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Bibliography of architectural terra cotta

Prepared for English Heritage by The Architectural Conservation Laboratory, Graduate Program in Historic Preservation, Graduate School of Fine Arts University of Pennsylvania Frank G. Matero, project director Andrew Gustine, conservation fellow January 19, 2001

1. "Architectural Terra Cotta." Annual Report of the Director, Bureau of Standards, U.S. Bureau of Standards, 1917-1919. 2. "Architectural Terra Cotta." Engineering News 93, no. July 24 (1924): 160. 3. "Architectural Terra Cotta and Faience As Materials for Decorative Application." The Brickbuilder 2 (1893): 34-36, 48-49, 57-58, 66-68. Abstract: A four part series very similar to Timme (same volume). In fact, this reads as if it were a revised version of the former 4. "Architectural Terra Cotta Investigations." American Architect 128, no. August 12 (1925): 139. Abstract: A half-page synopsis of the results of ongoing testing of architectural terra cotta by the Bureau of Standards (US). Testing and analyses include investigations into the physical properties of terra cotta bodies, the interaction of bodies, slips and glazes, and outdoor service tests on different body and glaze combinations. Terra cotta was also examined insitu to determine serviceability under various conditions in different U.S. cities. Manufacturing methods were also investigated. All documentation of this testing was apparently lost in a fire, and to date, there is no evidence that any data was ever published or duplicated 5. "Architectural Terracotta." Brick and Clay Record 33 (1910): 31-35. Abstract: Discusses the advantages of architectural terracotta as a structural and decorative material. According to the article, the primary advantages include its flexibility and ability to mimic or harmonize with other materials, strength, fire-resistance, lightness, durability, and low cost. The article argues that the primary aim of the terracotta industry is to improve the fire-resistance of terracotta units, and attributes the current demand for enameled terracotta to its ease of cleaning. Describes possible methods for the use of enameled terracotta as a structural material. Includes a letter from Reid Bros., a terracotta manufacturing company, and articles from 'The Brickbuilder' and the 'Boston Herald' extolling the fire proof properties of terracotta 6. "Architectural Terracotta and Faience." Brick and Clay Record 32 (1910): 135-36. Abstract: Describes uses of faience as an architectural material on both the exterior and interior of buildings. The article also cites a paper by F G Plant, art director of the Hartford Faience Co, providing an account of the history of the use of terracotta in the United States, a discussion of the advantages of using faience as an architectural material, and a description of the manufacturing process for glazed tiles


7. "Architectural Terracotta Investigations." ACS Bulletin 4, no. 8 (1925): 408-10. 8. "Architectural Terracotta Investigations." NTS Technical News Bulletin 8 (1925): 3. Abstract: Describes the results of investigations on the performance of terracotta as a building material carried out by the National Terracotta Society. The tests performed included: compressive strength, transverse strength, resistance to freezing, and coefficient of expansion, and investigations on the expansion of glaze, body, and underslips of terracotta units using the interferometer method. The study also included tests performed on eight ceramic bodies with twelve different finishes produced at terracotta plants in accordance with standard practice, an examination of the conditions of terracotta in service for 2 to 30 years using samples taken from buildings in major cities in the United States, and a survey of 14 terracotta plants with the purpose of standardizing manufacturing practices 9. "The Architectural Use of Building Materials." Post War Building Studies No 18 (1946): 28-29. 10. Brick and Clay Record. Chicago: Cahners Publishing Co., 1911. Abstract: Brick and Clay Record was formed in 1911 by the merging of Brick (1894) and the Clay Record (1892). Described by the American Ceramic Society in !923 as playing a "prominent role in the technical as well as business advancement of the ceramic industries; particularly those branches whose products enter into the construction of buildings, pavements, [etc.]" 11. Brick and Pottery Trades Journal. 1896-1914. Abstract: Merged with Master Builder and Association Journal 12. Brick-Builder. Vol. 1-25. Boston: Rogers and Manson Co., 1892-1916. Abstract: The Brick-builder was an important forum for architect, builder and terra cotta manufacturer, publishing articles monthly addressing brick and terra cotta design, manufacture and construction. Several specific articles are cited in this bibliography but it is also important to note that every issue includes a brief but illustrated column describing recent terra cotta buildings and listing bits of manufacturing news. Photographs of facades and decorative details are captioned with building name, architects name and typically with the name of the terra cotta manufacturer. The Brickbuilder was absorbed by the Architectural Forum in 1917 13. Brick, Pottery and Glass Journal. Vol. 1-7. 1877-1880. 14. The Bulletin of the American Ceramic Society. Columbus, OH: American


Ceramic Society, 1922. Abstract: The Bulletin was initially established to afford an outlet for papers and discussion of practical industry related subjects as the Society became more focussed on scientific research of a more esoteric nature. Several articles pertinent to the terra cotta industry are found in the first decade of its publication 15. "Clay Products in Modern Environment." Brick and Clay Record 76 (1930): 31617. 16. The Clayworker. Vol. 1-100. Indianapolis, IL: T.A. Randall and Co., 1884-1933. Abstract: Described by the American Ceramic Society in 1923 as the "pioneer clay trade journal in the world." Publisher and editor T.A. Randall was also instrumental in establishing the National Brick Manufacturers' Association in 1886 and the Clayworker became "the official organ of the Association" 17. "Cleaners for Terracotta." NBS Technical News Bulletin 131 (1928): 32. Abstract: Discusses the results of a study conducted by the National Bureau of Standards examining the physical properties of architectural terracotta and several cleaners for terracotta. The study found that sodium hydrosulphite and fluorosilicic acid can clean terracotta without causing damage. It was found that trisodium phosphate can clean standard finishes, but is unsuccessful in cleaning glazed finishes. Soap powder and hydrochloric acid appear to clean unglazed terracotta moderately well, but tend to scour and roughen the glazed surfaces. It was also found that hydrofluoric acid removes dirt well, but etches glazed surfaces, and can cause damage to both glazed and unglazed terracotta 18. "Cleaning the Face of London." American Architect and Building News 3139 (1929): 238. 19. "Coade's Gallery of Artificial Stone Ornaments." Somerset House Gazette and Literary Museum (1924). 20. "Constructional Terracotta and Faience of Today." The Brick Builder (1934): 2027. Abstract: A valuable insight into the use of faience in Britain, 1934. The historic value of this article should not be underestimated 21. A Descriptive Catalogue of Coade's Artificial Stone Manufactory. London: 1784. 22. "Design and Construction of Terra Cotta Columns." The Brickbuilder 8, no. 9 (1899): 176-78.


23. English Precedent to Modern Brickwork. Chicago: The American Brick Face Association. Abstract: Discusses and illustrates Tudor and Georgian precedents to modern brickwork. Attempts to illustrate the spirit of the design and craftsmanship of this period. Indicates that brick design presents a wide choice in variation of surface tone, patterns, and other treatments. Provides a chronology of British brickwork, and a brief survey of Tudor, Georgian, and American brickwork. Describes English rubbed, cut and moulded brick, and their American counterparts, bonds and mortar in English brickwork and the production of face brick. Includes photographs and drawings of Tudor, Georgian and American brickwork 24. Friends of Terra Cotta Quarterly. New York: Friends of Terra Cotta, 1980. Abstract: An informal letter of 12 to 20 pages addressing current events relating to architectural terra cotta manufacture and construction, endangered terra cotta buildings and historic restoration projects 25. 'Glazed Expressions', Journal of Tiles & Architectural Ceramics Society (c/o Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust, Ronbridge, Telford, Shropshire TF8 7AW). 26. A History of Real Estate Building and Architecture in New York City During the Last Quarter of a Century. New York: Arno Press, Inc, 1967. Abstract: A history of real estate building and architecture in New York City during the last quarter of a century 27. "How Terracotta Is Made." Clay Record (Reprinted From New York Times) 5 (1896): 26-28. Abstract: Describes the procedures for manufacturing architectural terracotta, including the procedures for making moulds, and preparing and pressing the clay. Indicates that vitrifying ingredients, or grit (ie, fine ashes, sand, ground or burned clay or pulverized fire brick) can regulate shrinkage during firing. Describes pug mills, and the pugging, pressing, and firing process. After firing for ten days, the terracotta is removed from the kiln, transported to the site, and installed 28. "Illustrating the Perfection of Terracotta Ceramic Veneer." Architect and Engineer 125 (1941): 40-51. 29. Journal of the American Ceramic Society. Vol. 1-83. Columbus, OH: American Ceramic Society, 1918. Abstract: A monthly journal


30. "Keeping Buildings Safe." Atlantic Terra Cotta 7, no. 5 (1924): 6-7. 31. Lorsque La Royaute Cescendit Du Ciel. Les Fouilles Du Tell Kannas Sur L'Euphrate En Syrie. Morlanweitz: Musee Royal de Mariemont, 1983. Abstract: Catalogue of an exhibition documenting the excavations of the Belgian archaeological mission at Tell Kannas (Syria), one of the ancient sites located in the area of the projected great dam of Tabqa on the River Euphrates. Includes chapters on the civilizations of Western Asia from the neolithic period to the Roman conquest, history of Tell Kannas and account of recent findings (map, drawings and photographs), catalogue of the ceramics, and an appendix on mud-brick architecture 32. "The Manufacture of Terra Cotta." The Ceramist 6, no. 3 (1925): 548. 33. "The Manufacture of Terracotta in Chicago." American Architect and Building News (1876): 420-421. Abstract: Discusses the history of the use of architectural terracotta in the United States, and the manufacture and use of terracotta as an architectural material in Chicago. Indicates that architects in Chicago, acquainted with the capacities of terracotta for producing ornament, exploited the artistic qualities of this plastic material. The manufacture of terracotta in Chicago was initiated in 1868 by the firm of Hovey & Nichols, followed by the Terracotta Company of Chicago in 1869. This company later received commissions for buildings across the United States. Describes the factory of the Terracotta Company of Chicago, and the processes used in manufacturing various types of terracotta works 34. "The Place of Terra Cotta in Post-War With Special Reference to the Problem of Atmospheric Pollution." British Clayworker 53 (1944): 76-77. 35. "Reading's New Terminal." Public Ledger - Philadelphia (1893). 36. "Report of the Committee on Definition of the Term Ceramic." ACS Journal 3 (1920): 526-42. Abstract: A thorough discussion of the etymological, technical and practical origins and contemporary uses of the term ceramic, or ceramics. Although no final definition is presented or approved, conclusions are drawn which outline the scope and form of contemporary meaning. Appendices include dictionary definitions of the 19th and 20th centuries, and an analysis of the etymology of ceramic, by a professor of classics at the University of Illinois 37. Report on the Clay Deposits of Woodbridge, South Amboy and Other Places in New Jersey, Together With Their Uses for Fire Brick, Potter, Etc. Trenton,


NJ: Naar, Day & Naar Printers, 1878. Abstract: Describes the properties of clays used for manufacturing terracotta, and basic procedures for surveying clay deposits, with a brief description of the Woodbridge Fire Clay Bed formation in New Jersey. Indicates that clay can be used for making pottery, making refractory materials, making building materials and for other miscellaneous purposes. Describes the procedures for examining clay deposits. The examination usually consists of a survey of its surface features, natural outcrops and artificial cuttings, and testing the ground by boring and digging trial pots, or shafts. Includes appendices on methods of analysis, a list of fire clays examined by the survey for comparison with other New Jersey clays, and analyses of some American fire clays 38. "Restoring the Terracotta on Grand Old Buildings." New York Times, 9 May 1985. Abstract: Describes common deterioration conditions in terracotta, and procedures for conservation of architectural terracotta. Indicates that faulty installation, lack of maintenance, and improper repairs can cause significant damage. Cautions that repairing and replacing terracotta requires skilled experts since each building has a unique structure and ornamental details. Replacement usually involves the removal of damaged units, making plaster moulds of the intact pieces, and installation of new materials and fixings. Provides examples of conservation projects involving installation of replacement terracotta units, including replacements for gilded terracotta work on the Batterymarch Building in Boston 39. "Setting Terra Cotta." American Architect 123, no. May 9 (1923): 425-26. Abstract: A very brief, general specification for setting terra cotta adopted by the Chicago Department of Buildings and written by a committee composed of three architects and three manufacturers. The language and content are very similar to the National Terra Cotta Society's Architectural Terra Cotta - Standard Construction, of 1922, and the New York Building Congress's Standard Specification for the Setting of Terra Cotta, of 1929 40. Sites. Vol. 18. Lumen Inc.. Abstract: Architectural terra cotta issue. An illustrated study of the history and development of the terra cotta industry and its impact on New York's architecture. Includes a directory of 170 major New York buildings and historical background on 48 American terra cotta companies 41. "Le Superfici Dell'Architettura: Il Cotto/Caratterizzazione e Trattamenti."Proceedings of the Symposium Held in Bressanone, 30 June


- 3 July 1992. Scienza e Beni Culturali, Padova: Libreria Progetto Editore. Abstract: Proceedings of the congress held in Bressanone (Italy) on architectural surfaces, bricks and terracotta in 1992. Included are communications (some abstracted separately) on the following main topics: manufacture, origin, analysis and conservation treatments of bricks and terracotta used in walls and as decorations 42. "Technical Examination and Conservation of Terracotta Relief."IIC Ninth International Congress on Science and Technology in the Service of Conservation. 43. "Terracotta and Butt Bricks." Architecture and Building 61 (1929): 39-40. 44. "Terracotta and Faience As Materials for Architectural and Decorative Application." The Brickbuilder 2 (1893): 34-36, 48-49, 57-58. Abstract: Discusses the physical characteristics of terracotta and faience, describes common patterns of weathering and decay, and recommends methods for cleaning terracotta and faience in buildings. Describes the natural surface of terracotta (fireskin) and the slipstain, a thin, watery paste of clay brushed onto the surface to provide a different colour from the clay body. Problems associated with detailing, manufacture, weathering and decay are discussed and listed in Tables 8 and 9. Provides a summary of methods for cleaning limestone, sandstone, brickwork, terracotta, and stucco, indicating that controlled water washing and phosphor-bronze brushing or careful soft bristle brushing may be used for cleaning terracotta. The article also states that neutral pH soap and warm water can achieve good results, but soap and water cannot provide effective cleaning of staining and soiling under the fireskin 45. Transactions of the American Ceramic Society. Vol. 1-19. Columbus, OH: American Ceramic Society, 1899-1917. Abstract: The collection of selected papers and discussions read at the annual meeting of the American Ceramic Society 46. "W J Neatby's Work and a New Process. "Proceedings of the Society of Designers, Vol XXV, 88-97. 47. "When Cleaning Historic Terracotta - Handle With Care." Reprint From Friends of Terracotta Newsletter 2, no. 2 (1983): 5-6. Abstract: Provides recommendations for cleaning historic terracotta, indicating that the gentlest methods will cause the least damage. In air abrasive cleaning, the article recommends the use of a pressure below 600 psi to prevent damage, regardless of the types of chemicals or abrasives used.


Discusses problems associated with cleaning and patina, emphasising that Americans must learn to appreciate things that have the patina of age. Indicates that in any cleaning job, test patches for different cleaning techniques will help determine the gentlest means of cleaning possible. The author concludes that in general, terracotta buildings in the United States are cleaned most successfully with water, non-ionic detergents with various additives and warm water, or diluted solutions of hydrochloric or oxalic acid 48. Abrate-Aohar, M A, U Zeza, F Veniale, and M Setti. "Decay Stages and Causes of the Deterioration of Terracotta Ornaments at the Carthusian Monastery, Pavia, Italy."5th International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, 25-26 September 1985, 443-51. 49. Aderman, Ella Webster. "Architectural Terracotta: on-Site Evaluation and Testing." Masters thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1986. Abstract: The evaluation of terracotta conditions on site usually requires the application of one or more techniques for testing and assessing the conditions of the terracotta. Includes an appendix of private consultants and organizations with the tests they apply in testing and assessing the conditions of terracotta units on site 50. Albery, D F. "Grog for Terracotta." ACS Journal 9 (1926): 316-19. 51. Albery, D. F. "A Note on the Accidental Pink Discoloration of a White Enamel for Terra Cotta." ACS Transactions 14 (1912): 640-641. Abstract: A brief discussion of trouble shooting pink discoloration in white glazes. The author was able to eliminate the occurrence of pink blush by reducing lime content and substituting some lead, zinc and magnesium oxides 52. Aldredge, Lydia, and Allied Arts of Seattle. Impressions of Imagination. Seattle, WA: Allied Arts of Seattle, Inc., 1986. Abstract: An extensively illustrated publication intended to provide an overview of an identifiable inventory of historic terra cotta buildings in Seattle. Also outlines the historical development of local clay products industries 53. Alessandrini, Giovanna, A. M. Bocci, B. Fabbri, and G. Ercolani. "Decorative Terra Cotta Inside the Cappella Portinari; Their Composition and Decay. "Ceramics in Architecture: Proceedings of the International Symposium, The Ceramics Cultural Heritage, of the 8th Cimtec World Ceramics Congress and Forum on New Materials. P. Vicenzini. Faenza, Italy: Techna, 1995. 54. Allen, D. "An Evaluation of Mortars for the Plastic Repair of Architectural Terra


Cotta." Master's Thesis, Columbia University, 1993. 55. Anders, M, A Garlick, and D Church. Burmantofts Pottery. Bradford Art Galleries and Museums, 1984. 56. Anderson, Louis. "Comparison of Methods Used in Estimating the Maturing of Terra Cotta." ACS Journal 8 (1925): 762-67. Abstract: An analysis of current methods of interpreting when terra cotta has matured in the kiln, using techniques employed by the Midland Terra Cotta Company and the American Terra Cotta Company 57. Andreoni, Grazia, and Roberta Fabri. "Castelfiorentino: Restauro Di Sette Opere in Terracotta." Kermes 1, no. 1 (1988): 43-48. Abstract: Made in 1809 by Ignatius Miertz, of Brussels, these 6 3-dimensional statues and 1 relief were placed on the facade of the Church of Santa Verdiana in Castelfiorentino (Italy) 58. Andrews, Andrew Irving. Ceramic Tests and Calculations. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc, 1928. Abstract: Provides a comprehensive overview of common and standard methods for clay testing and calculations. The first part of the book deals primarily with clay tests, and their calculation and interpretation. This includes raw materials, the drying and burning properties, and the physical properties of finished products. The second part of the text deals with calculations for glazes, bodies, enamels, and glasses. Includes recipes for converting chemical formulae to recipes and vice versa. The appendix includes tables of factors necessary for the calculations, including atomic weights, equivalent weights, melting points, solubilities, standard sieve data, pyrometric cones, temperature conversions, and weight, volume and length relations and conversions 59. Ashurst, John. "Cleaning and Surface Repair - Past Mistakes and Future Prospects." APT Bulletin XVII, no. 2 (1985): 39-41. Abstract: Discusses the results of a survey of about thirty masonry (including terracotta) buildings in urban areas of England which had been cleaned at least ten years earlier. The survey found that most current problems related to improper application techniques, or lack of skill. The survey also found that water repellents were rarely successful as dirt inhibitors. Ashurst concludes that lower cost, lower impact, maintenance cleaning at regular intervals is a better option than drastic cleaning at longer intervals. Comparative table included 60. Ashurst, John, and Nicola Malnic. "Options to Bodging." Architects Journal


(1985). Abstract: This series covers good and bad practice in the repair, cleaning and surface treatment of stone, brick, terracotta and stucco 61. Ashurst, John, and Jeanne-Marie Teutonico. Draft Revision of BS 6270. Part 1: 1982. British Standard Code of Practice for the Cleaning and Surface Repair of Buildings, Masonry Cleaning English Heritage Technical Research Project AC12. 1994. Abstract: Consultants were instructed to critically review BS 6270 Part 1:1982 and its amendments in the light of developing knowledge of substrate composition, new cleaning techniques and incoming health and safety legislation. Recommendations were requested regarding general structure and organization of the standard, changes to nomenclature and terminology, and corrections/additions to specific articles so as to provide guidelines for revisions 62. Ashurst, John and Nicola Ashurst. Practical Building Conservation, Vol 2, Brick, Terracotta and Earth. Hants, Great Britain: Gower Technical Press, 1989. Abstract: Discusses the control of damp in buildings, essential before conservation treatment of terracotta in buildings. History of use and manufacture is given; drawings of typical installation details. Indicates that a common problem in terracotta manufacturing was control of shrinkage. The authors define several brand names, providing the mineralogical components of these products. Describes major manufacturing flaws and deterioration conditions in terracotta. The authors recommend limited application of mechanical (air abrasive or coburundum disc) and acidbased cleaning systems, and water-rinsable, neutral pH soap and scouring for glazed surfaces. Includes recommendations for patching methods, mortar recipes for pointing, reanchoring with non-corrosive material, and replacement materials 63. Ashurst, Nicola. Cleaning Historic Buildings. Volume 1 Substrates, Soiling and Investigation. Volume 2 Cleaning Materials and Processes . London: Donhead Publishing Ltd, 1994. Abstract: A comprehensive set of volumes on soiling and cleaning of historic building, contains a section on terracotta and faience 64. ASTM. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 1998, Volume 4.05, ChemicalResistant Materials; Vitrified Clay, Concrete, Fiber-Cement Products; Mortars; Masonry. Philadelphia, Pa: ASTM, 1998. Abstract: This volume of the ASTM standards contains standard classifications, guides, practices, specifications, test methods, and terminology relating to


chemical-resistant nonmetallic materials, vitrified clay, concrete, fibrecement products, mortars and masonry materials. The standard issued under the designation C-43-89 lists standard definitions of terms relating to structural clay products, recognized by the ASTM as the definition of terms most frequently applied to structural clay products. These definitions can be useful in establishing standard definitions for terms relating to terracotta and other industrial clay products 65. Atkinson, A S. "Terracotta Fireproofing in New York." Insurance Engineering 114 (1907): 217-29. 66. Atkinson, George. "Terracotta Rehab." Building 241, no. 44 (1981): 43. Abstract: America's National Building Museum marks a new turn for conservation of the nation's heritage 67. Atterbury, Paul, and Louise Irvine. The Doulton Story. 1979. Abstract: A souvenir booklet produced originally for the exhibition held at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 30 May-12 August 1979. Available from Doulton International Collectors Club Gallery, Leather and Snook, 167 Piccadilly, London W1 68. Atwood, Kelly R. "An Assessment of Terra Cotta Replacement and Recommendations for the Belmont Pumping Station, East Fairmount Park, Philadelphia." Master's thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1999. Abstract: This thesis examines terra cotta replacement by assessing three treatments which were performed at least ten years previous. Three case studies illustrate the performance of cast stone, precast concrete, and glass fiber reinforced plastic, with assessments based on visual observation, and focussed on visual compatibility. The Belmont Pumping Station, in Philadelphia, is then presented as an example of typical terra cotta conservation problems 69. Bandera Bistoletti, Sandrina, and Antonietta Gallone Galassi. "Conservation and Scientific Investigations on the Terracotta Polychrome Sculptures by Agostine De'Fondulis in Santiro, Milan (1482-1483)."Case Studies in the Conservation of Stone and Wall Paintings: Preprints of the Contributions to the Bologna Congress, 21-26 September 1986N S Brommelle, and Perry eds SmithLondon: 1986. Abstract: Restoration and scientific investigation of the 14 polychrome terracotta sculptures 'La Pieto di Cristo' by Agostino de'Fondulis, in the Chapel of Ansperto in Santa Maria presso S Satiro in Milan, are described. Due to the environmental condition of the sculptures (high RH in the chapel, salt on their surface causing the paint to flake, missing elements) and the


