Iai, Facultatea de Biologie 2 Universitatea "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" din Iai, Grdina Botanic ,,Anastasie Ftu"

Degradarea permanent a mediului, agresiunea uman în ecosistemele naturale i reducerea suprafeei forestiere presupun luarea unor msuri eficiente pentru eliminarea efectelor distructive, conservarea biodiversitii i monitorizarea speciilor considerate ameninate. Scopul lucrrii vizeaz modificarea diversitii speciilor ectomicorizante i saprofite datorit presiunii umane. În acest sens propunem urmtoarele obiective pentru conservarea diversitii fungilor: identificarea factorilor favorabili sau restrictivi pentru diversitatea fungilor; delimitarea unor zone sensibile din punct de vedere al diversitii fungilor; stabilirea cauzelor geologice, climatice i umane care influeneaz diversitatea fungilor; monitorizarea i cartografierea speciilor de fungi care sunt pe cale de dispariie; conservarea habitatelor i a speciilor de fungi prin înfiinarea de arii protejate.

27

Îndeplinirea acestor obiective este benefic pentru stabilitatea ecosistemelor naturale, precum i pentru activitatea cercettorilor, silvicilor, ageniilor de conservare, factorilor de decizie, managerilor de resurse naturale etc. Cercetrile au fost susinute din fondurile prevzute în cadrul proiectului Biotech Nr. 128: Reconstrucia ecologic prin procedee de micoremediere a solurilor degradate de activitile miniere, finanat de Ministerul Educaiei, Cercetrii i Inovrii din România.

HUMAN PRESSURE ON FUNGI DIVERSITY

CTLIN TNASE1, CIPRIAN BÎRSAN2

1

"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi, Faculty of Biology 2 "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi, "Anastasie Ftu" Botanical Garden

The permanent degradation of the environment, the presence of human aggression in the natural ecosystems and the reduction of the forested surface impose efficient measures to be taken so that the destructive effect should be eliminated, to preserve the biodiversity and to monitor the species in danger of extinction. Our work aims at modifying the diversity of ectomycorrhizal and saprophytes species because of the human pressure. That is why we are proposing some objectives for preserving fungi diversity, as follows: the standing out of favourable or restrictive factors for fungi diversity; the delimitation of some sensitive zones from the fungi diversity

28

point of view; the identification of geological, climatic and human causes that influence the fungi diversity, monitoring and mapping the fungi species that are in danger of extinction, habitats and fungi species preservation by creating protected areas. The accomplishment of those proposals is a benefit for establishing natural ecosystems as well as for the activity of researchers, silvics, conservation agencies, decision makers, managers of nature reserves etc. Our investigation has been supported by Biotech Project no. 128: Ecological Reconstruction Using Mycoremediation Methods for Soils Degraded by Mining Activities, financed by Education, Research and Innovation Ministry of Romania.

29

B. SECIUNEA MICROMICETE

ASPECTE BIOCHIMICE SI ECOLOGICE ALE CIUPERCII FITOPATOGENE CLAVICEPS PURPUREA

ADRIAN-TEFAN ANDREI

Universitatea "Babe-Bolyai" Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Biologie i Geologie

Claviceps purpurea este o ciuperc fitopatogen care se dezvolt pe cereale i plante furajere. C. purpurea infecteaza în special secara (gazda sa cea mai comun), precum si triticale, grâu i orz. Ea afecteaz doar rar ovzul. În cadrul acestei specii au fost recunoscute trei grupuri (G1, G2 si G3) pe baza asocierii habitatelor, morfologiei conidiilor i scleroilor, precum i a produciei de alcaloizi. Existena acestor trei grupuri a fost susinut i de ctre Amplificarea Randomic a ADN-ului Polimorfic (RAPD), precum i de ctre markeri ai analizei polimorfismului de lungime a fragmentelor de ADN amplificate (AFLP), sugerând ca acest specie ar putea fi descris mai corect ca un complex de specii. În orice caz, toate ecotipurile divergente pot coexista în populaii simpatrice fr existena unei bariere fizice evidente care s previn fluxul de gene. Sclerotul foarte otrvitor de culoare mov-negru al ciupercii Claviceps purpurea (ergot) precum i alte specii de Claviceps sunt aposematice. Scleroii foarte toxici sunt asociai cu coloraii evidente (negru, galben, mov, roiatic, maro, violet, alb, precum i combinaiile lor) i produc daune severe erbivorelor care consum plantele infectate, întrunind astfel criteriul pentru aposemantism.

30

Ascomiceta parazit conine numeroi alcaloizi indol terpenoidici, printre care unii au efecte fiziologice puternice i o foarte mare valoare medicinal. Extractele din scleroi au fost utilizate în medicina tradiional timp îndelungat, iar câiva izolai alcaloidici specifici, precum i derivai semisintetici s-au dovedit a fi remedii folositoare în medicina modern. Alcaloizii amidici i derivaii peptidici din scleroi prezint o gam larg de efecte fiziologice, inclusiv agoniste i antagoniste receptorilor dopaminici i serotoninici, vasoconstrictoare, neurotoxice i halucinogene. C. purpurea produce ergopeptine cu importan farmaceutic; ele sunt o clas de alcaloizi de origine peptidic cu structur cyclolic ce conin acidul D-lisergic. Aceti compui sunt asamblai din acidul D-lisergic i trei aminoacizi diferii de ctre enzimele peptid-sintetaze nonribozomale LPS1 si LPS2. Prezena a dou subuniti NRPS distincte ce catalizeaz formarea peptidelor sclerotice este primul exemplu de sistem NRPS compus din dou subuniti diferite întâlnit la fungi.

