Read CONTINENTAL STEEL PRODUCTS HANDBOOK text version

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

100 Gul Circle Singapore 629586 Tel: +65 68620033 Fax: +65 68616448, 68625963/4006

Web: www.consteel.com.sg

PRODUCTS HANDBOOK

Structural Steel

2006 Edition

Subsidiary Companies:

Continental Hardware (M) Sdn Bhd Viewforth Trading and Engineering Pte Ltd Conblast Industries Pte Ltd Con-Struct Engineering Technology Pte Ltd

CONTENT

The Company Profile Services Explanatory Notes General information Introduction Materials - EN10025 : 2004 is the new European standard for structural steel History of the standard The new standard EN 10025 : 2004 Grade designation systems Grades, properties and nearest equivalents Manufacturing tolerances Comparison between general structural steel specifications Section Properties Dimensional units Mass and force units Comparison Between Hot Finished and Cold Formed Hollow Sections Introduction Specifications Manufacture of hollow sections Section properties Structural performance Compression resistance Web bearing and buckling Tension, shear and bending Summary Fire resistance Externally protected columns Internally protected columns Cost comparisons Universal Beams and Columns General Rolling tolerances - EN 10034 : 1993 Metric sizes Imperial sizes

1 1 2 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 13 16 17

18 21 21 22 22 22 23 24 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 28

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31 31 32 34 40

Cellular Beams Section sizes Castellated Beams Section sizes Structural Tees General Metric sizes Imperial sizes Bearing Piles General Metric sizes Imperial sizes Hot Finished Ellipcon Sections General Ellipcon sections Semi Ellipcon sections Hot Finished Hollow Sections General Comparable specifications Product specifications Chemical composition Mechanical properties Tensile test Charpy V-notch impact test Manufacturing tolerances Other specifications Circular sections Square sections Rectangular sections Cold Formed Hollow Sections General Comparable specifications Product specifications Chemical composition Mechanical properties Tensile test Charpy V-notch impact test Manufacturing tolerances Other specifications

57 57 58 58 63 63 64 68 77 77 78 80 83 83 84 85 87 87 87 88 88 88 88 88 89 90 91 96 100 105 105 105 106 106 106 106 106 107 107

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Circular sections Square sections Rectangular sections Channels Rolling tolerances - EN 10279 : 2000 Tapered Flange Metric sizes Imperial sizes Parallel Flange Purlins General Introduction Material specifications Storage and handling Holing and cleating for C Purlins Plain Channels Lipped Channels High-Tensile Galvanised C Purlins High-Tensile Galvanised Z Purlins Angles Rolling tolerances - EN 10056-2 : 1993 Equal Angles Unequal Angles Bars Flat Bars Square Bars Deformed and Round Bars Plates Product specifications Main specifications List of standard specifications Mild Steel Plates Chequered Plates Pipes JIS G3452 (1988) SGP BS 1387 (1985) API 5L (1991) and ASTM A53 (1997) Chemical composition Mechanical properties Section sizes

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108 111 116 119 119 120 120 121 124 125 125 125 125 126 127 129 130 132 133 135 135 136 138 139 139 141 142 143 143 143 144 148 149 153 153 154 156 156 156 157

Steel Sheet Piles PU Steel Sheet Piles Mechanical properties Dimensions and sectional properties Interlocking options Dimensional tolerances Handling holes and double piles KSP Steel Sheet Piles Mechanical properties Dimensions and sectional properties Interlocking options Dimensional tolerances Recommended maximum lengths for driving KSP Straight Web Sections Mechanical properties Dimensions and sectional properties Dimensional tolerances Gratings General Sizes Appendix Conversion factors

169 169 169 169 170 170 170 171 171 171 172 172 172 173 173 173 174

175 175

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LIST OF TABLE

Note: Section tables are not numbered and put in the list, except from High-Tensile Galvanised C and Z Purlins, Mild Steel Plates, Chequered Plates, API 5L (1991) and ASTM A53 (1997) pipes, Steel Sheet Piles to EN 10248:1996 and Other Steel Sheet Piles. Table 1 - EN 10025 : part 2 : 2004 Non-alloy structural steels Table 2 - EN 10025 : part 3 : 2004 Normalised/normalised rolled Table 3 - EN 10025 : part 4 : 2004 Thermo mechanically rolled Table 4 - EN 10025 : part 5 : 2004 Structural steels with improved atmospheric Table 5 - EN 10025 : part 6 : 2004 Flat products of high yield strength structural steels Table 6 - Comparison between general structural steel specifications Table 7 - Conditions for welding cold-deformed zones and adjacent material Table 8 - Fire resistance: Cost comparison - universal columns vs. circular hollows Table 9 - Fire resistance: Cost comparison - universal columns vs. rectangular hollows Table 10 - Universal Beams and Columns: Standard specifications Table 11 - Structural Tees: Standard specifications Table 12 - Bearing Piles: Standard specifications Table 13 - Hot Finished Hollow Sections: Comparable specifications Table 14 - Hot Finished Hollow Sections: Mechanical properties Table 15 - Hot Finished Hollow Sections: Manufacturing tolerances Table 16 - Cold Formed Hollow Sections: Comparable specifications Table 17 - Cold Formed Hollow Sections: Mechanical properties Table 18 - Cold Formed Hollow Sections: Manufacturing tolerances Table 19 - Purlins: Material specifications and tolerances Table 20 - Purlins: Tolerances on length and thickness Table 21 - High-Tensile Galvanised Purlins: Mechanical properties/Tolerances Table 22 - High-Tensile Galvanised Purlins: Cleat holes position Table 23 - High-Tensile Galvanised C-Purlins: Section sizes Table 24 - High-Tensile Galvanised Z-Purlins: Section sizes Table 25 - Plates: List of standards specifications Table 26 - Plates: Sizes of Mild Steel Plates Table 27 - Plates: Sizes of Chequered Plates Table 28 - API 5L and ASTM A53 Pipes: Chemical composition Table 29 - API 5L and ASTM A53 Pipes: Mechanical properties Table 30 - PU Steel Sheet Piles: Section sizes Table 31 - PU Steel Sheet Piles: Interlocking options Table 32 - PU Steel Sheet Piles: Dimensional tolerances Table 33 - KSP Steel Sheet Piles: Mechanical properties Table 34 - KSP Steel Sheet Piles: Section sizes and properties Table 35 - KSP Steel Sheet Piles: Interlocking options Table 36 - KSP Steel Sheet Piles: Dimensional tolerances Table 37 - KSP Straight Web Sections: Mechanical properties Table 38 - KSP Straight Web Sections: Section sizes and properties Table 39 - KSP Straight Web Sections: Interlocking strength Table 40 - KSP Straight Web Sections: Dimensional tolerances Table 41 - Gratings: Sizes 13 14 14 15 15 17 25 29 29 31 63 77 87 88 89 105 106 107 125 126 126 128 132 133 147 149 149 156

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156 169 170 170 171 171 172 172 173 173 173 175 174

LIST OF FIGURES

Note: Drawings from section tables are not numbered and put in this list, except from High-Tensile Galvanised C and Z Purlins, Mild Steel Plates, Chequered Plates, API 5L (1991) and ASTM A53 (1997) pipes, Steel Sheet Piles to EN 10248:1996 and Other Steel Sheet Piles. Figure 1 - Effect of cold working on material properties for cold formed hollow sections Figure 2 - Comparison of corner radius of hot finished and cold formed hollow sections Figure 3 - Compression/Slenderness curves for columns Figure 4 - Universal Beams and Columns: Section shapes Figure 5 - Structural Tees: Section shapes Figure 6 - Bearing Piles: Section shape Figure 7 - Twist of square or rectangular hollow sections Figure 8 - How to measure cross-sectional dimensions of hollow sections Figure 9 - C and Z Purlins Figure 10 - Holing and cleats for C purlins Figure 11 - PU Steel Sheet Piles: Dimensions Figure 12 - KSP Steel Sheet Piles: Dimensions Figure 13 - KSP Straight Web Sections: Dimensions Figure 14 - Gratings: Dimensions 24 24 26 31 63 77 90 90 125 127 169 171 173 175

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

The Company

Being one of the biggest premier steel suppliers throughout the region, Continental Steel has the first fully covered multi-storey warehouse that occupies a floor area of 350,000 sq. ft. The warehouse has facilities that allows the following services: a) Rust protected storage b) Larger stockholding capacity that can accommodate 150,000 tons of material c) 24 heavy-duty over-head cranes remotely controlled, some of which are magnetic d) Ability to service 12 container trucks at any one time e) Advanced handling system ensures quick delivery and turn around time f) Conducive working environment for more productive workforce in rain or shine

g) Ability to operate 24hr shifts to meet extra large quantity deadlines. Continental Steel Pte Ltd is a CIDB registered supplier in the L5 category for all structural steel

Apart from being the supplier of a comprehensive range of quality steel sections, Continental Steel aims to extend its commitment to customers by enhancing its services and adding new facilities. A dedicated team is tasked to provide technical support so as to advise the proper usage of steel and assist customers in using the products to its best advantage.

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SERVICES

· Technical support

With a new team of highly qualified engineers we can advise our customers on the correct use of structural steel and provide help on the structural design.

· Auto Cut and Bend operations

In current competitive business environment, efficiency and product specialization are the essence to a business survival and profitability. So for building contractors and developers, material usage control and wastage management plus other fixed overhead investments like machinery and work-shop space should be kept at a minimum level. To meet this demand we had invested both machinery, skill workers and other infra-structure to provide cut to size and bend to shape reinforcement bars services. Thus removing building contractors and developers tons of on-site work. Our company is also a HDB approved cut and bend service provider. Powerful hydraulic cutters are being used to cut high tensile reinforcement bars and having capacity to cut bars up to a diameter of 40mm. With auto feeding and measuring mechanism in corporate into the cutter, out-put of the cutting operation could be optimized. Furthermore overhead cranes facilities provide efficiency in both moving reinforcement bars from storage bay to production area and from production area to lorry for timely delivery.

· Shearing of steel plate

Shearing facility that sizes steel plates up to 20mm thickness and maximum 6.1m width.

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Dimensions and bend angles checks are part of the work process to ensure the end product meet customers' requirement. All bending activities are either fully automatic or machines assisted. Optimal layout of bending machines provides valuable space for storing finished products. Furthermore it provides capacity to bend bars up to 12 meters length. Thus out-sourcing cut and bend activities by contractors and developers assist them in managing their resources far more efficiently and effectively.

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CNC Drilling & Bandsawing Line System

The steel construction industry faces many challenges in this 21st century. Steel fabrication demands a fast track job, with complex detail and minimum tolerance to remain in competitive market. Continental Steel provides cut to length steel material, subsequently no wastage in construction site. With our automatic drilling and sawing service, we offer flexibility, productivity and reliability of steel products to meet customer's high standard requirements and tight schedule. With computerized measuring system, we ensure the highest accuracy in steel cutting and drilling. Whether your requirements call for complex or simple detail, large or small scale project, Continental Steel is your source for all CNC drilling and sawing requirements.

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The Kaltenbach 3 axis CNC drilling machine KD 1015 provides state of the art drilling to suit a wide range of material requirements. KD series have two horizontal and one vertical axis drill spindle, with a maximum drill capacity of 40 mm and are fitted as standard with an auto tool changer.

The Control Desk with graphical user interface under Windows and Touch-Screen Monitors ensures a fast and easy programming of the machine. Working Range and Technical Data: Angle steel max (mm) 250 x 250 x 28 U Steel max(mm) 400 x 110 H beam max (mm) 1,000 x 400 Drilling unit: Vertical (Y-axis) (pc) Horizontal (Z- and W-axes)(pc) Drill diameter (mm)

Features of the KD machine: - Machine gantry designed with robust welded construction - Programmed spindle speeds are automatically assigned to each drill diameter - Automatic drill offset by touch sensing of the drill tips against the material - Lowering program for all three drill bits - Electro-mechanical drill feed using ball bearing spindle with servo motor - Automatic cross-section measuring - Fast and precise drill spindles positioning via ball screw drive and servo motors.

1 2 10 - 40

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Services

Features of the KBS Bandsaw:

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Short setup times due to NC-controlled mitre angle setting and automatic cycle control (clamping - sawing- releasing) Enhanced band life thanks to full-stroke hydraulic band tensioning with auto stand-by tension feature, plus coolant atomizer system. Secure material clamping via selfadjusting machine vise. Coolant Atomizer System for efficiently lubrification and cooling of the sawband.

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Future expansion of new drilling technology will satisfy steel industry with advanced bolt connection for structural steel work industry. A new Thermal Friction Drilling system will bush length up to 3 times the original thickness. This system produces perfectly formed bushes using a combination of rotation speed and pressure to locally heat the material, forming a bush in various thickness of metal. The Band saw KBS 1001 DG was developed for the special requirements of steel construction and steel suppliers and combine solid machine construction with high performance elements. The large cutting range, even for acutely angled mitresquares on both sides, combined with compact construction, particularly distinguish this Bandsaw. A Hydraulic saw band feed, infinitely variable at the freestanding control cabinet (feed control by proportional valve technology) and a 7.5 KW strong drive motor with infinitely cutting speeds ensures perfect cutting performance.