presence of cement filling the inside of the statues, the whole restoration project is one of the most complex undertaken by the Soprintendenza in Milan in recent years. The historical background of the statues is covered and their exact physical condition before treatment is detailed and illustrated 70. Bandini, Giovanna. "Gli Oggetti Ceramici: Metodi Di Intervento." Antiqua , no. 56 (1984): 85-107. Abstract: The author describes various procedures of conservation and restoration of ceramic artifacts in situ. Properties of the material, possible deterioration mechanisms, cleaning, and consolidation; are discussed, with numerous references to products used or tested 71. Barber, Edwin Atlee. The Ceramic Collector's Glossary. New York: Walpole Society, 1914. Abstract: A glossary of terms relating to ceramics intended to assist ceramics collectors in correct labeling and cataloging of collections of pottery and porcelain. The terms defined in this glossary feature those most likely to be needed in cataloging public and private ceramic collections 72. ------. The Pottery and Porcelain of the United States. New York: Feingold and Lewis, 1976. 73. Barrenche, Raul A. "Restoring Terra-Cotta." Architecture 83, no. 11 (1994): 12733. Abstract: A very general introduction to the historical use of architectural terra cotta in the U.S. and the contemporary issues of restoration. Three examples of recent restoration projects, in Pittsburgh, New York and San Francisco, are presented with photographs and design details 74. Barry, Charles. "Some Descriptive Memoranda on the Works Executed in the Terracotta at New Alleyn's College, Dulwich, by Mr Blashfield, of Stamford, From the Designs and Under the Superintendance of Charles Barry, Architect." Paper Given at the Ordinary General Meeting of the RIBA. 75. Barthe, Georges L, and Pascale Klein. "Rapport De Restoration De Deux Sculptures En Terre Cuite. Etude D'Un Produit De Restitution Pour Un Support Terre Cuite/Restoration Report of Two Sculptures in Terracotta. Study of a Restitution Product for a Terracotta Support." Institut Francais de Restauration des Oeuvres d'Art, Paris, 1985. Abstract: A conservation thesis dealing with the restoration of two medium height (77cm) sculptures in terracotta representing lions. The pieces showed


cracks, swellings and worn spots. Samples of mortars and other adjunctions present on the terracotta were examined using microscopy. The restoration process involved mechanical removal of the mortars, consolidation, cleaning and remounting of pieces 76. Barthes, Georges, and Pascale Klein. "Restauration D'Un Ensemble De Figurines Grecques En Terre Cuite Du Musee De Picardie a Amiens." Science Et Technologie De La Conservation Et De La Restauration Des Oeuvres D'Art Et Du Patrimonie , no. 1 (1988): 74-76. Abstract: Thirty-seven Greek terracotta statuettes, dated 6th century BC - 1st century AD, showed signs of deterioration due to factors inherent to the material itself and from wrong restoration interventions after their excavation. The new restoration included the following steps: consolidation of the paint layer with paraloid 072; fixing of the slip with natrosol (hydroxy-ethyl-cellulose); treatment of the powderiness of the terracotta with injection of plexigum n-80 (ethyl polymethacrylate); removal of glued parts, their cleaning and reattachment with soft cellulose mastic. Mechanical cleaning. In addition analyses were carried out on the polychromy to identify the pigments 77. Advances in Structural Ceramics, MRS Symposium Series, Vol 78P F et al ed Becher. Abstract: The papers in this symposium address recent research in the field of toughened ceramics, including transformation toughening and fibre and whisker reinforced ceramics. The papers on transformation analysis and transformation plasticity and toughness are of particular interest to current research on the behaviour of structural clay products. The first part of the symposium features papers on transformation analysis in ceramics; the second part includes papers on transformation plasticity and toughness; part three includes papers on the mechanical properties and microstructures of zirconia toughened ceramics; part four contains papers on the mechanical behavior of reinforced ceramic composites; part five includes papers on fracture and deformation behaviour in ceramic composites 78. Bell, Glenn R., and Brent A. Gabby. "In-Situ Evaluation of Compressed Brick Veneer Using the Flatjack Technique." Masonry: Materials, Testing and Applications, ASTM STP 1356. J. H. Brisch, R. L. Nelson, and H. L. Francis. West. Conshohocken, PA: ASTM, 1999. Abstract: The flatjack technique was used on a large modern apartment complex to quantify the compression in a brick veneer that was distressed. The amount of compression in the veneer was determined in several locations throughout the height of one elevation, and the data used to determine repair strategies. The authors suggest that greater accuracy was


obtained by using gauge points recommended in recent research, rather than gauge points prescribed by ASTM standards. 79. Bell, Ingress E. "The Revived Use of Terracotta in Architecture." The Art Journal 50 (1888): 119-20. 80. Bennett, A. L. "The Use of Overglazes for Polychrome Terra Cotta." ACS Journal 9 (1926): 185-88. Abstract: The author emphasizes the flexibility and economy of single-fire overglazes as compared with other polychrome methods. A base white overglaze formula and its preparation and application are presented and the commercial use of single-fire glazes is discussed 81. Berryman, Nancy D., and Susan M. Tindall. Terra Cotta: Preservation of an Historic Building Material. Chicago: Landmarks Preservation Council of Illinois, 1984. Abstract: This small book is a practical guide for the use and preservation of architectural terracotta providing general guidelines for production, repair and maintenance. Three main chapters succinctly describe history and manufacturing, deterioration and maintenance, and preservation and replacement. A glossary of terminology, bibliography and a list of terra cotta clad buildings in Chicago are provided 82. Besques, Simone, and Brigitte Bourgeois. "Une Tete Dedalique De Tarante: Remarques Sur Sa Restauration." La Revue Du Louvre Et Des Musees De France , no. 3 (1985): 169-73. Abstract: This article describes the de-salting treatment given to a dedalic head in terracotta. Different solvents were experimented with, but only a solution of hydrochloric acid followed by sodium bicarbonate dissolved the salt incrustations. The statue was then neutralized with frequent applications of distilled water 83. Bimson, M. "The Examination of Ceramics by X-Ray Powder Diffraction." Studies in Conservation 14 (1969): 83-89. 84. Blake, William P. Ceramic Art: a Report on Pottery, Porcelain, Tiles, Terracotta and Brick. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1875. Abstract: A general survey of the state of the U.S. clay products industry including facts and figures and often direct comparisons with British manufacturers and localities. Classification and descriptions of generic and proprietary wares from America and Europe including porcelain and faience, wall and floor tiles, tablets, pavements, terracotta and various forms of bricks. A description of clays and their distribution in the U.S., a "chronicle of the


principle events directly connected with the manufacture of pottery," and a bibliography consisting mostly of exhibition reports and catalogs. Also of interest are several full-page advertisements for manufacturers and retailers in New York, New Jersey and Connecticut, and a catalog of scientific books published by D. Von Nostrand 85. Boger, Louise Ade, and Batterson H Boger. Dictionary of Antiques and Decorative Arts: a Book of Reference for Glass, Furniture, Ceramics, Silver, Periods, Styles, Technical Terms, Etc. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1957. Abstract: A dictionary of terms relating to the decorative arts intended for collectors or students of art. Includes definitions of terms for decorative arts in the United States, Europe and the Far East. Classifies the terms by subject, with individual sections devoted to Chinese, European, Near Eastern, American, and Japanese and Korean ceramics. Also includes illustrations of European faience, Italian and Spanish pottery, and Chinese and Japanese porcelain, as well as a comprehensive bibliography of current sources on decorative arts 86. Borja, Gustavo. "Arquitectura Precolombina." Trama 7-8 (1978): 23-28. Abstract: Architectural and structural analysis, building materials and techniques, urban and social context; the research work is based on terracotta urns (in form of houses) and funeral ceramics of the Chorrera and the Tolita cultures. With numerous illustrations 87. Bourry, Emile, and Searle A B. A Treatise on Structural Ceramic Industries: a Complete Manual for Pottery, Tile and Brick Manufacturers . London: Scott Greenwood and Son, 1919. Abstract: A practical manual for pottery, tile and brick manufacturers, provides definitions and classifications for ceramic wares, and raw materials, and describes manufacturing procedures for glazed and unglazed ceramics. Describes the properties and composition of raw materials, processes of formation, drying, glazes, firing, and materials and methods for ceramic decoration. Includes a chapter on terracottas, bricks, tiles, architectural and decorative terracotta, pottery and lustre ware 88. Bowman, J. R. "Recent Factory Experience and Experiments in Drying Terra Cotta." ACS Journal 9 (1926): 380-391. Abstract: The author attempts to determine by experiment the best conditions with respect to temperature, circulation of air, and relative humidity, by which to obtain minimum drying time with minimum warpage and cracking of the ware in the Carrier dryers of the Midland Terra Cotta Company. The author attempts to determine by experiment the best conditions with


respect to temperature, circulation of air, and relative humidity, by which to obtain minimum drying time with minimum warpage and cracking of the ware in the Carrier dryers of the Midland Terra Cotta Company 89. Bragdon, Claude. "The Use of Ceramic Products in the Embellishment of Buildings." Architectural Forum (1917): 17-19. Abstract: Discusses the use of ceramics in the embellishment of buildings from the Renaissance to the twentieth century and their physical properties. Discusses the presence of colour in Italian Renaissance architecture, and the current revival of colour in architecture as evidenced in the PanAmerican Exposition in San Francisco. The author argues that ceramic products are ideal for introducing colour into buildings. Provides practical suggestions on how to integrate colour elements in architecture, including optical considerations such as distance and relative visibility. Also provides suggestions on methods for preventing damage to ceramics 90. Branner, John Casper. Bibliography of Clays and Ceramic Arts . Columbus, OH: ACS, 1906. Abstract: This comprehensive bibliography of clays, kaolins and ceramic arts includes entries relating to all phases of the ceramic arts ranging from the manufacture of common bricks to the processing of porcelains and enamels. Includes some information about specifications of patents and descriptions of machinery associated with the manufacture and technology of ceramics in the United States. This edition contains a total of 6027 entries for books and articles about the clays and the ceramics arts published both in the United States and Europe 91. Brick and Clay Record. Modern Brickbuilder's Manual: a Handy Reference for Architects, Engineers, Mason Builders, Dealers. Chicago: 1946. 92. Brick Institute of America. "Cleaning Brick Masonry." Technical Notes on Brick Construction , no. 20 (1977). Abstract: Describes some practical procedures for cleaning bricks. Reviews failed cleaning programs, usually due to improper implementation of cleaning protocol, and discusses several promising cleaning techniques and application methods. The methods described include procedures for cleaning brick in new buildings, removal of efflorescence, removal and prevention of 'green' (vanadium) and 'brown' (manganese) stains, and removal of stains caused by organic and metallic substances. Discusses cleaning techniques for unglazed terracotta, indicating that these techniques would probably scar any glazed surface 93. Brick Manufacturers Association of America. Brickwork Working Details : Cleveland, OH.


Abstract: Series of publications devoted to various phases of the use of common brick 94. ------. Contemporary Detail in Common Brick. Cleveland, OH: Brick Manufacturers Association of America. 95. ------. Skintled Brickwork: New Methods of Obtaining Interesting Surface Effects With Common Brick As Developed and Exemplified by Chicago Architects . Cleveland, OH: The Common Brick Manufacturers Association of America, 1930. 96. Briguet, M F. "Le Sarcophage Des Epoux De Cerveteri/The Sarcophagus of the Married Couple of Cerveteri." La Revue Du Louvre Et Des Musees De France , no. 1 (1981): 74-75. Abstract: Short report on the restoration carried out by the restoration centre of Florence of a terracotta sarcophagus owned by the Musee of Louvre. An overpaint layer applied in the 19th century has been removed and the original polychromy restored. Small lacunae have been filled with a nonprecised resin 97. Bristow, Alan J. "Renovating Terracotta Work on Birmingham's Central Mission." Building Conservation 3, no. 6 (1981): 10-12. 98. BS 5385, Code of Practice for Wall Tiling Part 2: External Ceramic Wall Tiling and Mosaics, British Standards Institution. 99. BS 6270: Part 1: 1982, Code of Practice for Cleaning and Surface Repair of Buildings, New Appendix G Cleaning and Surface Repair of Terracotta and Faience, British Standards Institution. 100. Draft Standard for Masonry Products - Masonry Units - Specification for Calcium Silicate Units , British Standards Institution. 1990. 101. Draft Standard for Masonry Products - Masonry Units - Specification for Clay Units, British Standards Institution. 1990. 102. Brownell, W C. "The Sculpture of Olin Warner." Scribner's Magazine 20, no. 4 (1896): 429-41. 103. Brownell, W E. Structural Clay Products. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1976. Abstract: Provides a comprehensive introduction to the properties and manufacturing processes of structural clay products. The author organizes and applies scientific and engineering principles to each production step and describes the manufacturing processes in detail.


Includes essential information on the mineralogical composition of structural clay products, raw materials and processing, the manufacturing process, and the serviceability and durability of clay products. Also provides a survey of the current state of the industry in the United States 104. Bruninga, Ervin Bruno. "Properties of Some Terracotta Bodies." Masters Thesis, University of Illinois, Champagne, Urbana, 1939. 105. Brunskill, R W. Brick Building in Britain. London: Victor Gollancz Ltd, 1990. Abstract: The book is divided into three sections. Part one gives an account of how bricks, brick tiles and terracotta have been made and used from medieval times to present. Part two is an illustrated glossary of brickwork. Part three, a chronological survey, provides photographs of brick buildings from the earliest survivors to brickwork of the twentieth century 106. "Design and Appearance, 1-2." Building Defects and Maintenance. Essential Information From the Building Research Establishment. Building Research Establishment, 2-13. Lancaster, UK: The Construction Press, 1974. Abstract: Effects of weathering are discussed in terms of appearance and architectural design. Ability of a building to retain a satisfactory appearance. Appearance of Portland stone, slate, brickwork, terracotta, timber, metal, cast artificial stone, concrete 107. "Design and Appearance - 2 (Digest 46)." Building Materials. Essential Information From the Building Research Establishment. Building Research Establishment, 234-37. Lancaster, UK: The Construction Press, 1977. Abstract: Related to digest 45. Appearance as a consequence of weathering of various facing materials. Importance of architectural design 108. Reports of the Building Research at the Building Research Station at Garston, England 1926-1965, Garston Building Research Station. Abstract: Reports include: Moisture movement; expansion caused by temperature or humidity; weathering, bacteria, frost, chemical attack, salt crystallization; influence of moisture on chemical properties of sedimentary stone; terracotta investigations; dilatometer experiment on freezing; large scale field test on stone preservatives; moisture evaporation, vapour transfer; damage in buildings; microporosity; nitrification; alkali efflorescence from German trass and Portland cement; tool damage on stone 109. Bullock, Orin M. "Brick, Adobe, Stone and Architectural Ceramics: Deterioration


Processes and Conservation Practices." Preservation and Conservation Principles and Practice: Proceedings of the North American International Regional Conference, 10-16 September, 19721976. Abstract: This paper provides an overview of deterioration processes in brick, adobe, stone and architectural ceramics, and masonry structures. Includes a discussion of the characteristics of brick, adobe, stone, and terracotta, preservation problems associated with these materials, and methods for conservation 110. Cammarota, Giampiero, and William Lambertini. "La Pieta Del Monte Di Bologna." Accademia Clementina , no. 23 (1988): 27-46. Abstract: The 'Pieta' found above the main door of the 'Banca del Monte' in Bologna (Italy) is an excellent example of modeling in terracotta. The article discusses the history of the piece, its recent restoration and the results of various analyses of samples of the terracotta and stucco (x-ray diffraction, microscopy). The terracotta was found to be a type very common in the Mediterranean area, particularly in Bologna. Repair material (brown colour) was found to contain brick dust. The white material was that used in a previous restoration by Schiassi. Comparison was made with material used in other restorations 111. Campbell, James E ed. "Pottery and Ceramics: a Guide to Information Sources." Art and Architecture Information Series 7 (1978). Abstract: A bibliography intended for researchers, students and others with a basic knowledge of ceramic history and/or some technical knowledge of ceramic materials. Includes citations for general histories, dictionaries and encyclopaedias. Provides in depth discussions on ancient and preColumbian ceramics, ceramics of the Far and Near East, ceramics of Europe and the United States, Canada and Mexico. Includes a chapter on contemporary ceramics, as well as useful references for ceramics collections, ceramic marks, technical works on ceramic materials and processes, ceramic periodicals, ceramic organizations and societies, and major museum collections in the United States 112. Carosino, Catherine et al. Historic Masonry Deterioration and Repair Techniques. Washington, D.C: U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Park Service, Preservation Assistance Division, 1993. 113. Carruthers, J. L. "Notes on Shivering of Terra Cotta." ACS Journal 5 (1922): 51826. Abstract: Six terra cotta clays are tested for shivering using a white matte glaze at cone 3. The best and the worst clays are subsequently used as examples in order to overcome or produce shivering


114. ------. "Use of Forced Draft for Terra Cotta Kilns." ACS Journal 5 (1922): 44954. Abstract: The application of a forced draft system to terra cotta kilns is discussed with specific reference to the type of grate used, the overhead air flues, and the use of cheap slack coal 115. Casodia, R, and B et al Fabri. "The Deterioration of Terracotta; the Case of Casa Valenti in Faenza." Proceedings of European Symposium Science, Technology, European Cultural Heritage, 1991. Abstract: An investigation into the deterioration mechanisms affecting the brick and terracotta of Casa Valenti at Faenza, suggesting that low firing temperatures are responsible for the initial deterioration of the substance. Also suggested is a link between colour and firing temperature; the lower the firing temperature the deeper the colour 116. Ceccacci, Susan McDaniel. "Architectural Terracotta in the United States Before 1870." Master's Thesis, Boston University, 1991. Abstract: This paper explores the previously overlooked pre-1870 period of American architectural terracotta. It refutes the generally held belief that this period was characterized by early, but failed attempts at terracotta manufacture. Focusing on several early producers of architectural terracotta, it demonstrates that ready made terracotta architectural elements were being offered for sale as early as 1849; that early manufacturers were capable of producing a durable product; that several sizeable installations were in place as early as 1853; and that some pre1870 manufacturers remained in business for ten years or longer. Terracotta production is set within the framework of the architectural taste of the day, available technology, and the evolving industrialization of building construction. Comparisons are made between the development of architectural terracotta in America and England during the same period. 117. Chabat, Pierre ed. Victorian Brick and Terracotta Architecture in Full Colour. New York: Dover Publications, Inc, 1989. Abstract: This publication contains over 550 illustrations of terracotta architecture in rural and urban Europe in the Victorian era, documenting methods of incorporating brickwork and bright appliques of terracotta into architecture in that period. The illustrations are reprints of a portfolio of architectural drawings by Pierre Chabat, a French architect and educator, depicting many buildings of the late 1870's and 1880's. Includes depictions of individual tile designs and exterior uses of brick and tile in decorative patterns. Includes captions in English and a list of architects, builders, decorators and artists of the works represented in this book


118. Chalamel, P. "Clay Products and Building Construction." Science and Industry 17 (1933): 82-84. 119. Champe, Peter, and Mark Rabinowitz. "Restoring the Minton Tile Ceiling, Bethesda Terrace Arcade, Central Park, New York City." Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin 30, no. 2-3 (1999): 11-16. Abstract: A concise description of the restoration of two encaustic tile, ceiling panels at the Bethesda Terrace arcade in New York's Central Park, including an historical sketch of the park and Bethesda Terrace. The authors outline the history and the technology behind encaustic tiles and the ceiling panels, and then discuss the problems associated with the restoration program at Bethesda Terrace. Solutions and justifications are presented along with a description of the conservation materials employed and the techniques used for reattachment 120. Charleston, R J ed. World Ceramics: an Illustrated History. New York: Random House, 1991. Abstract: Provides an exhaustive introduction to the history of world ceramics. Discusses ceramics in the ancient world, the Far East, the Islamic World, Europe, the modern period in Europe and the United States, and the Primitive World. Describes briefly the nature of ceramic history and provides a summary of basic techniques. The chapters on European ceramics focus on the lead-glaze tradition and salt-glazed stoneware, the tin-glaze tradition and porcelain. The chapters on ceramics in the modern era focus on the rise of industrialism and ceramics in England, the modern movement and industrial ceramics, and artist potters from 1860. Includes a glossary of terms, and a list of significant factory marks 121. Charola, A E, and R et al Koestler. "Physico-Chemical Examination of Aged Bricks and 'Cotto' to Study the Mechanism of Alteration ."Il Mattone Di Venezia: Contributi Presentati Al Concorso Di Idee Su Patologia, Diagnosi e Terapis Del Mattone Di Venezia. 122. Charola, A E, and R J Koestler. "The Action of Salt Water Solutions in the Deterioration of Silico-Aluminate Matrix of Bricks." Il Mattone Di Venezia: Contributi Presentati Al Corso Di Idee Su Patologia, Diagnosi e Terapis Del Mattone Di Venezia. 123. Clare, R. L. "Causes for the Failure of Terra Cotta in the Wall." ACS Transactions 19 (1918): 593-96. Abstract: The author presents a very concise outline of the causes and effects of material failures in architectural terra cotta from the point of view of a manufacturer interested in quality control


124. Clare, R L. "Standardization of Tests for Terracotta Bodies and Glazes." ACS Bulletin 13 (1934): 888. 125. Clare, R. L., and D. F. Albery. "The Effect of Variation of the Size of the Grog in Terra Cotta Bodies." ACS Journal 3 (1920): 384-87. Abstract: Data is presented from trials of three terra cotta body mixtures, all identical except for the grog grain size distribution. Each body was pressed into six different shapes; each shape was sprayed half with glaze and half with slip; and pieces of each shape were fired according to two different schedules. The authors conclude that grain size distribution is a critical characteristic of body composition 126. Clare, R. L., and R. N. Long. "The Value of Aging the Terra Cotta Body." ACS Journal 4 (1921): 453-58. Abstract: A comparison of plasticity, workability and dry strength among three test groups of terra cotta bodies produced from the same batch of clay. The first body was used directly after pugging, the second after aging for twelve days, and the third after aging and then repugging. The authors conclude that aging improves plasticity workability and strength with a slight increase in warpage 127. Clark, E. Munshaw L. M. "The Use of Pulsichrome From a Manufacturer's Standpoint." ACS Journal 5 (1922): 826-31. Abstract: Two papers presenting the advantages of the pulsichrometer for applying glazes, followed by a discussion 128. Clark, J. "Pressing Terra Cotta." ACS Journal 5 (1922): 623-31. Abstract: The author emphasizes the importance of pressing technique in terra cotta manufacture with photographs of well-pressed and poorly-pressed examples 129. Coats, M. A. "The Influence of Soluble Salts in a Clay Upon the Behavior of a Slip and a Glaze." ACS Transactions 16 (1914): 162-68. Abstract: New Jersey terra cotta clay was used to examine the effects of soluble salts on slip and glaze adhesion. Test tiles were created with varying amounts of several soluble salts common to terra cotta clays. The tiles were glazed and burned to cone 6, then observed for signs of crazing, crawling or shivering. The author concludes that any amount of soluble salt in the body will cause shivering of the glaze, although certain additives can eliminate the trouble 130. Collinson, F J. "Eleanor Coade, 1733-1821." Museums Journal 57 (1957): 37-38.