SEVERAL BIOCHEMICAL AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS CLAVICEPS PURPUREA

ADRIAN-TEFAN ANDREI

"Babe-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Biology and Geology

Claviceps purpurea is a phytopathogenic fungus that grows on cereals and forage plants. C. purpurea most commonly affects outcrossing species such as rye (its most

31

common host), as well as triticale, wheat and barley. It rarely affects oats. Three groups within this species (G1, G2 and G3) have been recognized based on habitat association, sclerotia and conidia morphology, as well as alkaloid production. These groups have further been supported by Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, suggesting this species may be more accurately described as a species complex. However, all divergent ecotypes can coexist in sympatric populations with no obvious physical barriers to prevent gene flow. The very poisonous purple-black sclerotia of the fungus Claviceps purpurea (ergot) and many other Claviceps species are aposematic. Very toxic fungal sclerotia are associated with conspicuous colours (black, yellow, purple, reddish, brown, violet, white and their combinations) and severely harm herbivores that consume the infected plants, thus meeting the criteria for aposematism. The grass-parasitic ascomycete contains numerous terpenoid indol alkaloids, some of which have dramatic physiological effects and are of great medicinal value. Ergot extracts have been used in traditional medicine for a long time, and several isolated specific alkaloids as well as semi-synthetic derivates of these have proved to be useful remedies in modern medicine. Ergot alkaloid amide and peptide derivatives have a wide variety of physiological effects, including serotonin- and dopamine-receptor agonists and antagonists, vasoconstrictors, neurotoxins and hallucinogens. C. puprurea produces the pharmacologically important ergopeptines, a class of cyclol-structured alkaloid peptides containing D-lysergic acid. These compounds are assembled from D-lysergic acid and three different amino acids by the nonribosomal peptide synthetase enzymes LPS1 and LPS2. The presence of two distinct NRPS subunits catalyzing formation of

32

ergot peptides is the first example of fungal NRPS system consisting of different NRPS subunits.

CIUPERCILE ­ FACTORI ETIOLOGICI ÎN PRODUCEREA MICOZELE LA OM

ELENA BUTNARU, CLAUDIA BUTNARU, LIANA GABRIELA MORARU, LUMINIA AGOROAEI

Universitatea de Medicin i Farmacie "Gr. T. Popa" Iai, Facultatea de Farmacie, Disciplina de Toxicologie

Micozele sunt infecii produse de ciuperci microscopice care pot parazita organismul uman. În apariia micozelor sunt implicai numeroi factori de risc externi i interni. Factorii de risc externi sunt: factorii mecanici, ageni fizici i chimici, exces de produse alcaline i unele medicamente. Dintre cauzele interne menionm: afeciunile metabolice (diabet, obezitate), tulburrile nutriionale i digestive, avitaminozele A, B, C, tulburrile endocrine, sindroamele de deficit imunitar. Micozele se împart în dou mari grupe: micoze superficiale i micoze profunde. Micozele superficiale apar la nivelul pielii, mucoaselor i anexelor pielii. Dermatomicozele cele mai frecvente sunt: epidermofiiile ­ produse de fungii Epidermophyton floccosum, E. inghinale, Trichophyton rubrum, Tr. floccosum, Tr. Mentagrophytes; onicomicozele ­ produse de Trichophyton violaceum, Tr. mentagrophytes i Tr. rubrum; pitiriazisul versicolor - produs de Malassezia (Micosporum) furfur. Paraziii criptogamici afecteaz pielea capului determinând: tricofiia (Tr. tonsurans, Tr. sabourandii),

33

favusul (Tr. schonleini), microsporia (Microsporonum canis). Candidozele sunt cele mai frecvente infecii parazitare care se datoreaz ciupercilor din genul Candida (în special Candida albicans) ce se pot dezvolta pe piele i mucoase. Micozele profunde (sistemice) sunt rar întâlnite. Dintre acestea menionm: sporotricoza produs de Sporotrichum scheneckii; micetomul produs de fungi prezeni în sol (Madurella mycetomatis, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cephalosporum falciforme, Nocardia asteriodes); aspergiloza pulmonar dat de Aspegillus fumigatus; micozele urechilor induse de specii de ciuperci ale genului Aspergillus, ce cauzeaz otita aspergilar, afeciune grav i greu de tratat. Tratamentul micozelor este îndelungat, costisitor i cu potenial toxic de aceea trebuie s se stabileasc cu certitudine diagnosticul acestor afeciuni pe baza examenului micologic.

FUNGI ­ FACTORS FOR HUMAN MYCOSES

ELENA BUTNARU, CLAUDIA BUTNARU, LIANA GABRIELA MORARU, LUMINIA AGOROAEI

University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Gr. T. Popa" Iai, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology

Mycosis is infection made by microscopic fungi that can be parasite for human body. Mycoses appear when many internal and external factors work. External risk factors are: mechanic, physical, chemical factors, alkaline products and some medicines in excess. Internal factors refer to: metabolic disease (diabetes, obesity), digestive and nutritional disorders, deficiency of vitamins A, B, C, endocrine disorders and immune deficiency syndromes. Mycoses are classified in two classes: superficial mycoses and systemic mycoses.