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Via the graphical user surface Proficut, running under Windows, the machine could be programmed. The software is able to import DSTV or CSV files from customers' software. Different functions like a Material database, a part database or an order management module makes programming fast and very easy.

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Cutting range: Round material Bundles: Square Beams Mitre Cutting range Technical data: Band dimensions Drive capacity Cutting speeds mm KW m/min 8,250 x 54 x 1.6 7.5 16-100 90° 90° 90° 45° 30° mm mm mm mm mm 500 600 x 500 1,000 x 500 640 X 500 400 x 500

The efficiency and productivity of both machines are improved by auto measuring system, rollerway and material handling equipment. With a uniform control, Continental can achieve the optimum production environment In concert with our Quality Assurance program and continuous inspection control, we are in the edge in providing best flexibility, productivity and reliability of steel saw and drill service. We welcome the challenge to become your supplier of high quality ready-to-use steel products to be delivered on time.

degrees 45 - 90 - 30

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Services

· Auto shot blasting and painting

For better steel finishes and protection, the fully automatic shot blasting machines attend to the steel treatment needs with the provision of inhouse painting.

· Fully computerised administrative system

Computer networks that ensure quicker and more efficient administration fully support the office procedures from quotations to delivery.

· Galvanising

Hot dip galvanising provides the permanent good appearance and freedom from maintenance that ensures long service life.

· In house delivery service

Having a highly motivated team of delivery staff and efficient transportation services, just in time requirements can be achieved. There are 24 heavy-duty over-head cranes remotely controlled, some of which are magnetic with up to 12 tons loading capacity. A mobile crane with maximum 30 tons lifting capacity is also available to ensure unloading at any construction site. As one of the leading steel suppliers, Continental Steel has set up an industrial standard in the region. The company also has the capability of providing steels to the exact specified requirements for different needs.

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Explanatory Notes

General information

All weights and measures shown on invoices will be governed by standards of the respective specifications so offered. Care has been taken to ensure that all data and information herein are factual and that numerical values are accurate. To the best of our knowledge, all information contained in this handbook is accurate at the time of publication. Continental Steel Pte Ltd assumes no responsibility for errors in or misinterpretation of the information contained in this handbook or in its use.

Introduction

To serve the increasing demands for more section types and to create the awareness on the proper use of steel, we have come up with a new product catalogue. The new handbook has a more comprehensive range of products and useful technical information, and it also functions as a design reference for the consultants and a product catalogue for our customers. To help our customers to proper design and use of steel we have also extended the business by offering our customers technical support from our team of Structural Engineers. The catalogue contains up-to-date materials standards specifications. Note that new European standards supersede most of the old British Standards, see sections "Materials" and "Manufacturing tolerances" under this chapter, and the design guide BS 5950 substitutes BS 449. The content list of our new catalogue shows that we have increased the range of section types and sizes. This is to give our customers a bigger choice when selecting material and more room for imagination, innovation and flexibility when designing and planning for new structures. With more sections to choose from, the designers will have opportunities to make better and more cost efficient designs, by selecting the section size closest to that required. Some of the new section types we have added to our product list are: Structural Tees Cellular Beams Hot Finished Ellipcon Sections, elliptical and semi elliptical Parallel Flange Channels High-Tensile Galvanised C and Z Purlins. The new catalogue also contains a comparison between hot finished and cold formed hollow sections. We included this because substitution of cold formed sections for hot finished sections are very common in this region, but not everybody knows the differences between the two section types. The first few pages of the catalogue give a short resume of the company profile and the services we provide. The summary shows that we have extended our business by adding more value to the steel we supply to our customers. Our steel suppliers are mills with third party certifications, such as ISO, CARES and/or Lloyd's.

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Materials - EN10025 : 2004 is the new European standard for structural steel

EN 10025 : 2004 is the new European standard for structural steel. It shows the new grades, properties and the nearest equivalent grades from former standards including EN 10025 : 1993. The grade designation system is also explained.

History of the standard

The European Committee for Iron and Steel Standardisation is responsible for producing the European Standards (ENs) for structural steels. The first of these standards, EN 10025, was published in the UK by BSI as EN 10025 : 1990, partly superseding BS 4360 : 1986, which was re-issued as BS 4360 : 1990. In 1993, a second edition of EN 10025 was made available together with EN 10113 : parts 1, 2 & 3 and EN 10155. In June 1994, EN 10210 : part 1 was published and at the same time BS 4360 was officially withdrawn. The balance of the BS 4360 steels not affected by these ENs were re-issued in new British Standards BS 7613 and BS 7668. In 1996, with the publication of EN 10137, BS 7613 was withdrawn. BS 7668 will remain until an EN for atmospheric corrosion resistant hollow sections is available In 2004 the standard EN 10025 was revised to address the provisions of EU Construction Products Directive (89/106/EEC). It is now published in six parts to bring together almost all the 'Structural Metallic Products' into one comprehensive standard.

The new standard EN 10025 : 2004

The new standard is published in six parts and draws together earlier standards to produce one standard for the majority of structural steel products. The parts are: · Part 1 - General technical delivery conditions. · Part 2 - Technical delivery conditions for non-alloy structural steels. Supersedes EN 10025 : 1993 · Part 3 - Technical delivery conditions for normalised / normalised rolled weldable fine grain structural steels. Supersedes EN 10113 : parts 1 & 2 : 1993 · Part 4 - Technical delivery conditions for thermo mechanically rolled weldable fine grain structural steels. Supersedes EN 10113 : parts 1 & 3 : 1993 · Part 5 - Technical delivery conditions for structural steels with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance - also known as weathering steels. Supersedes EN 10155 : 1993 · Part 6 - Technical delivery conditions for flat products of high yield strength structural steels in the quenched and tempered condition. Supersedes EN 10137 : parts 1 & 2 : 1996

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Explanatory Notes

Grade designation systems

The designation systems used in the new standard are similar but not identical to EN 10025 : 1993 and very different to the familiar BS 4360 designations so the guide below has been prepared to assist purchasers, specifiers, designers and users of steel.

Symbols used in EN 10025 : part 2 : 2004 Non-alloy structural steels

S... E... .235... ...JR.. ...J0.. ...J2.. ...K2.. ...+N ...C.. ...Z.. Structural steel Engineering steel Minimum yield strength (Reh) in MPa @ 16mm Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts 27 J @ +20°C Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts 27 J @ 0°C Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts 27 J @ -20°C Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts 40 J @ -20°C Supply condition normalised or normalised rolled Grade suitable for cold forming Grade with improved properties perpendicular to the surface

...+AR Supply condition as rolled Customer options

Examples: S235JR+AR, S355K2C+N

Symbols used in EN 10025 : part 3 : 2004 Normalised/normalised rolled weldable fine grain structural steels

S... .275... ...N.. ...NL.. ...Z.. Structural steel Minimum yield strength (Reh) in MPa @ 16mm Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts at a temperature not lower than -20°C Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts at a temperature not lower than -50°C Grade with improved properties perpendicular to the surface

Customer options Examples: S275N, S420NL Z35

Symbols used in EN 10025 : part 4 : 2004 Thermo mechanically rolled weldable fine grain structural steels

S... .275... ...M.. ...ML.. ...Z.. Structural steel Minimum yield strength (Reh) in MPa @ 16mm Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts at a temperature not lower than -20°C Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts at a temperature not lower than -50°C Grade with improved properties perpendicular to the surface

Customer options Examples: S355M, S460ML Z25

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Symbols used in EN 10025 : part 5 : 2004 Structural steels with improved atmospheric corrosion resistance - also known as weathering steels

S... ...J0.. ...J2.. ...K2.. ...W.. ...P.. ...+N ...Z.. Structural steel Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts 27 J @ 0°C Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts 27 J @ -20°C Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts 40 J @ -20°C Improved atmospheric corrosion resistance Greater phosphorus content (grade S355 only) Supply condition normalised or normalised rolled Grade with improved properties perpendicular to the surface .355... Minimum yield strength (Reh) in MPa @ 16mm

...+AR Supply condition as rolled Customer options Examples: S235J0W+AR, S355K2W+N Z25

Symbols used in EN 10025 : part 6 : 2004 Flat products of high yield strength structural steels in the quenched and tempered condition

S... ...Q.. ...QL.. Structural steel Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts at a temperature not lower than -20°C Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts at a temperature not lower than -40°C .460... Minimum yield strength (Reh) in MPa @ 16mm

...QL1.. Longitudinal Charpy V-notch impacts at a temperature not lower than -60°C Customer options ...Z.. Grade with improved properties perpendicular to the surface Examples: S460Q, S690QL

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Explanatory Notes

Grades, properties and nearest equivalents

The tables below show the grades, properties and nearest equivalent grades from earlier standards. The grade designations are explained on the previous pages.

Comparison between grades in EN 10025 : part 2 : 2004 and nearest equivalent versions in EN 10025 : 1993 and BS 4360 : 1990 EN 10025 : part 2 : 2004 Grade Yield (Reh) min Tensile (Rm) Charpy V-notch longitudinal Temp ( C) 2

o

EN 10025 : 1993 Grade Energy (J) t =16mm 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 40 S185 S235 S235JRG1/G2 S235J0 S235J2G3/G4 S275 S275JR S275J0 S275J2G3/G4 S355 S355JR S355J0 S355J2G3/G4 S355K2G3/G4 E295 S335 E360

BS 4360 : 1990 Grade

Strength at t = 16mm (MPa) S185 1

185

290/510

40A 40B 40C 40D 43A 43B 43C 43D 50A 50B 50C 50D 50DD -

S235JR S235J0 S235J2 1

235

360/510

20 0 -20 -

S275JR S275J0 S275J2 1

2

275

410/560

20 0 -20 -

S355JR S355J0 S355J2 S355K2 E295 S335 E360

2

20 355 470/630 0 -20 -20 295 335 360 470/610 570/710 650/830 -

1 MPa = 1 N/mm 2

Table 1 ­ EN 10025 : part 2 : 2004 Non-alloy structural steels

Notes 1 For all products to be compliant with the EU Construction Products Directive (CPD 89/106/EC) the material must offer a guaranteed minimum impact performance. This has resulted in the removal of this grade from the standard, and the lowest grade now offered is the JR version for each yield strength variation. 2 Verification of the specified impact value is only carried out when agreed at the time of the enquiry and order.

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Comparison between grades in EN 10025 : part 3 : 2004 and nearest equivalent versions in EN 10113 : part 2 : 1993 and BS 4360 : 1990

EN 10025 : part 3 : 2004 EN 10113 : part 2 : 1993 BS 4360 : 1990

Grade

Yield (Reh) min

Tensile (Rm)

Charpy V-notch longitudinal Temp ( C)

-20

o

Grade

Grade

Strength at t = 16mm (MPa)

S275N 275 S275NL S355N 355 S355NL S420N 420 S420NL S460N 460 S460NL 550/720 -50 520/680 -50 -20 470/630 -50 -20 370/510 -50 -20

Energy (J) t =16mm

40 27 40 27 40 27 40 27 S275N S275NL S355N S355NL S420N S420NL S460N S460NL 43DD 43EE 50 50EE 55C 55EE

1 MPa = 1 N/mm 2

Table 2 ­ EN 10025 : part 3 : 2004 Normalised/normalised rolled

weldable fine grain structural steels

Comparison between grades in EN 10025 : part 4 : 2004 and nearest equivalent versions in EN 10113 : part 3 : 1993 EN 10113 : part 3 EN 10025 : part 4 : 2004 :1993 Grade Grade Yield (Reh) min Tensile (Rm) Charpy V-notch longitudinal Strength at t = 16mm (MPa) S275M S275ML S355M S355ML S420M S420ML S460M S460ML 1 MPa = 1 N/mm

2

Temp (°C) -20 -50

Energy (J) t = 16mm 40 27 40 27 40 27 40 27 S275M S275ML S355M S355ML S420M S420ML S460M S460ML

275

370/510

355

470/630

-20 -50

420

520/680

-20 -50

460

550/720

-20 -50

Table 3 ­ EN 10025 : part 4 : 2004 Thermomechanically rolled

weldable fine grain structural steels

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Explanatory Notes

Comparison between grades in EN 10025 : part 5 : 2004 and nearest equivalent versions in EN 10155 : 1993 and BS 4360 : 1990 EN 10025 : part 5 : 2004 EN 10155 : BS 4360 : 1990 1993 Grade Grade Grade Yield (Reh) min Tensile (Rm) Charpy V-notch longitudinal Strength at t = 16mm (MPa) S235J0W S235J2W S355J0WP S355J2WP S355J0W S355J2W S355K2W 1 MPa = 1 N/mm