131. Comer, J J, J H Koenig, and S C Lyons. "What Are Ceramic Bodies Really Like? - Electron Microscope Throws New Light on Nature of Ceramic Structure Development." Ceramic Industry (1956): 125-50. Abstract: This paper describes two basic techniques for studying the structure of fracture faces of fired and/or unfired ceramic materials, and the results of a study of fired and unfired ceramic samples. The study describes two experimental techniques: 1) a preshadowed carbon replica technique, whereby electron micrographs show the surfaces of materials in detail; 2) segregation by centrifugal processes of a natural kaolinite crystal, viz, hexagonal plates below two microns and stacks of these plates This study found an extraordinary increase in fired strength resulting from replacement of unfired stacks with stacks previously calcined to 1000°C 132. Conahan, Heather. "An Assessment of the Effects of Hydrofluoric Acid Based Cleaner on Unglazed Architectural Terracotta." Master's Thesis, University of Pennsylvania. Abstract: One step in a broader body of research including Moynehan, 1995. This study is focussed on hydrofluoric acid based cleaners. The scope of research was two-fold; to quantify changes to the surface of the terra cotta, and to compare the performance of terra cotta in various states of cleanliness, when exposed to accelerated weathering. Includes a visual and mineralogical characterization of the terra cotta samples, an assessment system to quantify changes to the physical properties of the terra cotta, a testing program to determine the weathering potential of the treated samples, and recommendations for further testing 133. Conkling, I. L. "Kilns for Burning Architectural Terra Cotta." ACS Transactions 8 (1906): 125-46. Abstract: The president of the Conkling-Armstrong Terra Cotta Company addresses the problem of economics in kiln design and selection. Several issues are presented with an empirical discussion of the author's own first-hand experience. Drawings of several kilns used by different manufacturers are included, and a lively discussion of kiln design follows 134. Conservation Unit, The. Cleaning: Conservation Science Teaching Series. London: The Conservation Unit, 1984. Abstract: Part of the Science for Conservators Series, the book describes several methods for cleaning materials in scientific terms, as well as the nature of dirt and how it adheres to surfaces. There are no special references to terracotta, however the cleaning system recommended most widely for


terracotta, scrubbing with water or water and soap, is described, including a discussion of the chemical reactions that can occur in the cleaning process between the cleaning agent and specific materials 135. Croce, Cinzia, Andreina Draghi, Renato Pennino, and Antonio Villarin. "The Restoration of Terra Cotta on the Facade of Saint Chiara in Rome. "Ceramics in Architecture: Proceedings of the International Symposium, The Ceramics Cultural Heritage, of the 8th Cimtec World Ceramics Congress and Forum on New Materials. P. Vicenzini. Faenza, Italy: Techna, 1995. Abstract: A thorough history of the site is followed by a description of the restoration program including diagnosis and repair strategies. Insufficient firing temperature is blamed for the detachment of the fireskin. There is a brief discussion of poultice cleaning 136. Croly, Herbert D. "The Proper Use of Terracotta." Architectural Record 19 (1906): 73-81. Abstract: Discusses in detail the proper use of architectural terracotta as a material. The article argues that well-trained architects have been major reformers of American building methods and standards; traces the proper use of terracotta to the influence of these architects. The author cites George B Post who used a warm red terracotta in buildings, distinguishing it from terracotta mimicking stone. Indicates that ornamental terracotta can be as effective as stone if seen from a distance. Discusses the use of ornamental terracotta in the 1880's in Romanesque revival designs in the United States. Also emphasizes the opportunities offered by fireproofed sky-scrapers for the various colours and textures of plain and ornamental terracotta 137. Cupial, Jennie. "The Coades and Their Stone; Part One." Concrete (1980): 1822. 138. ------. "The Coades and Their Stone; Part Two." Concrete (1980): 27-30. 139. Cusack, Thomas. "Architectural Terra Cotta; Cooperation Between Architect, Engineer and Terra Cotta Maker." The Brickbuilder 7, no. 7 (1898): 55-57, 142-44, 185-87, 230-231. Abstract: The author provides practical, job coordination advice, as well as specific design details and directions, to architects and engineers, regarding common errors and misguided construction detailing for terra cotta elements 140. ------. "Architectural Terracotta." The Brickbuilder 5 (1896): 6-8, 29-31, 51-53.


Abstract: Describes the history of the manufacture and use of architectural terracotta in England from antiquity to the present. Describes terracotta columns of the Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Tuscan order, citing examples of each order in masonry structures in the United States. Indicates that in France, toward the end of the 16th century, Renaissance ideas introduced from Italy by Vignola and Serlio were supplanted by the French Renaissance. The new aesthetic ideals of the French thus found expression in the works of Delorme and other French architects. Describes the principle characteristics of columns during the French Renaissance, citing examples of columns by Delorme and other French architects. Suggests certain parallels between French columns and columns designed by Richard M. Hunt in New York City in the 1850's. Provides examples of iron elements introduced as auxiliary supports in terracotta columns and porticos 141. ------. "Lessons From the Home Life Building Fire." The Brickbuilder 8, no. 1 (1899): 14-15. Abstract: The author cites the opinions of Fiske Kimball and Louis Sullivan to corroborate his own on the advantages of terra cotta in fireproof construction. The superiority of terra cotta versus that of common building stones is further supported by before and after photos of 3 inch test cubes of marble, limestone, sandstone, granite and terra cotta. The samples were exposed to open flame for several minutes and then allowed to cool. The building stones all suffered major damage, while the terra cotta suffered only minor visible changes 142. ------. "Terracotta and Steel." The Brickbuilder 10, no. 1 (1901): 226-29. Abstract: In response to the inquiries of an architect as to the advisability of a terracotta portico, the author provides a scheme of construction and advice on its installation. Illustrates a similar portico at the Veterinary College at Cornell University. Indicates the major drawbacks in the design and suggests how to correct these defects. Provides illustrations of the proposed portico for the Baptist House in Brooklyn, and argues that this portico is an example of terracotta construction per se. Describes the portico and the measures installed to prevent water penetration and provides recommendations for maintenance. Also indicates that mixing carbonate soda in mortar to facilitate laying of masonry in cold weather gained favor in the United States in the 1890's 143. Darling, Sharon S., Walter W. Krutz, and Fannia Weingartner. Chicago Ceramics & Glass an Illustrated History From 1871 to 1933. Chicago, Ill: Chicago Historical Society, distributed by the University of Chicago Press, 1979. Abstract: A chapter devoted to architectural terra cotta in a book which was the


companion to an exhibition of decorative and architectural ceramic arts in Chicago. The chapter on architectural terra cotta provides a detailed history of the development of terra cotta architecture and industry in Chicago. Historical sketches of the major manufacturers accompany an illustrated interpretation of Chicago's unique architectural history 144. Darlington, I. "Coade's Artificial Stone in St George's Chapel." Bulletin of the Society of the Friends of St George's Chapel 1 (1955): 3-20. 145. ------. "Frost and Damp Have No Effect." Journal of the Bank of Montreal (1960): 2-6. 146. Davey, N. A History of Building Materials. London: Phoenix House, 1961. 147. Davis, C T. A Practical Treatise on the Manufacture of Brick, Tile and Terracotta. Philadelphia, Pa: Henry Carey Baird, 1884. Abstract: Discusses the history of bricks and brickmaking from antiquity to the nineteenth century including the different varieties of clay, their characteristics, qualities and localities; the physical properties of bricks; and the process of enameling bricks and tiles, and glazing earthenware. Provides extensive descriptions of the manufacture of bricks by the hand process and brick machines, as well as descriptions of fireclays, firebricks, and other products and machines. Discusses the properties of terracotta, manufacturing procedures, and the manufacture of roofing tile, sewer pipe, and ornamental tile 148. Davis, H. E. "Data on Viscosity of Indiana Clay Slip With Electrolytes in Regard to the Casting of Terra Cotta." ACS Journal 5 (1922): 702-12. Abstract: An Indiana clay typically used by Chicago terra cotta manufacturers is tested for use in slip casting terra cotta. Several electrolytes were added alone or in combination and data obtained by determining relative viscosities and by measuring the thickness of wall cast in a given time 149. Davis, H. E., and J. S. Lathrop. "A Study of Slips for Standard Finish Terra Cotta." ACS Journal 8 (1925): 23-28. Abstract: The compositions of various slips are presented in an attempt to ascertain the proportional limits of Cornwall stone, feldspar, flint and clays in terra cotta slips, and to identify a white slip which is highly vitreous, free from crazing, peeling and flaking, and unaffected by normal kiln variations 150. Davis, Harry E. "The Effect of the Size of a Grog Grain in a Terra Cotta Body." ACS Journal 3 (1920): 641-52. Abstract: The results of a study to determine the effects of distinct particle size


ranges for grog in a terra cotta body. Effects were calculated with regards to raw and burned strength, drying shrinkage, total linear shrinkage, water of plasticity, absorption of the fired body, smoothness of texture, and adaptability to slip coating 151. de Teel, Patterson Tiller. "The Preservation of Historic Glazed Architectural Terracotta." Preservation Briefs, United States Government Printing Office , no. 7 (1979). Abstract: After identifying the different forms of terracotta and their use in architecture (structural, non-structural, etc) the deterioration of the material and its fixings are discussed. Methods for the inspection and analysis of the deterioration are followed by a brief section on cleaning by detergents, steam, or weak solutions of muriatic or oxalic acid, with a warning against abrasive cleaning and the use of strong acids. The subject of replacement by like or other materials such as stone, fibreglass and precast concrete is also mentioned 152. Denne, David. "The Conservation of Decorative Tiling in Building Interiors." Masters thesis, Institute of Advanced Architectural Studies, University of York, Unpublished. Abstract: Two volumes 153. "Terres Cuites Architecurales Au Moyen Age."Didier Deroeux. Memoires De La Commission Departmentale D'Histoire Et D'Archeologie Du Pas-DeCalais, Arras: Commission departementale d'histoire et d'archeologie, 1986. Abstract: Proceedings of a symposium, with 22 papers in French or English on the manufacture, commercialization and use of terracotta architectural materials, such as bricks, roofing tiles, floor tiles and ceiling tiles, in Western Europe and the British Isles in the middle ages. Illustration and extensive bibliography on mediaeval French tiles 154. Dodd, Arthur E, and David Murfin. Dictionary of Ceramics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Abstract: This dictionary defines terms on ceramic materials, ceramic science and engineering, as well as new terms relating to recent developments in ceramics engineering, electroceramics, new processes in whiteware, new machinery and new test methods, and terms relating to environmental legislation. The author takes into account changes in the definitions of existing terms, providing definitions for both the old and new meanings of the terms. Includes terms defined in Dodd's original dictionary, as well as 2000 new terms 155. Duminuco, P, M Setti, M Totelli, F Veniale, and U Zeza. "Studio Mediante


Microscopia Elettronica a Scansione Dei Processi Di Degrado Di Ornamenti Di Pava/Study by Means of Scanning Electron Microscopy of Deterioration Process of Terracotta Ornaments in the Small Cloister of the Pavia Carthusian Monastery." Le Superfici Dell'Architettura: Il Cotto, Caratterizzazioni e Trattamenti. Guido Biscontin, and D eds Mietto, 44553. Padua: Libreria Progetto Editore, 1992. Abstract: Fabric modifications of the outer surface of various 'terracotta' artifacts have been investigated by SEM. Decay intensity and features seem to be correlated to manufacturing processes, dressing (grain-size sorting) and nature of the raw materials, which were different for press-worked ornaments and masterpieces (presence/absence of chlorite and feldspar, respectively); furthermore, to the firing temperature and consequent mineralogy of the ceramic body (mica remnants, formation of christobalite) 156. Durham, Diana. "Terracotta Renovation at the Natural History Museum." Glazed Expressions 12, no. Summer (1986): 10-11. Abstract: This article concerned with the cleaning, repointing and repair of terracotta at the Natural History Museum and gives a description of the methods and materials used, which were a combination of modern and traditional techniques 157. Eckford, Henry. "Olin Warner, Sculptor." Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine 37, no. 3 (1889): 392-401. Abstract: Discusses the life and works of the American sculptor Olin Levi Warner. Warner began his career as a sculptor in Connecticut, studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and returned to New York. His most famous works include the Indian heads and heads of beasts made for the Long Island Historical Society and decorative panels for the Pennsylvania Railroad Station in Philadelphia. Warner also designed a public fountain in Portland, Oregon. Describes Warner as an American of 'stern breed' who sculpted a somber, restful statuary similar to sculpture of the Classical period 158. Elliot, Cecil D. Technics and Architecture. Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press, 1992. Abstract: An art historical account of the introduction and use of architectural terra cotta in the U.S. The author explains the historical evolution of terra cotta form and manufacturing technology through a chronology of important buildings and the advocacy of their architects and designers, as well as the cause and effect of major historical events. The development of the terra cotta industry in major cities like New York and Chicago is specifically discussed, again in relation to architectural milestones and


prominent individuals 159. Emrich, Ron. "Saving the Palaces." Friends of Terracotta Newsletter 2, no. 2 (1983): 1, 10-11. Abstract: A general survey of the problems of preserving America's movie palaces, many of which are strong examples of the use of architectural terracotta 160. Esdaile, K A. "Coade Stone Part 1." The Architect and Building News 19 (1940): 94-96. 161. ------. "Coade Stone Part 2." The Architect and Building News 26 (1940): 11214. 162. Eskesen, E. V. "Water-Tight Terra Cotta Construction." ACS Bulletin 13 (1934): 154-62. 163. Eskesen, Eckardt V. "The Investigation of Terracotta Work at the Bureau of Standards." ACS Journal 4 (1924): 158-68. Abstract: Discusses the history of the use of terracotta as a building material in the United States, with an emphasis on possible methods for adapting terracotta to changing climatic conditions. Describes common failures that occur in architectural terracotta, and discusses recent research by the Bureau of Standards on procedures for manufacturing a proper body, and the proper surface and slip for terracotta pieces. Includes a discussion of laboratory control techniques practiced in manufacture refractories, such as screening, dried strength, and drying and burning shrinkage. Indicates that in manufacturing ceramics, a series of quick, reliable, and simple analyses of each possible mix can provide a valuable production reference 164. Everett, Alan. Materials. B T Batsford Ltd, 1970. Abstract: Under 'Ceramics', contains definitions of terracotta and faience and information on architectural ceramics generally 165. Everhart, J. O. "Some Simulative Service Tests for Glazed Building Materials." ACS Journal 13 (1930): 404-10. Abstract: Several methods of freeze/thaw testing are compared with each other and with the standard autoclave test (Schurect, volume 11) with regard to type and rate of failure. Data indicated that the autoclave test alone is not sufficient to predict the behavior of glazed ware in service, especially in the more severe climates 166. Feilden, Bernard M. Conservation of Historic Buildings. London: Butterworth


Scientific, 1982. Abstract: This very large text only references roofing in its discussion of terracotta. Indicates that general maintenance must include eliminating moss and lichen growth and repairing flashings, gutters, etc. Feilden claims that a good terracotta roof can last 400 years with the possibility for reuse for an even longer period of time. The repairs of terracotta roofing can present difficulties, for once disturbed, all the tiles may need to be relayed and pegged. Indicates that replacement battens should be of good quality softwood, vacuum impregnated against rot 167. Ferrand, Gabriel. "Ceramic Art and Architecture." ACS Journal 5 (1922): 743-57. Abstract: A brief discussion of the historical and contemporary development of the use of ceramics in architecture. A lively debate follows the paper, pitting architectural philosopher against terra cotta maker, focussing on the use of terra cotta as a substitute material for stone 168. Ferriday, Virginia G. Last of the Handmade Buildings: Glazed Terra Cotta in Downtown Portland. Portland, OR: Mark Publishing Co., 1984. 169. Fetterolf, L. D. "A Study of Consistencies of Raw Terra Cotta Glazes." ACS Journal 13 (1930): 675-82. Abstract: Several methods of freeze/thaw testing are compared with each other and with the standard autoclave test (Schurect, volume 11) with regard to type and rate of failure. Data indicated that the autoclave test alone is not sufficient or predict the behavior of glazed ware in service, especially in the more severe climates 170. Fidler, John. "The Conservation of Architectural Faience." Friends of Terracotta Newsletter (1983). Abstract: All articles are reprinted from the Association for Studies in the Conservation of Historic Buildings Transactions, vol 6 (1981). Part One describes the basic constituents of materials used in making terracotta, and summarizes the manufacturing procedures for glazed and unglazed terracotta. Provides a brief history of terracotta from Babylonia (c 1400 BC), to the present. Part Two discusses the manufacturing process and methods for conservation treatment, outlining British ethical standards for cleaning, repairing and replacing terracotta. Part Three discusses deterioration mechanisms, conditions surveys and diagnostic techniques. Part Four discusses soiling and cleaning techniques (eg wet abrasive cleaning, acid cleaning, alkali cleaning and detergent cleaning with neutral organic detergents or non-ionic soaps). Part Five discusses conservation methods for architectural terracotta (eg repointing, mechanical repairs with non-ferrous or polyester rod ties, replacement of


metal anchors and terracotta units, infilling and simulation of glazing in repaired or replaced units) 171. ------. "The Conservation of Architectural Terracotta and Faience." ASCHB Transactions 6 (1981): 3-16. Abstract: The maintenance, repair and restoration of terracotta is discussed in depth. Sections on the history and the manufacturing process are followed by a brief description of conservation attitudes and knowledge in 1981. Discussion of deterioration, inspection and analysis, and the soiling of terracotta give a thorough insight into the main causes of failure, from inherent faults to external mechanisms. Methods of nondestructive testing such as infra-red cameras, ultrasonic scanners, magnetometry and fibre optic borescopes are described with suggestions for their future deployment as conservation tools. The detrimental effects of 'wet abrasive blasting', hydrofluoric acid, oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide cleaning systems are discussed. Detergents such as sodium stearate, soda ash and sodium peroxide are listed as harmful cleaning agents due to their high levels of alkali compounds leaving behind them residual salts. Instead, biodegradable neutral organic detergents or non-ionic soaps are recommended, when applied with a minimum amount of water and the wetted surface then scrubbed with a stiff non-ferrous or nylon bristle brush 172. ------. "Glass-Reinforced Plastic Facsimiles in Building Restoration." APT Bulletin 14, no. 3 (1982). Abstract: The author presents an aesthetic and technological critique of the use of GRP as a substitute for natural materials in historic restoration. Physical and chemical shortcomings of GRP are discussed and related to durability, weatherability and the visual accuracy of the facsimile in situ 173. ------. "The Manufacture of Architectural Terracotta and Faience in the United Kingdom." APT Bulletin 15, no. 2 (1983): 27-31. Abstract: After a brief mention of the problems of decay, current manufacturers of terracotta, its history and a definition of the words terracotta and faience, the author gives a detailed account of the manufacturing process of terracotta, including raw materials, milling and blending, the mould and moulding, forming the skin, glazing, firing, and a brief mention of faience. Inherent faults in the manufacturing process and their consequences with regards to weathering and decay are discussed. Useful footnotes, references, bibliography and addresses of current resources 174. ------. "Plenty of Pot." Traditional Homes 3, no. 7 (1987): 76-81. Abstract: The author describes the manufacturing process of architectural terracotta with notes on its history. He points out faults in the


manufacturing process which may induce defects or deterioration. Includes a list of useful addresses (suppliers) and bibliographical references 175. ------. "The Repair of Architectural Terracotta and Faience - Part 1." SPAB News October, no. Number 4 (1983): 51-53. Abstract: Part 1 focuses mainly on decay mechanisms, faults in the manufacture and construction techniques and external decay mechanisms. Conservation problems are discussed including; cleaning by wet grit abrasive blasting, the misuse of hydrofluoric acid, and the problem of colloidal silica 176. ------. "Repairing Terracotta Part II." SPAB News 5, no. 1 (1984). 177. ------. "Terracotta Manufacture Is an Endangered Craft." Building Conservation 3, no. June (6) (1981): 13-14. Abstract: A general article on the background and manufacture of terracotta 178. Fitch, James Marston. "Renovation of Alwyn Court, New York City: Restoring the Facades and Improving Public Spaces." Technology and Conservation 5, no. 2 (1980): 24-27. Abstract: Discusses the renovation of Alwyn Court, a luxury 1907/1908 New York City apartment building with a limestone and glazed terracotta facade. Describes the cleaning tests, but does not discuss the evaluation of the results. Grenadier Corporation conducted the procedures for cleaning. The cleaning of the building's facade proceeded as follows: hosing down surfaces with hot water, an alkaline prewash, rinsing of prewash with hot water, scrubbing the surface by hand, an afterwash acid solution (SureKlean Restoration Cleaner, diluted from the manufacturer's original strength), and rinsing again with hot water under pressure. Damaged terracotta blocks were replaced with concrete blocks fabricated to match and attached by cement pargeting on wire mesh supported by stainless steel pins set in epoxy 179. Fitzsimmons, H L. "Terracotta in Building Construction." The Architect and Engineer (1984): 95-99. Abstract: Discusses the primary methods for treating the surface of architectural terracotta, the dominant colours for coloured terracotta, and the use of coloured terracotta as a decorative and/or structural material. Terracotta products with surface treatments are classified into five major categories: standard terracotta, vitreous surface terracotta, mat-glazed terracotta, fullglazed terracotta, and polychrome terracotta. Indicates the advantageous properties of architectural terracotta (ie, durability, uniformity in colour,


water repellency, etc), and the disadvantages of terracotta (ie, time invested for manufacturing and transportation). Lists the average weights and strength of selected terracotta blocks, and standard tests for determining the strength of terracotta blocks 180. Foster, H. D. "Strength, Absorption and Freezing Resistance of Hollow Building Tile." ACS Journal 7 (1924): 189-99. Abstract: A description of test methods and a summary of the compressive strength and absorption determinations of nearly 350 tests of hollow tile selected from 25 representative sources and conducted by the Bureau of Standards in cooperation with terra cotta manufacturers. Also includes some preliminary data from freeze/thaw testing 181. Foulks, William G., and et al. Historic Building Facades; the Manual for Maintenance and Rehabilitation. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1997. Abstract: A general manual for the maintenance and repair of building facade components and systems. Includes a chapter devoted to architectural terra-cotta as well as a chapter describing historical wall construction techniques. Other chapters outline approaches to building inspection and material restoration and replacement 182. Fowler, Charles. "Some Rem arks on Terracotta and Artificial Stone As Connected With Architecture." The Civil Engineer and Architect's Journal 13 (1950): 215-16. Abstract: This is a paper read at the Royal Institute of British Architects on June 10th 1850. The paper gives a brief historical account of the decorative and structural use of architectural terracotta in Europe and England including Coade stone. The ingredients and manufacture of architectural terracotta are then discussed using W Cubbitt's method of manufacture as the sample. Architectural construction and the virtues of terracotta are also discussed in this paper which gives a clear insight to the thinking behind the mid-19th century approach to terracotta as an architectural medium 183. Freestone, I C. "Applications and Potential of Electron Probe Micro-Analysis in Technological and Provenance Investigations of Ancient Ceramics." Archaeometry 24 2 (1982): 99-116. 184. Freestone, I C, M Bimson, and M S Tite. "The Constitution of Coade Stone." Ceramics and Civilization: Ancient Technology to Modern Science, Volume I. W D Kingrey. Vol. I. The American Ceramic Society Inc, 1985. Abstract: A fragment of Coade Stone was analyzed by optical microscopy,


scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and electron microprobe to determine its composition and suggest the original recipe. 185. Frens, Dale. "Conservation Analysis of the Terracotta Cladding at Liberty Tower." Masters Thesis, Columbia University, 1980. 186. Friedman, Donald. Historical Building Construction; Design, Materials and Technology. New York: W.W. Norton, 1995. Abstract: A guide to the specifics of obsolete historical construction methods and systems, written for practicing architects and engineers. Terra cotta is not specifically addressed but its use is described in relation to fireproof construction, curtain wall construction, skeleton frame construction, and internal construction. Refurbishing and replacement materials are also discussed 187. Friends of Terracotta. "Technical Notes." Friends of Terracotta Newsletter 3, no. 2 (1984): 12-13. Abstract: Discusses air-blasting as a technique for cleaning terracotta, indicating that the amount of pressure applied in air-blasting will determine the amount of damage caused to the terracotta. Indicates that contractors in the United States define low pressure as less than 1,000 psi, and high pressure as more than 2,000 psi, while the National Park Service defines low pressure as under 100 psi (garden hose pressure) and high pressure as over 500-600 psi, claiming that pressures over 600 psi (whether using water, detergent, or sand) are likely to damage the surface of the terracotta. The article concludes that the use of soft water whenever available in cleaning terracotta will prevent soap scum, and clean the terracotta with a minimum of by-products 188. Fulton, C. E., and R. J. Montgomery. "The Effect of Grog in a Fire Clay Body." ACS Transactions 17 (1915): 409-20. Abstract: This paper attempts to demonstrate the relative effects of amount of grog and size of grog grain upon a typical fire clay body. Two series of experiments are presented with data in chart and line graph form. Properties discussed include; water required for plasticity, linear drying shrinkage, modulus of rupture, burning shrinkage, apparent specific gravity and apparent porosity 189. Furgusson. Illustrated Handbook of Architecture. London: 1855. 190. Fus, M. "Architectural Terra Cotta: Standards, Specifications and Testing." Master's Thesis, School of the Art Institute of Chicago, 1997. Abstract: An exhaustive study of the historic development of national standards for