34

Superficial mycoses appear to the outmost layers of the skin and hair. Most frequent dermatomycoses are: dermatophytosis ­ caused by Epidermophyton floccosum, E. inghinale, Trichophyton rubrum, Tr. floccosum and Tr. mentagrophytes; onychomycosis ­ caused by Trichophyton violaceum, Tr. mentagrophytes and Tr. rubrum; pityriasis versicolor - caused by Malassezia furfur.

Fungi that produce infection of the hair are: trichophyton mycosis (Tr. tonsurans, Tr. sabourandii), favus (Tr. schonleini), microsporonum mycosis (Microsporonum canis). Candidiasis are the most frequently fungus infections caused by Candida species (especially Candida albicans) that can appear on skin and mucous membranes. Systemic mycoses are rarely. By these we refer to: sporotrichosis caused by Sporotrichum scheneckii; mycetoma caused by soil fungi (Madurella mycetomatis, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cephalosporum falciforme and Nocardia asteriodes); the pulmonary aspergillosis caused by Aspegillus fumigatus; ears mycosis caused by Aspergillus species responsible for Aspergillus otitis, serious illness and difficult to treat. Mycoses treatment is expensive, with toxic risk and for a long time, therefore the diagnosis should be established for a certainty mycological exam.

35

CERCETRI PRIVIND PRODUCEREA UNOR PREPARATE ENZIMATICE DIN MICROMICETE CU IMPORTAN ÎN BIOTEHNOLOGIE

RAHELA CARPA, MIHAIL DRGAN-BULARDA

Universitatea "Babe-Bolyai", Facultatea de Biologie i Geologie

Microorganismele reprezint o surs foarte important de enzime fiind utilizate cu succes în biotehnologii, pentru obinerea preparatelor enzimatice. Ele prezint mai multe avantaje având o perioad scurt sau foarte scurt de dezvoltare, putându-se obine cu uurin i în cantiti mari, pe medii ieftine. La microorganisme echipamentul enzimatic este complex iar concentraia diferitelor enzime depinde de specie i este influenat de mediul de cultur. Au fost studiate patru specii de micromicete: Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium citrinum, Botrytis paeoniae, Trichoderma viride, pentru a produce urmtoarele enzime: amilaz, dextranaz, levanaz, celulaz i inulinaz. Ca i mediu nutritiv s-a folosit un mediu mineral la care s-a adugat 2% sau 0,2% din substratele specifice (amidon, dextran, levan, celuloz i inulin). Acestea trebuiau s induc producerea de enzime specifice. Activitile enzimatice au fost determinate din punct de vedere calitativ prin cromatografie pe hârtie, iar din punct de vedere cantitativ prin determinarea zaharurilor reductoare. S-a stabilit c cele mai multe enzime au fost secretate în mediul de cultur. S-au înregistrat valori ale hidrolizei de peste 50%. O mic cantitate din fiecare enzim a rmas captat în miceliu iar din aceast cauz valorile hidrolizei au fost mai reduse.

36

În ceea ce privete producerea celor 5 enzime cea mai activ a fost Fusarium oxysporum, urmat de Penicillium citrinum. Ca i stimulatori pentru creterea i sinteza enzimelor au fost folosite câteva substane organice: extract de drojdie, maltoz, zaharoz, glucoz i fructoz. Extractul de drojdie a stimulat creterea i producerea tuturor enzimelor menionate la toate speciile; maltoza a stimulat producerea de amilaz, iar fructoza i zaharoza au stimulat producerea de inulinaz.

RESEARCH REGARDING PRODUCING OF ENZYMATIC PREPARATIONS FROM BIOTECHNOLOGICAL IMPORTANT MICROMYCETES

RAHELA CARPA, MIHAIL DRGAN-BULARDA

"Babes-Bolyai" University, Faculty of Biology and Geology

Microorganisms represent a very important source of enzymes thus they are successfully used in biotechnologies, in order to obtain enzymatic preparations. They have many advantages, they have a short or very short developing period, they can be obtain easy, in large quantities, on inexpensive media. The enzymatic equipment at microorganisms is complex and the concentration of different enzymes depends on the species and is influenced by the culture medium. There were studied four species of micromycetes: Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium citrinum, Botrytis paeoniae, Trichoderma viride, for producing the following enzymes: amylase, dextranase, levanase, cellulase and inulinase. As nutritive medium was used a mineral medium to which was

37

added 2% or 0.2% of specific subtrate (starch, dextran, levan, cellulose and inuline). These had to act as inducer for elaborating the enzymes. The enzymatic activities were determined from qualitative point of view by paper chromatography, while from quantitative point of view by determining the reducing sugars. It was established that the most enzymes were secreted in the culture medium. There were recorded hydrolysis values over 50%. A smaller quantity from each enzyme remained bound to the micelium, and due to this, the hydrolysis values were lower. As it concerns the production of the five enzymes, the most active one was Fusarium oxysporum, then Penicillium citrinum. Several organic substances were used as stimulators for growing and for the synthesis of the enzymes: yeast extract, maltose, sucrose, glucose and fructose. The yeast extract stimulated the production of all mentioned enzymes in all species; the maltose stimulated the production of amylase, while the fructose and sucrose stimulated the production of inulinase.