2

Temp ( C) 0 -20

o

Energy (J) t =16mm 27 27 27 27 27 27 40 S235J0W S235J2W S355J0WP S355J2WP S355J0W S355J2W S355K2W WR50A WR50B WR50C WR50D

235

360/510

355

470/630

0 -20 0

355

470/630

-20 -20

Table 4 ­ EN 10025 : part 5 : 2004 Structural steels with improved atmospheric

corrosion resistance - also known as weathering steels

Comparison between grades in EN 10025 : part 6 : 2004 and nearest equivalent versions in EN 10137 : part 2 : 1996 and BS 4360 : 1990 EN 10025 : part 6 : 2004 EN 10137 : part BS 4360 : 1990 2 : 1996 Grade Grade Grade Yield (Reh) min Tensile (Rm) Charpy V-notch longitudinal Strength at t = 16mm (MPa) S460Q S460QL S460QL1 S500Q S500QL S500QL1 S550Q S550QL S550QL1 S620Q S620QL S620QL1 S690Q S690QL S690QL1 S890Q S890QL S890QL1 S960Q S960QL 1 MPa = 1 N/mm

2

Temp ( C) 0

o

Energy (J) t =16mm 40 50 60 40 50 60 40 50 60 40 50 60 40 50 60 40 50 60 40 50 S460Q S460QL S460QL1 S500Q S500QL S500QL1 S550Q S550QL S550QL1 S620Q S620QL S620QL1 S690Q S690QL S690QL1 S890Q S890QL S890QL1 S960Q S960QL 55F -

460

550/720

0 0 0

500

590/770

0 0 0

550

640/820

0 0 0

620

700/890

0 0 0

690

770/940

0 0 0

890

940/1100

0 0

960

980/1150

0 0

Table 5 ­ EN 10025 : part 6 : 2004 Flat products of high yield strength structural steels

in the quenched and tempered condition

Note 1 Other impact temperatures can be specified

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The other specifications of structural components referred to in this handbook are mainly as follow: EN 10028 (1993/1997): "Flat products made of steels for pressure purposes"

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EN 10056 -Part1 (1993): "Structural steel equal and unequal leg angles - Dimensions" EN 10210 -Part 1 (1994): "Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain

EN 10149 (1995/1996): "Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming"

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structural steels" EN 10219 -Part 1 (1997): "Cold formed welded structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels" SS104 (1996): "Cold formed steel sections for general structures" Some of the standards mentioned above are new European standards superseding the old British Standards BS 4360: "Weldable structural steels" (1986) and BS 6363: "Welded cold formed steel structural hollow sections" (1983). Material to other specifications such as ASTM, AS and JIS can also be supplied.

Manufacturing tolerances

The dimensions, mass and tolerances of the sections are generally as listed in the following standards: BS 4 -Part 1 (1993): "Structural Steel Sections" for hot rolled universal beams and columns and tees cut therefrom, channels, bearing piles and rolled tees

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EN 10029 (1991): "Specifications for tolerances on dimensions, shape and mass for hot rolled steel plates 3mm thick or above" EN 10034 (1993): "Structural steel I and H sections - Tolerances on shape and dimensions" EN 10051 (1992): "Continuously hot-rolled uncoated plate, sheet and strip of non-alloy and alloy steels - Tolerances on dimensions and shape" EN 10056 -Part 2 (1993): "Structural steel equal and unequal leg angles -Tolerances on shape and dimensions"

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EN 10210 -Part 2 (1997): "Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain

structural steels" EN 10219 -Part 2 (1997): "Cold formed welded structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels" SS104 (1996): "Cold formed steel sections for general structures" for lipped channels Some of the standards mentioned above are new European standards superseding the old British Standards BS 4848 - Part 2: "Hot-rolled structural steel sections - Hot-finished hollow sections" (1991) and BS 6363: "Welded cold formed steel structural hollow sections" (1983). Material to other specifications such as ASTM, AS and JIS can also be supplied. In structural design and construction there are a lot of details to remember. For example, when buying steel beams, columns, bars, plates and pipes, be sure to buy the correct section type, size and grade.If the specified section is not available, check with the designer before any changes to the structure are made. For example, a parallel flange channel can not be substituted with a plain channel without reference to the design engineer. This is because the sections are different both in size and material, the plain channel is cold formed while the parallel flange channel is hot formed, and they have different sectional properties.

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Standards superseding parts of BS4360 1986/1990. Standards superseding parts of BS4848 1972/1980/1991.

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Explanatory Notes

In the section "Comparison between hot finished and cold formed hollow sections" we have explained the differences between the two sections, and why cold formed sections can not be used to substitute hot finished sections without rechecking the capacity.

Comparison between general structural steel specifications

The following specifications are normally readily available, but offers depend upon acceptance of full specification details or specifications not listed below.

Quality Grade Min. Yield strength N/mm BS 4360 (1986) (superseded) EN 10025 (2004) EN 10113 (1993) (superseded) ASTM A36 (2001) ASTM A283 (1993) ASTM A572 (2001) 42 50 55 60 65 ASTM A913 (2001) JIS G 3101 (1995) JIS G 3106 (1995) 50 65 SS 400 SS 490 SM 400B SM 490B SM 490YB JIS G 3136 (1994) JIS G 3131 SN 400B SN 490B SPHC SPHD SPHE AS3679 1996 GB700-88 DIN 17100 C250LO C350LO Q235 St 37.2 St 44.2 St 50.2 St 52.3 GOST1050-88 Notes: 08 KP 290 345 380 415 450 345 450 245 285 245 325 365 235 325 260 360 235 235 275 295 355 42 50 55 60 65 50 65 36 41 36 47 53 34 47 38 52 34 34 40 43 51 415 450 485 520 550 450 550 400/510 490/610 400/510 490/610 490/610 400/510 490/610 270 270 270 410 480 375/406 340/470 410/540 470/610 490/630 260/380 60 65 70 75 80 65 80 58/74 71/88 58/74 71/88 71/88 58/74 71/88 39 39 39 59 70 54/59 49/68 59/78 68/88 71/91 38/55 0.21 0.40 0.23 0.40 0.25 0.40 0.26 0.40 0.23 0.40 0.12 0.40 0.16 0.40 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.65 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 0.050 0.050 0.050 0.050 0.050 0.040 0.030 0.050 0.050 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.030 0.030 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.040 0.040 0.045 0.050 0.050 0.050 0.040 0.035 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.035 0.035 0.035 0.015 0.015 0.050 0.040 0.035 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.05 43A 50B 55C S275J0 S355J0 S275N S355N 460M Grade D 275 355 450 275 355 275 355 460 250 230

2

Min. Tensile strength N/mm

2

Chemical composition (%, max.) C Si Mn 1.60 1.50 1.60 1.50 1.60 P 0.050 0.050 0.040 0.040 0.040 0.035 0.035 0.030 0.040 0.035 S 0.0 5 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.025 0.05 0.04 Nb 0.003/0.10 0.003/0.10 0.009 0.009 0.050 0.050 0.05 -

ksi 40 52 65 40 52 40 52 67 36 33

ksi 62/84 71/93 80/102 59/81 71/91 54/74 68/91 77/104 58/80 60/80

430/580 490/640 550/700 410/560 490/630 370/510 470/630 530/720 400/550 415/550

0.25 0.50 0.22 0.50 0.22 0.60 0.18 0.20 0.55

0.20 0.40 0.5/1.40 0.20 0.50 0.9/1.65 0.18 0.60 0.26 0.40 0.27 0.40 1.70 0.90

0.20 0.35 0.6/1.40 0.18 0.55 0.20 0.55

0.20 0.35 0.6/1.40 0.18 0.55 0.15 0.10 0.10 1.60 0.60 0.50 0.50 1.5 0 1.60 0.65 1.60 0.50

0.20 0.40 0.22 0.50 0.22 0.30 0.17 0.21 -

0.20 0.55 0.12 0.03

For BS, EN and JIS the values are for sections with thickness less than 16mm.

Table 6 ­ Comparison between general structural steel specifications

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Section Properties

The followings are taken from EN 10210-2 (1997), EN 10219-2 (1997) and BS5950 Volume 1 Design Guide, 5th edition 1997

Corner radius ( r ) For hollow sections the corner radius are taken from EN 10210 and EN 10219, for hot finished hollow sections and cold formed hollow sections respectively.

For hot finished square and rectangular hollow sections: Nominal external corner radius for calculation is Nominal internal corner radius for calculation is ro=1.5T ri=1.0T

For cold formed square and rectangular hollow sections: Nominal external corner radius for calculation is For thickness T 6mm: 10mm: ro=2.0T ro=2.5T ro=3.0T

For thickness 6mm < T For thickness T > 10mm:

Nominal internal corner radius for calculation is For thickness T 6mm: 10mm: ri=1.0T ri=1.5T ri=2.0T

For thickness 6mm < T For thickness T > 10mm:

For other section types the manufacturers are using rules from various standard specifications, which will take too much space to include in this handbook. Refer to the respective country's standards. Second moment of area ( I ) The second moment of area of the section, often referred to as moment of inertia, has been calculated based on first principal, by taking into account all tapers, radii and fillets of the sections. Radius of gyration ( r ) The radius of gyration is a parameter used in buckling calculation and is derived as follows:

I r= A

1

2

where A is the cross-sectional area and I is the second moment of area. For castellated sections, the radius of gyration given is calculated at the net section as required in design to BS 5950: Part 1.

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Explanatory Notes

Elastic Modulus ( Z ) The elastic modulus is used to calculate the moment capacity based on the design strength of the section or the stress at the extreme fibre of the section from a known moment. It is derived as follows:

Z=

I y

where y is the distance to the extreme fibre of the section from the elastic neutral axis and I is the second moment of area. For castellated sections the elastic modulus given are those at the net section. For channels the modulus about the minor axis (y-y) is given at the toe of the section. For angles the elastic modulus about both axes are given at the toes of the section. Plastic Modulus ( S ) The plastic modulus is calculated based on the first principal, by taking moment about the equal area axis. Only the full plastic modulus (S) is given in the tables. When a member is subject to both axial load and bending, the plastic modulus must be reduced to take account of the reduction in plastic moment of resistance. The details for the reduction are given in BS 5950. Buckling parameter ( u ) and torsional index ( x ) The buckling parameter and torsional index used in buckling calculations are derived as follows: For bi-symmetric flanged sections and flanged sections symmetrical about the minor axis only:

4S X 2 u= A2 h2

A x = 0.566h J

1

4

1

2

For flanged sections symmetric about the major axis only:

u=

Iy SX 2 A2 H

1

4

1

A H x = 1132 . Iy J

where Sx

2

= is the plastic modulus about the major axis =1

Iy Ix

Ix Iy

A

h H J

= is the second moment of area about the major axis = is the second moment of area about the minor axis = is the cross-sectional area

= is the distance between the shear centres of flanges (for T sections, h is the distance between shear centre of the flange and the toe of the web) = is the warping constant = is the torsion constant

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Warping constant ( H ) For Tee sections cut from UB and UC sections, the warping constant (H) has been derived as given below.

1 1 T T 3 B3 + d t3 144 36 2 T , B, D, d , t and r are given in the section tables (r is the corner radius). H=

Because this value is very small, it is not tabulated. The warping constants (H) for I, H and channel sections are calculated using the formulae given in the SCI publication (P057) Design of Members Subject to Combined Bending and Torsion. Torsion constant ( J ) For Tee sections cut from UB and UC sections, the torsion constant (J) has been derived as given below.

3

J=

1 1 B T 3 + (d 3 3

T) t 3 +

1

D1 4

0.21 T 4

0105 t 4 .

where

1

= 0.042 + 0.2204

2

t r + 0.1355 T T

0.0865

t r T2

0.0725

t2 T2

D1 =

[(T + r ) + (r + 0.25t ) t]

[2r + T ]

T , B, D, d , t and r are given in the section tables (r is the corner radius). The torsion constants (J) for I, H and channel sections are calculated using the formulae given in the SCI publication (P057) Design of Members Subject to Combined Bending and Torsion.

For circular hollow sections:

J = 2I

For square and rectangular hollow sections:

J=

t3 h + 2 kAh 3

= second moment of area = is the thickness of section = is the mean perimeter = 2[( B

where I t h Ah k B D Rc

= is the area enclosed by mean perimeter = ( B

t ) + ( D t )] 2 Rc (4

) )

2 Ah t = h

t )( D t ) Rc 2 (4

= is the breadth of section = is the depth of section = is the average of internal and external corner radii T , B, D, d , t and r are given in the section tables (r is the corner radius).