architectural terra cotta construction. The author uncovers a surprising wealth of systematic testing and analysis conducted by the National Bureau of Standards, and sponsored by the National Terra Cotta Society. Sections describe standards, specifications and testing, and appendices include excerpts from unpublished Bureau of Standards testing and the National Terra Cotta Society's Principles of Terra Cotta Construction, as well as patent information related to terra cotta manufacture 191. Galbraith, R. "Machine Pressing of Terra Cotta." ACS Journal 9 (1926): 583-86. Abstract: The development of machine pressing of molded terra cotta is described. The operation of a compressed air machine is outlined and the manual operation and costs are itemized for comparison with traditional hand pressing 192. Gale, Frances. "Terra-Cotta Masonry." Historic Building Facades: a Manual for Inspection and Rehabilitation. William G Foulks. New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1997. Abstract: The second edition of a manual published by the New York Landmarks Conservancy in 1986. The chapter on terracotta discusses the evolution of the use of terracotta as an architectural material from antiquity to the present, and the most important properties of architectural terracotta. Describes in detail the procedures for manufacturing terracotta, installation techniques for terracotta blocks, and deterioration caused by manufacturing problems, unsuitable specifications, and poor workmanship. Also describes methods for inspecting and analyzing terracotta facades, including visual inspection, sounding, and identification of hairline cracking to detect major structural defects. The chapter concludes with a summary of basic techniques for repairing terracotta, including minor repairs, repointing or caulking joints, relieving stress, coatings, patching, previous repairs, securing cracked terracotta, and replacing missing pieces 193. Gates, E. D. "The Humidity System of Drying." ACS Transactions 11 (1909): 37591. Abstract: A discussion of experimentation, both in production and in a laboratory, with a steam assisted system of drying large ceramic wares before firing. The data presented by the author is specific to architectural terra cotta, though parallels are drawn in regards to other ceramic industries and also to drying timber 194. Geer, Walter. The Story of Terracotta. New York: Tobias A Wright, 1920. Abstract: Discusses the history of terracotta from antiquity to the present, the development of the terracotta industry in the United States, and the major physical properties of terracotta. Provides a brief description of the first


terracotta companies in the United States, the Boston companies, examples of the use of terracotta in buildings in New York, the Brown Associations, terracotta manufacturers in New York and New Jersey, and the Manhattan Company. Also discusses terracotta manufacturing in the twentieth century, major companies, terracotta in Chicago, and Pacific companies. Provides a list of major terracotta companies and buildings in the United States, and biographical sketches of prominent men in the terracotta business 195. ------. Terracotta in Architecture. New York: Gazlay, 1894. 196. Geijsbeek, S. "Notes on the Actions of Grog in Ceramic Bodies." ACS Transactions 7 (1905): 133-47. Abstract: An interesting discussion of the definition of grog, and classification of grog types. The author also presents data regarding the effects of grog in a body on porosity and drying shrinkage, relative to grog grain size and the amount of grog 197. Geller, R. F. "Possibilities of Terra Cotta Casting." ACS Journal 4 (1921): 883-95. Abstract: Three kaolins, two ball clays, one fire-clay and four representative commercial terra cotta bodies were treated with different and varying amounts of salts to ascertain effects on viscosity, specific gravity, drying behavior and to determine casting properties 198. Gentili, Gino Vinicio. "La Ricomposizione Delle Terrecotte Architettoniche Di Gela Nel Musio Nazionale Di Siracusa/The Recomposition of Architectural Terracotta From Gela in the National Museum of Syracuse."Proceedings of the 7th National Congress on the History of Architecture, 24-30 September 1950Palermo: Comitato presso la soprintendenza ai monumenti, 1956. Abstract: Study on the decorative stucco from Gela: dating of the temple, analysis of stucco elements, decorative subjects, composition, reconstruction using fragments. Importance for the history of architectural terracotta. With photographs and notes 199. Gilfillen, Statler ed. The American Terracotta Index. Palos Park: Prairie School Press, 1974. Abstract: This index presents a catalogue of the American Terracotta Collection consisting of the known work of the American Terracotta Company, the Indianapolis Terracotta Company, the Midland Terracotta Company, and the Winkle Terracotta Company in Chicago. Provides essential data on the history, collections, architects, drawings, and photos of each company, and the works carried out by each company


200. Glance, Richard A. "Terracotta: Rehabilitation of a Courthouse Dome." APT Bulletin XVII, no. 2 (1985): 39-45. Abstract: Discusses the structural conditions survey and rehabilitation of the terracotta dome of the Washington County Courthouse in Pennsylvania. The structural elements include twelve structural steel trusses, poured reinforced concrete, and non-structural terracotta. The principal deterioration conditions include water leaks through layers of tars and oil based paints. Repairs involved cleaning, patching of the damaged surface with concrete patching (1 bag hydrated lime, 1-1½ bags Portland cement, 6 cubic feet sand), and stabilizing cracked terracotta with GC-9 synthacaulk sealant and polysulfide. After patching, the entire surface was covered with one coat (2 mils dry) of neoprene primer diluted 50% with Xylol, four coats (12 mil dry) neoprene base coat and three coats (9 mil dry) of hypalon roof coating to match exact colour of original terracotta glaze 201. Goodrich, H R. "Miscellaneous Terracotta Laboratory Notes." ACS Journal 15 (1932): 382-85. Abstract: Discusses green scumming in terracotta, black ash as a substitute for barium carbonate in mixing clays for terracotta, and colemanite overglazes for polychrome effects. Indicates that the most promising methods to prevent scum formation include the addition of white lead to the clay mix before pugging, or dipping the fired ware in a potassium carbonate solution. Also suggests that the scum present on terracotta manufactured prior to the use of potassium carbonate dipping appears to be soluble in certain acids. It was found through experimental procedures that black ash (ie, crude barium sulphide) can eliminate the appearance of scum entirely. Describes the procedures for preparing colemanite overglazes and the range of coloured surfaces formed by these glazes 202. Gorton, Elmer E. "A Non-Shivering (?) Body." ACS Transactions 1 (1899): 84-87. Abstract: A brief discussion of glaze defects offering the accepted theory for the cause of crazing and shivering: "if the glaze has a greater coefficient of expansion than the body, crazing ensues; if the conditions are reversed, shivering" 203. Grady, R. F. "Additional Data on the Crushing Strength of Terra Cotta." ACS Transactions 11 (1909): 75-79. Abstract: Presentation of data from crushing tests carried out by the St. Louis Terra Cotta Co. A single clay mix was used to create the test pieces which were hollow, ribbed blocks specifically intended to be representative of architectural terra cotta 204. ------. "Memoranda on the Crushing Strength of Terra Cotta." ACS


Transactions 10 (1908): 135-39. Abstract: Presentation of data from crushing tests carried out by the St. Louis Terra Cotta Co. Three different clay mixtures were moulded into cubes and fired to various temperatures before being subjected to breaking tests made in the St. Louis Water Department Testing Laboratory 205. ------. "Relation of Absorption to the Crushing Strength of Terra Cotta." ACS Transactions 12 (1910): 90-92. Abstract: Presentation of data from crushing tests carried out by the St. Louis Terra Cotta Co. A single clay mix was used to create the test pieces which were then burned to nine different cones. The cubes were set in water for 24 hours, percentage water absorption was calculated and then the cubes were subjected to breaking tests 206. Griffen, H. R. Clay Glazes and Enamels, With a Supplement on Crazing, Its Causes and Prevention. Indianapolis, IN: T.A. Randall and Co., Publishers, 1886. 207. Griffin, H. R. "Shivering and Crazing." ACS Transactions 2 (1900). Abstract: The author refutes the glaze defect theory described by Gorton (Transactions 1, 84), interpreting a series of observations and presenting a loose idea for a new theoretical direction 208. Grim, Ralph E. Applied Clay Mineralogy. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962. Abstract: Discusses the types and properties of clays required for specific uses and the fundamental factors of structure and composition of clay minerals that determine their physical properties, and in turn, their specific uses. Provides data on various properties and concepts to explain properties of clay minerals. Discusses clay mineralogy in relation to engineering properties of clay materials, including Atterberg limits, liquidity index, mechanical properties, water absorption and swelling, drying, density and other factors controlling soil properties. Includes a comprehensive bibliography on applied clay mineralogy 209. Grimmer, Anne E. "Dangers of Abrasive Cleaning to Historic Buildings." Preservation Briefs , no. 6 (1979). Abstract: Discusses the effects of abrasive cleaning on major building materials, including terracotta. The abrasive cleaners include sand and walnut shells, and water spray applied at high pressure. Discusses the possible damage caused by abrasive cleaning on each building material. Indicates that before cleaning, each material must be characterized, and the cleaning methods tested and evaluated. Also indicates that among masonry materials, damage occurs most easily in brick and terracotta


because the abrasive destroys the hard outer fire-surface that protects the underlying material. The article concludes that in limited situations, well-monitored, low-pressure abrasive cleaning is recommended for cleaning building materials 210. Grimshaw, Rex W. The Chemistry and Physics of Clays and Allied Ceramic Materials. London: Benn, 1971. 211. Guignon, F. A. et al. Clay Products Cyclopedia. Chicago: Industrial Publications, Inc., 1922. Abstract: A volume compiled by and for manufacturers of clay products including a glossary of processes, equipment and materials; an indexed statistical section; and an alphabetical catalog of equipment and supplies. Originally intended to be an annual publication, the frequency and duration of its republication is unclear 212. Gunnis, Rupert. Dictionary of British Sculptors, 1660-1851. London: Abbey Library, 1953. 213. Gwilt, Joseph. The Encyclopedia of Architecture: Historical, Theoretical, Practical. New York: Bonanza Books, 1982. Abstract: An encyclopedia of terms relevant to historical, theoretical and practical issues in architecture geared toward the 'gentleman' (amateur) architect of that period. Includes 1400 wood engravings illustrating specific architectural terms. The book begins with the history of architecture, from the origin of architecture through developments in design in various countries and periods. The second section, the theory of architecture, deals with construction, building materials, and practical methods and mediums of expression. The third section, the practice of architecture, discusses beauty, including the importance of order, expression, unity, and variety, as well as architectural composition, and the principles of proportion. In addition, there are extensive glossaries of terms and a list of the principal architects up to the 1860's, their chief works, and a bibliography and index 214. Gwynn, J. R. "For Economy's Sake in Construction Work: Lock-Keyed Terra Cotta." Brick and Clay Record , no. October 21 (1930): 469-70. 215. Hamilton, D. The Thames and Hudson Manual of Architectural Ceramics. London: Thames and Hudson, 1978. Abstract: A manual of architectural ceramics, or clay items that can be regarded as existing within an architectural environment and making a substantial contribution to that environment. Describes techniques for making bricks, tiles, faience, terracotta, and large-scale ceramic sculptures, as well as


roofing tiles, chimney pots and other decorative features. Discusses automated factory production as well as small-scale studio work by individual craftsmen. Includes illustrations ranging from ancient Babylon to modern Chicago 216. Hamilton, S B. "Coade Stone." Architectural Review 116 (1954): 295-301. Abstract: An historical account of the development of artificial stone in England is followed by a good hard look at the historical evidence relating to the materials and technology employed in the manufacture of Coade stone. The author cites historical documentary evidence, as well as contemporary materials analyses (Building Research Station, UK), in an attempt to understand the proprietary materials and methods of production employed by the Coade works over its 70 years of operation 217. Hamrick, James. "A Survey of the Use of Architectural Terracotta in American Commercial Architecture 1870-1930." Masters Thesis, University of Oregon, 1979. 218. Handisyde, Cecil C. Building Materials, Science and Practice Volume 1. Architectural Press, 1950. Abstract: Contains early reference to soiling and problems of water penetration 219. Hasluck, Paul N ed. Terracotta Work: Modelling, Moulding, and Firing. London: Cassel and Company, Ltd, 1905. Abstract: Discusses the history of the use of architectural terracotta, providing examples of brick and terracotta buildings in Germany, England and France. Describes the procedures for manufacturing terracotta, and its advantageous properties (ie, its flexibility, durability, strength, hardness, ease-of-cleaning, and colours possible with different clays and glazes). Among the disadvantages of terracotta, indicates that unequal shrinkage, firecracks, and surface scum can cause damage. Lists the types of clays most commonly used for terracotta, and the forms used for terracotta and moulded bricks. Includes recommendations for basic procedures for maintenance operations for architectural terracotta (ie naptha and oxalic or sulfuric acid, oil with properties similar to naptha, or soap and water for cleaning, soaking in soap and water 24 hours for removing surface dirt) 220. Havill, J. "Eleanor Coade, Artificial Stone Manufacturer."1986. 221. Hempel, Kenneth. "Notes on the Conservation of Sculpture; Stone, Marble and Terracotta." Studies in Conservation 13 (1968): 34-43. Abstract: Discusses the primary mechanisms of decay of stone and terracotta, and possible materials and methods for conservation. Indicates that


sulphuration causes severe damage, producing imaginary (not true) patina, and that magnesium silicate saturated with deionized water can minimize discoloration while causing minimal damage. The article recommends the use of sintolite as an adhesive, and solid polyvinyl acetate as the basis for small repairs for interior marble elements. Discusses possible materials and methods for consolidation of marble and for repairing terracotta, and a process for reproducing a glazed frieze with a latex mould and epoxy-reinforced plaster casts. The commentary is of a general nature, and is not intended as a strict blue-print for any particular object 222. Hench, Larry L, and B A eds McEldowney. Bibliography of Ceramics and Glass. American Ceramic, 1976. 223. Henry, A. V. "A Microscopic Study of Stresses in Glazes." ACS Journal 8 (1925): 117-21. Abstract: A microscopic investigation of glaze stress examining the theory of differential expansion coefficients of body and glaze as a contribution to glaze stress 224. Heubach, A R. "How Architectural Terracotta Is Made: Being a General Treatise of the Subject With Methods of Manufacture, Machinery in Use and a Classification of the Clays." Brick and Clay Record 43 (1913): 904-07. Abstract: Describes the procedures for manufacturing terracotta, and the proper conditions for producing terracotta with high performance. Indicates the main points to consider in the manufacture of terracotta are working properties, drying and burning behaviour, and maturing temperature. The content of soluble salts must also be as low as possible. The article claims that depending upon the type of clay used, the addition of 25-30 % grog brackets the shrinkage at approximately 1 inch. Also describes the composition and application procedures for a variety of glazes. Includes illustrations of the three most common kilns used for firing terracotta and a description of their basic operation procedures 225. Hill, C. W. "Terra Cotta Problems Suggested for Discussion and Investigation." ACS Journal 5 (1922): 732-38. Abstract: A review of manufacturing problems intended to initiate research and discussion. The subjects reviewed include plaster, body and mix materials, glazes, processes, patching of damaged ware and service problems 226. Hill, C W. "Terracotta." The Ceramists VI, no. 4: 363. 227. Hill, E. C. "The Effect of Glaze Composition on the Crazing of Terra Cotta." ACS


Journal 4 (1921): 25-31. Abstract: The results of a study undertaken to determine the effect of glaze composition on crazing, and specifically, to determine whether each component, as it was added to the glaze, tended to produce or overcome crazing. Results indicated that zinc oxide, feldspar and clay tended to reduce or eliminate crazing, while oxides of magnesium, barium and calcium tended to increase or produce crazing 228. ------. "The Effect of Some Fluxes on the Absorption and Transverse Strength of a Terra Cotta Body." ACS Journal 5 (1922): 832-36. Abstract: A study of the effect of various fluxes on the absorption and transverse strength of a terra cotta body. Materials tested include; feldspar, Albany slip, powdered glass, white lead, cryolite, whiting, fluorospar, magnesium carbonate, furnace slag, and the mysterious X-flux 229. ------. "Some Data on the Development of Terra Cotta Glazes." ACS Journal 3 (1920): 13-25. Abstract: The author presents data from a study of the effects of the addition of tin oxide, barium carbonate and magnesium carbonate, one or more of which were commonly used in the production of terra cotta glazes, to Bristol glaze mixtures, generally understood to be those containing feldspar, flint, clay, whiting and zinc oxide 230. ------. "Some Experiments on the Firecracking of Terra Cotta." ACS Journal 5 (1922): 299. Abstract: After firing large, typical pieces of terra cotta made from various clays and grogs and cooling them at different rates, the tendency to firecrack after weathering was observed. Absorption, porosity and transverse strength of the various bodies was determined. Good definition and discussion of firecracking 231. ------. "Theory of 'Dunting'." ACS Journal 1 (1918): 196-200. 232. Hodson, C N. "Architectural Terracotta and Faience." American Ceramic Society Transactions 36 (1936): 45-50. Abstract: Discusses the history of the use of architectural terracotta and faience in Europe and England. Indicates that use of unglazed terracotta declined in England when glazed ware came into use in the beginning of the 20thcentury. Also the substitution of structural terracotta by cast concrete enabled the design and use of terracotta and faience in forms more suited to their special characteristics. The competition between terracotta and cast concrete after World War II led to production of thinner, 1in thick


faience slabs to reduce its cost. Describes in detail the procedures for manufacturing faience, with a flow-chart of the procedures. Includes a brief discussion of methods for repairing damaged terracotta 233. Holl, Arnulf. "Helle Flecken Auf Rotbrennenden Terrakotten Und Ihre Ursache (Light Coloured Patches on Red-Burned Terracotta)." Keramos 10 (1931): 183-84. 234. Hollis, G. R., and D. R. Moffat. "Architectural Terracotta in Britain. "Institute of Ceramics Annual Convention, Cambridge, UK: Institute of Ceramics, 1992. Abstract: A history and description of terracotta manufacture with useful definitions and descriptions. Talk given to the Institute of Ceramics Building Materials Section, now renamed as the Institute of Materials, Ceramics Division, Building Materials Section 235. Hottinger, A. F. "Data on the North-Western Terra Cotta Kiln." ACS Transactions 9 (1907): 684-89. Abstract: A presentation of drawings and data describing a terra cotta kiln used by the North Western Terra Cotta Company of Chicago 236. ------. "Looking Backward in the Terra Cotta Field." ACS Journal 6 (1923): 3068. 237. Howarth, Thomas. "Tiles, Faience and Mosaic in Modern Building." RIBA Journal (1955). 238. Humphrey, H L. "The Pre-Resistive Properties of Various Building Materials." US Geological Survey Bulletin 370 (1909). 239. Humphrey, H. P. "Notes on the Burning of Terra Cotta in Open Kilns." ACS Transactions 9 (1907): 661-74. Abstract: Presentation of data, several drawings and descriptions of the use of an open kiln in the production of architectural terra cotta 240. Hunderman, H., and D. Slaton. "Why Do Terra Cotta Cornices Fail." APT Bulletin 20 (1988): 64. Abstract: An analysis of a deteriorating, 1904 terra cotta cornice design in danger of failure 241. Hunderman, H. J., and D. Slaton. "Terra Cotta: Analysis and Repair." Construction Specifier 42, no. 7 (1989): 50-57. 242. Hunderman, H. J., D. Slaton, and T. A. Gorrell. "Westmoreland County Courthouse, Greensburg, Pennsylvania, USA: Reconstruction of an


Historic Dome in a Substitute Material." Structural Repair and Maintenance of Historical Buildings III. C. A. Brebbia, and R. J. B. Frewer, 468-74. Boston: Computational Mechanics Publications, 1993. Abstract: This paper outlines the process of selection of a replacement material for terracotta ornament. Development of design details is explained and the fabrication and installation of the cast aluminum replacement panels is described 243. Hunderman, H. R., and Deborah Slaton. "Criteria for Selection of Replacement Materials for a Terra Cotta Dome." Standards for Preservation and Rehabilitation, ASTM STP 1258. S. J. Kelley, 294-306. Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1996. 244. Jackson, W. A Textbook of Ceramic Calculations. London: Longman and Green and Co, 1904. Abstract: Discusses practical procedures for ceramic calculations, including simple techniques for determining the moisture content of clay and contraction of the clay body, and two methods for determining the porosity of fired and unfired clay and bodies. Since methods for determining specific gravity vary according to the state of the substance (ie, liquid, solid) and its state of aggregation, the author discusses a different method for each state, as well as a simple method for transferring a wet to a dry recipe, and vice versa. Includes a table of body recipes for ball clay, china clay, stone, and flint. Also discusses the effect of ground particles size on the properties of clay used for terracotta 245. Jacob, J. M. "Inpainting Areas of Glaze Loss on Architectural Terra Cotta." Master's Thesis, Columbia University, 1989. 246. Jelke, William F. "Terracotta: History of the Industry." Yale Scientific Monthly 3 (1896). 247. Jewitt, L. The Ceramic Art of Great Britain. London: J S Virtue and Co Ltd, 1878. 248. Johnson, Robert Smith. "Principles of Terra Cotta Construction.". 249. Jones, John Taylor, and M. F Berard. Ceramics Industrial Processing and Testing. Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1993. 250. Kakesen, E V. "Watertight Terracotta Construction." ACS Bulletin 13 (1934): 15462. 251. Keeler, R. B. "Recent Improvements in Methods of Terra Cotta Mold Making." ACS Transactions 19, no. 585-592 (1917). Abstract:


A description with drawings, of a patented adjustable mold and the process of using it to create molds for architectural terra cotta 252. Kelley, Stephen J., and Jerry G. Stockbridge. "The Railway Exchange Building. a Terracotta Renovation." Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin 20, no. 3 (1988): 15-22. Abstract: Illustrates the restoration of the terracotta façades in the 1913 Railway Exchange Building, St. Louis (USA). Results of tests and laboratory analyses showed that water penetration was not a serious problem. Work therefore consisted in stabilization of the loose terracotta with stainless steel pins set in epoxy, removal of badly deteriorated pieces, repair of the substrate and replacement of the removed pieces with exact replicas moulded in precast concrete. The original steel double-hung windows were replaced by new aluminum windows with double glazing. 253. Kelly, Alison. "Coade for Interiors." The Antique Collector 57, no. 7 (1986): 50-55. 254. ------. "Coade Stone at National Trust Houses." National Trust Studies (1980): 94-111. 255. ------. "Coade Stone in Georgian Architecture." Architectural History, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain 22: 71-101. 256. ------. "Coade Stone: Its Character and Conservation." Architectural Ceramics: Their History, Manufacture and Conservation. Jeanne Marie Teutonico. London: James and James Ltd, 1996. Abstract: A history of the use of Coade stone. The method of manufacture is explained with reference to contemporary illustrations of the muffle kilns. The British Museum Laboratory offers a formula for Coade stone of 10 % or more grog, 5-10 % flint, 5-10 % fine sand to reduce shrinkage and 10 % crushed soda lime-silica glass. One of Coade stone's greatest assets is that it shrinks very little in the kiln compared to other ceramics - only 8 % as opposed to 20 %. Not all of the Coade stone is as durable as claimed and there are problems with the metal fixing within. The figure of Lord Hill in Shropshire is presented as an example where repairs were needed as early as 60 years after its manufacture 257. ------. "Decorative Stonework in Disguise: Plaques and Medallions in Coade Stone." Country Life (1973). 258. ------. "Mrs Coade's Stone." The Connoisseur 197, no. 791 (1978): 14-25. 259. ------. Mrs Coade's Stone. Upton-upon-Severn: Self Publishing Association Ltd, 1990. Abstract:


Traces the origin and history of Coade stone drawing on the author's studies of the 18th century pottery industry and her extensive knowledge of the Georgian decorative scene. References to 650 sites at which Coade stone survives and to many examples which have not yet been traced 260. King, H. L. "A History of Architectural Terra Cotta." The Architect and Engineer , no. 2 (1914): 84-93. 261. King, Moses. King's View of New York 1896-1915 and Brooklyn 1905. New York: Arno Press, 1980. Abstract: Includes selected volumes of King's Views of New York and Brooklyn (1896, 1905, 1908/09, 1915) with photographs of New York in folio format with full captions with data on the financial statistics and function of the building, view of single buildings and monuments, portraits of city street scenes, marketplaces, parks and amusement areas, ships and waterfront activity. The 1908/09 double volume included conjecture and fantasy with the author's visions of New York, while later volumes featuring more elaborate visionary panoramas of the city. Also includes photographs from volumes published from 1903, 1905, and 1911 not published elsewhere, selected as representative of the period 262. Kingrey, W D. Ancient Technology to Modern Science. Columbus, OH: American Ceramic Society, Inc, 1985. Abstract: The first volume of the series, Ceramics and Civilization, includes papers on ceramics archaeology and history. The papers present the results of scientific and field research on ceramic artifacts, and interpretations of the cultural and social implications of their findings. The first section includes papers on ancient ceramics, from technology and style to clayworking and brickmaking in the ancient Near East, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. The second section includes papers on pottery, terracotta and porcelain in China, Spain France and England. The third section includes a paper on the history and development of ceramic patents, and a paper on the history of the development of the science of sintering 263. Kingrey, W D, H K Bowen, and D R Uhlmann. Introduction to Ceramics. New York: Wiley and Sons, 1976. 264. Kingrey, W D, and Pamela Vandever. Ceramics Masterpieces: Art, Structure and Technology. New York: Free Press, 1986. Abstract: Provides practical information for detailed study and analysis of ceramic objects. Provides an overview of the history of ceramics, ceramic science, ceramic technology and methods for object examination. Includes in depth descriptions of ceramic masterpieces from Europe and


the Near and Far East. Provides essential information on ceramic technology and manufacturing processes. Discusses methods for studying and analyzing ceramics, from simple visual examination to principal laboratory techniques, as well as basic principles for interpretation of artifacts. Includes a glossary of special terminology for ceramics 265. Kingrey, W D ed. Ceramic Civilization Series, Vol III; High Technology Ceramics: Past, Present, Future. American Ceramic, 1986. Abstract: A collection of essays on case histories of high technology ceramic innovations from antiquity to the present. The papers examine cultural and corporate influences, and specific policies affecting high-technology ceramics. The topics of the papers range from Egyptian faience, ancient refractories, Roman glass, Roman concrete and architecture, Chinese chaledon, the development of European porcelain, and high tech innovations from 4000 BC through to the eighteenth century and the Industrial Revolution in Europe and the first modern government sponsored ceramic research programmes. The papers include discussions of modern refractories, silicon carbide, silicon nitride and multilayer ceramics. Also discusses sources of innovation based on research programmes, summarized in von Hippel's, Sources of Innovation, Oxford University Press, 1987 266. Kirkpatrick, F. A. "Drying Problems of Terra Cotta." ACS Journal 10 (1927): 46986. Abstract: A description of the method of drying terra cotta and the results obtained at the Kansas City Terra Cotta and Faience Company. The plant had recently abandoned large steam-heated dryers in favor of smaller units heated by natural gas A thorough discussion of both general and specific drying issues 267. Klinefelter, T. A. "Clay Preparation." ACS Journal 7 (1924): 509-10. Abstract: A brief description of clay preparation by washing, suggested as a remedy for pop outs and stains 268. Klinefelter, T. A., and F. C. Parsons. "Good and Bad Practice in the Pressing Department." ACS Journal 5 (1922): 632-42. Abstract: Similar to Clark (same volume) but the author provides photographs of plastic clay being pressed, and more specific instruction on technique. Followed by a discussion 269. Knapp, George N. The Brick and Clay Industries of New Jersey, Report of the Geological Survey of New Jersey. Trenton, NJ: State of New Jersey,


1899. 270. Kraemer, William T. "The Setting of Terra Cotta and Its Inspection by Architects." The American Architect 131, no. April 20 (1927): 551-57. Abstract: The author outlines the "best methods of setting terra cotta.... based on long, practical experience." A very straightforward narrative presented with contemporary authority 271. Kull, Irving S. New Jersey: a History, Volume IV. New York: The American Historical Society, 1930. Abstract: Discusses the history of the terracotta industry in New Jersey. Indicates that the first terracotta factory was established at Perth Amboy in 1878 by A Hall & Sons, later called the Perth Amboy Terracotta Company. After the company expanded considerably, the name of the company was changed again to the Atlantic Terracotta Company. Another major factory, the New Jersey Terracotta Works, was established in 1888, later called the Federal Seaboard Terracotta Corporation. Lists the major terracotta plants in operation in the 1930's as follows: the Federal Seaboard Terracotta Corporation, with plants at Perth Amboy, Woodbridge and South Amboy, the Atlantic Terracotta Company, with plants at Perth Amboy and Rocky Hill, and the Terracotta Products Company in Old Bridge, New Jersey 272. Kurutz, Gary F. Architectural Terracotta of Gladding, McBean. Sausalito, Ca: Wingate Press, 1989. Abstract: Discusses the history of architectural terracotta in the United States, and provides an in-depth study of Gladding, McBean & Co, in operation since 1875. Describes the predominant uses of terracotta in buildings until the 1930's, stating that the use of terracotta declined sharply in the 1930's when many architects favored the use of metal, glass, and cement in architecture. Indicates that after World War II, three major factors (inadequate support, improper anchoring or bonding, and water seepage) caused severe material failures in terracotta. The number of terracotta manufacturers fell from 24 in 1920, to 7 in 1947. By the 1970's, several new companies were established in the United States. Includes a collection of period articles that appeared in trade journals between 1876 and 1915 describing the procedures for manufacturing terracotta in the following order: drawing, models and moulds, pressing, drying, spraying, burning, fitting, shipping, and installation 273. Landau, Sarah Bradford, and Carl W Condit. Rise of the New York Skyscraper, 1865-1913. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996. 274. Larkin, P. G. "Note on Colors Produced by the Use of Soluble Metallic Salts."


ACS Journal 1 (1918): 429-38. Abstract: Descriptions of polychrome glazes and application techniques used by the Denver Terra Cotta Co. The author provides a more thorough description of the technique than does Wilson (Polychrome Decoration, ACS Journal vol. 1), but results of trials and observations are presented in a similar fashion 275. Larkin, P. G., and E. R. Curry. "Notes on Terra Cotta Body Shrinkage." ACS Journal 8 (1925): 113-14. Abstract: Differences in consistency and control are compared between two methods of proportioning terra cotta mixtures; using unground material and using ground material 276. Larney, Judith. Restoring Ceramics. Barrie & Jenkins Ltd, Communica-Europa NV, 1975. Abstract: This book is primarily a museum/fine arts conservator's manual. For cleaning terracotta, a brief passage advises a neutral pH mixture of ammonium acetate for stubborn dirt, cleaned off with acetone when finished 277. Larson, John. "The Conservation of Terracotta Sculpture." The Conservator 4 (1980): 38-45. Abstract: This article outlines the nature of terracotta, technical examination, polychromy, gilding, wax coatings, the fireskin toolmarkings, impressed marks, finger prints, cast marks, sectioning lines, signatures, pointing marks and scales, and the cleaning of terracotta. The types of cleaning discussed are: 1) Dry cleaning by low pressure (20psi) air abrasive using bicarbonate of soda as the aggregate 2) Hot water poultices of cotton wool; the risk of staining due to unstable iron content of some terracotta is mentioned 3) Steam cleaning is said to be less likely to create salt movement 4) Chemical methods including acetone mixed with white spirit or deionized water to a 50/50 ratio, methylated spirit used in conjunction with Sepiolite as a poultice for removing shellac stains or resinous varnishes, toluene for removing greasy or waxy dirt, ammonium acetate which should be neutralized immediately with water or acetone and water, linement of soap combined with ammonia, and nitromors for the removal of paint, wax or varnish Enzymes and the soaking and removal of soluble salts is also discussed. Consolidation using a 5 per cent solution of polyvinyl alcohol and the


addition of 5 per cent acetone, as used at the Victoria and Albert Museum, is discussed, as are acrylic resins and PVA. For bonding and doweling, polyester resin, epoxy resin and PVA are suggested. The subjects of filling and retouching are also mentioned and a useful list of materials and suppliers is included 278. Laurence, F. S. Color in Architecture. New York: National Terra Cotta Society, 1924. Abstract: Profusely illustrated with both black and white photographs of existing buildings, and color renderings of "imaginary" buildings, this is one of a series of publications by the National Terra Cotta Society. F.S. Laurence, executive secretary of the society, adapts a number of theoretical concepts to the use of architectural ceramics as polychrome ornament. The book is both a design guide and a marketing tool, documenting existing buildings of the 1920's from New York city to San Francisco to Peking and Milan, and offering insight into the industry sponsored aesthetic 279. Laurence, F. S. "Technique in Clay Products." The American Architect/The Architectural Review 22, no. October 25 (1922): 353-84. Abstract: A supplement to the series Color in Architecture. Although the article is principally concerned with aesthetic theory, the author supports several arguments with practical and technical rationale. Examples of more and less appropriate designs are illustrated with drawings and photographs 280. ------. "Terra Cotta: a Definition and an Epitome." The Straus Investors' Magazine (1924). Abstract: Reprinted by the National Terra Cotta Society, this article is more prosaic than informative but does offer an interesting portrayal of the U.S. terra cotta industry at the time. 281. ------. "Terra Cotta in Architectural Design: the Part of the Ceramic Chemist." ACS Journal 8 (1925): 79-83. Abstract: A treatise on the corroboration between "an architecturally educated talent and a ceramic chemist," focussed primarily on the use of terra cotta as an artistic and decorative material 282. Lavenberg, George N. Ceramic Tile Manual. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988. 283. Leach, Bernard. A Potter's Book. Faber and Faber, 1976. Abstract: This now famous book is the first treatise by a potter to appear on the workshop traditions which have been handed down by Koreans and Japanese from the greatest period of Chinese ceramics in the Sung


dynasty. It deals with four types of pottery, Japanese raku, English slipware, stoneware, and Oriental porcelain. The student of pottery learns how to adapt recipes of pigments and glazes, and designs of kilns, to local conditions. A vivid workshop picture is given of the making of a kiln-load of pots from start to finish, and the position of the individual or artist-potter in an industrial age is touched upon It is a book intended primarily for the hand craftsman and the school, but it has a strong interest for all lovers of pots and for those who are interested in the cultural relationship of East and West 284. Lee, C E. St Pancras Church and Parish. London: St Pancras Parochial Church Council, 1955. 285. Lee, P W. "The Manufacture of the Terracotta Wall Block." ACS Bulletin 12 (1933): 301-3. Abstract: Discusses procedures for manufacturing terracotta blocks, including the preparation of the body and its composition, the adjustment of the dies and the cutting table, the sizes and shapes of blocks, and problems encountered with drying, blistering, twisting, and their possible remedies. Indicates that the size of terracotta manufactured has increased to meet the demands of modern structures. In response to this demand, the terracotta and other clay industries designed a new material called 'the wall block'. Describes the manufacturing process in detail, including clay preparation, running the block machine, and determining the exact sizes and shapes of the blocks, and problems that can occur and methods to prevent their occurrence 286. Lefevre, Leon. Architectural Pottery: Bricks, Tiles, Pipes, Enamelled Terracottas, Ordinary and Encusted Quarries, Stoneware Mosaics, Faiences, and Architectural Stoneware. London: Scott Greenwood & Co, 1900. Abstract: Provides a comprehensive overview of the manufacture and physical properties of architectural pottery, including bricks, tiles, faience and architectural stoneware. The books consists of two sections: 1) a section on plain, undecorated pottery; and 2) a section on made-up or decorated pottery Part one discusses the properties of clays, preparation of clays, the manufacture of bricks and tiles, and their dimensions, shapes, colours, physical characteristics and applications. Part two provides a description of basic methods for decorating architectural pottery, glazed and Enamelled bricks and tiles, faiences, stoneware and porcelain. Also includes a bibliography of current technical books relating to architectural terracotta


287. Lefrance, Marc. "Coade Stone in Canada." APT Bulletin V, no. 3 (1973). Abstract: The author locates and documents several examples of Coade stone elements on buildings in Montreal 288. Levine, Jeffrey S., and Donna Anne Harris. Preservation Tech Notes , no. 2 (1991). Abstract: A case study of a cornice stabilization for the 1902 Land Title Building in Philadelphia. The author describes specific deterioration problems and the constraints of a façade easement. Specification for the repair and stabilization program are described and the results are discussed and evaluated 289. Lincoln, F. S. "The Making of Terra Cotta." Architecture 67, no. 4 (1933): 207-10. Abstract: A pictorial review of the main operations involved in terra cotta production. Photographed at the Atlantic Terra Cotta Company in Perth Amboy, New Jersey 290. Lockhardt, William. "Architectural Terracotta." General Building Contractor (1931). Abstract: Discusses the principal advantages of using terracotta as an architectural material, the composition of clays suitable for architectural terracotta, and the procedures for manufacturing terracotta. Indicates that until the end of the 19th-century, terracotta was available in two major colours, unglazed red and unglazed buff, but that by the 1930's, the body made of a buff-burning clay, was glazed with many different colours. The article argues that the proper performance of masonry depends on three major factors: adequate support, proper anchoring or bonding, and water-proof properties. Describes proper installation procedures, and the physical properties required for satisfactory performance, as well as a list of major cleaners for terracotta, and procedures for cleaning 291. Loehman, Ronald E. Materials Characterisation Series, Vol I; Characterisation of Ceramics. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1993. Abstract: This book presents a collection of papers on advanced synthesis and processing techniques and the application of characterization techniques for ceramics and glasses. Provides detailed information about each technique. Several chapters are organized as case studies taken from the author's own research illustrating how different methods can be integrated to give a more complete picture of a given phenomenon. The major topics discussed are as follows: powder and precursor preparation by solution techniques, powder preparation by gas-phase techniques,


formation of ceramic films and coatings, consolidation of ceramic thick films, consolidation of bulk ceramics, inorganic glasses and glassceramics, ceramic microstructures, ceramic reactions and phase behaviour, mechanical properties and fracture, ceramic composites, glass and ceramic joints, electronic and magnetic ceramics and non-destructive evaluations 292. Louie, Celia L. "An Evaluation of Gladding McBean Terra Cotta." Master's Thesis, Columbia. 293. Lovejoy, Ellis. "A Discussion of Terra Cotta Dryers." ACS Journal 1 (1918): 66774. Abstract: The author describes and critiques a variety of industrial terra cotta drying systems, while suggesting possibilities for enhancement or improvement of existing systems 294. Luciani, Roberto. Il Restauro. Storia, Teoria, Tecniche, Protagonisti/Restoration. History, Theory, Techniques, Protagonists. Rome: Fratelli Palombi Editori, 1988. Abstract: This book provides a comprehensive survey of the different fields of conservation and restoration and an introduction to conservation problems. Chapters include: restoration theories; history of architectural restoration; restoration charters; techniques of painting, stucco, rendering, mosaic, terracotta, tapestry; causes of decay, preliminary studies and diagnosis; restoration techniques, architects and restorers; a glossary; a bibliography and notes on the Italian conservation legislation. 16 famous case studies in Italy are illustrated and numerous interviews with different specialists are included 295. Mack, Robert C. "The Cleaning and Waterproof Coating of Masonry Buildings." Preservation Briefs, United States Government Printing Office , no. 1 (1979). Abstract: Discusses procedures for cleaning and waterproofing masonry materials, including the purpose of cleaning, the composition of dirt, and methods for surveying brick failures. The article also discusses failures associated with cleaning and the application of waterproof or water repellent coatings to porous materials, and how to avoid such problems. Although this article provides a general discussion of cleaning and waterproofing of masonry materials, many of the issues addressed apply to architectural terracotta as well 296. ------. "The Manufacture and Use of Architectural Terracotta in the United States." The Technology of Historic American Buildings: Studies of the Materials, Processes, and the Mechanization of Building Construction. Ward Jandl. Washington, DC: Foundation for Preservation Technology ,


1983. Abstract: Discusses the history of architectural terracotta in the United States from the mid-19th century to mid-20th century, and procedures for manufacturing terracotta. Indicates that the earliest attempts at manufacturing architectural terracotta were by ceramic manufacturers, rather than builders, in New York, Philadelphia, Louisville, Indianapolis, and Chicago. The author claims that during the period between 1877 and 1890, most terracotta was used in warm tones, primarily because the material was used with brick. Later, yellow and buff terracotta became the dominant type, initiating the widespread use of white glaze and other colors. Describes the manufacturing process for unglazed terracotta, and wall and roofing tiles, focusing on the manufacturing of hollow, handmoulded, heavily glazed blocks 297. ------. "Repointing Mortar Joints in Historic Buildings." Preservation Briefs, United States Government Printing Office , no. 2 (1976). Abstract: Discusses procedures for analyzing original mortar, and repointing. The mortar used with terracotta is often too hard and impermeable, leading to differential expansion, cracking, and water penetration. Indicates the major differences between mortars used for installing brick and terracotta. The mortar used with terracotta, rather than providing bedding, attaches the terracotta unit to the masonry substrate. In repointing, terracotta requires a narrow joint, while brick requires a wider joint as bedding 298. MacMichael, R. F. "The Testing of Clay." ACS Transactions 17 (1915): 639-59. Abstract: An excellent paper presenting in a comprehensive manner the testing methods available to the clay products industry. A general methodology and uniform style for testing documentation is also presented 299. MacPhee, B. L. "The Manufacture and Conservation of Glazed Architectural Terra Cotta in the United States." Master's Thesis, Columbia University, 1986. 300. Maltby, Sally, McDonald Sally, and Colin Cunningham. Alfred Waterhouse, 18301935. London: 1983. Abstract: Booklet to accompany exhibition at the RIBA Heinz Gallery 301. Manmohan, Dushyant, Robert L Schwein, and Loring A. Wyllie. "In Situ Evaluation of Compressive Stresses." Masonry: Materials, Design, Construction and Maintenance. ASTM Special Technical Publication, 9992. Harry A. Harris. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1988. Abstract: Numerous buildings with terracotta claddings are showing signs of


distress due to weathering and induced stresses from frame shortening under load. The level of stresses induced in the claddings of a high-rise building in San Francisco was measured by performing strain relief tests. Experimental techniques employed to determine compressive stresses in the terracotta façade are discussed 302. Maqueda, C, J L Perez Rodriguez, and A Justo. "Decay Process of the Terracotta Ornaments in Three of the Porticos of Sevilla Cathedral." Role of Chemistry in Archaeology - 1st International Colloquium, 15-18 November 1991. M C Ganorkar, and N Rama Rao. Hyderbad: Birla Institute of Scientific Research, 1992. Abstract: The decay process of the terracotta ornaments of three porticos in the Cathedral of Sevilla (Spain) made by Lorenzo de Mercadante have been studied. The statues are covered by a deposition of gypsum, calcite, metals, biological products and products of combustion which have altered the ceramics. A crust constituted principally by gypsum is formed on the surface of the ceramics, following the alteration. The underlying material of the crust starts a slight decohesion and the ceramic loses its coherence. Later the crust breaks away and the underlying ceramic material also falls away. The red colour of some parts of the statues is produced by emigration of iron from the internal material to the surface 303. Marchesini, Lino, and Guido Biscontin. "Essai De Protection Et De Consolidation De La Facade En Terre Cuite D'Une Eglise/An Attempt to Protect and Consolidate the Terracotta Facade of a Church." The Treatment of Stone: Proceedings of the Meeting of the Joint Committee for the Conservation of Stone, 1-3 October 1971. Raffaella Rossi-Manaresi, and Giorgio Torraca. Rapporti Della Soprintendenza Alle Gallerie De Bologna No 14, 1972, Bologna: Centro Conservazione Sculture all'Aperto, 1972. Abstract: Protection and consolidation with silicone resin of the facade in terracotta of the Cathedral of Chivasso 304. Marusin, Stella, and K B Kellermayer. "Cleaning of the Terracotta in the Wrigley Building in Chicago, Illinois." Third North American Masonry Conference, 3-5 June 1985. Abstract: This article describes the cleaning of terracotta in the Wrigley Building, in Chicago, designed and built by Graham, Anderson, Probst and White in 1924. The facade was washed completely twice a year from 1924 until the mid-1960's; the facade was last washed in 1977. Records indicate the use of a diluted solution of hydrofluoric acid in recent years. Describes the laboratory programme conducted to test possible methods for cleaning, including petrographic analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and standard physical tests. The cleaning technique selected consisted of the separate application of a strong base solution,


and an acidic solution diluted 1:3 with water. Includes guidelines and recommendations for the implementation of the cleaning project 305. Mathiasen, O. E. "Firing Terra Cotta in an Open Kiln." ACS Journal 9 (1926): 548-50. Abstract: Three test fires of terra cotta in an open kiln using oil-fired, carboradiant combustion chambers suggest the possibilities of adapting such kilns for terra cotta manufacture 306. Matthews, Mary J. "Kansas City Experiments With Terracotta Replacement." Friends of Terracotta Newsletter 2, no. 3 (1983): 3-4. Abstract: Case study on the restoration of the Bellerive Hotel, Kansas City. Precast concrete was used to replace terracotta elements. The original granite texture finish was reproduced by casting the duplicate pieces with integral colour and specking with latex paint 307. Maufus, Marie-Christine. "Observations Sur La Production Et L'Utilisation Du Decor Architectural En Terre Cuite Pendant L'Antiquite Tardive/Obervations on the Production and Use of Architectural Decoration in Terracotta From Late Antiquity." Artists, Craftsmen and Artistic Production in the Middle Ages. Preliminary Reports, 2-6 May 1983. Rennes: Universite de Haute Bretagne, 1983. Abstract: A study of decorative elements found in Spain, Tunisia and France. The manufacturing procedure is described, especially the printing-moulding technique. The use of mural and ceiling tiles is discussed 308. McAuley, Paul. "Terracotta Facades in Lincoln." Architectural Ceramics; Their History, Manufacture and Conservation. Jeanne Marie Teutonico. London: James and James Ltd, 1996. Abstract: The terracotta facades discussed are those by the architect William Watkins of Lincoln, among them the Lincoln Girls' High School of 1893. Cleaning of the carved brickwork in the tympana above a window was carried out using a non-ionic detergent (Synperonic-N) in solution with deionised water, its effect is not recorded although it is stated that the exercise was largely investigative. A brief outline of the production of terracotta is given discussing types of clay and moulding in hand pressing slip casting and extrusion 309. McColm, Ian J. Dictionary of Ceramic Science and Engineering. New York: Plenum Press, 1994. Abstract: This dictionary defines terms relating to traditional ceramics, as well as materials science, testing methods, and magnetic and electronic


ceramics. The content of this dictionary is based on the original O'Bannon dictionary, with additional terms associated with recent research in ceramics science and engineering. The appendix includes tables of basic SI units, conversion tables, end points on Orton pyrometric cones, and ceramic colours. Also includes an extensive bibliography on ceramic science 310. Investigations into the Durability of Architectural Terracotta and Faience, Building Research Station Special Report, No 12, W A McIntyre. Building Research Station, London, 1929. Abstract: Discusses research on the weathering properties of terracotta by the Building Research Station between 1926 and 1928 in cooperation with the Terracotta Association. The study found a striking scarcity of examples of faulty terracotta in service, compared to faulty stonework. Indicates that failures in terracotta occur chiefly in a pinkish buff variety of terracotta, manufactured until the 1920's. The following points emerged from this study: 1) the most severe deterioration of terracotta is due to sulphation; 2) sulphation is almost entirely restricted to terracotta which, as judged by the 'after-contraction' test, can be termed underburnt; 3) not all 'underburnt' varieties show this deterioration; 4) the presence of laminations parallel to the surface accelerates decay; 5) the other serious defect is with glazed materials where the glaze has not been adjusted to fit the body correctly; 6) at least one case of serious deterioration of a terracotta building has been shown to be due to the use of unsuitable concrete filling 311. McKee, Harley J. "Brick and Stone: Handicraft to Machine." Building Early America; Contributions Toward the History of a Great Industry. Charles PetersonRadnor, Pa: Chilton Book Co, 1976. 312. Mel'Nikova, E A, and M N Lebel. "Application of Polymer Films Removing Surface Contaminations From Sculptures Made of Different Materials." ICOM Committee for Conservation, 5th Triennial Meeting, 1-8 October 1978. Paris: International Council of Museums, 1978. Abstract: Cleaning of contaminated unstable surface of sculpture by application of film forming absorbent solutions is described. Successes are reported in the Soviet Union by use of aqueous solutions of carboxy methyl cellulose sodium salt and of poly (vinyl alcohol) plasticized by addition of glycerol. In cases of sculpture which might be damaged by water in alcohol soluble polyamide is suggested. These cleaning methods were tested on plaster, limestone, terracotta and marble sculpture 313. Meyenberg, F P. "Architectural Terracotta As Compared to Stone." The California