38

CONTRIBUII LA STUDIUL VEGETAIEI LICHENOLOGICE TERICOLE DIN MUNII PDUREA CRAIULUI

FLORIN CRIAN

Universitatea "Babe-Bolyai", Facultatea de Biologie i Geologie

Studiul se refer la lichenocenozele incluse în dou asociaii, Cladonietum cenoteae Frey. 1927, respectiv Cladonietum mitis Krieger 1937. Analiza preferinelor ecologice ale cenozelor de licheni din asociaiile menionate fa de lumin, evideniaz faptul c acestea prezint un caracter predominant fotoschiafil ­ moderat fotofil. Unele dintre comunitile asociaiei Cladonietum cenoteae se dezvolt în staiuni deschise, evideniind un caracter moderat fotofil. Cenozele asociaiei Cladonietum cenoteae manifest un caracter mezohigrofil (cele instalate pe expoziie nord-vestic), respectiv mezohigrofil-mezofil (cele care se dezvolt pe expoziie nord-estic). Lichenocenozele asociaiei Cladonietum mitis prezint un caracter predominant mezofil, populând în special expoziiile estice i sud-estice. i în acest caz, cenozele acestei asociaii instalate în staiuni umede au un caracter mezohigrofil. În privina preferinelot fa de natura chimic a substratului, cenozele de licheni tericoli identificate în zona cercetat se instaleaz pe substrat cu caracter moderat acidofil pân la puternic acidofil, reprezentat de solul bogat în humus, buturugi putrede sau muchi.

39

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF THE TERICOLOUS LICHEN VEGETATION FROM PDUREA CRAIULUI MOUNTAINS

FLORIN CRIAN

"Babe-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Biology and Geology

The two tericolous lichen association identified in the studied area Cladonietum cenoteae Frey. 1927 and Cladonietum mitis Krieger 1937. The analysis of the ecological preferences of the tericolous lichen communities reveals toward light their character mainly photo-ombrophilous - moderate photophilous. Some of the Cladonietum cenoteae communities shows a moderate photophilous character, preferring more clear places. Regarding the preferences toward humidity, the communities belonging to the Cladonietum cenoteae association shows an meso-higrophilous character (those developed on north-western exposure) or an meso-higrophilous - mesophilous character (the ones developed on north-eastern exposure). The lichen coenosis of the Cladonietum mitis association are predominant mesophilous (being installed on eastern and south-eastern exposure). However, some of the communities of this association, developed in humid dump situation present a meso-higrophilous character. The analysis of the preferences toward the chemical reaction of the substrate shows that the tericolous lichen associations use to settle on moderate acidophilous to acidophilous substrate (soil rich in humus, rotten stumps or mosses).

40

ASPECTELE GENETICE LA DROJDIA DE BERE, SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

VIKTOR GRIN

Universitatea "Babe-Bolyai" Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Biologie i Geologie

Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cunoscut sub denumirea popular de drojdie de bere, este o eucariot cel mai bine cunoscut privind aspectele de biologie molecular i citologie, în comparaie cu modelul procariot ­ Escherichia coli. Finalizarea secvenializrii întregului genom a fost realizat în 24 aprilie 1996. Genomul conine în jur de 12 156 677 perechi de baze, ce codific 6275 de gene, aproximativ 140 de gene pentru ARN ribozomal, 40 de gene pentru ARN nuclear mic i 275 de gene pentru ARN de transport, care sunt organizate în 16 cromozomi. Doar 5800 dintre acestea se presupune c sunt gene funcionale. Se estimeaz c genomul drojdiei de bere are o omologie de 23% cu genomul uman. Din momentul terminrii secvenializrii, s-au realizat multe actualizri în Baza de Date a Genomului Saccharomyces. Aceast baz de date poate fi utilizat de ctre persoanele care lucreaz în domeniu, fiind permanent adnotat, i conine o bibliotec de referine. Meninerea stabilitii genomului este un pas important în construirea tulpinilor noi. În acest proces sunt implicate mai bine de 50 de gene, având rol în suprimarea instabilitii genomice, în faza S de diviziune, în cile de recombinare i în stabilitatea telomerelor. Elementele Ty, gsite la Saccharomyces cerevisiae sunt transpozoni asemntori

41

retrovirusurilor, unele din aceste elemente sunt funcionale, altele sunt nefuncionale. Drojdia de bere prezint i unele boli, cum ar fi viroze determinate de ARN dublucatenar (L-A i L-BC), repliconi de ARN monocatenar, retrovirusuri i dou tipuri de boli prionice, recent descoperite. Ca restul virusurilor fungale, L-A i L-BC se transmit altor celule prin fuziune, determinat de înmugurirea drojdiei. Recent s-a utilizat o nou metod de modelare in silico. Aceast metod este folosit pentru modelarea întregului genom în cazul tuturor cilor metabolice ce au loc într-o celul i localizarea acestora în spaiul extracelular, citoplasm, mitocondrie, peroxizom, nucleu, reticulul endoplasmic, aparatul Golgi sau vacuola. Bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens are capacitatea de a transfera o parte din plasmida Ti (ADN-T) în celulele vegetale, unde se integreaz în genomul nuclear prin intermediul recombinrii nespecifice. Dac ADN-T nu prezint omologie cu genomul de la Saccharomyces cerevisiae, aceasta se integreaz aleator prin intermediul recombinrii nespecifice.