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Explanatory Notes

Torsion modulus constant ( C ) For circular hollow sections:

C = 2Z

where Z is the elastic modulus. For square and rectangular hollow sections:

C=

J t+ k t

Dimensional units

The dimensions of sections are given in millimetres (mm) and the calculated properties (centroidal distances, cross-sectional areas, radii of gyration, moments of inertia, elastic and plastic modulus) are given in centimetre (cm) units. Surface areas are in square centimetres (cm2). Some of the sections have imperial sizes but the dimensions and sectional properties for these sections are given in the metric system.

Mass and force units

The units for force, mass and acceleration are those of the Systeme International (SI). They are the Newton (N), the kilogram (kg) and the metre per second per second (m/s2) so that 1N=1kgx1m/s2. The acceleration due to gravity varies slightly from place to place and for convenience a "standard" value of 9.80665 m/s 2 has become generally accepted in structural engineering. With this convention, the force exerted by a mass of 1kg under the action of gravity is the "technical unit" of 9.80665N. In the same way 9.80665 kilo Newton is the force exerted by a mass of 1 tonne (1000kg) under gravity and 1kN the force from a mass of 0.102 tonne.

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Comparison Between Hot Finished and Cold Formed Hollow Sections Introduction

The objectives of the comparison are to gain an understanding on the differences between hot and cold formed sections, and subsequently, correct applications of the sections. Hot finished hollow sections have been successfully used in primary structures for many years, but there is yet little experience with the use of cold formed sections. Cold formed products differ from the hot finished in many respects. Therefore, their use in primary structures must be approached with caution. Thin walled cold formed open sections have been used in construction as secondary members, such as purlins, for a long time. However, there is a growing trend of manufacturing thicker walled cold formed hollow sections and the temptation to introduce them into primary structures. Cold formed hollow sections produced to EN 10219 are suitable for structural use. However, they should not be used as a direct substitute for hot finished hollow sections without reconsideration of the design capacity. With the implementation of the European Standard for cold formed structural hollow sections EN 10219 - there exists a situation of identical grade designations for the majority of the common strength grades used in both the hot finished (EN 10210) and cold formed (EN 10219) standards. For instance, sections with yield strength of 275 N/mm2 and Charpy impact strength of 27 Joules at -20 degrees will have a grade designation of S275J2H in both standards. Common designation can lead to direct substitution and interchanging of the sections. Since cold formed sections generally are weaker than hot finished sections it is essential that products are specified accurately. If a full designation of the steel is given to include both the standard number and the grade/quality of the steel, substitution of cold for hot finished sections can be prevented. For example, a hollow section of yield strength 275N/mm2 and a Charpy impact strength of 27 Joules at -20 degrees should be designated as EN 10210 S275J2H for hot finished and EN 10219 S275J2H for cold formed sections. The BS 5950 Part 1 (1997) are currently being amended, and with the increasing tendency of using cold formed hollow sections in primary structures these sections will probably be included in the new edition. The design rules are not very different from those for hot finished sections, but there are some things a designer has to know and take into consideration. For example, the corner radiuses, section properties, ductility, corner cracking and welding. The differences between the two section types in production, behaviour and design are investigated in this chapter.

Specifications

Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels EN 10210-1 (1994): EN 10210-2 (1997): BS 5950-1: Technical delivery requirements Tolerances, dimensions and sectional properties Structural use of steel works in building - Code of practice for design of rolled and welded sections*.

*Subject to changes. New BS 5950 Part 1, 1999/2000 (6th edition).

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Explanatory Notes

Cold formed welded structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels EN 10219-1 (1997): EN 10219-2 (1997): BS 5950-1: Technical delivery requirements Tolerances, dimensions and sectional properties Structural use of steel works in building - Code of practice for design of rolled and welded sections*.

*Subject to changes. Design of cold formed hollow sections for primary structures will be included in the new BS 5950 Part 1, 1999/2000 (6th edition).

Manufacture of hollow sections

Hot finished hollow sections The manufacture of hot hollow sections involves a number of processes and cold forming may be used initially. However, the hot finished product is characterised by the final forming operation, which is always being carried out in the austenitic state (i.e. above 920 degrees). As a result, the forming operations do not affect the physical properties of the final product, which are uniform around the complete periphery, including the seam weld in continuously welded sections. Cold formed hollow sections The physical properties of the cold formed sections are significantly affected by the method used in producing the strip, section forming processes and the final shape and dimensions of the resulting section. The strip used for the cold formed sections may be hot or cold rolled. Plastic deformation and straining occur during the cold forming operations mentioned below: 1) uncoiling of strips 2) strip flattening 3) forming into a round section 4) welding of round sections 5) circular sections formed into square or rectangle 6) straightening of the curved walls and corners formed Note: Square or rectangular hollow sections are not necessarily formed from round sections, some manufacturers form the square or rectangle directly from strip. Cold forming is known to increase the yield and tensile strength of the materials due to cold working or strain hardening (see Figure 1). However, as the strength increases, ductility decreases. And the process may result in a section in which the strength and ductility vary considerably around the periphery. For example, a test specimen from the flat face of the cold formed section will only indicate the conditions applying to that face. There are also differences in the mechanical property transverse and longitudinally on the section. Thus, cold formed sections must be used with caution and proper design, especially in the use for primary structures. There should be restrictions for the welding of cold formed sections. The corners of these sections are subjected to high residual stress due to cold working. Welding further induces the residual stress at the corners because of high local heating.Corner cracking occurs when the yield stress of these cold formed sections is exceeded by the residual stress built up at the corners.

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Stress Increase of yield stress due to strain hardening Yield point after cold working Ultimate strength Fracture

Initial loading

Further loading after cold working

Loss of ductility due to cold working

Ductility after cold working

Strain

Figure 1 ­ Effect of cold working on material properties for cold formed hollow sections

Section properties

Cold formed rectangular and square hollow sections have rounder corners than the hot finished sections. This is to avoid corner cracking from occurring during the forming of cold formed sections, because of too sharp corner radius or too thick sections. However, the larger or rounder the corner radius, the smaller are the cross sectional area, moment of inertia, section modulus and radius of gyration, etc. for a given size of section compared with a similar hot finished section. Larger corner radii can make fabrication difficult and require additional weld metal or profiling to produce the right fit-up. This is a problem particularly when connecting one section to the face of another section of similar size (see Figure 2), and can also add to fabrication costs.

The tight corner radii of hot finished sections provide good preparation for welding, especially where members of the same width are to be welded together.

The larger corner radii of cold formed sections will require additional weld metal or additional profiling to produce the required fit-up; both add to fabrication costs, especially where members of the same width are to be welded together.

Figure 2 ­ Comparison of corner radius of hot finished and cold formed hollow sections

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Explanatory Notes

Structural performance

For cold formed sections in tension, the variation of strength around the section could lead to local over-stressing, which together with the reduced ductility in cold formed sections could reduce the capability of the sections to redistribute loads. As local stress redistribution often occurs even in elastic design, the maximum value of yield/ tensile strength ratio should not exceed 80%. This limitation is incorporated in some standards (extract from "Hot formed RHS winning on points" from British Steel). The ductility and Charpy impact toughness for sections to EN 10219 are equivalent to hot finished hollow sections to EN 10210. For the classification of cross sections the limiting width to thickness ratio will need minor adjustments to take into account the residual stresses in the section due to cold forming and the ductility of the material. According to Europe Code 3 (ENV 1993-1-1:1992/A1:1994), welding of cold formed sections should not be carried out in the cold deformed zones or within the adjacent width of 5t each side, see Table 7, unless either: -the cold-deformed zones are normalised after cold-forming but before welding; -the thickness does not exceed the relevant value obtained from Table 7.

Maximum thickness (mm) Maximum thickness (mm) r/t r/t Strain due to cold Strain due to cold forming (%) forming (%) Generally Generally Predominantly Predominantly static loading static loading > 25 > 25 > 10 > 10 > 3.0 > 3.0 > 2.0 > 2.0 > 1.5 > 1.5 > 1.0 > 1.0 > 2 > 2 > 5 > 5 > 14 > 14 > 20 > 20 > 25 > 25 > 33 > 33 Any Any Any Any 24 24 12 12 8 8 4 4 Where fatigue Where fatigue predominates predominates Any Any 16 16 12 12 10 10 8 8 4 4 Fully killed Fully killed Aluminium-killed Aluminium-killed steel steel (Al > 0.02%) (Al > 0.02%) Any Any Any Any 24 24 12 12 10 10 6 6

5t 5t tt 5t 5t rr

Table 7 ­ Conditions for welding cold-deformed zones and adjacent material

Due to stress relief effects, cold formed hollow sections are subject to greater distortion than hot finished sections when subject to shot blasting, galvanising and welding. This can cause local buckling, corner cracking and other deformations, and will obviously have a large impact on the capacity when used as beams and columns.

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Compression resistance

For compression members, the design strength should be based on the yield strength of the cold finished section (as given in EN 10219) and not on that of the parent plate. Because of the lower sectional properties and the residual stresses caused by the manufacturing process, a lower column curve (curve C) is used for the cold formed sections compared to curve A for the hot finished sections. This results in a larger reduction of the compression strength. Figure 3 shows the column curves.

"Strut" Curves

300

250

Compressive strength, N/mm

2

200

Curve A

150

Curve C

100

50

0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200

Slenderness ratio,

Note : Please refer to BS 5950 for design

Figure 3 ­ Compression/Slenderness curves for columns

Web bearing and buckling

Formulae for buckling and bearing for hot finished hollow sections can be found in the SCI Publication Design Guide to the BS 5950: Part 1; Volume 1 Section Properties and member capacities and these may also be used for cold formed sections (extract from New Steel Construction, August/September 1998).

Tension, shear and bending

Cold formed members in tension, shear, bending and lateral torsional buckling may be treated in the same way as hot finished hollow sections (extract from New Steel Construction, August/September 1998).

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Explanatory Notes

Summary

Light gauge open cold formed sections have been widely used for secondary structures of steelframed buildings, such as purlins. Concern is however on the use of the cold formed hollow sections for primary structures. For a cold formed hollow section of the same nominal size, thickness and grade as a hot finished hollow section, the compression capacity dependent on the slenderness, can be 34% lower than for the hot finished section. The application of the current design rules on cold formed hollow sections might lead to optimistic results, because the rounder corner radius for these sections can affect the "web" buckling characteristics of the section.

Most design rules have restrictions on welding of cold formed sections due to the residual stresses that occurs and to avoid corner cracking. The advice is that there should not be direct substitution or interchanging of sections without a capacity checking. To avoid uncertified substitution the designers and quality surveyors have to know how to visually differentiate cold formed and hot finished sections. A few things they should know are:

·

Because of the cold forming process the cold formed sections have a smoother, sometimes oily surface, while the hot finished sections have a rougher surface.

If the sections are blasted or painted the corner radius and weld seam will indicate if the beam/ column is hot finished or cold formed.

· ·

As mentioned earlier the corner radius of cold formed sections are rounder than the corner radius of hot finished sections. The seam of welded cold formed sections are always on one of the flat sides, with a distance from the corner, and on the same place for all members of the same bundle, but for the hot finished sections the seam can be anywhere on the cross-section.

Fire resistance

There are several options to insure the fire resistance of steel structures. While hollow sections can be protected on the inside, the outside or a combination of both, the universal columns can only be protected on the outside.

Externally protected columns

For universal columns and unfilled structural hollow sections there are a number of ways to protect the columns, including casing by plasterboards, cementitious sprays, intumescent coatings or pre-formed casings, such as tube-in-tube systems. In all of these cases the fire-protected structural hollow sections will have the minimum area compared to all other similarly loaded columns in other materials.

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Internally protected columns

Structural hollow sections have the advantage that fire protection material like water or concrete, can be filled inside the columns. It is very simple to design a hollow section with structural grade concrete filling. First, the column is checked for room temperature loading, and then the fire resistance is checked, if required, an external fire protection system is added. This method is very economic as it both minimises the wall thickness of the hollow section, because of the concrete, and reduces the thickness of the external protection system markedly below that of the unfilled section. With use of concrete as internal protection of a structural hollow section, external protection might not be necessary at all. The concrete filling will support the load when the temperature has reached the point where the load bearing capacity of the steel is under the actual forces imposed on the structure. The concrete core is designed to carry the whole of the load at the fire limit-state. Plain concrete filling is suitable for mainly axially loaded columns, while bar reinforced concrete is required for columns with significant moments. For externally protected columns the composite concrete filled, intumescent-coated solution gives the smallest required columns. While for the internally protected columns the bar reinforced concrete filled solution gives the smallest footprint. Among all the four solutions the composite concrete filled, intumescent-coated column gives the most economic solution.