Architect and Building News (1891). Abstract: Discusses the differences between the physical properties of building stone and architectural terracotta. Indicates that although laboratory tests have shown that terracotta can have a compressive strength equal to that of any granite, if used in large pieces under load in a building, the compressive strength of brick falls below that of most granite. The article argues that the proportions generally required for stone blocks in loadbearing walls are not applicable to terracotta; the inhomogeneous nature of terracotta results in 'faulty' properties when used in connection with heavy building materials. The article concludes that terracotta made in small sizes (4 and 6in thick) can be built up to any height for use in buildings, but that these blocks will have physical properties different from those of stone units of the same size 314. Minton, R. H. "The Use of Furnace Slag As Grog in Architectural Terra Cotta Bodies." ACS Journal 1 (1918): 185-200. Abstract: The author presents the comparative results of testing performed on two terra cotta bodies; one of which included steel furnace slag as grog, and the other a sagger grog. Data from freezing and boiling tests are discussed in relation to in-service weatherability, and specifically with regard to dunting. Several responses following the paper add perspective and offer other ideas about the causes of dunting 315. Montgomery, E. T., and C. F. Tefft. "Roofing Tile Slips and Glazes." ACS Transactions 16 (1914): 65-79. Abstract: The authors present the findings of investigations into the development of suitable slips and glazes for roofing tile. Formulas and compositions for some thirty different glaze and slip formulations are provided along with commentary regarding the quality of color, tone, and matteness or gloss 316. Morden, M. R., and D. Slaton. "Restoring Terra Cotta." Masonry Construction , no. 6 (1993). 317. Moynehan, C. R., G. C. Allen, I. T. Brown, S. R. Church, J. Beavis, and J. Ashurst. "Surface Analysis of Architectural Terracotta Including New and Soiled Examples, and Pieces Treated With a Hydrofluoric Acid-Based Cleaning Solution." Journal of Architectural Conservation 1, no. 1 (1995): 56-69. Abstract: The great quantity of buildings faced with architectural terracotta and faience, principally constructed between 1860 and 1930, now present a major problem in terms of repair, maintenance, and conservation. During a study into the nature of soiling on terracotta, and the effects of different cleaning methods, the authors used a variety of surface analytical and


conventional chemical techniques to study the samples. These techniques include scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), xray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption (AAS), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The authors identified aluminum and silicon as the major elemental components of terracotta, with iron and calcium present in smaller amounts, and trace levels of potassium, magnesium, and titanium. More iron is present in red terracotta than in the buff variety; the reverse is true for titanium. The major crystalline species are cristobalite and mullite. Soiling may be attributed to the elements calcium, sulfur, and chlorine, although pulverized fuel ash (PFA) and iron-rich particles have also been found incorporated into the surface layer. The latter are possibly generated by blast furnace activity. The treatment of terracotta with a proprietary hydrofluoric acid cleaning solution has been shown to enlarge the surface pores, increasing the potential for damage due to water penetration. Large amounts of fluorine remain on the surface after this treatment, even following prolonged rinsing, and penetrate to a considerable depth. Silicon and potassium appear to have been most affected by the treatment; calcium, iron, and titanium were less affected. 318. Mueller, Herman C. "The Independence of Burned Clay As a Decorative Building Material." ACS Transactions 1 (1899): 15-21. Abstract: A short article offering insight into contemporary attitudes regarding the legitimacy of terra cotta as a unique building material 319. Napela, R. "Conservation of a Terracotta Relief 'Campana' From the Louvre Collections." Masters Thesis, Academy of Fine Arts, Warsaw, 1987. 320. National Terra Cotta Society. National Terra Cotta Society, 1927-1928. 321. Report on Outdoor Service Tests on Terra Cotta, Mortars and Anchors, National Terra Cotta Society Fellowship. No. P-132. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, 1945. 322. National Terracotta Society. Architectural Terracotta Standard Construction. New York: NTS, 1922. Abstract: The purpose of this book, prepared through the cooperation of almost all manufacturers of architectural terracotta in the United States was to facilitate the use of terracotta, and to disseminate accurate information on proper methods for jointing and construction. It contains illustrations of generally accepted architectural forms of assured dimensions and their suggested interpretation in architectural terracotta 323. ------. Standard Specifications for the Manufacture and Setting of Terracotta. New York: NTS, 1923.


324. ------. Terracotta - Standard Construction. New York: NTS, 1927. Abstract: This short book is a revision of Architectural Terracotta - Standard Construction, originally published in 1914. Describes and illustrates terracotta forms of given proportions, and their proper constructional features, and suggests appropriate uses for these terracotta forms, providing examples of several solutions to structural problems. This book presents the following structural principles for the use of terracotta as a building material: 1) shelf supports; 2) expansion joints; 3) terracotta on concrete frames; 4) protection against corrosion; 5) free-standing construction; 6) flashing and drips Includes illustrations of construction drawings of doors, wall copings and balustrades, arches and lintels, cornices, soffits, a Corinthian column, dome construction, a coffered apsidal dome, and details of anchors, hangers, straps, and clamps used in setting terracotta 325. Naude, Virginia Norton. "Conservation of Six Terracotta Busts by William Rush." Preprints of Papers Presented at the Eleventh Annual Meeting, 25-29 May 1983. The American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, AIC, 1983. Abstract: The cleaning method used involved fully immersing the terracotta in tap water for periods of 1-5 days before it was cleaned using organic solvents. The solvent used was a spirit water emulsion 326. Neblett, Nathaniel P. "A Search for Coade Stone in America." APT Bulletin 3, no. 4 (1971): 68-67. Abstract: The author locates several Coade stone elements installed in America. Documentary evidence is compared with photographs of existing interior and exterior features 327. New York Building Congress. "Standard Specification for Setting of Terracotta." American Architect 135, no. 2571 (1929): 837-39. Abstract: Specifications based primarily on the National Terra Cotta Society's Standard Construction of 1922, but "additional clauses have been added to make a complete contract document." Part two of a two part publication


328. ------. "Standard Specification for the Manufacture and Furnishing of Terracotta." American Architect 135, no. 2570 (1929): 768-70. Abstract: Specifications based primarily on the National Terra Cotta Society's Terra Cotta - Standard Construction of 1927, but "additional clauses have been added to make a complete contract document." Part one of a two part publication 329. Nicholson, T. E. "Discoloration of Terra Cotta Glaze." ACS Journal 15 (1932): 386-88. Abstract: A peculiar discoloration of a typical terra cotta glaze is analyzed and discussed. Several suggestions are made to eliminate the defect 330. Clay Based Materials for the Ceramics Industry: Proceedings of the Final Contactors' Meeting on Clay Base Materials for the Ceramics Industry, Organized by the Commission of the European Communities Within the Raw Materials Sector. H Norbusch, and I V Mitchell. 331. Notis, M, and P eds McGovern. Ceramics and Civilization Series, Vol IV: CrossCultural and Cross-Craft Influences in Ceramic Development. American Ceramic: 1989. Abstract: The proceedings of this symposium, held in conjunction with the American ceramic society's annual meeting in Pittsburgh, PA, includes papers on the interaction of a ceramic craft (eg pottery, vitreous materials, refractories) with other technologies (eg a different ceramic craft, or metals, stone working, textiles, chemical processing) in a cultural context. The first part includes papers on ceramic crafts in the Near East and Mediterranean. The second section includes papers on ceramic crafts in India and the Far East. The papers examine ceramics and their relations to other crafts in their cultural context, such as pottery production locations, refractories, and variations in the practice of ceramic technology in different cultures 332. Ontario Ministry of Citizenship and Culture, Toronto Canada. Annotated Master Specifications for the Clearing and Repointing of Historic Masonry. Ontario: Printed by the Queen's Park Printer for Ontario, 1985. Abstract: Spencer Higgins was commissioned by the Ministry to produce model formats with guidance and explanatory notes to assist architects and contractors in the preparation and understanding of conservation specifications for cleaning and joint treatments, including terracotta 333. Opificio delle pietre dure. Firenze. Restauro Di Una Terracotta Del Quattrocento: Il 'Compianto' Di Giacomo Cozzarelli. Modena: Edizioni Panini, 1984. Abstract:


Exhibition catalogue on the conservation and restoration of a group of seven sculptures in polychromed terracotta from the Basilica dell'Osservanza, Siena (Italy). The paint layer was investigated with chemico-stratigraphy analysis. The consolidation of the surface and of the internal structure is described fully. The costumes were also studied to determine their meaning in a special historical context. Photographs, microphotographs, diagrams, references 334. Ortman, F. B. "The Composition of Kiln Gases and Their Effect on Terra Cotta Glazes and Colors." ACS Journal 3 (1929): 476-88. Abstract: A thorough investigation the phenomenon of sulfuring, a common cause of glaze defects in fired terra cotta. The authors present their conclusions regarding the source of the sulfur and the effects of kiln ventilation on the absorption of sulfur by the glaze 335. Ortman, F. B., and H. E. Davis. "Humidity System of Drying Terra Cotta." ACS Journal 4 (1921): 796-804. Abstract: A brief discussion of the theory of humidity drying is followed by a description of the construction and operation of a five room dryer installed above a tunnel kiln and supplied with automatic temperature and humidity control and air circulation. The innovation is reported to reduce steam consumption, floor space required, drying time, labor costs and losses from cracking and warping 336. Pampuch, Roman. Constitution and Properties of Ceramic Materials. Amsterdam, New York, Warszawa: Elsevier. PWN-Polish Scientific Publishers, 1991. Abstract: An undergraduate textbook exploring the nature of the whole class of ceramic materials 337. Parmelee, C. W., and R. Heidingfeld. "Note on Terra Cotta Glazes." ACS Transactions 14 (1912): 841-49. Abstract: An analysis and discussion of the effects resulting from the addition of certain bases to a glaze. Magnesium, barium, lime, zinc and potash were added in various combinations to determine relative effects. 338. ------. "The Production of Black Spots Upon Terra Cotta Glazes." ACS Transactions 14 (1912): 226-37. 339. Pence, F. K. "A Theory for the Cause of Matteness in Glazes." ACS Transactions 14 (1912): 682-90. Abstract: The author classifies matte glazes based on an empirical theory that


matte glaze texture is the result of insolubility of certain compounds within the glaze formulation. In the first of two general classes, matteness is produced by precipitation or segregation of calcium aluminates, calciumalumina silicates, or zinc silicates. In the second class, matteness is due to the insolubility, or retarded solubility, of an essential part of the glaze. A debate follows the paper 340. Perez Rodriguez, J L, C Maqueda, and A Justo. "A Scientific Study of the Terracotta Sculptures From the Porticos of Seville Cathedral." Studies in Conservation (IIC) 30, no. 1 (1985): 31-38. Abstract: The statues that adorn the 'Baptism' and 'Birth' porticos of the Cathedral of Seville (Spain) made by Lorenzo Marcante de Bretana have been studied. The results show that in the manufacture of this ceramic two different firing temperatures, below 950 oC and over 950oC, were used. The possible material employed in their manufacture was lime marl consisting of illite, smectite, kaolinite, quartz, feldspars, calcite and iron oxide. It has also been found that calcite nodules do not produce cracks in the ceramic 341. Perkins, Walter W ed. Ceramic Glossary. American Ceramic, 1984. 342. Peterson, Toni ed. Art and Architecture Thesaurus. New York: Oxford University Press, published on behalf of the J Paul Getty Trust, 1990. Abstract: This thesaurus defines terms associated with the art and architecture of the Western World from antiquity to the present. The aim of the thesaurus is to build a consistent, comprehensive and controlled vocabulary that can be used by database developers and individuals responsible for handling architectural and archival information. In addition to the vocabulary associated with art and architectural objects, the AAT provides terminology necessary for describing the objects, including the materials and techniques of their construction, their physical attributes, and terminology associated with their production and study 343. Phillips, G. D. "Terra Cotta Bodies, Slips and Glazes." ACS Transactions 16 (1914): 169-78. Abstract: This paper presents data and discussion of the experimentation with body, slip and glaze compatibility. Composition of the final selections for each are provided 344. Phillips, George. Concise Introduction to Ceramics. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1991. Abstract: Provides a comprehensive introduction to characteristics, analysis, manufacture and application of ceramic materials. Discusses both naturally occurring ceramics used as found, and manufactured raw


materials requiring synthesis. Discusses crystal chemistry concepts, characterization of ceramic materials, and both common and high-tech applications of ceramic materials. Provides recommendations for types of ceramic to use to meet the needs of hardness, thermal resistance, transparency, durability, and other requirements. Describes methods of analyzing ceramic materials, including microscopy, x-ray analysis, and surface analysis. Identifies effects of ceramic surfaces on processing, and measurement techniques and failure analysis techniques for various fracture modes 345. Phillips, Morgan W. "Consolidation of Porous Materials: Problems and Possibilities of Acrylic Resin Techniques." Technology & Conservation 4, no. 4 (1979): 42-46. Abstract: Discusses a consolidation technique using a polymer with high depth of penetration, deposited in the porous material by precipitating out of solution as soon as it penetrates, thereby preventing it from 'backing out' with the evaporating solvent. The article describes the polymer solution used as follows: a solution of methyl acrylate, water and ethyl alcohol, using ammonium persulphate as initiator. The consolidation method discussed in this article is suitable for consolidating powdery, porous materials; its usefulness for terracotta is limited 346. Piacenti, F. et al. "Terracotta Tiles: Evolutive Phenomena Causing Aesthetic and Functional Anomalies: Origin, Prevention, Elimination. "Ceramics in Architecture: Proceedings of the International Symposium, The Ceramics Cultural Heritage, of the 8th Cimtec World Ceramics Congress and Forum on New Materials. P. Vicenzini. Faenza, Italy: Techna, 1995. 347. Planje, C. W. "Observations on Crazing in Terra Cotta Glazes." ACS Journal 14 (1931). Abstract: Theories and observations for the prevention of crazing in a leaded fritted lustrous glaze are presented. The use of various raw materials and their effect upon a glaze with respect to crazing are discussed and several recommendations are made 348. Plusch, H. A. "Polychrome Glaze Decoration in Architecture." ACS Transactions 9 (1907): 473-79. Abstract: The author outlines the history of polychrome glazed architectural ceramics from Asia to Europe to the U.S. and suggests the untapped potential of ceramics in modernist design. Several examples of polychrome ornament are presented in a black and white photograph. These pieces were used in the delivery of this paper to illustrate the necessity for technical consideration of glaze interactions during the design of multiple glaze elements


349. Plusch, H A. "Some Causes of the So-Called Disintegration of Terracotta, Brick, and Allied Ceramic Materials." The Chemist 1 (1921): 65. 350. Plusch, Herman A. "The Ceramic Chemical Development of Architectural Terra Cotta." The Brickbuilder 20, no. 4 (1911): 83-85. Abstract: An insightful historical sketch of the evolution of terra cotta use in architecture as it was determined by the gradual sophistication of ceramic science 351. Pouchol, Jean-Marie, and Henri Chauffriat. "Methyl Siliconate for Terracotta." European Coatings Journal (1990): 411 ff. Abstract: Discusses terracotta deterioration caused by water, and possible methods for minimizing the damaging effects of water on terracotta. The article claims that silicone resins can provide water repellency, and that aqueous solutions of potassium methyl siliconate in particular can provide especially good protection. Discusses briefly the history of architectural terracotta, and the most important causes of deterioration (ie, freeze-thaw cycling, salt crystallization, biological growth). Indicates two major methods to prevent damage caused by water: water-proofing of the surface, and hydrophobic impregnation. Among silicone resins for hydrophobicity, the author recommends an organic-siliconic oligomer in a solvent phase, and an aqueous solution of potassium methyl siliconate. The solution of potassium methyl siliconate can also be used successfully in minimizing rising damp in walls, and as a neutralizing agent for silicoacrylic damp-proofing paints 352. Prudon, T. H., and J. Stockbridge. "Renovation of the Facade of the Woolworth Building." Rehabilitation, Renovation, and Preservation of Concrete and Masonry Structures. Gajanan M Sabnis. Detroit: American Concrete Institute, 1985. 353. Prudon, Theodore H M. "Architectural Terracotta: Analyzing the Deterioration Problems and Restoration Approaches." Technology and Conservation 3, no. 3 (1978): 30-38. Abstract: Discusses the major characteristics and reasons for the popularity of terracotta as a building material in the United States from the 1880's to the 1930's. Indicates that most terracotta used from 1890 to 1930 consisted of hollow blocks (approximately 4in by 1-1¼in, and 2-2½ sq ft in surface facing area). Identifies two different structural systems for terracotta detailing in this period: terracotta incorporated as an integral unit in the load-bearing wall; and as a cladding material, primarily for framing systems. In both systems, little, or no provisions were made for movement, causing structural damage and deterioration in continuous cladding anchored to masonry back-up walls. Describes and illustrates


the joints and anchoring/support systems for terracotta blocks, and provides guidelines for examining and evaluating the conditions of architectural terracotta 354. ------. "Architectural Terracotta and Ceramic Veneer in the United States Prior to World War II: a History of Its Development and Analysis of Its Deterioration Problems and Possible Repair Methodologies." PhD dissertation, Columbia University, 1981. 355. ------. Terracotta As a Building Material: a Bibliography. Ottawa, Ont: APT, 1976. Abstract: A bibliography of important sources dating to the period when the use of terracotta as a building material was highly publicized. Includes books and articles on both aesthetic considerations and technical issues relating to architectural terracotta 356. Purcell, D. "Sixteenth Century Terracotta in East Anglia." ASCHB Transactions 1 (1973): 39-43. Abstract: Although of little value to current cleaning practice, this is valuable from a historical and technological point of view 357. Putnam, Edward H. "Architectural Terra Cotta Construction; Part One." American Architect 100, no. 1873 (1911): 193-97. Abstract: Part one of a three part series discussing the usefulness of terra cotta as a building material, and explaining to architects, from the perspective of a manufacturer, the many design related characteristics of terra cotta. Photographs and working drawings illustrate the peculiarities of terra cotta assemblies 358. ------. "Architectural Terra Cotta Construction; Part Three." American Architect 100, no. 1875 (1911): 257-61. Abstract: Part two of a three part series discussing the usefulness of terra cotta as a building material, and explaining to architects, from the perspective of a manufacturer, the many design related characteristics of terra cotta. Photographs and working drawings illustrate the peculiarities of terra cotta assemblies 359. ------. "Architectural Terra Cotta Construction; Part Two." American Architect 100, no. 1874 (1911): 201-7. Abstract: Part one three of a three part series discussing the usefulness of terra cotta as a building material, and explaining to architects, from the perspective of a manufacturer, the many design related characteristics of


terra cotta. Photographs and working drawings illustrate the peculiarities of terra cotta assemblies 360. Ceramics in America: Winterthur Conference Report. Ian M Quimbley1980. 361. Radcliffe, B. S. "Terra Cotta Body Investigation." ACS Journal 7 (1924): 834-41. Abstract: An analysis of five terra cotta clays in regards to cool cracking 362. Rastorfer, Darl. "Terracotta: Past and Present." Architectural Record (1987): 110-113. Abstract: A brief history of terra cotta use in American architecture introduces six winning entries in a competition for new modular terracotta designs. The competition was sponsored by the National Building Museum in an attempt to heighten awareness of architectural terracotta 363. Reedy, Chandra L. "Thin-Section Petrography in Studies of Cultural Materials." Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 33, no. 2 (1994): 11529. Abstract: This article presents an introduction to the types of cultural materials and research questions that have been examined through thin-section petrography. Examples involve studies of stone (sculptures and architectural materials), ceramics (vessels and sherds, terracotta sculptures, and architectural ceramics), glass and glazes, and miscellaneous materials such as clay core materials from bronzes, plaster and ceramics, frescoes, and slags 364. Rees-Jones, Stephen G. "A Fifteenth Century Florentine Terracotta Relief Technology - Conservation - Interpretation." Studies in Conservation 23 (1978): 95-113. Abstract: Describes the technological and scientific examination of a terracotta relief sculpture of the Madonna and Child attributed to the School of Verrocchio at the Bermingham Museum and Art Gallery since 1895. Initial examination revealed previous repairs carried out in the nineteenth century. All these additions were removed during cleaning. The original terracotta relief was examined to determine the specific techniques applied in its construction 365. Rhodes, Daniel. Clays and Glazes for the Potter. New York: Greenberg, 1957. Abstract: A book for the potter, student, teacher, designer, collector or industrial ceramist who wishes to know more about the materials of the craft of pottery, and the ways in which the many varied colours and textures in ceramics can be achieved. This is a practical book, and the facts about


clays and glazes and the principles governing their use are clearly described in complete and easy-to-understand form. The origins of clay, the characteristics and ceramic uses of the various kinds of clays and the ingredients of glaze calculation are described and recipes are given for earthenware and glaze with information on firing techniques and colouring methods 366. Rice, Prudence M. Pottery Analysis: a Sourcebook. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Abstract: A comprehensive sourcebook on the study of pottery, ranging from archaeological, ethnographic, stylistic, functional, and physiochemical. Examines in detail the methods for studying fired clay vessels used worldwide from prehistoric times to the present. Provides an exhaustive overview of the principles, terminology, techniques and goals of pottery analysis. The topics covered include the history of pottery making, raw materials of pottery, the manufacture, trade, decoration and use of pottery among traditional pottery makers, technical characterization of pottery, and modern changes in the manufacture and use of traditional pottery. Includes a bibliography of both technical and anthropological literature 367. Ries, H, H B Kummel, and G N Knapp. "The Clays and Clay Industry in New Jersey." Geological Survey of New Jersey VI (1901). Abstract: Describes the chemical and mineralogical composition of clays used for terracotta, methods for chemical analysis of clays, and the relation between the chemical composition of clays and their physical properties. Identifies two major methods for the quantitative analysis of clays; the ultimate analysis which measures oxides and the rational analysis which measures the percentage of mineral compounds present. Discusses the relationship between the mineralogical composition of clays and the physical properties of the burned clay and the influence of water, organic matter, and soluble salts present in clays. Includes a table of the physical characteristics of some New Jersey clays used in manufacturing terracotta (ie, water required in tempering, air shrinkage, tensile strength, cones, fire shrinkage, colour, hardness). Discusses briefly the history of the terracotta industry in New Jersey, listing the most important terracotta factories 368. Ries, Heinrich. Building Stones and Clay Products: a Handbook for Architects . New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1912. Abstract: Discusses the basic procedures for manufacturing terracotta, and standard methods for testing the physical properties of terracotta. Includes a table of the physical properties of terracotta published by the American Ceramic Society, including compressive strength and ultimate strength. The author claims the greatest damage to architectural


terracotta is caused by poor construction and/or by the expansion of steel members. Also provides a table of the results of physical tests carried out on two-inch terracotta cones measuring the melting point, absorption percentage, and crushing strength. Indicates that damages can occur during firing due to: 1) direct flame action; 2) shattering due to more or less sudden changes in temperature 369. Rincon, Jesus, and Maximina Romero. "Archeometric Characterization of 'Terra Sigillata' Ceramics. "Ceramics in Architecture: Proceedings of the International Symposium, The Ceramics Cultural Heritage, of the 8th Cimtec World Ceramics Congress and Forum on New Materials. P. Vicenzini. Faenza, Italy: Techna, 1995. Abstract: Presentation of the results of analysis of terra sigillata ceramics. The methods of characterization used were applied from materials science: XRD, SEM/EDX (energy dispersive x-ray) 370. Rogers, Anne, and Doyle Wilhite. "Exterior Restoration of the West Virginia State Capitol: Cleaning and Structural Stabilization Procedures." Technology and Conservation 4, no. 1 (1979): 14-17. Abstract: Discusses a case study of the exterior cleaning and repair programme for the exterior of the West Virginia State Capitol, designed by Cass Gilbert in the 1930's. The facade is composed of limestone, marble and terracotta. The terracotta ornamentation was steam cleaned. A lowpressure wet aggregate was used for air abrasive cleaning of the stone sections of the building 371. Romer, Bert. "Qualitaetssicherung Fuer Dauerhafte Baunerke Neubau Und Bausanierung." Bautenschutz Und Bausanierung , no. 4 (1983): 120-127. Abstract: Outline and guidelines for testing and controlling concrete, plasterwork, mortar, architectural ceramics, synthetic resins, stone and other building materials. Appropriate tests for preliminary analyses, quality assurance , assessment of damage, building protection and rehabilitation 372. Rossi-Manaresi, R, and G Torraca. The Treatment of Stone: Proceedings of the Meeting of the Joint Committee for the Conservation of Stone, 1-3 October 19711972. 373. Ruch, John E. "Regency Coade: a Study of the Coade Record Books, 18131821." Architectural History, Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain II (1968): 34-56. 374. Ryser, Edward E. "A History of the Terracotta Roof." Friends of Terracotta