42

GENETICAL ASPECTS OF SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE FUNGUS

VIKTOR GRIN

"Babe-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Biology and Geology

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology, much like Escherichia coli as the model prokaryote. The whole genome sequence was released in the public domain on April 24, 1996. The genome is composed of about 12,156,677 base pairs, defines 6275 potential protein-encoding genes, approximately 140 genes specifying ribosomal RNA, 40 genes for small nuclear RNA molecules, and 275 transfer RNA genes, organized on 16 chromosomes. Only about 5,800 of these are believed to be true functional genes. It is estimated that yeast shares about 23% of its genome with that of humans. Since 1996, regular updates have been maintained at the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). This database is a highly annotated and cross-referenced database for yeast researchers. Maintenance of genome stability is important in strain construction. In this process have implicated more than 50 genes involved in the suppression of genome instability, including genes that function in S-phase checkpoints, recombination pathways, and telomere maintenance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty elements are transposons closely related to retroviruses, some of these transposons are functional and some nonfunctional. The yeast can develop some diseases caused by two double-stranded RNA (L-A and L-BC) viruses, two apparently

43

naked single-stranded RNA replicons, retroviruses and, most recently, two putative prions. Like all known fungal viruses, LA and L-BC spread by cell-cell fusion, a consequence of the mating process. Recently a new method of in silico modeling was designed. This method is used for whole genome scale metabolic network modeling and its cellular localization (extracelular space, cytosol, mithocondrion, peroxisome, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or vacuole). Agrobacterium tumefaciens can transfer part of its Ti plasmid, the T-DNA, to plant cells where it integrates into the nuclear genome via illegitimate recombination. When the TDNA lacks homology with the S. cerevisiae genome, it integrates at random positions via illegitimate recombination.

44

REZULTATE PARIALE PRIVIND TESTAREA PROPRIETILOR ANTIMICOTICE ALE EXTRACTELOR PROTEICE DIN TUBERCULI DE CARTOF (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM), VAR. CHRISTIAN, ROCLAS, NICOLETA, OSTARA I DESIRÉE

DIANA ELENA KARÁCSONYI1, MANUELA HERMEZIU2, NICOLETA CHIRU1, ANDREEA NISTOR1

1

Institutul Naional de Cercetare i Dezvoltare pentru Cartof i Sfecl de Zahr, Departamentul de culturi celulare vegetale 2 Institutul Naional de Cercetare i Dezvoltare pentru Cartof i Sfecl de Zahr, Departamentul de tehnologia cartofului

În cadrul prezentului experiment au fost testate proprietile antimicotice ale extractelor proteice de la cinci varieti de cartofi: Christian, Roclas, Nicoleta, Ostara i Desirée. Extragerea proteinelor totale din tuberculi s-a efectuat dup protocolul de lucru prezentat de Ammarelou A. i Lamei J. (2007), modificat de autori dup Olteanu Gh. (1972). Proprietile antifungice au fost testate pe cultur mixt de Aspergillius sp., Penicillium sp. i Rhizopus sp., pe mediu PDA (Potato dextrose agar) modificat, sterilizat prin autoclavare la 121°C timp de 20 de minute. Culturile au fost inute în condiii de temperatur constant, de aproximativ 20°C. Înainte de pasarea mucegaiurilor mediul a fost inoculat cu extractul proteic, câte trei repetiii pentru fiecare extract, i trei repetiii pentru martor. Culturile au fost analizate vizual dup o sptmn, dou sptmâni i trei sptmâni. Soiul Christian prezint activitate antimicotic inhibând total creterea mucegaiurilor. Soiurile Nicoleta i Desirée prezint o activitate antimicotic sczut, inhibând parial creterea mucegaiurilor, iar soiurile Roclas i Ostara nu prezint activitate antimicotic.

45

Studii viitoare trebuie efectuate pentru confirmarea experimentului efectuat.

PARTIAL DATA OBTAINED AFTER TESTING THE ANTIMYCOTIC PROPERTIES OF TOTAL PROTEINS EXTRACT FROM POTATO TUBERS (SOLANUM TUBEROSUM) FROM VAR. CHRISTIAN, ROCLAS, NICOLETA, OSTARA AND DESIRÉE

DIANA ELENA KARÁCSONYI1, MANUELA HERMEZIU2, NICOLETA CHIRU1, ANDREEA NISTOR1

1

National Institute of Research and Development for Potato and Sugar Beet, Braov, Plant Tissue Culture Department 2 National Institute of Research and Development for Potato and Sugar Beet, Braov, Potato Technology Department

The goal of our study was to test the antimycotic properties of total proteins extract from potato tubers, var. Christian, Roclas, Nicoleta, Ostara and Desirée. Total protein extraction was performed using the protocol proposed by Ammarelou A. and Lamei J. (2007), and modified by authors after Olteanu Gh. (1972). The antimycotic properties were tested on mixed culture of Aspergillius sp., Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp., on PDA medium (potato dextrose agar), modified, sterilized by autoclavation 20 minutes, to 121°C. Before passing the fungi, the medium was inoculated with total proteins extract, three repeats for each extract, and three repeats for the control sample. The cultures were visual analyzed after one, two and three weeks. Variety Christian shows antimycotic activity by inhibiting the growth of the funguses. Varieties Nicoleta and

46

Desirée show low antimycotic activity, inhibiting only partial the growth of the funguses, while potato varieties Roclas and Ostara show no antimycotic activity. Further studies must be made to confirm the data obtained in this experiment.