Cost comparisons

British Steel in the United Kingdom has made a comparison between different types of fire protection on hollow section columns and other steel sections. The study compared options for a typical 7-storey internal column carrying a loading of 6kN/m2 on a grid layout of 7.2 metres by 6 metres. Where possible steel of design grade S355 was used, in general, this gives the most economical solution for structural steelwork. In the case of internal protection, plain or bar reinforced concrete is assumed. In the case of external protection, fire resistant boards were assumed for non-circular columns, such as universal columns and rectangular/square hollow columns. Three basic design options are possible for column design of structural hollow sections, and British Steel looked at all 3 of them in this study. Option 1: Columns are designed on a floor by floor basis or by grouping two or three storeys together. The lightest steel section is selected for each column lift. This option produces the minimum weight column with sizes reducing through the height of the building. Option 2: Columns are designed as in Option 1, but have constant external dimensions throughout the height of the building. The column at the lowest level is designed for the least weight solution and it is the external dimensions of this section that are used for all other sections at higher levels. At the higher levels, the wall thickness of the hollow sections is progressively reduced. Option 3: Columns are designed as in Option 2, but the type of column selected is optimised for all the columns over the height of the building rather than just the ground floor, as in Option 2. Generally this means that the ground floor column is smaller and thicker than that in Option 2, but the column serial size chosen allows the overall weight of columns to be reduced.

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Explanatory Notes

Table 8 and Table 9 compares the costs of UC, CHS and RHS columns for various methods of fire protection. Circled solutions are most economical.

Fire Protection Options Intumescent Paint Internal Concrete Filling Circular Hollow Sections Unfilled Composite Plain concrete Bar Reinforced concrete 111 159 111 88 113 97 134 186 186 88 107 107

CHS Columns Options Option 1 Option 2 Option 3

External Board UC 100 100 100

Table 8 ­ Fire resistance: Cost comparison ­ universal columns vs. circular hollows

RHS Columns Options Option 1 Option 2 Option 3 External Board Fire Protection Options External Board Intumescent Internal Concrete Filling Paint Rectangular Hollow Sections Unfilled Composite Composite Plain concrete Bar Reinforced concrete 108 111 111 92 121 100 90 115 102 163 231 231 113 123 123

UC 100 100 100

Table 9 ­ Fire resistance: Cost comparison ­ universal columns vs. rectangular hollows

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Explanatory Notes

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Universal Beams and Columns General

The section sizes of universal beams and columns are given in the tables on the following pages. We have split up the sections in metric and imperial sizes because the sections are rolled after different standard specifications. The tables cover I-beams, IPE- beams, H-beams and HE-beams. The difference between these beams is that the H/HE-beams have wider flange than the I/IPE-beams and therefore look more like the letter H than the letter I, see Figure 4. In our catalogue we put them all together to make it easier to make the ultimate choice.

The standard specifications used for production of universal beams and columns in this region are listed in this table.

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Rolling tolerances - EN 10034 : 1993

This European standard specifies tolerances on shape dimensions and mass of structural steel universal beams and columns. These requirements do not apply to taper flange sections.

Flange thickness (t)

The deviation from nominal on flange thickness measured at the quarter flange width point shall be within the tolerance given in the following table.

Section Height (h)

The deviation from nominal on section height measured at the centre line of web thickness shall be within the tolerance given in the following table.

6.5 up to but excluding 10 10 up to but excluding 20

Section Height h (mm) Up to and including 180 Greater than 180 up to and including 400 Greater than 400 up to and including 700 Greater than 700 Tolerance (mm) +3 +4 +5 +5 -2 -2 -3 -5

Flange thickness s (mm) Less than 6.5

Tolerance (mm) +1.5 +2.0 +2.5 +2.0 +2.5 +3.0 +4.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -3.0 -4.0

20 up to but excluding 30 30 up to but excluding 40 40 up to but excluding 60 60 and over

y

Flange width (b) Flange width (b)

The deviation from nominal on flange width shall The deviation from nominal on flange width be within thethe tolerance givenfollowing table. be within tolerance given in the in the following

table.

Flange width b (mm) Up to and including 110 Greater than 110 up to and including 210 Greater than 210 up to and including 325 Greater than 325 Tolerance (mm) +4 +4 +4 +6 -1 -2 -4 -5

r h x s y x d

b

Web thickness (s) Web thickness (s)

The deviation from nominal on on web thicknes The deviation from nominal web thickness measured at at the mid-point of dimension (h) measured the mid-point of dimension (h) shall

be within tolerance given in the in the following be within thethe tolerance given following table. table.

Web thickness s (mm) Less than 7 7 up to but excluding 10 10 up to but excluding 20 20 up to but excluding 30 40 up to but excluding 60 60 and over Tolerance (mm) +0.7 +1.0 +1.5 +2.0 +2.5 +3.0 -0.7 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -3.0

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Explanatory Notes

Out-of-squareness (k + k')

The out-of-squareness of the section shall not exceed the maximum given in the following table.

Straightness (qxx or qyy)

The straightness shall comply with the requirements given in the following table.

g

Flange width b (mm) Up to and including 110 Greater than 325 Tolerance (mm) 1.5 2% of b (maximum 6.5mm

g

q

g

g

Tolerance qxx or qyy on length L (%) 0.30 L 0.15 L 0.1 L

Section height h (mm) Greater than 80 up to and including 180 Greater than 180 up to and including 360 Greater than 360

Web off-centre (e) on mass

The mid-thickness of the web shall not deviate from the mid-width position on the flange by more than the distance (e) given in the following table.

Web offcentre where e= (b1-b2)/2 +4 +4 +4 +6

Flange width b (mm) T < 40 Up to and including 110 Greater than 110 up to and including 325 Greater than 110 up to and including 325 Greater than 325

Tolerance on mass

The deviation from the nominal mass of a batch or a piece shall not exceed ± 4.0%. The mass deviation is the difference between the actual mass of the batch or a piece and the calculated mass. The calculated mass shall be determined using a density of 7850kg/m3 Tolerance on length The sections shall be cut to ordered lengths to

T

40

b1

b2

tolerances of a. ± 50mm or b.+ 100mm where minimum lengths are requested L represents the longest useable length of the section assuming that the ends of the section have been cut square.

b

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UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Universal Beams and Columns

r

t T

B

n

N D d

Metric units

Designation Size Mass Per Metre mm 100x50 100x100 kg/m 9.30 14.8 16.9 17.2 13.2 23.6 23.8 14.0 20.7 21.1 31.1 31.5 37.4 18.0 18.1 23.3 32.8 40.2 40.4 17.8 18.2 20.9 21.3 29.9 30.6 36.9 41.4 49.9 57.8 65.7 25.1 25.7 29.0 29.6 43.6 44.1 51.6 59.1 66.5 71.8 72.4 98.1 25.0 32.0 36.7 41.4 46.2 69.0 Depth Width Of Of Section Section D mm 100 100 100 100 125 125 125 150 148 148 150 150 154 175 175 169 171 175 175 198 198 200 200 194 194 198 196 200 204 208 248 248 250 250 244 244 248 252 248 250 250 260 294 298 300 304 306 318 B mm 50 100 100 100 60 125 125 75 100 100 150 150 151 90 90 125 174 175 175 99 99 100 100 150 150 151 199 200 201 202 124 124 125 125 175 175 176 177 249 250 250 253 148 149 150 150 151 154 Thickness Root Depth Radius Between Fillets r mm 8 10 8 10 9 8 10 8 8 11 8 11 11 8 9 12 12 12 13 8 11 8 11 8 13 13 13 13 13 13 8 12 8 12 13 16 16 16 16 13 16 16 16 13 13 13 13 13 d mm 70 66 68 64 91 91 87 120 114 108 114 108 108 143 141 129 129 129 127 168 162 168 162 160 150 150 150 150 150 150 216 208 216 208 196 190 190 190 190 196 190 190 250 256 256 256 256 256 Area Of Section A cm2 11.8 19.2 21.6 21.9 16.8 30.0 30.3 17.8 26.3 26.8 39.6 40.1 47.7 22.9 23.0 29.7 41.7 51.2 51.4 22.7 23.2 26.7 27.2 38.1 39.0 47.0 52.7 63.5 73.6 83.7 32.0 32.7 37.0 37.7 55.5 56.2 65.7 75.3 84.7 91.4 92.2 125 32.6 40.8 46.8 52.8 58.8 87.9

C b

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Flange Web T t mm 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 7 9 9 10 10 12 8 8 8 9 11 11 7 7 8 8 9 9 11 10 12 14 16 8 8 9 9 11 11 13 15 13 14 14 19 6 8 9 11 12 18 mm 5 5 6 6 6 6.5 6.5 5 6 6 7 7 8 5 5 5.5 6 7.5 7.5 4.5 4.5 5.5 5.5 6 6 7 6.5 8 9 10 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 8 9 9 12 4.5 5.5 6.5 6.5 7.5 11

Ratios For Local Buckling Flange Web b/T d/t 3.57 7.14 6.25 6.25 3.75 6.94 6.94 5.36 5.56 5.56 7.50 7.50 6.29 5.63 5.63 7.81 9.67 7.95 7.95 7.07 7.07 6.25 6.25 8.33 8.33 6.86 9.95 8.33 7.18 6.31 7.75 7.75 6.94 6.94 7.95 7.95 6.77 5.90 9.58 8.93 8.93 6.66 12.3 9.31 8.33 6.82 6.29 4.28 14.0 13.2 11.3 10.7 15.2 14.0 13.4 24.0 19.0 18.0 16.3 15.4 13.5 28.6 28.2 23.5 21.5 17.2 16.9 37.3 36.0 30.5 29.5 26.7 25.0 21.4 23.1 18.8 16.7 15.0 43.2 41.6 36.0 34.7 28.0 27.1 23.8 21.1 23.8 21.8 21.1 15.8 55.6 46.5 39.4 39.4 34.1 23.3

Dimensions For Detailing End Clearance C mm 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 6 6 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 5 6 7 7 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 6 7 7 8 4 5 5 5 6 8

Notch N mm 33 58 57 57 37 69 69 45 57 57 82 82 82 53 53 70 94 94 94 57 57 57 57 82 82 82 106 106 106 106 70 70 70 70 94 94 94 94 131 131 131 131 82 82 82 82 82 82 n mm 15 17 16 18 17 17 19 15 17 20 18 21 23 16 17 20 21 23 24 15 18 16 19 17 22 24 23 25 27 29 16 20 17 21 24 27 29 31 29 27 30 35 22 21 22 24 25 31

125x60 125x125 150x75 150x100 150x150

175x90 175x125 175x175

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Continental Steel Pte Ltd

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

x

x

Metric units

Designation Surface Size Unit Area Weight Per Metre mm 100x50 100x100 kg/m 9.3 14.8 16.9 17.2 13.2 23.6 23.8 14.0 20.7 21.1 31.1 31.5 37.4 18.0 18.1 23.3 32.8 40.2 40.4 17.8 18.2 20.9 21.3 29.9 30.6 36.9 41.4 49.9 57.8 65.7 25.1 25.7 29.0 29.6 43.6 44.1 51.6 59.1 66.5 71.8 72.4 98.1 25.0 32.0 36.7 41.4 46.2 69.0 m2 0.376 0.570 0.574 0.571 0.463 0.723 0.720 0.576 0.670 0.665 0.872 0.867 0.877 0.686 0.685 0.806 1.01 1.01 1.01 0.769 0.764 0.775 0.770 0.962 0.954 0.964 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 0.968 0.961 0.974 0.967 1.15 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.45 1.46 1.45 1.48 1.14 1.16 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.21 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 188 344 378 383 413 840 847 666 1003 1021 1623 1641 2018 1205 1214 1529 2304 2884 2895 1543 1582 1806 1844 2625 2690 3331 3846 4716 5603 6531 3450 3537 3965 4052 6037 6122 7308 8541 9931 10750 10830 15340 4940 6318 7210 8578 9514 14820 cm4 14.8 117.0 134 134 29.2 293 294 49.5 150 151 563 563 690 97.5 97.6 261 791 984 984 113 114 134 134 507 507 633 1315 1602 1897 2201 255 255 294 294 984 985 1184 1390 3348 3648 3649 5134 326 442 508 620 691 1100 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 3.98 4.20 4.18 4.18 4.95 5.29 5.29 6.11 6.17 6.17 6.40 6.39 6.51 7.26 7.26 7.18 7.43 7.50 7.50 8.25 8.26 8.23 8.24 8.30 8.30 8.42 8.54 8.62 8.73 8.83 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.8 11.1 12.3 12.4 12.4 12.7 12.7 13.0 cm 1.12 2.47 2.49 2.47 1.32 3.13 3.11 1.67 2.39 2.37 3.77 3.75 3.80 2.06 2.06 2.97 4.35 4.38 4.37 2.24 2.22 2.24 2.22 3.65 3.61 3.67 5.00 5.02 5.08 5.13 2.82 2.79 2.82 2.79 4.21 4.19 4.24 4.30 6.29 6.32 6.29 6.41 3.16 3.29 3.29 3.43 3.43 3.54 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 37.5 69.0 75.6 76.5 66.1 134 136 88.8 135 138 216 219 262 138 139 181 269 330 331 156 160 181 184 271 277 336 392 472 549 628 278 285 317 324 495 502 589 678 801 860 867 1180 336 424 481 564 622 932 Axis y-y cm3 5.93 23.0 26.7 26.8 9.75 46.9 47.0 13.2 30.1 30.1 75.1 75.1 91.4 21.7 21.7 41.8 90.9 112 112 22.9 23.0 26.7 26.8 67.6 67.7 83.8 132 160 189 218 41.1 41.1 47.0 47.0 112 113 135 157 269 292 292 406 44.0 59.4 67.7 82.7 91.5 143 Plastic Modulus Buckling Torsional Parameter Index Warping Constant Torsional Constant