Newsletter 3, no. 1 (1984): 16-18. Abstract: Discusses the history of the terracotta roof. Indicates that terracotta roofs were first used in Asia Minor and China before recorded history. The first documented use in the United States was in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, circa 1735. The article provides a brief discussion of the manufacture and use of clay roof tile in the United States 375. Safford, Hildegard J. "The Terracotta Industry and the Atlantic Terracotta Company." The Staten Island Historian 31, no. 18 (1947): 153-63. Abstract: Describes the Atlantic Terracotta Company in Tottenville, New York, a major terracotta manufacturing company at the beginning of the 20th century. The article claims that terracotta was introduced to the United States by immigrant artisans from England. Discusses the history of terracotta manufacturing in the United States. Identifies the Chicago Terracotta Company (1869) as one of the most important terracotta manufacturers to play a part in the development of terracotta manufacturing as a national industry, and the Perth Amboy Terracotta Company (1879) as the first terracotta company on the East Coast. Provides several examples of terracotta buildings dating to this period. Lists several terracotta companies formed in the New York metropolitan area and on Staten Island in the 1890's. The article also describes several terracotta manufacturers' associations formed during this period, and the organization of the Atlantic Company 376. Salmang, Hermann. Ceramics: Physical and Chemical Fundamentals. London: Butterworths, 1961. Abstract: Provides a comprehensive overview of the science and technology of ceramics, including a detailed analysis of the chemistry and physics of clays, a classification of ceramic products, bricks, refractory materials, terracotta and earthenware, stoneware, porcelain, and electrical insulators. Discusses the lattice structure of clays, colour of clays, particle sizes, the interaction of clay and water, the chemistry of clays, drying, the behaviour of clays on heating and the firing of clay bodies. Also discusses the properties of refractory materials, terracotta, stoneware and porcelain 377. Santucci, Andrea. "Restauri Nella Citta/Restoration in the City." Informazioni Ibc 3, no. 2 (1987): 10-17. Abstract: Report on restoration activities in the city of Bologna (Italy) listing 16 major achievements which were recently completed. Work includes stone conservation treatments, restoration of sculptures and frescoes and treatment of polychrome terracotta. Photographs


378. Savage, George, and H Newman. An Illustrated Dictionary of Ceramics; Defining 3,045 Terms Relating to Wares, Materials, Processes, Styles, Patterns, and Shapes From Antiquity to the Present Day. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co, 1974. 379. Schepers, F. A. "The Pulsichrometer." ACS Bulletin 3 (1924): 53-55. 380. Schlütter, F., H. Juling, and R. Blaschke. "Black Skins and Gypsum Crystallization on Terra-Cotta Material: Microscopical Investigations on Samples of the Schwerin Castle. "NATO-CCMS Pilot Study 'Conservation of Historic Brick Structures:' Proceedings of the 7th Expert Meeting. Stephen Fitz. Umweltbundesamt, 1994. Abstract: Working with the terracotta ornaments and platings of the Schwerin Castle, the authors tried to correlate primary surface blackening with the subsequent sealing off, using a mobile scanning electron microscopy (SEM) laboratory. The blackening can be explained as the result of normal weathering under always changing conditions, frequently dry. The alternating growth of algae layers and drying out of slime deposits forms a waterproof hydrophobic black skin which is thickened by fly ash and other compounds. Subsurface frost cracks occur on terracotta plates with black skin when the backs of the plates are exposed to damp. Crystals of gypsum growing from outside into the subsurface cracks intensify the scaling process by changing the conditions for contraction and expansion within the surface zone 381. Schurecht, H. G. "Methods for Testing Crazing of Glazes Caused by Increases in Size of Ceramic Bodies." ACS Journal 11 (1928): 271-77. Abstract: The results of investigations of crazing which develops on glazed ceramic wares long after firing, due to expansion of the body. Body compositions were tested for resistance to such crazing 382. Schurecht, H. G., and G. R. Pole. "Method of Measuring Strains Between Glazes and Ceramic Bodies." ACS Journal 13 (1930): 369-75. Abstract: A description of a test developed to compare strains between different glaze and body combinations. Glaze and body combinations are prepared and treated as if they were intended for commercial use and the authors emphasize the simplicity and low cost of the apparatus required 383. ------. "Moisture Expansion of Glazes and Other Ceramic Finishes." ACS Journal 14 (1931): 313-19. 384. Schwartz, Melvin M. Handbook of Structural Ceramics. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1992. Abstract:


Provides a basic introduction to ceramic processing techniques and procedures, classes of ceramics, current mechanical data for design purposes, materials and their methods of manufacture, and subsequent fabrication and assembly methods, leading to a broad base of information on ceramic applications, including composite materials. Discusses mechanical properties of ceramics, commercial structural ceramics, forming, processing and densification of powders, greenware fabrication, high temperature processing and consolidation, fabrication and manufacturing methods. The author concludes with a discussion of major applications for ceramic materials and processes, including a classification of ceramics by function and material, prognostication of ceramic applications, markets for structural ceramics, and non-destructive evaluation 385. Searle, Alfred B. The Chemistry and Physics of Clays and Other Ceramic Materials. London: E. Benn limited, 1933. Abstract: Discusses the physical structure and physical and optical properties of clays in raw and burned form. Provides information on the physical properties of clays in the dry, paste and liquid form, discusses the changes in physical condition of wet clays, including their colloidal properties and plasticity, the chemical composition of ceramic materials and their products, and the physio-chemical reactions of ceramic materials. Also discusses the effect of heat in drying, firing, and cooling ceramic materials, and their electrical conductivity and resistivity. Includes a concise summary of methods for identifying ceramic materials and their optical properties, and the optical properties of ceramic articles, glazes and enamels 386. ------. The Clayworker's Handbook: a Manual for All Engaged in the Manufacture of Articles From Clay. London: Charles Griffen & Co, 1921. Abstract: A very thorough "manual for all engaged in the manufacture of articles from clay," written by a contemporary authority on the clay products industry. Provides a concise introduction to the physical properties of clays, manufacturing procedures and standard tests for measuring the physical properties of clay products. Discusses the properties and behaviour of clay materials, the preparation of clays, clayworking machinery, transportation, drying, engobing and glazing, setting, kilns, firing, deterioration mechanisms associated with clay products and standard tests for measuring the physical properties of clay products. The appendices include practical information on chemical calculations, specifications for clay base materials, chemical formulae of some compounds used in clayworking, standard sizes of bricks in different countries, tables relating to firing temperatures, machinery and drying, as well as a list of standard books and journals dealing with clayworking. Of particular interest are an extensive glossary of defects and a chapter


describing tests, analyses and controls, also arranged alphabetically 387. ------. An Introduction to British Clays, Shales and Sands. London: Charles Griffin and Company, 1912. 388. ------. Modern Brickmaking. London: Scott, Greenwood & Son, 1911. Abstract: An exhaustive and systematic description of the brickmaking industry in England at the turn of the twentieth century, including many photographs, line drawings and illustrations of kilns, equipment and machinery 389. Searls, Carolyn L., and Sven E. Thomasen. "Repair of the Terra-Cotta Facade of Atlanta City Hall." Structural Repair and Maintenance of Historical Buildings II. Vol. 2: Dynamics, Stabilisation and Restoration. C. A. Brebbia, J Dominguez, and F. Escrig, 245-57. Southampton, United Kingdom: Computational Mechanics Publications, 1991. Abstract: The Atlanta City Hall, constructed in 1930, is a 15-story concrete framed, terra-cotta clad building. By the 1980's, the terra cotta was severely decayed with cracks running the full height of the building and extensive spalling of terra-cotta. A preservation and renovation program of the building was undertaken by the city of Atlanta. WJE performed field and laboratory tests to determine the cause of the failure and designed repairs for the terra-cotta cladding. The 2.3 million dollar exterior restoration was completed in 1990 390. Seger, Herman August. The Collected Writings. Easton, PA: The Chemical Publishing Company, 1902. Abstract: A compilation of articles written at different intervals during the life of Dr. Seger, a pioneer in the exposition of the principles of ceramic manufacture. This edition is an English language translation of the first German edition, published posthumously in 1895. Chapters treat a wide variety of subjects from all branches of the clay industries, including brick, terra cotta, earthenware, stoneware, whiteware, porcelain and refractory wares. Seger was then most widely known for his fusible cones and the system of kiln temperature measurement he devised 391. Shepard, A. Ceramics for the Archaeologist. Washington: Carnegie Institute of Washington, 1963. 392. Slaton, D., and H. J. Hunderman. "Terra Cotta." Twentieth-Century Building Materials History and Conservation. Thomas C Jester. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995. Abstract: Basic information on history and conservation, including deterioration mechanisms, conditions assessment, conservation techniques, and replacement materials


393. Slaton, Deborah, and M. R. Morden. "Issues in the Salvage and Reuse of Terra Cotta: Two Case Studies." Standards for Preservation and Rehabilitation, ASTM STP 1258. S. J. Kelley, 307-18. American Society for Testing and Materials, 1996. Abstract: The historic Winch and Marks and Spencer buildings formerly occupied a site near the center of Victoria, British Columbia. As part of a new development project they were demolished and terracotta elements from their facades were restored, repaired and re-installed as either a whole façade (in the case of the Winch building), or as decorative elements (in the case of the Marks and Spencer building). The authors describe the specific technical and design issues involved in each case, and also discuss, in general, their approach to salvage and reuse of architectural terracotta. Photographs and drawings illustrate the processes and design solutions of each case. Guidelines for salvage and reuse are presented 394. Sloop, Jessica Amy. "Repair of Damaged Glazed Terra Cotta Surfaces a Comparative Study of Remedial Coatings for Their Effectiveness on Areas of Glaze Loss in Temperate Maritime Weathering Conditions." Master's thesis, University of Pennsylvania, 1996. Abstract: The experimental program of this thesis is an attempt to address questions related to the issue of in situ glaze repair. The tests conducted evaluate remedial coatings both for their effectiveness in protecting exposed areas of clay body, and for their ability to replicate glaze characteristics when subjected to weathering conditions of a temperate maritime climate. Builds on previous research by Vierra, 1995 395. Snell, Peter. "The Conservation of Architectural Terracotta." Postgraduate Diploma in Building Conservation, Architectural Association, London, 1983, Unpublished. 396. Speir, Oswald. "Architectural Terracotta." The Architect and Engineer (1915): 77-83. Abstract: Discusses the history of the use of terracotta from ancient civilizations to the present, citing examples from each major period; describes the early history and development of terracotta in the United States. The article claims that the use of terracotta in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts at the end of the nineteenth century revived its use as an architectural material. The use of cast iron in buildings throughout the United States, also increased the demand for terracotta. Indicates that the major advantages of terracotta include its capacity to be moulded before it hardens, its hardening by the burning and firing process, and its durability, lightness and fire-resisting qualities. Provides many examples of the use of terracotta in sky-scrapers in major cities in the United States, and discusses the use of glazed and coloured terracotta as an ornamental


material for sky-scrapers 397. Spinosa, Nicola, Anna Chiara Alabiso, Denise Pagano, Daniela Ferragni, Paolo Mora, Giorgio Torraca, and Ippolito Massari. " Il Restauro Del Chiostro Maiolicato Di S Chiara in Napoli." Le Superfici Dell'Architettura: Il Cotto, Caratterizzazioni e Trattamenti (1992): 517-26. Abstract: The renowned glazed tile decoration of the cloister in the S Chiara monastery, in Naples, is threatened by a deterioration process in which blisters are formed, separating the glaze from the ceramic body. A research project involving several laboratories and some observations made in the course of field experiments of consolidation established that the decay was attributed to two different processes: 1) the crystallization of soluble salts, migrating into the masonry from the soil of the garden; and 2) the development of algae between the glaze and the ceramic body The conservation programme which is presently under way (although delayed by periodical lack of funds) involves the execution of major works aiming to avoid water penetration 398. Spurrier, H. "Notes on Terra Cotta Glaze Consistency." ACS Journal 12 (1929): 577-80. Abstract: Some of the difficulties encountered in applying glazes to terra cotta are discussed. It is suggested that in order to control a glaze it should first be made to a desirable specific gravity and then the desired viscosity at that gravity be ascertained by experiment. The effect of change of alkalinity and of bacteria together with the control of glaze wastage are also discussed 399. Spurrier, H. "Some Fundamentals of Terracotta." ACS Journal 9 (1926): 773-78. Abstract: Discusses major analytical techniques and tests for characterizing the physical prepares of terracotta. Indicates that terracotta has heterogeneous properties, and that considerable differences of opinion exist regarding the physical properties which make it suitable for use as an architectural material. Indicates that the voids in terracotta are of more than one kind of origin and that grog used in terracotta is frequently unsuitable in character and size. The article states that a more fundamental understanding of material properties will probably alter current ideas on suitable grogs. Describes tests for internal stress, osmotic action, and internal degradation. Includes illustrations of certain physical characteristics of terracotta


400. ------. "Some Important Points in the Manufacture of Terracotta." Fuels and Furnace 8 (1930): 707-10. Abstract: Discusses the various methods for controlling properties of materials used in the manufacturing of terracotta units. The article claims that the clays must have good plasticity, mature from cone 2 to cone 5, possess a suitable temperature range before bloating, and burn to similar bodies of maturity. Provides a table of the composition of clays from Indiana and Ohio deposits used extensively in manufacturing terracotta. Describes the properties that certain minerals can impart at given concentrations (ie, sulfur, iron, lime, magnesium, silica, alumina), and states that the addition of grog of the same origin as the clay body can off-set excessive shrinkage and increase the strength of the body during firing. It was also found that ferruginous grog produced better bonds between grog and body than grog with a low iron content, and that adding barium compounds, such as carbonate or hydrate, or both together, can prevent the formation of scum on the surface of the terracotta unit 401. ------. "Some Observations on Terracotta Physics." ACS Journal 10 (1927): 686-92. Abstract: A discussion of data obtained through testing apparatus designed to determine thermal expansion behavior of terra cotta bodies. Water was used as the vehicle for heat and the results of the testing are described with excited surprise by the author. A distinct contraction of the body upon wetting is followed by a steady expansion relative to increasing temperature. Upon cooling the body initially contracts slowly before expanding dramatically 402. Spurrier, Harry. "Some Fundamentals of Terra Cotta." ACS Journal 9 (1926): 773-78. Abstract: The author presents data in narrative form pertaining to several loosely related laboratory tests on terra cotta. Analyses included microscopic observation of grog particles and voids in thin sections, a test for internal osmotic pressure, and a test of the effect of freeze/thaw cycling on the rate of absorption 403. Stacey, A. E., and H. B. Matzen. "Ceramic Drying and Driers." ACS Journal 8 (1925): 525-33. Abstract: An analysis of the principles of humidity drying and a discussion of various forms of construction and equipment 404. Stephani, W. J. "The Construction and Operation of a Terra Cotta Plant." ACS Transactions 9 (1907): 506-27. Abstract: Superintendent of the O.W. Ketcham Terra Cotta Company in


Philadelphia, provides an introduction into the establishment of a terra cotta plant. Location and construction of buildings and kilns, selection and preparation of clay and grog, modeling, molding pressing and finishing processes, and drying, glazing, setting and burning are all discussed 405. ------. "Shivering." ACS Bulletin 5 (1926): 421-23. 406. ------. "Some Practical Observations in the Drying of Terra Cotta." ACS Transactions 13 (1911): 746-50. Abstract: Observations on the relationship between the rate of drying and the warping of architectural terra cotta elements. Testing was done on both ashlar blocks and on pieces of dentil molding. 407. Stockbridge, Jerry G. "Analysis of in-Service Architectural Terracotta." APT Bulletin XVIII, no. 4 (1986): 41-45. Abstract: Discusses analytical tests for detecting hidden damage in terracotta tested on more than 1000 masonry evaluations performed by Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc in Northbrook, Illinois in the last ten years. The article claims that water leakage and water induced deterioration present the most common problems encountered in architectural terracotta. Presents a simple method for locating sources of water entry in which a hand-held, calibrated nozzle is used to direct a spray toward a suspected location, while water flow in the walls is monitored through inspection openings. In the case of particularly difficult water leakage problems, moisture meters can provide useful data on the moisture content of masonry materials. Metal detectors can be used to locate metal wall ties and steel members and copper/copper sulphate tests can also detect corroding steel elements. Describes crack monitoring techniques for masonry walls, and strain relief testing to measure the stress levels at particular locations in a building 408. ------. "Woolworth Building Renovation: Precast Concrete Used for Terracotta Facade ." Prestressed Concrete Institute Journal 28, no. 4 (1983): 13647. Abstract: Discusses the renovation of the Woolworth Building's terracotta facade using precast concrete as a replacement material for weathered units. Indicates that concrete was chosen because of its availability and reduced cost. Describes the investigation procedures and laboratory testing, and the fabrication of replacement materials and their installation in the building 409. Stone, Herbert Stuart. The Terracotta Guide. Chicago: Stone and Kimball, 1893. 410. Stratton, Michael. "The Manufacture and Utilisation of Architectural Terracotta


and Faience." University of Aston, 1983. 411. ------. "The Nature of Terracotta and Faience." Architectural Ceramics; Their History, Manufacture and Conservation. Jeanne Marie Teutonico. London: James and James Ltd, 1996. Abstract: The author suggests that an historical understanding of the nature of terracotta and the reasons for its use should be carefully considered before making any decisions about its conservation. Briefly reviewing the history of terracotta products from the mid 18th century, it is noted that not until the mid-Victorian period did true ceramic based terracotta become the 'norm' in Britain. The simple homogenous clay body of coal measure clays became the more widely used raw material for the manufacture of terracotta in the later 19th century, as opposed to the more complex 'compound' mixture of clay, sand, ground glass, feldspar, flint and mineral colours, this was due in part to the developments of clay working machinery. Discussing the constituents it is noted that when manufacturing terracotta a balance had to be struck between finer clays, which held finer detail, and coarser clays which did not shrink as much in firing; a typical formula being 70 % silica, 20 % alumina, 7 % water and 3 % iron. Under the heading Glazing and Architectural Faience, the confusing and complicated subject of clear and coloured glazes is discussed, noting that early glazes were not suitable for exterior use until Doulton used a matte earthenware faience in 1858, a salt glazed finish in 1883 and Carraraware in 1888. America embraced glazed ceramics as a building finish from the mid-1890's, culminating in the polychromy of the 1920's30's. It is emphasized that terracotta cannot be viewed solely as a 'fired clay material' just as a limestone is not just a limestone. Through the evolution of architectural terracotta there have been many different types of terracotta, their constituents being governed by many factors; these must all be understood before any attempt at conservation can be undertaken 412. ------. "The Terracotta Industry: Its Distribution, Manufacturing Processes, and Products." Industrial Archaeology Review VIII, no. 2 (1986): 194-214. Abstract: Discusses the revival of terracotta and faience as architectural materials during the last two hundred years. The article argues that the distribution, and development of the industry, and the nature of the terracotta produced, relates closely to clay geology. Indicates that the transition from the use of younger clays found in the south-west of England to the use of Coal Measures explains the emergence of new firms able to massproduce large, brightly coloured blocks on an extensive scale. The article contends that the technology of manufacture shows that only minimal


changes occurred in the basic processes during the course of the revival, but that new skills in making models and moulds in plaster and applying glazes instigated fundamental changes in the decorative qualities of architectural terracotta and faience 413. ------. The Terracotta Revival: Building Innovation and the Image of the Industrial City in Britain and North America. London: Victor Gollancz in Association with Peter Crawley, 1993. Abstract: Attempts to document and describe the manufacture and use of terracotta and its glazed counterpart, faience, over the last 150 years. Examines the revival of terracotta in the nineteenth century as a means of exploring the role of the clayworkers, architects and clients in creating ceramic board schools, theatres and skyscrapers in industrial towns and cities. Defines terracotta terminology, and major causes and issues in the controversies associated with the terracotta industry. Discusses the geology and industry of terracotta and other clay products in England and United States, and the use of terracotta in the Victorian and Edwardian periods in England, and in the modern industrial era in Great Britain and the United States. Also includes an appendix of major manufacturers of terracotta and faience in Great Britain and the United States and a glossary of technical terms 414. ------. "Understanding and Conserving Terracotta." Context 52 (1996): 6-8. Abstract: Those responsible for conserving historic buildings in urban areas will often find terracotta facings - large blocks and slabs of molded clayware commonly dating from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The history of terracotta manufacture and use is presented and the problems of conservation highlighted. Most examples in the UK have been damaged by human intervention rather than pollution and decay. Modern methods of inspection, where available, may assist the early recognition of structural decay problems 415. Strusholm, A. M. "Overglaze Polychrome Cone No. 6." ACS Journal 14 (1931): 751-54. Abstract: Theories and observations for the prevention of crazing in a leaded fritted lustrous glaze are presented. The use of various raw materials and their effect upon a glaze with respect to crazing are discussed and several recommendations are made 416. Sturgis, John Hubbard. "Terracotta in Architecture." Proceedings of American Institute of Architects. New York: 1872. 417. Sturgis, Russell. A Dictionary of Architecture and Building, Biographical, Historical and Descriptive. New York: The MacMillan Co, 1902.