CERCETRI PRELIMINARII PRIVIND DIVERSITATEA MICROMICETELOR DIN BAZINUL RÂULUI OITUZ (JUDEUL BACU)

OTILIA CARMEN PAVEL

Complexul Muzeal de tiinele Naturii "Ion Borcea" Bacu

În lucrare sunt prezentate date preliminarii privind diversitatea micromicetelor din bazinul hidrografic al râului Oituz. Valea Oituzului este situat în partea de vest a judeului Bacu i separ Munii Nemirei de Munii Vrancei, care fac parte din grupa sudic a Carpailor Orientali. Bazinul Oituz se întinde pe o suprafa de 318 km², din care pdurile ocup 15.261 ha, între 450 i 1400 m altitudine. Cercetrile au început din iunie 2008, în zona popasului turistic Poiana Srat, comuna Oituz i vor continua în urmtorii ani în cadrul unui studiu complex care urmrete diversitatea, taxonomia, corologia i ecologia fungilor din judeul Bacu. Au fost identificai 125 de taxoni de micromicete, din regnului Fungi, dintre care 95 de specii aparin încrengturii Ascomycota i 30 încrengturii Basidiomycota.

47

Lucrarea cuprinde un conspect sistematic al micromicetelor care sunt pentru prima dat citate din zona studiat.

PRELIMINARY RESEARCH CONCERNING THE DIVERSITY OF MICROMYCETES IN OITUZ RIVER BASIN (BACU COUNTY)

OTILIA CARMEN PAVEL

"Ion Borcea" Natural Sciences Museum Complex

In this paper preliminary data concerning the diversity of micromycetes in the hydrographic basin of Oituz river are presented. The Oituz Valley is situated in the western part of Bacu County and it separates Nemira Mountains from Vrancea Mountains, which are a part of the southern group of Eastern Carpathians. The Oituz basin extends on a 318 km2 area of which forests have 15 261 ha, between 450 and 1400 m altitude. The research began in June 2008, in the area of Poiana Srat tourist camp, Oituz village and will be further conducted in the next years within a complex study which focuses on the diversity, taxonomy, chorology and ecology of fungi in Bacu County. There have been identified 125 micromycetes taxa, Fungi kingdom, of which 95 species belong to the Ascomycota phylum and 30 species to the Basidiomycota phylum. The paper provides a systematical conspectus of micromycetes first time mentioned in the researched area.

48

ACIUNEA ANTIFUNGIC A EXTRACTULUI HIDROALCOOLIC DE LAETIPORUS SULPHUREUS

MARCEL PÂRVU1 ADRIAN ­ TEFAN ANDREI1, OANA ROCA-CASIAN2

1

Universitatea "Babe-Bolyai" Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Biologie i Geologie 2 Grdina Botanic "A. Borza" Cluj-Napoca

Extractul hidrolcoolic de Laetiporus sulphureus a fost testat asupra germinrii i creterii in vitro a unor ciuperci fitopatogene (Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tulipae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) pe mediul Czapek-agar, comparativ cu produsul fluconazol. Concentraia minim inhibitoare a extractului fungic a variat între 100 µl/ml i 160 µl/ml, în raport de specie.

49

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF LAETIPORUS SULPHUREUS HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT

MARCEL PÂRVU1, ADRIAN ­ TEFAN ANDREI1, OANA ROCA-CASIAN2

1

"Babe-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Biology and Geology 2 "A. Borza" Botanical Garden Cluj-Napoca

A hydroalcoholic extract of Laetiporus sulphureus was tested for in vitro germination and growth of phytopathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. tulipae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) on Czapek-agar nutritive medium, compared to fluconazole. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the fungal extract varied between 100 µl/ml and 160 µl/ml, according to the fungal species.

50

ACIUNEA ANTIFUNGIC A SPECIEI ALLIUM FISTULOSUM

MARCEL PÂRVU1, OANA ROCA-CASIAN2, MIHAI PUCA2, GHEORGHE GROZA3

1

Universitatea "Babe-Bolyai" Cluj-Napoca, Facultatea de Biologie i Geologie 2 Grdina Botanic "A. Borza" Cluj-Napoca 3 USAMV Cluj-Napoca

Extractul hidroalcoolic de Allium fistulosum a fost testat asupra germinrii i creterii in vitro a unor ciuperci fitopatogene (Apergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis paeoniae, Penicillium gladioli i Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) pe mediul nutritiv Czapek-agar, comparativ cu produsul fluconazol i allicin. Concentraia minim inhibitoare (CMI) a extractului vegetal a variat între 80 µl/ml i 100 µl/ml, în raport de specie. Experimentul a fost realizat cu fonduri de la Ministerul Educaiei i Cercetrii prin proiectul CNCSIS IDEI 2272/2009.

51

ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM FISTULOSUM

MARCEL PÂRVU1, OANA ROCA-CASIAN2, MIHAI PUCA2, GHEORGHE GROZA3

1

"Babe-Bolyai" University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Biology and Geology 2 "A. Borza" Botanical Garden Cluj-Napoca 3 UASVM Cluj-Napoca

A hydroalcoholic extract of Allium fistulosum was tested for in vitro germination and growth of phytopathogenic fungi (Apergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Botrytis paeoniae, Penicillium gladioli, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) on Czapekagar nutritive medium, compared to fluconazole and allicin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the plant extract varied between 80 µl/ml and 100 µl/ml, according to the fungal species. The study was financially supported by the Romanian Ministry of Education and Research from the CNCSIS IDEI 2272/2009 project.