x-x cm3 44.1 78.0 86.4 87.6 77.6 152 154 102 154 157 243 246 298 156 157 202 298 369 370 175 180 205 209 301 309 377 433 525 617 710 312 319 358 366 550 558 660 764 883 953 960 1330 375 475 542 633 702 1070

y-y cm3 9.5 36.0 41.0 41.2 15.7 71.7 71.9 20.8 46.4 46.7 114 115 140 33.6 33.7 64.3 138 171 172 35.5 35.7 41.6 41.9 103 104 128 201 244 287 332 63.2 63.6 72.7 73.1 172 173 207 241 408 443 444 618 68.4 91.8 105 128 142 223

u 0.876 0.843 0.836 0.837 0.872 0.839 0.840 0.876 0.880 0.881 0.841 0.842 0.845 0.885 0.885 0.879 0.845 0.844 0.845 0.883 0.884 0.878 0.880 0.876 0.878 0.879 0.847 0.846 0.847 0.848 0.884 0.886 0.880 0.881 0.883 0.884 0.884 0.885 0.850 0.847 0.848 0.849 0.878 0.880 0.876 0.888 0.884 0.884

x 12.7 12.3 11.1 10.7 14.0 12.8 12.5 20.4 15.8 15.0 14.1 13.7 11.8 21.8 21.4 19.1 17.5 14.7 14.5 28.4 26.5 24.9 23.6 21.2 19.8 16.9 18.2 15.5 13.6 12.2 32.0 29.9 28.4 26.9 21.3 20.5 18.0 16.0 17.9 17.1 16.7 12.8 39.7 35.6 32.0 27.8 25.6 17.9

H dm6 0.000320 0.00253 0.00283 0.00283 0.00100 0.00987 0.00988 0.00253 0.00727 0.00728 0.0276 0.0276 0.0348 0.00680 0.00680 0.0169 0.0519 0.0662 0.0662 0.0103 0.0104 0.0123 0.0124 0.0434 0.0434 0.0553 0.114 0.142 0.171 0.203 0.0367 0.0367 0.0426 0.0427 0.134 0.134 0.163 0.195 0.462 0.508 0.508 0.745 0.0676 0.0930 0.107 0.133 0.149 0.248

J cm4 2.03 3.53 4.73 5.17 3.75 7.91 8.43 2.81 6.56 7.37 12.5 13.5 22.2 4.31 4.50 6.76 11.5 20.4 21.0 3.30 3.86 5.08 5.77 9.32 10.9 18.5 17.6 29.8 45.8 66.7 5.78 6.74 8.51 9.68 21.2 23.2 36.1 53.2 46.7 55.8 58.7 141 5.51 8.65 12.4 18.8 24.9 79.0

125x60 125x125 150x75 150x100 150x150

175x90 175x125 175x175

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200x200

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35

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Universal Beams and Columns

r

t T

B

n

N D d

Metric units

Designation Size Mass Per Metre mm 300x200 kg/m 48.3 55.8 56.8 65.4 77.3 87.0 93.0 94.0 106 125 130 147 41.2 41.4 49.4 49.6 57.8 66.2 71.8 79.7 69.2 78.1 79.7 94.2 108 113 115 135 137 159 181 56.1 56.6 65.4 66.0 75.5 88.2 140 187 94.3 105 107 127 144 140 147 172 200 232 283 415 605 Depth Width Of Of Section Section D mm 290 294 294 298 304 298 300 300 304 310 310 312 346 346 350 350 354 358 360 364 336 340 340 346 350 344 344 350 350 356 362 396 396 400 400 404 410 430 446 386 390 390 396 402 388 394 400 406 414 428 458 498 B mm 199 200 200 201 202 299 300 300 301 303 305 310 174 174 175 175 176 177 178 177 249 250 250 251 253 348 354 350 350 352 354 199 199 200 200 201 202 208 214 299 300 300 302 303 402 398 400 403 405 407 417 432 Thickness Root Depth Radius Between Fillets r mm 18 13 18 18 18 18 13 18 18 18 18 18 13 14 13 14 14 14 14 14 20 13 20 20 20 13 20 13 20 20 20 13 16 13 16 16 16 16 16 22 13 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 d mm 234 244 234 234 234 234 244 234 234 234 234 234 302 300 302 300 300 300 300 300 272 286 272 272 272 286 272 286 272 272 272 348 342 348 342 342 342 342 342 314 332 314 314 314 314 314 314 314 314 314 314 314 Area Of Section A cm2 61.5 71.1 72.4 83.4 98.5 111 118 120 135 159 165 187 52.5 52.7 62.9 63.1 73.7 84.3 91.4 101 88.2 100 102 120 137 144 148 172 174 202 230 71.4 72.2 83.4 84.1 96.2 112 179 239 120 133 136 162 184 178 187 219 255 295 361 529 770

C b

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Flange Web T t mm 10 12 12 14 17 14 15 15 17 20 20 21 9 9 11 11 13 15 16 18 12 14 14 17 19 16 16 19 19 22 25 11 11 13 13 15 18 28 36 14 16 16 19 22 15 18 21 24 28 35 50 70 mm 7 8 8 9 10 9 10 10 11 13 15 20 6 6 7 7 8 9 10 11 8 9 9 10 12 10 10 12 12 14 16 7 7 8 8 9 10 16 22 9 10 10 12 13 15 11 13 16 18 20 30 45

Ratios For Local Buckling Flange Web b/T d/t 9.95 8.33 8.33 7.18 5.94 10.7 10.0 10.0 8.85 7.58 7.63 7.38 9.67 9.67 7.95 7.95 6.77 5.90 5.56 4.92 10.4 8.93 8.93 7.38 6.66 10.9 11.1 9.21 9.21 8.00 7.08 9.05 9.05 7.69 7.69 6.70 5.61 3.71 2.97 10.7 9.38 9.38 7.95 6.89 13.4 11.1 9.52 8.40 7.23 5.81 4.17 3.09 33.4 30.5 29.3 26.0 23.4 26.0 24.4 23.4 21.3 18.0 15.6 11.7 50.3 50.0 43.1 42.9 37.5 33.3 30.0 27.3 34.0 31.8 30.2 27.2 22.7 28.6 27.2 23.8 22.7 19.4 17.0 49.7 48.9 43.5 42.8 38.0 34.2 21.4 15.5 34.9 33.2 31.4 26.2 24.2 20.9 28.5 24.2 19.6 17.4 15.7 10.5 7.0

Dimensions For Detailing End Clearance C mm 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 8 9 10 12 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 6 7 7 7 8 7 7 8 8 9 10 6 6 6 6 7 7 10 13 7 7 7 8 9 10 8 9 10 11 12 17 25

Notch N mm 106 106 106 106 106 155 155 155 155 155 155 155 94 94 94 94 94 94 94 93 131 131 131 131 131 179 182 179 179 179 179 106 106 106 106 106 106 106 106 155 155 155 155 155 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 204 n mm 28 25 30 32 35 32 28 33 35 38 38 39 22 23 24 25 27 29 30 32 32 27 34 37 39 29 36 32 39 42 45 24 27 26 29 31 34 44 52 36 29 38 41 44 37 40 43 46 50 57 72 92

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Continental Steel Pte Ltd

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

x

x

Metric units

Designation Surface Size Unit Area Weight Per Metre mm 300x200 kg/m 48.3 55.8 56.8 65.4 77.3 87.0 93.0 94.0 106 125 130 147 41.2 41.4 49.4 49.6 57.8 66.2 71.8 79.7 69.2 78.1 79.7 94.2 108 113 115 135 137 159 181 56.1 56.6 65.4 66.0 75.5 88.2 140 187 94.3 105 107 127 144 140 147 172 200 232 283 415 605 m2 1.33 1.35 1.34 1.35 1.37 1.74 1.76 1.75 1.76 1.78 1.78 1.79 1.35 1.35 1.36 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.39 1.39 1.62 1.64 1.63 1.64 1.65 2.04 2.05 2.05 2.04 2.06 2.07 1.55 1.55 1.56 1.56 1.57 1.58 1.63 1.68 1.91 1.94 1.92 1.94 1.95 2.32 2.32 2.34 2.35 2.37 2.41 2.49 2.60 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 9431 11110 11340 13310 16280 18850 20190 20410 23380 28130 28630 31370 11040 11100 13500 13560 16100 18710 20240 22760 18510 21230 21680 26440 30190 32850 33810 39847 40300 47590 55190 19770 20020 23460 23710 27490 33060 54850 75250 33680 37860 38680 46660 54420 48970 56150 66620 78040 92770 119200 187100 297900 cm4 1317 1602 1604 1900 2341 6242 6753 6756 7733 9282 9470 10450 792 792 984 985 1184 1390 1508 1669 3093 3649 3652 4488 5138 11240 11840 13583 13590 16000 18500 1447 1448 1736 1737 2035 2478 4216 5919 6246 7204 7210 8735 10220 16260 18930 22420 26200 31030 39360 60530 94360 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 12.4 12.5 12.5 12.6 12.9 13.0 13.1 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.2 13.0 14.5 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 14.9 15.0 14.5 14.6 14.6 14.8 14.8 15.1 15.1 15.2 15.2 15.3 15.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 16.8 16.9 17.2 17.5 17.8 16.7 16.9 16.9 17.0 17.2 16.6 17.3 17.5 17.5 17.7 18.2 18.8 19.7 cm 4.63 4.75 4.71 4.77 4.88 7.51 7.55 7.51 7.57 7.64 7.57 7.48 3.88 3.88 3.96 3.95 4.01 4.06 4.06 4.06 5.92 6.05 6.00 6.12 6.12 8.84 8.95 8.89 8.84 8.90 8.96 4.50 4.48 4.56 4.54 4.60 4.70 4.86 4.98 7.21 7.35 7.28 7.35 7.45 9.55 10.1 10.1 10.1 10.2 10.4 10.7 11.1 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 650 756 771 893 1071 1265 1346 1361 1538 1815 1847 2011 638 641 771 775 909 1045 1124 1250 1102 1249 1275 1528 1725 1910 1966 2277 2303 2674 3049 999 1011 1173 1185 1361 1612 2551 3374 1745 1942 1983 2357 2707 2524 2850 3331 3844 4482 5570 8172 11960 Axis y-y Plastic Modulus

y

Buckling Torsional Parameter Index

Warping Constant

Torsional Constant

x-x

y-y cm3 203 245 247 291 356 634 683 684 781 932 949 1040 140 140 173 174 208 243 263 293 380 445 447 547 623 978 1014 1176 1179 1382 1591 223 224 267 268 312 378 632 873 637 730 733 884 1030 1237 1441 1700 1977 2331 2941 4436 6724

u 0.882 0.882 0.883 0.884 0.888 0.850 0.847 0.848 0.849 0.849 0.842 0.830 0.881 0.882 0.883 0.884 0.885 0.886 0.883 0.884 0.881 0.881 0.882 0.886 0.882 0.848 0.846 0.847 0.849 0.848 0.848 0.883 0.884 0.885 0.886 0.887 0.891 0.887 0.883 0.880 0.879 0.881 0.880 0.883 0.830 0.850 0.850 0.846 0.848 0.854 0.853 0.852

x 26.0 24.0 22.7 20.1 17.2 20.0 19.4 18.8 16.9 14.6 14.4 13.0 38.1 37.5 32.2 31.8 27.6 24.4 22.9 20.6 25.8 24.2 22.8 19.5 17.6 21.1 20.4 18.0 17.5 15.4 13.7 36.8 35.6 31.8 30.9 27.4 23.4 15.7 12.5 25.8 24.5 23.2 20.0 17.7 22.5 20.9 18.2 16.1 14.1 11.6 8.5 6.4

H dm6 0.258 0.319 0.319 0.383 0.482 1.26 1.37 1.37 1.59 1.95 1.99 2.21 0.225 0.225 0.283 0.283 0.344 0.409 0.446 0.499 0.812 0.969 0.970 1.21 1.41 3.02 3.18 3.72 3.72 4.46 5.25 0.536 0.536 0.650 0.650 0.770 0.952 1.70 2.49 2.16 2.52 2.52 3.10 3.69 5.66 6.69 8.05 9.56 11.6 15.2 25.2 43.2