418. Summerson, Sir John. Georgian London. Penguin, 1945. 419. Talbot, Arthur N, and Duff A Abrams. "Tests of Brick Columns and Terracotta Block Columns." Bulletin, Engineering Experiment Station, University of Illinois , no. 27. 420. Talbot, James. The Use of Terracotta in Architecture. New York: American Bank Note Co, 1879. Abstract: Discusses the history of terracotta and the revival of the use of terracotta as an architectural material in the United States and Europe in the nineteenth century. The author argues that 'terracotta is an improvement upon Nature's geological productions', citing examples of terracotta ornamentation demonstrating its remarkable resistance to weathering. Also indicates its fire resistance, homogeneity and low cost as advantages for its use as a building material. Describes processes for moulding, drying and firing terracotta. Indicates that the acceptance of terracotta in the United States was slower than in Europe. Among terracotta manufacturers, cites the Boston Terracotta Works, the Perth Amboy Terracotta Company, and examples of their work 421. Tavenor-Perry, J. "An Episode in the History of English Terracotta." The Architectural Review 33 (1913): 119-22. Abstract: A chronicle of Coade stone and its makers 422. Taylor, James. "The History of Terracotta in New York City." Architectural Record 2 (1892): 137-48. Abstract: Discusses the revival and evolution of architectural terracotta in the United States in the nineteenth century. The article contends that James Renwick contributed more than any individual to introducing terracotta to New York, providing many examples of terracotta buildings by Renwick, Aspinwall & Russell in New York and Boston. Indicates that Chicago was the first city in the United States to make extensive use of architectural terracotta, providing many examples of terracotta buildings in Chicago. The article also claims that F H Kimball and Thos Wisedell initiated the use of highly ornamental terracotta work in the 1880's, providing examples of ornamental terracotta work in New York from this period. Also contends that prior to 1877, almost all American terracotta was in stone colours, and that architects on the East Coast introduced the use of colour in terracotta 423. ------. "Terracotta - Some of Its Characteristics." Architectural Record 1 (1891): 63-68. Abstract: Discusses the advent of the use of terracotta in architecture in the 1880's


and the role terracotta played in initiating recent advances in freedom of design. The article defines two methods for the use of burned architectural terracotta: terracotta as a substitute; and terracotta as a distinct building material. The author suggests that the proper use of terracotta demands: moderate size of pieces; manipulation of the surfaces; consideration in the construction; protection of the exposed joints; and freedom of shade in colour. Describes the procedures for manufacturing terracotta, and how these procedures affect the size, physical properties and appearance of the final product. Also points out common errors in the installation of terracotta that cause and or accelerate deterioration 424. Taylor, Jonathan. "A Study in the History and Conservation of Victorian and Edwardian Terracotta Buildings With Special Reference to The Midland Hotel, Manchester." MSc, Edinburgh College of Art, Heriot-Watt University, 1985. Abstract: Covers the historical development and theory of conservation and repair of terracotta including a study of The Midland Hotel, Manchester 425. Architectural Ceramics; Their History, Manufacture and Conservation: a Joint Symposium of English Heritage and the United Kingdom Institute for Conservation. Jeanne Marie Teutonico, and Kit Wedd. London: James & James, 1996. Abstract: A collection of 13 papers given at the joint symposium of English Heritage and the United Kingdom Institute for Conservation, addressing historical background, current research and three case studies. Chapters include: preservation of delftware tiles; character and conservation of Coade stone; the nature of terracotta and faience; evaluation of cleaning methods for unglazed terracotta; laser energy cleaning of terracotta; current cleaning practice in the UK; and conservation case studies involving a Spanish tile floor in the Lord Mayor's chapel in Bristol, UK, and three Victorian mosaics. 426. Thomasen, S. E. "Seismic Stabilization of Historic Buildings." Structural Repair and Maintenance of Historical Buildings III. editors C. A. Brebbia, and R. J. B. Frewer, 468-74. Boston: Computational Mechanics Publications, 1993. Abstract: The author presents four case studies to illustrate problems associated with seismic stabilization. Distinct characteristics of seismic failure in masonry buildings are presented and methods of stabilization are discussed 427. Thomasen, S. E., and C. L. Searls. "Seismic Retrofit of Historic Structures in California." Dynamics, Stabilization and Restoration, II. C. A. Brebbia, J.


Dominguez, and F. Escrig, 45-51. Boston: Computational Mechanics Publications, 1991. Abstract: yes 428. Thomasen, Sven, Geoffrey Frohnsdorff, and Barbara Horner. "Degradation and Rehabilitation of Terra Cotta." Second International Conference on Durability of Building Materials and Components. Washington: National Bureau of Standards, 1981. 429. Thomassen, Sven E. "Inspecting, Testing and Analyzing Terracotta." Friends of Terracotta Newsletter 1, no. 3 (1982): 1, 3-4. Abstract: Guidelines for inspecting, testing and analyzing architectural terracotta common failures, field investigation stress measurement, laboratory tests and rehabilitation testing 430. Thomassen, Sven E, and Carolyn L Searls. "Diagnosis of Terracotta Glaze Spalling." Masonry: Materials, Design, Construction, and Maintenance, ASTM Special Technical Publication (1988): 227-36. Abstract: Glaze spalling is one of the most common failures in terracotta facades. Describes the separation of the hard impermeable glaze from the clay bisque which exposes the body to water and thus decay. Causes of decay and methods of diagnosis are reviewed 431. Thrall, Charles U. "Terracotta: Its Character and Construction I-III." The Brickbuilder 18 (1909): 204-7, 231-35, 249-53. Abstract: A three-part series aimed at instructing architects in the design and use of architectural terra cotta construction. A concise introduction with drawings and design details for brick masonry and reinforced concrete structural systems 432. Timme, Joseph. "Architectural Terracotta." The Brickbuilder 2 (1893): 1-3, 11-14, 21-23. Abstract: A three part article addressing the history of terra cotta use in architecture, its composition for use in building, and the practical aspects of contemporary terra cotta design and manufacture 433. Timmerman, W. "Polychrome in Terracotta." ACS Bulletin 12 (1933): 276-80. 434. Preservation and Conservation: Principles and Practices, 10-16 September 1972. Sharon Timmons. The Preservation Press, 1976. 435. Tindall, Susan M. "How to Prepare Project-Specific Terracotta Specifications." APT Bulletin XXI, no. 1 (1989): 26-36.


Abstract: Discusses the history of terracotta production in the United States from the late nineteenth century to the first quarter of the twentieth century. Provides examples of historic industry standards for the manufacturing and installation of terracotta with illustrations. Identifies the major variables to consider in specifying replacement pieces for failed terracotta: compressive strength, Young's modulus (ie, modulus of elasticity), shear strength, bending strength (ie, flexural strength), expansion coefficients, absorption, and hardness, all tested in light of the uncorrectable stresses and flaws inherent in the original structure 436. ------. "Technical Notes." Friends of Terracotta Newsletter 3, no. 1 (1984): 4. Abstract: Describes crazing in terracotta, and discusses deterioration mechanisms associated with crazing. Indicates that painting crazed terracotta can both destroy the visual integrity of the terracotta, and also accelerate water penetration and decay. If water entry is a problem, the article recommends repointing of deteriorated joints, constructing sound parapet walls and roofing, and inserting proper sills, gutters, and drainage systems. Indicates that painting should only be used as a last resort such as in cases where sandblasting has removed all exterior glaze, exposing the porous core of the terracotta 437. ------. "Terracotta Replacement." APT Bulletin XX, no. 3 (1988): 12-14. Abstract: Discusses procedures for surveying terracotta conditions prior to specifying a programme for restoration work. Identifies tests for determining the properties of the original terracotta, and identifying appropriate conservation measures. Discussed water absorption, boil absorption, firing temperature, moisture expansion, water uptake with and without glaze, compressive strength, shear strength, petrographic examination, x-ray diffraction and fluorescence, glaze adhesion, coefficient of thermal expansion, and Young's modulus of elasticity. The article recommends specific formatting for visual and written information necessary for replacement terracotta for restoration work, including references, submittals, and quality assurance, and a schedule for delivery, storage and handling, and execution 438. Tite, M S. "The Impact of Electron Microscopy on Ceramic Studies." Proceedings of the British Academy, 77. The British Academy, 1992. Abstract: Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in combination with quantitative elemental analysis, provides a powerful technique for studying the microstructure of ancient ceramics. The primary aim of such studies is to elucidate the production technology in terms of the raw materials used, the methods of decoration and the firing procedures. A similar approach can be used to extract information on metal production processes from


the associated refractory ceramic debris (eg furnace linings, tuyeres, etc). To illustrate the power of the SEM, information thus obtained on production technology is presented for Greek Attic red-figure ware, Chinese blue-and-white porcelain and Izmik ware, a well as for glass and other vitreous materials such as faience and Egyptian blue. The role of transmission electron microscopy, which can reveal finer details of ceramic microstructures, is also briefly discussed, and the need to consider ceramic technology in its wider cultural context is emphasized 439. Toronto Region Architectural Conservancy. Terra Cotta: Artful Deceivers. Ontario: Architectural Conservancy of Ontario, Inc., 1990. Abstract: A collection of 21 articles exploring the legacy of architectural terra cotta in Ontario, Canada. Subjects include stylistic periods, local manufacturing, unusual architecture and recent restoration projects 440. Torraca, Giorgio. "Brick, Adobe, Stone and Architectural Ceramics: Deterioration Processes and Conservation Practices." Preservation and Conservation Principles and Practice: Proceedings of the North American International Regional Conference. Washington, DC: The Preservation Press. Abstract: Discusses physical characteristics and deterioration mechanisms associated with brick, adobe, stone and architectural ceramics. The article classifies masonry materials into two major classes: 1) hard, brittle, porous materials exhibiting good cohesive strength and limited plasticity (ie, mortar, plaster, stone, brick, and all ceramics); 2) soft materials with poor cohesive strength and some plasticity (ie, all materials made primarily of unbaked clay, such as adobe, mud, soil, and sod, and exhibiting the properties of such clay) Describes deterioration processes of hard and soft masonry materials, methods for identifying these conditions, and conservation practices for each type of material. Provides recommendations for preventing deterioration, and conservation measures for stone, brick masonry, plaster, and architectural ceramics 441. Tunick, Susan. "The Reign of Terra Cotta in the United States: Enduring in an Inhospitable Environment, 1930-1968." Association for Preservation Technology Bulletin 29, no. 1 (1998): 43-48. Abstract: The 'late years' of terra cotta were marked by its altered but still considerable presence in the fabric of modern buildings. Discusses the dearth of terracotta in architecture during the mid-twentieth century 442. ------. Terra Cotta--Don't Take It for Granite; 3 Walks in New York City Neighborhoods. New York: Friends of Terra Cotta Press, 1995.


443. ------. Terra-Cotta Skyline: New York's Architectural Ornament. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1997. Abstract: A beautifully illustrated look at New York City's architectural terra cotta legacy. A chronicle of the development of a local terra cotta industry is followed by chapters describing the manufacturing process, the organization and promotion of the industry, and the evolving use of finishes and glazes. Also includes appendices with lists and histories of American terra cotta manufacturers 444. ------. "Welcome Back Terra Cotta: a Decade of Renewed Interest. "Ceramics in Architecture: Proceedings of the International Symposium, The Ceramics Cultural Heritage, of the 8th Cimtec World Ceramics Congress and Forum on New Materials. P. Vincenzini. Faenza, Italy: TECHNA, 1995. Abstract: After nearly a half century of decline, the popularity of architectural terracotta in the United States has begun to grow significantly. An extraordinary range of terracotta ornamentation has been used in American buildings during the last 10 years. This article focuses on the current manufacture of terracotta, as well as its role in both the restoration of historic buildings (such as Louis Sullivan's Guaranty Building) and the design of contemporary building projects (such as Venturi, Scott Brown & Associates' Seattle Art Museum). Manufacturing methods and preservation-related issues, and a brief history of the industry, are also discussed 445. Vaccari, Maria Grazia. Raffaello e Altri. I Restauri Dell'Opifico. Catalogo Della Mostra: Firenze, Orsanichele 10 Guigno - 30 Settembre 1990. Firenze: Centro Di, 1990. Abstract: Examines the restoration of terracotta, stucco and plaster of Paris decoration. Ways of reintegrating and reconstituting terracotta, plaster and stucco surfaces are discussed, as are their principal causes of deterioration: microfloral attacks, mineral deposits, inappropriate restorations and temperature changes causing expansion and contraction. Presents a practical case study to demonstrate treatment: a polychrome stucco crucifix in Monteserasio sanctuary, Florence, Italy. The stucco crucifix required restoration: fragments breaking off; both arms broken; clumsy repainting and conservation work. Work necessitated reinforcing the arms with epoxy resins; reattaching the broken parts with bronze rods and glues; cleaning the polychromy; removing the overpaintings; reintegrating missing colours 446. Valpy, N. "Advertisements for Artificial Stone in the Daily Advertiser." English Ceramic Circle Transactions 12, part 3 (1986): 206-26.


447. Van Lemmen, Hans. "Victorian Tiles." Shire Album 67.Aylesbury, England: Shire Publications Ltd, 1981. 448. Vecchi, Gastone. European Ceramics Glossary. Faenza, Italy: Gruppa Editoriale Faenza Editrice, 1992. Abstract: A translation of ceramic terminology into several European languages 449. Veit, Richard F. "Skyscrapers and Sepulchers: a Historic Ethnography of New Jersey's Terra Cotta Industry." Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania, 1997. 450. Venturi, Rauch, and Scott Brown. A Master Plan for the Selective Restoration and Continued Use of the Furness Building, University of Pennsylvania, Volume II: Building Conditions. 1986. Abstract: This report presents the results of a preliminary study on the stones, and conditions of the combined structure known as the Furness Library, Duhring Wing, and Leah Reading Room at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pa. Assesses the conditions of the facade, and identifies mechanisms of decay. Includes recommendations for restoration and conservation. Analysis of stone specimens was performed by x-ray powder diffraction, petrographic analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. Provides a table of the mineral composition of sandstone specimens. Recommendations for cleaning included: SureKlean Heavy Duty Restoration Cleaner 994 (two applications, full strength), 1:3 SureKlean Heavy Duty Restoration Cleaner to water, 1:2 Bac-2-Nu to water, and 1:4 SureKlean Heavy Duty Restoration Cleaner to water. SureKlean Heavy Duty Restoration Cleaner 994 is a 1:1 mixture of hydrofluoric and phosphoric acids 451. Viera, Ricardo J. "Testing and Analysis of Terra Cotta Glaze Repairs." Standards for Preservation and Rehabilitation, ASTM STP 1258. S. J. Kelley, 31936. Conshohocken, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials, 1996. Abstract: Building on testing and analysis of glaze repair coatings and systems (Jacob, 1989 and Vierra, 1992), five coatings were tested for three performance characteristics; UV stability, freeze-thaw resistance, and adhesion performance. Lab tested coatings were also applied to outdoor test panels for long-term analysis. Methodology, observations and conclusions are presented with photographs of failures for each test. The author discusses of the state of glaze repair testing and the need for further study, and recommends future testing and evaluation 452. Vierra, R. J. "Cold Glazing Terra Cotta: the Repair of Damaged Glazed Surfaces." master's thesis, Columbia, 1992.


453. Vita, C G de. "Interventi Di Consolidamento e Protezione/Consolidation and Protection Interventions." Rassegna Dei Beni Culturali 4, no. 2 (1988): 1620, 57. Abstract: Describes four case studies of stone, terracotta, and rendering conservation in historic buildings in Italy: the 17th century facade of Palazzo Stanga in Cremona; the 16th century church of S Maurizio al Monastero Maggiore and the mediaeval Palazzo della Ragione in Milan; the late 19th century palace of justice in Rome. The importance of choosing different solutions for the different materials and situations is emphasized. Photographs 454. Wagner, Charles, and Ian McCaig. "Cast Stone." Traditional Homes 4, no. 1 (1987): 10-20. Abstract: Imitations of stone have been produced throughout recorded history using different methods and materials. Artificial stone includes both ceramic products, like faience and terracotta, and 'cast stone' or 'reconstructed stone', actually a specialized form of pre-cast concrete, consisting of selected and graded aggregates and cement, shaped by casting into moulds to make a wide variety of products. The paper provides a historical introduction, then describes manufacturing techniques and considers problems of durability. Recommendations for use are given, with emphasis on conservation applications. Includes bibliography, British Standard specifications, and a list of useful addresses in England 455. Wagner, F. "Hints on Design in Terracotta." The Brickbuilder 12 (1903): 119-24. Abstract: The author provides a general introduction to the advantages and limitations of architectural terra cotta with specific instructions on construction detailing. Includes drawings and design details for structural brick masonry construction 456. Walker, Frank R. The Building Estimator's Reference Book . Chicago: Frank Walker Co, 1921. 457. Wallasch, S., F. H. Schlutter, Juling, and R. Blaschke. "Weathering and Conservation of North German Terracotta." Conservation of Historic Brick Structures: Case Studies and Reports of Research., 347-59. Dorset, England: Donhead, 1998. Abstract: One article specific to terracotta in a volume dedicated to brick conservation: technology; degradation mechanisms; diagnosis of damage; field studies, testing and modeling; mortars and renderings; conservation treatments and materials; and case studies 458. Ward, Ian. "The Development, Manufacture, Use and Maintenance of


Architectural Terracotta in English Building." Postgraduate Diploma in Architectural Building Conservation, Leicester Polytechnic School of Architecture, 1982. 459. Warnes, A R. "Building Materials: Their Deterioration, Decay, Cleaning, and Separation." C of W Association Journal 55 (1938): 154-57. 460. Warren, Charles P. "Notes on Standard Form of Specifications for Architectural Terracotta." The Brickbuilder 14 (1905): 8-17. Abstract: An excellent narrative describes and justifies the standard specification for terra cotta that is presented. Drawings further explain the division of work between the various trades responsible for assembly 461. Watts, A. "The Effect of Furnace Atmospheres on the Quality of Certain Types of Glazes." ACS Journal 14 (1931): 460-489. Abstract: The results of research sponsored by the American Gas Association, undertaken at Rutgers University in January 1929. Several glazes were exposed to variations in kiln gas composition to distinguish the effects on glazes of certain constituent gases, and to determine the effects of combinations of gases similar to actual flue-gases and kiln atmospheres 462. Weaver, Martin E, and F. G Matero. Conserving Buildings: a Manual of Techniques and Materials. New York: Wiley, 1997. Abstract: An excellent section on terracotta in a chapter devoted to architectural ceramics. Includes history, manufacturing process, essential properties, defects and deterioration, cleaning techniques, replacement, etc 463. Weisman, Winston. "The Commercial Architecture of George B Post." Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 31, no. 3 (1972): 176. Abstract: Discusses the commercial architecture of George B Post, and examines the major trends and influences apparent in his designs. Provides a brief biography of George B Post, and examines the first 45 years of the work of George B Post & Sons (1868-1913). Describes commercial buildings demonstrating Post's interest in the Second Empire mode, the Renaissance Revival mode, and the influence of Richard M Hunt, the French architect Ledoux in his later designs. Indicates that Post is credited by James Taylor for erecting 'the first strictly architectural terracotta building' in New York City, the Long Island Historical Society, and for having introduced and popularized the use of terracotta in architecture. Includes an appendix listing the drawings, photographs, and account books documenting Post's work at the archives of George Post & Sons at the New York Historical Society


464. White, Charles E. Architectural Terracotta. Scranton, Pa: International Correspondence Schools, 1949. 465. Wilson, H. "Notes on Pinholing and Peeling on Terra Cotta." ACS Transactions 19 (1917): 209-15. Abstract: The author presents several observations regarding the causes and effects of pinholing and then advances a theory as to the cause of the defect in glazes. Provides a good definition of pinholing and suggests remedies including barium chloride and gum arabic 466. ------. "Notes on Terra Cotta Slips With Reference to the Use of Asbestos and Chlorite Mica." ACS Journal 3 (1920): 114-39. Abstract: An excellent synopsis of chemical and physical problems associated with clay slips for architectural terra cotta. Beginning with a brief historical background of the introduction and use of slips for terra cotta, the author proceeds to explore the effects of grog size and type, pressing and finishing methods, slip application methods and composition, on the feasibility and efficacy of various slips used in terra cotta manufacture 467. ------. "Polychrome Decoration of Terra Cotta With Soluble Metallic Salts." ACS Journal 1 (1918): 353-66. Abstract: After outlining various manufacturing techniques for polychrome glazing of terra cotta, the author presents the results of a series of glaze trials testing a technique of brushing on solutions of soluble metallic salts over a single spray-applied underglaze. Observations on the quality and evenness of color are given, as are difficulties or advantages specific to materials employed 468. Wilson, Hewitt. "Monograph and Bibliography on Terracotta." ACS Journal 9 (1926): 95-145. Abstract: Discusses physical characteristics of glazed and unglazed terracotta, their manufacturing processes, and conditions after installation. Includes a classification of terracotta, and a discussion of clay mixtures, grog and non-plastics, and soluble salts and the addition of barium compounds in terracotta. Discusses mining methods, tempering, Modelling, pressing and finishing, drying, and preparation of slips and glazes. Also discusses kilns and firing, cooling and dunting. The monograph concludes with a summary of the physical characteristics of terracotta 'in the wall', including its elasticity, thermal coefficient of expansion, thermal conductivity, porosity and absorption, and wet-dry strength. Also includes a bibliography of current sources on architectural terracotta


469. ------. "Note on Overglaze Colors at Cone 6-7." ACS Transactions 19 (1918): 653-58. Abstract: A case study of a particular problem with yellow and white glaze on ornamental terra cotta. The techniques employed by the author to achieve the desired polychromatic effect are described in detail 470. Wolfe, R David. "The Reading Terminal and Its Terracotta.". Abstract: Discusses the history of the construction of the Reading Terminal in Philadelphia, Pa, including the installation of brick and terracotta manufactured by the Perth Amboy Terracotta Company of Perth Amboy, New Jersey and New York in 1893. Also discusses brick manufacturing in the United States during that period. Indicates that the majority of terracotta used in the United States from 1890 to 1930 consisted of hollow blocks, approximately 4in deep, 1-1¼in thick, and 2-2½ sq ft in surface facing area. Discusses the development of machine-made ceramic veneer material during the 1930's, 1-1½in to 2in thick, for cladding along with acceptable precast concrete which led to a major decline in the use of architectural terracotta. Describes the structural systems, and the major deterioration conditions of the terracotta at the Reading Terminal. Provides a chronology for renewal of Market Street East Office Building, and subsequent alterations 471. Wonter-Smith, C. "In Praise of Terracotta." Claycraft 2 (1947): 340-41. Abstract: Discusses the history of architectural terracotta in England from the sixteenth century to the present. Provides examples of the use of terracotta in Tudor architecture, focusing on buildings designed by the Italian architect Trevisano, appointed by Henry VIII as the royal architect of England, dating from the 1520's. Examples include Sutton Palace, near Guildford, built by Trevisano in 1523 for Sir Richard Weston, and Layer Marney Hall, in Essex, also built by Trevisano as a residence for Sir Harry Marney. Also provides example of two Tudor manor houses in Norfolk which suggest Italian influences - East Barsham and Great Cressingham. The article claims that these examples disprove the notion that the use of terracotta in modern buildings offends 'the canons of constructional taste and fitness'. The article concludes that the use of terracotta in architecture represents a revival of a general practice characteristic of Victorian architecture in England 472. Worral, W E. Clays and Ceramics Raw Materials. New York: Elsevier, 1986. 473. Yorke, F R S ed. Terracotta Specifications. London: Architectural Press, 1935.




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