52

TRICHODERMA VIRIDE PERS. - MODEL EXPERIMENTAL PENTRU STUDIUL BIOLOGIC I BIOTEHNOLOGIC AL MICROMICETELOR CU IMPORTAN ÎN OBINEREA DE BIOPREPARATE PENTRU PROTECIA PLANTELOR

TATIANA EUGENIA ESAN

Departamentul de Botanic i Microbiologie, Facultatea de Biologie, Universitatea Bucureti

Procesul tehnologic de obinere a unui biopreparat de uz agricol este alctuit din dou etape majore: (i) biosinteza biomasei de microorganisme, într-un mediu ce poate fi preluat în procesul de industrializare pentru obinerea de biopreparate i (ii) condiionarea biomasei de microorganisme, respectiv micromicetei antagoniste. De aceea, în astfel de activiti, este esenial stabilirea parametrilor biologici: (i) compoziia optim a unui mediu de cultur lichid, în care micromiceta s fie crescut în condiii de aerobioz i (ii) parametrii optimi ai procesului de biosintez pentru mediul studiat. Tehnologia de biosintez a biomasei este discontinu, de tip cascad, fiind realizat în mai multe etape: (1) pregtirea inoculului în laborator, (2) pregtirea culturii pure de ciuperci în vase Erlenmayer, (3) multiplicarea (simulat) industrial, în mediu lichid aerat i agitat. Lucrarea prezint aspecte experimentale referitoare la: 1 ­ Caracterizarea tulpinilor active de T. viride i stabilirea i verificarea pragurilor biologice; 2 ­ Evaluarea i verificarea experimental a capacitii de înmulire în mas a ciupercilor antagoniste T. viride pe medii de cultur pentru stabilirea mediului industrial optim;

53

3 ­ Caracterizarea biochimic prin analiz electroforetic a profilului de proteine a izolatelor de T. viride; 4 ­ Evaluarea activitii biologice a izolatelor de T. viride fa de ciuperci fitopatogene cu importan economic ridicat: Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (T. Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch), F. culmorum (W. G. Sm.) Sacc., Pythium ultimum Trow, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl.

TRICHODERMA VIRIDE PERS. ­ EXPERIMENTAL MODEL FOR BIOLOGICAL AND BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF MYCROMYCETA WITH IMPORTANCE IN OBTAINING PLANT PROTECTION BIOPREPARATES

TATIANA EUGENIA ESAN

Department of Botany and Microbiology, Biology Faculty, University of Bucharest

The technological process for obtaining plant protection biopreparates contain 2 main phases: (I) biomass biosynthesis of microorganisms in a culture medium, available for industrialization and (ii) biomass conditioning of microorganism, the antagonistic mycromycete respectively. For this type of activities it is essential to establish biological development parameters: (I) the optimum composition of the liquid culture medium for development of the fungus under aerobiotic conditions and (ii) the optimal parameters of biosynthesis in the studied medium. The biomass biosynthesis technology is discontinuous, of cascade type, and develops several phases: (1) preparing of the

54

laboratory inoculum, (2) preparing of the fungal pure culture in Erlenmeyer bottles, (3) industrial (simulated) multiplication in the aired and agitated liquid medium. This paper presents some experimental aspects referring to: 1 - Characterization of the biologically active T. viride isolates, establishing and verifying of their biological thresholds; 2 ­ Evaluation and experimental verifying of the mass multiplication ability of antagonistic T. viride fungi on the culture media in order to select the optimum industrial culture substrate (medium); 3 ­ Biochimical characterization of T. viride isolates by electrophoretic analysis of their protein profile; 4 ­ Evaluation of the T. viride biological activity of T. viride isolates against phytopathogenic fungi with high practical importance: Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (T. Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch), F. culmorum (W. G. Sm.) Sacc., Pythium ultimum Trow, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl.

55

CERCETRI PRIVIND PREVENIREA I COMBATEREA AGENILOR PATOGENI DIN CULTURILE SILVICE ÎN ANUL 2008

TUT IOAN1, ULEA CONSTANTIN2

1

Institutul de Cercetri i Amenajri Silvice, Cluj-Napoca 2 Ocolul Silvic Experimental Lechina

Supuse unor presiuni i factori de stres, pdurile rii noastre reclam în prezent, din partea silvicultorilor, riguroase aciuni de reconstrucie ecologic. În acest context un rol deosebit de important îl au lucrrile de împdurire i reîmpdurire, atât în staiuni normale cât i în staiuni extreme. Realizarea acestor lucrri presupune producerea materialului de împdurire, în asortimentul, cantitatea i calitatea necesar. Acest deziderat, poate fi atins prin producerea unui material de împadurit de calitate i în cantiti suficiente. Obiectivele urmrite au fost cele referitoare la aplicarea unor metode i tehnologii moderne de prevenire i combatere a agenilor patogeni din solarii i pepiniere. Cercetrile efectuate au constat în determinarea bolilor cauzate în pepiniere i plantaii i au constat în: identificarea patogenilor frecveni întâlnii în pepiniere i solarii, stabilirea agenilor patogeni, respectiv biologia i etiologia acestora i stabilirea tehnologiilor de combatere. Stabilirea eficacitii unui spectru larg de fungicide, a modului de aplicare, respectiv dozelor i concentraiilor; stabilirea momentului optim de aplicare a tratamentelor. Rezultatele acestor cercetri i experimentri efectuate pe parcursul acestui an au constat în urmtoarele:

56

a. Cei mai periculoi patogeni pentru rinoase rmân Lophodermium pinastri i Septoria parasitica, Dothiochiza populea i Cytospora chysosperma pentru plopii americani. b. Patogenii responsabili de ,,cderea" plantulelor sunt: Fusarium sp., Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium ultimum, Alternaria sp.. O micoflor variat a fost observat în patul nutritiv, respectiv pe seminele de rinoase. c. Exist un spectru larg de fungicide eficiente pentru combaterea finrii, boal prezent pe cvercinee în pepiniere, plantaii i regenerri naturale. d. Fungicidele Systhane, Karathane i Alert testate în experiene au obinut eficaciti peste 90% în combaterea finrii produs de Microsphaera abbreviata (f.c.Oidium alphitoides). e. Au fost înregistrate la Comisia Interministerial fungicidele Systhane i Folpan în vederea omologrii. f. Fungicidul Previcur a obinut rezultate foarte bune în combaterea patognilor din solarii i a fost de asemenea înregistrat. g. Extrem de important în prevenirea i combaterea agenilor patogeni este momentul aplicrii tratamentelor, acestea variind în funcie de factorii climatici, de regul fiind recomandat aplicarea tratamentelor preventive. h. Rezultatele obinute vor fi aplicate în toate ocoalele silvice care au ca domeniu de activitate producerea puieilor în solarii i pepiniere.

57

RESEARCH REGARDING THE PATOGENIC AGENTS FROM FOREST CULTURES DURING 2008

TUT IOAN1, ULEA CONSTANTIN2

1 2

Research and Management Forestry Institut, Cluj-Napoca Lechina Forest District of National Forest Administration

The present state of our country's forests is characterized by decline, pressure and stress factors, which greatly influence their integrity and continuity. Therefore it is imperative that the sylviculturists take immediate drastic action for the ecological reconstruction and restoration of the forests. In this context, it is necessary, among other conservation measures, to afforest and reforest entire areas, both in normal and extreme resorts. To achieve this, it is required that the forestation material be produced in the appropriate quantity, quality and variety for the process. This objective can be achieved only when applying modern methods and a modern technology for the prevention and control of the pathogenic agents to be found in solarium and nurseries. Research has been carried out aiming at determining the diseases and their causes in nurseries and plantations as well as establishing the control methods and techniques. Thus we tried to: identify the pathogenic agents that frequently lead to loses in nurseries and solarium; know the main pathogenic agents from the point of view of biology, etiology and of modern control technologies; establish efficacy for a large spectrum of fungicides and of the applicable doses and concentrations, respectively; establish the optimal phenological stages of treatment application.

As a result of the research and experiments carried out over the last year we conclude the following: a).The most dangerous pathogenic agents remain Lophodermium pinastri and Septoria parasitica for resinous plants, Dothiochiza populea and Cytospora chysosperma for Euro American poplars.

58

b).The pathogens responsable of the plantlets "dampingoff", which is: Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium ultimum, Alternaria spp.,etc. The most varied mycoflora was observed in soil nutrition, and resinous seed. c).There is a large spectrum of new fungicides which can efficiently control mildew in the case of oak-plants or other diseases present in nurseries, plantations or regenerations and forest solaria. ).The fungicides Systhane, Karathane and Alert performed very well in experiments proving an efficacy of up to 90% in the control of oak-plant mildew produced by the pathogen Microspaera abbreviata (f.c. Oidium alphitoides). e).We registered the fungicides Systhane and Folpan and the Inter-ministry Commission for the control of mildew and soil pathogens. f).The fungicides Previcur performs very well in controlling the pathogens in solaria therefore the experimental biological sheet was made with respect to its registration. g).What is extremely important for the prevention of pathogen agent infections is the moment of the treatment application and this timing varies with the climatic factors, consequently prevention treatments are recommended h).The obtained results can be applied in all the area and ranger districts whose activity is the production of forest saplings, in solaria or/and nurseries; these are to apply the products and technologies presented in this study.

59

III. INDEX DE AUTORI

A AGOROAEI Luminia ANDREI Adrian-tefan B BÎRSAN Ciprian BUTNARU Claudia BUTNARU Elena C CARPA Rahela CHINAN Claudiu Vasilic CHIRU Nicoleta CIORTAN Ioana CRIAN Florin D DRGAN-BULARDA Mihail G GRIN Viktor GROZA Gheorghe

60

7, 8, 33, 34 30, 31, 49, 50

27, 28 7, 8, 33, 34 7, 8, 33, 34

36, 37 9, 10 45, 46 11, 12 39, 40

36, 37

41, 43 51, 52

GRUDNICKI Margareta H HERMEZIU Manuela HUANU Mariana J JIGU Ortansa K KARÁCSONYI Diana Elena M MITITIUC Mihai MORARU Liana Gabriela N NEBLEA Monica NISTOR Andreea P PAVEL Otilia Carmen

13

45, 46 14

15, 16

45, 46

9, 10 7, 8, 33, 34

17, 19 45, 46

47, 48

61

PÂRVU Marcel PETRE Marian PUCA Mihai PUTZ Mihai R RADU Mihai-Iulian ROCA-CASIAN Oana RUGEA Tatiana S SELEGEAN Mircea STANCU Emanuela ANDRU Viorel Cristian ESAN Tatiana Eugenia ULEA Constantin T TNASE Ctlin TUT Ioan TEODORESCU Alexandru

3, 5, 49, 50, 51, 52 17, 19 51, 52 22, 23, 24, 25

21, 22 49, 50, 51, 52 22, 23, 24, 25

22, 23, 24, 25 17, 19

26 53, 54 56, 58

3, 5, 27, 28 56, 58 17, 19

62

63

64

Information

UNIVERSITATEA "BABE-BOLYAI" CLUJ-NAPOCA

64 pages

Report File (DMCA)

Our content is added by our users. We aim to remove reported files within 1 working day. Please use this link to notify us:

Report this file as copyright or inappropriate

353516