J cm4 22.8 31.4 35.8 53.4 87.8 71.3 82.1 88.1 125 200 215 298 13.2 13.6 22.4 23.0 36.1 53.6 66.3 91.3 44.6 58.0 66.3 109 155 111 123 186 199 305 445 25.0 27.1 39.6 42.2 62.3 101 373 825 79.9 100 114 185 272 156 194 303 462 714 1317 3885 11060

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400x400

cm3 cm3 132 721 160 842 160 859 189 1000 232 1204 418 1389 450 1484 450 1501 514 1705 613 2031 621 2079 674 2295 91.0 712 91.0 716 113 864 113 868 135 1022 157 1180 169 1276 189 1425 248 1215 292 1382 292 1412 358 1699 406 1935 646 2092 669 2153 776 2515 776 2545 909 2979 1045 3424 145 1114 145 1128 174 1313 174 1326 202 1528 245 1815 405 2941 553 3968 418 1918 480 2141 481 2188 578 2620 674 3022 809 2802 951 3118 1121 3672 1300 4280 1532 5026 1934 6311 2903 9540 4369 14460

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

37

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Universal Beams and Columns

r

t T

B

n

N D d

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Metric units

Designation Size Mass Per Metre mm 450x200 kg/m 65.1 66.2 74.9 76.0 88.9 98.9 110 106 121 124 145 77.9 79.5 88.2 89.6 102 103 117 111 114 125 128 150 79.0 92.5 94.6 103 106 118 120 134 133 137 147 151 170 175 203 217 166 182 185 215 191 207 210 241 267 210 213 240 243 283 286 304 307 Depth Width Of Of Section Section D mm 446 446 450 450 456 460 460 434 440 440 446 496 496 500 500 506 506 512 482 482 488 488 494 592 596 596 600 600 606 606 612 582 582 588 588 594 594 602 608 692 700 700 708 792 800 800 808 816 890 890 900 900 912 912 918 918 B mm 199 199 200 200 201 202 205 299 300 300 302 199 199 200 200 201 201 202 300 300 300 300 302 197 199 199 200 200 201 201 202 300 300 300 300 302 302 304 304 300 300 300 302 300 300 300 302 303 299 299 300 300 302 302 303 303 Thickness Root Depth Radius Between Fillets r mm 13 18 13 18 18 18 18 24 13 24 24 13 20 13 20 13 20 20 13 26 13 26 26 22 13 22 13 22 13 22 22 13 28 13 28 13 28 28 28 28 18 28 28 28 18 28 28 28 18 28 18 28 18 28 18 28 d mm 396 386 396 386 386 386 386 356 378 356 356 442 428 442 428 442 428 428 426 400 426 400 400 522 540 522 540 522 540 522 522 522 492 522 492 522 492 492 492 596 616 596 596 692 712 692 692 692 808 788 808 788 808 788 808 788 Area Of Section A cm2 83.0 84.3 95.4 96.8 113 126 140 135 154 157 184 99 101 112 114 129 131 148 141 146 159 164 191 101 118 120 132 134 150 152 171 169 174 187 192 217 222 259 277 211 232 235 274 243 264 267 308 340 267 271 306 310 360 364 387 391

C b

Flange Web T t mm 12 12 14 14 17 19 19 15 18 18 21 14 14 16 16 19 19 22 15 15 18 18 21 13 15 15 17 17 20 20 23 17 17 20 20 23 23 27 30 20 24 24 28 22 26 26 30 34 23 23 28 28 34 34 37 37 mm 8 8 9 9 10 11 14 10 11 11 13 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 11 11 11 11 13 8 10 10 11 11 12 12 13 12 12 12 12 14 14 16 16 13 13 13 15 14 14 14 16 17 15 15 16 16 18 18 19 19

Ratios For Local Buckling Flange Web b/T d/t 8.29 8.29 7.14 7.14 5.91 5.32 5.39 9.97 8.33 8.33 7.19 7.11 7.11 6.25 6.25 5.29 5.29 4.59 10.0 10.0 8.33 8.33 7.19 7.58 6.63 6.63 5.88 5.88 5.03 5.03 4.39 8.82 8.82 7.50 7.50 6.57 6.57 5.63 5.07 7.50 6.25 6.25 5.39 6.82 5.77 5.77 5.03 4.46 6.50 6.50 5.36 5.36 4.44 4.44 4.09 4.09 49.5 48.3 44.0 42.9 38.6 35.1 27.6 35.6 34.4 32.4 27.4 49.1 47.6 44.2 42.8 40.2 38.9 35.7 38.7 36.4 38.7 36.4 30.8 65.3 54.0 52.2 49.1 47.5 45.0 43.5 40.2 43.5 41.0 43.5 41.0 37.3 35.1 30.8 30.8 45.8 47.4 45.8 39.7 49.4 50.9 49.4 43.3 40.7 53.9 52.5 50.5 49.3 44.9 43.8 42.5 41.5

Dimensions For Detailing End Clearance C mm 6 6 7 7 7 8 9 7 8 8 9 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 6 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 9 9 9 10 9 9 9 10 11 10 10 10 10 11 11 12 12

Notch N mm 106 106 106 106 106 106 106 155 155 155 155 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 155 155 155 155 155 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 105 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 153 153 153 153 153 152 152 152 152 152 152 152 152 n mm 25 30 27 32 35 37 37 39 31 42 45 27 34 29 36 32 39 42 28 41 31 44 47 35 28 37 30 39 33 42 45 30 45 33 48 36 51 55 58 48 42 52 56 50 44 54 58 62 41 51 46 56 52 62 55 65

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Continental Steel Pte Ltd

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

x

x

Metric units

Designation Surface Size Unit Area Weight Per Metre mm 450x200 kg/m 65.1 66.2 74.9 76.0 88.9 98.9 110 106 121 124 145 77.9 79.5 88.2 89.6 102 103 117 111 114 125 128 150 79.0 92.5 94.6 103 106 118 120 134 133 137 147 151 170 175 203 217 166 182 185 215 191 207 210 241 267 210 213 240 243 283 286 304 307 m2 1.65 1.64 1.66 1.65 1.67 1.68 1.68 2.00 2.04 2.02 2.03 1.75 1.74 1.76 1.75 1.77 1.76 1.77 2.12 2.10 2.13 2.11 2.13 1.92 1.95 1.93 1.96 1.94 1.97 1.95 1.97 2.32 2.29 2.33 2.30 2.35 2.32 2.34 2.35 2.51 2.54 2.53 2.55 2.71 2.74 2.72 2.74 2.76 2.92 2.90 2.94 2.92 2.97 2.95 2.98 2.96 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 28130 28700 32890 33450 40400 45430 47860 46800 54730 56070 66380 40840 41870 46810 47850 55480 56520 65450 58270 60370 68860 70960 83810 58240 66640 68720 75560 77630 88320 90400 103500 98950 102700 114400 118100 133600 137300 162600 179300 172400 197500 201500 237100 253600 286400 291700 339200 383600 338500 345300 404500 411300 491000 497800 535400 542200 cm4 1579 1581 1870 1872 2308 2619 2742 6695 8106 8114 9658 1843 1846 2138 2142 2578 2582 3035 6756 6768 8106 8118 9663 1665 1976 1982 2274 2280 2716 2723 3178 7659 7675 9009 9025 10570 10590 12680 14090 9030 10820 10830 12890 9936 11720 11740 13820 15820 10280 10290 12630 12650 15660 15670 17210 17230 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.6 18.9 19.0 18.5 18.6 18.9 18.9 19.0 20.3 20.3 20.4 20.5 20.7 20.7 21.0 20.3 20.4 20.8 20.8 20.9 24.1 23.8 23.9 24.0 24.0 24.3 24.3 24.6 24.2 24.3 24.7 24.8 24.8 24.9 25.1 25.4 28.6 29.2 29.3 29.4 32.3 33.0 33.0 33.2 33.6 35.6 35.7 36.4 36.4 36.9 37.0 37.2 37.2 cm 4.36 4.33 4.43 4.40 4.51 4.56 4.43 7.04 7.26 7.18 7.24 4.31 4.27 4.36 4.33 4.47 4.43 4.52 6.92 6.82 7.14 7.05 7.11 4.07 4.10 4.06 4.16 4.12 4.26 4.23 4.32 6.73 6.63 6.94 6.85 6.98 6.90 7.00 7.13 6.53 6.83 6.78 6.86 6.39 6.67 6.62 6.70 6.82 6.20 6.16 6.43 6.39 6.59 6.56 6.67 6.63 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 1262 1287 1462 1487 1772 1975 2081 2157 2488 2549 2977 1647 1688 1872 1914 2193 2234 2557 2418 2505 2822 2908 3393 1968 2236 2306 2519 2588 2915 2983 3382 3400 3530 3889 4018 4497 4624 5401 5896 4984 5643 5757 6699 6405 7159 7292 8397 9402 7608 7760 8989 9139 10770 10920 11660 11810 Axis y-y cm3 159 159 187 187 230 259 268 448 540 541 640 185 186 214 214 257 257 300 450 451 540 541 640 169 199 199 227 228 270 271 315 511 512 601 602 700 701 834 927 602 721 722 854 662 781 782 915 1044 687 688 842 843 1037 1038 1136 1137 Plastic Modulus

y

Buckling Torsional Parameter Index

Warping Constant

Torsional Constant

x-x cm3 1423 1450 1652 1679 2003 2240 2399 2384 2757 2825 3323 1869 1914 2130 2175 2496 2541 2913 2696 2791 3132 3228 3792 2239 2576 2651 2904 2979 3357 3432 3893 3822 3963 4348 4489 5057 5197 6101 6653 5629 6338 6464 7559 7288 8098 8243 9534 10680 8750 8913 10290 10450 12340 12500 13380 13540

y-y cm3 245 247 290 291 356 403 423 686 823 828 981 288 290 333 335 399 401 469 690 695 825 830 984 265 312 315 358 361 426 429 498 786 793 921 928 1077 1085 1292 1431 936 1110 1116 1323 1036 1210 1216 1426 1625 1079 1085 1317 1324 1622 1629 1778 1785

u 0.876 0.878 0.878 0.879 0.884 0.885 0.869 0.883 0.885 0.887 0.886 0.874 0.876 0.875 0.877 0.880 0.881 0.884 0.877 0.880 0.887 0.889 0.888 0.870 0.861 0.864 0.863 0.865 0.868 0.870 0.873 0.876 0.879 0.886 0.888 0.885 0.887 0.888 0.893 0.878 0.887 0.889 0.889 0.873 0.882 0.883 0.883 0.887 0.863 0.865 0.872 0.873 0.876 0.877 0.878 0.879

x 38.4 36.5 33.6 32.2 27.5 25.0 23.9 27.0 24.9 23.4 20.5 37.5 35.2 33.3 31.6 28.7 27.5 24.3 32.4 29.4 28.0 25.9 22.8 45.2 42.9 39.7 38.4 36.0 33.4 31.7 28.3 35.5 32.1 31.2 28.8 27.3 25.5 22.3 20.5 34.3 31.4 30.0 26.3 36.8 33.9 32.5 28.7 25.8 42.2 40.2 35.9 34.5 30.1 29.3 27.9 27.2

H dm6 0.744 0.744 0.889 0.890 1.11 1.27 1.33 2.94 3.61 3.61 4.36 1.07 1.07 1.25 1.25 1.53 1.53 1.82 3.68 3.69 4.48 4.48 5.40 1.40 1.67 1.67 1.93 1.94 2.33 2.34 2.76 6.11 6.13 7.27 7.28 8.62 8.63 10.5 11.8 10.2 12.4 12.4 14.9 14.7 17.6 17.6 20.9 24.2 19.3 19.3 24.0 24.0 30.2 30.2 33.4 33.4

J cm4 33.9 38.3 51.6 56.9 92.5 126 152 104 141 163 253 52.5 60.8 75.9 85.9 119 132 193 93.9 118 143 172 265 53.0 69.2 82.4 97.3 113 147 167 237 137 173 199 241 304 356 551 702 260 343 383 588 341 440 486 726 1003 361 403 580 633 979 1050 1234 1316

450x300

500x200

500x300

600x200

600x300

700x300

800x300

900x300

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

39

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

38

B r t N D d n

Universal Beams and Columns

T

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W4-4x4 (102x102) W5-5x3 (127x76) W5-5x5 (127x127) W6-6x3 (152x76) W6-6x3 1/2 (152x89) W6-6x4 (152x102) W6-6x6 (152X152) lb/ft 13 13.8 16.3 9 16 19 9 12 11 9 12 16 15 15.7 20 25 11 12 15 13 10 13 15 16 14 15 17 18 20 21 24 28 31 35 40 48 58 67 12 15 17 19 kg/m 19.4 21.0 24.0 13.0 23.8 28.3 14.0 18.0 16.0 13.4 17.9 23.8 22.3 23.0 30.0 37.0 16.1 18.1 22.2 19.0 14.9 19.4 22.3 23.1 21.0 22.3 25.1 26.8 30.0 31.3 35.7 41.7 46.1 52.0 60.0 71.0 86.1 99.7 17.9 22.0 25.2 28.3 Depth Of Section D mm 105.7 102.0 107.0 127.0 127.3 130.8 150.0 155.0 152.4 149.9 153.2 159.5 152.1 152.4 157.6 161.8 173.0 175.0 179.0 177.8 200.4 202.9 206.0 203.2 203.0 202.0 203.2 206.8 206.8 210.3 201.4 204.7 203.2 206.2 209.6 215.8 222.2 228.6 250.7 254.0 257.2 260.4 Width Of Section B mm 103.1 102.0 100.0 76.0 127.0 127.8 75.0 75.0 88.7 100.1 101.6 102.4 152.1 152.2 152.9 154.4 90.0 90.0 90.0 101.2 100.1 101.6 102.0 101.8 133.0 133.0 133.2 133.3 133.9 133.9 165.0 166.0 203.6 204.3 205.8 206.4 209.1 210.3 100.6 101.6 101.9 102.2 Thickness Flange Web T mm 8.8 9.4 12.0 7.6 9.1 10.9 7.0 8.5 7.7 5.5 7.1 10.2 6.6 6.8 9.4 11.5 7.0 8.0 10.0 7.9 5.2 6.5 8.0 9.3 6.4 7.0 7.8 8.4 9.6 10.1 10.1 11.8 11.0 12.5 14.2 17.3 20.5 23.8 5.3 6.8 8.4 10.0 t mm 7.1 8.0 7.9 4.0 6.1 6.9 5.0 6.0 4.5 4.3 5.8 6.6 5.8 5.8 6.5 8.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 4.8 4.3 5.8 6.2 5.4 5.0 5.0 5.7 5.8 6.4 6.4 6.2 7.2 7.2 7.9 9.4 10.0 12.7 14.5 4.8 5.7 6.0 6.3 r mm 6.4 6.0 6.0 7.6 7.6 7.6 8.0 8.0 7.6 6.4 6.4 6.4 6.4 7.6 7.6 7.6 8.9 8.9 8.9 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 8.0 8.9 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 Root Radius Depth Between Fillets d mm 75.5 71.2 71.0 96.6 93.8 93.8 120.0 122.0 121.8 126.3 126.3 126.4 126.2 123.6 123.6 123.6 141.2 141.2 141.2 146.8 174.7 174.7 174.8 169.4 174.2 170.2 172.4 174.8 172.4 174.9 160.8 160.7 160.8 160.8 160.8 160.8 160.8 160.7 224.8 225.2 225.2 225.2

C b

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Area Of Section A cm2 24.7 26.1 30.9 16.5 30.4 35.8 17.8 21.6 20.3 17.3 22.9 30.4 28.5 29.2 38.3 47.1 20.4 23.0 28.2 24.3 19.1 24.8 28.6 29.4 27.1 28.7 32.0 33.9 38.2 39.6 45.5 53.2 58.7 66.3 76.4 90.4 110 127 22.8 28.0 32.0 36.1

Ratios For Local Buckling Flange Web b/T d/t 5.88 5.43 4.17 5.00 6.95 5.86 5.36 4.41 5.76 9.17 7.14 5.02 11.5 11.2 8.13 6.71 6.43 5.63 4.50 6.41 9.61 7.84 6.38 5.47 10.39 9.50 8.54 7.95 6.97 6.63 8.17 7.03 9.25 8.17 7.25 5.97 5.10 4.43 9.44 7.47 6.07 5.11 10.6 8.90 8.99 24.2 15.4 13.7 24.0 20.3 27.1 29.2 21.6 19.2 21.6 21.3 19.0 15.5 31.4 28.2 23.5 30.6 40.4 29.9 28.1 31.4 34.8 34.0 30.2 29.9 26.9 27.5 25.9 22.2 22.3 20.4 17.1 16.1 12.7 11.1 46.5 39.5 37.5 35.7

Dimensions For Detailing End Clearance C mm 6 6 6 4 5 5 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 6 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 8 9 4 5 5 5

Notch N mm 58 57 56 46 70 70 45 45 52 58 58 58 83 83 83 83 53 53 52 58 58 58 58 58 74 74 74 74 74 74 89 89 108 108 108 108 108 108 58 58 58 58 n mm 15 15 18 15 17 19 15 17 15 12 13 17 13 14 17 19 16 17 19 16 13 14 16 17 14 16 15 16 17 18 20 22 21 23 24 28 31 34 13 14 16 18

W7-7x 3 1/2 (178x89) W7-7x4 (178x102) W8-8x4 (203x102)

W8-8x5 1/4 (203x133)

W8-8x6 1/2 (203x165) W8-8x8 (203x203)

W10-10x4 (254x102)

40

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

39

x

x

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W4-4x4 (102x102) W5-5x3 (127x76) W5-5x5 (127x127) W6-6x3 (152x76) W6-6x3 1/2 (152x89) W6-6x4 (152x102) W6-6x6 (152X152) lb/ft kg/m 13 19.4 13.8 21.0 16.3 24.0 9 13.0 16 19 9 12 11 9 12 16 15 15.7 20 25 11 12 15 13 10 13 15 16 14 15 17 18 20 21 24 28 31 35 40 48 58 67 12 15 17 19 23.8 28.3 14.0 18.0 16.0 13.4 17.9 23.8 22.3 23.0 30.0 37.0 16.1 18.1 22.2 19.0 14.9 19.4 22.3 23.1 21.0 22.3 25.1 26.8 30.0 31.3 35.7 41.7 46.1 52.0 60.0 71.0 86.1 99.7 17.9 22.0 25.2 28.3 Surface Area per Metre m2 0.599 0.586 0.588 0.537 0.737 0.746 0.576 0.584 0.638 0.681 0.690 0.704 0.890 0.889 0.901 0.912 0.682 0.685 0.691 0.738 0.779 0.787 0.794 0.790 0.914 0.911 0.915 0.922 0.923 0.930 1.03 1.04 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.24 1.25 0.881 0.890 0.897 0.904 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 472 456 587 473 892 1092 666 841 834 683 918 1330 1210 1250 1748 2210 1060 1213 1529 1356 1284 1647 1999 2105 1980 2105 2340 2578 2896 3119 3430 4077 4568 5259 6125 7618 9449 11310 2241 2841 3415 4005 cm4 160 167 200 55.8 312 380 49.5 60.2 89.8 91.4 125 183 387 400 560 706 85.4 97.6 122 137 87.3 114 142 164 251 275 308 331 385 405 757 901 1548 1778 2065 2537 3128 3687 90.8 119 149 179 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 4.38 4.18 4.36 5.35 5.42 5.52 6.11 6.24 6.41 6.29 6.33 6.61 6.51 6.54 6.76 6.85 7.20 7.26 7.36 7.48 8.19 8.16 8.36 8.46 8.55 8.56 8.56 8.72 8.71 8.87 8.68 8.76 8.82 8.91 8.96 9.18 9.28 9.44 9.91 10.1 10.3 10.5 cm 2.55 2.53 2.55 1.84 3.21 3.25 1.67 1.67 2.10 2.30 2.33 2.45 3.68 3.70 3.83 3.87 2.04 2.06 2.08 2.37 2.14 2.14 2.23 2.36 3.05 3.09 3.10 3.12 3.17 3.20 4.08 4.12 5.13 5.18 5.20 5.30 5.34 5.39 1.99 2.06 2.15 2.22 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 89.4 89.4 110 74.6 140 167 88.8 109 109 91.1 120 167 159 164 222 273 123 139 171 153 128 162 194 207 195 208 230 249 280 297 341 398 450 510 584 706 850 990 179 224 266 308 Axis y-y cm3 31.1 32.7 40.1 14.7 49.2 59.4 13.2 16.0 20.2 18.3 24.5 35.7 50.9 52.6 73.3 91.5 19.0 21.7 27.1 27.0 17.4 22.4 27.8 32.2 37.8 41.3 46.2 49.7 57.5 60.4 91.7 109 152 174 201 246 299 351 18.0 23.5 29.2 34.9 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 103 104 129 84.2 158 190 102 126 123 102 136 190 177 182 248 309 138 157 195 171 145 187 222 234 218 232 258 279 314 333 378 445 497 567 656 799 977 1150 207 259 306 353 Axis y-y cm3 47.8 50.4 61.5 22.6 75.0 90.6 20.8 25.4 31.2 28.1 38.0 55.2 77.7 80.2 112 140 29.4 33.7 42.3 41.6 27.2 35.3 43.7 49.8 58.0 63.4 70.9 76.3 88.2 92.7 140 165 231 264 305 374 456 536 28.6 37.3 46.0 54.8 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Warping Constant

Torsional Constant

u 0.836 0.827 0.844 0.895 0.842 0.845 0.876 0.875 0.890 0.873 0.869 0.882 0.837 0.840 0.849 0.848 0.884 0.885 0.886 0.888 0.867 0.861 0.869 0.888 0.874 0.879 0.877 0.880 0.881 0.885 0.875 0.875 0.847 0.848 0.846 0.853 0.850 0.852 0.851 0.856 0.866 0.874

x 10.9 9.61 8.13 16.3 13.0 11.2 20.4 17.6 19.6 26.2 20.4 15.4 21.4 20.7 16.0 13.3 23.9 21.4 17.8 22.6 36.3 29.0 25.2 22.5 29.9 27.9 25.6 24.5 21.5 21.0 19.3 16.8 17.7 15.8 14.1 11.9 10.2 9.0 44.0 36.4 31.5 27.5

H dm6 0.00377 0.00357 0.00452 0.00199 0.0109 0.0136 0.00253 0.00323 0.00470 0.00477 0.00665 0.0102 0.0205 0.0212 0.0308 0.0399 0.00588 0.00680 0.00871 0.00987 0.00832 0.0110 0.0139 0.0154 0.0243 0.0261 0.0294 0.0326 0.0374 0.0405 0.0693 0.0838 0.143 0.167 0.197 0.250 0.318 0.387 0.0137 0.0182 0.0230 0.0280

J cm4 6.29 7.78 13.5 2.85 8.00 13.1 2.81 4.81 3.56 1.69 3.76 9.12 4.21 4.63 10.5 19.2 3.15 4.48 8.16 4.41 1.78 3.63 5.68 7.02 3.74 4.50 5.96 7.13 10.3 11.6 14.3 22.4 22.2 31.8 47.2 80.2 137 211 2.28 4.15 6.42 9.57

W7-7x 3 1/2 (178x89) W7-7x4 (178x102) W8-8x4 (203x102)

W8-8x5 1/4 (203x133)

W8-8x6 1/2 (203x165) W8-8x8 (203x203)

W10-10x4 (254x102)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

41

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

40

B r t N D d n

Universal Beams and Columns

T

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W10-10x5 3/4 (254x146) lb/ft 16 21 22 25 26 29 30 33 39 42 45 57 49 54 60 68 72 77 88 89 100 112 14 16 16.5 19 22 25 28 32 21 26 27 30 31 35 36 40 45 50 53 58 kg/m 24.0 31.1 32.7 37.0 38.7 43.0 44.6 49.1 58.0 62.5 67.0 84.8 73.1 80.4 88.9 101.2 107.1 114.6 131 132 148.8 167.1 20.8 23.8 24.8 28.2 32.8 37.0 41.9 48.1 31.0 38.7 40.3 44.6 46.1 52.1 54.0 59.5 67.0 74.4 78.9 86.3 Depth Of Section D mm 253.0 251.4 258.3 256.0 262.4 259.6 265.9 247.1 252.0 249.4 256.5 258.1 254.1 256.3 260.3 264.2 266.7 269.2 275.3 276.3 281.9 289.1 302.5 304.5 305.1 308.7 312.7 304.4 307.2 311.0 306.0 310.4 303.4 313.4 306.6 317.5 310.4 303.3 306.3 309.6 306.3 309.6 Width Of Section B mm 145.0 146.1 146.0 146.4 146.6 147.3 147.6 202.2 202.8 207.0 203.7 211.3 254.6 254.8 256.3 257.3 258.8 258.8 260.7 261.3 262.6 265.2 100.8 101.3 101.6 101.8 102.4 123.3 124.3 125.3 164.0 164.8 165.0 165.6 165.7 166.6 166.9 203.3 204.3 205.2 253.9 254.3 Thickness Flange Web T mm 6.4 8.6 9.1 10.9 11.1 12.7 12.9 11.0 13.4 12.2 15.7 16.5 14.2 15.6 17.3 19.6 20.5 22.1 25.2 25.3 28.5 31.7 5.7 6.7 7.0 8.8 10.8 10.7 12.1 14.0 7.4 9.7 10.2 11.1 11.8 13.2 13.7 13.0 14.6 16.2 14.6 16.2 t mm 5.0 6.0 6.1 6.3 6.6 7.2 7.6 7.4 8.0 12.2 8.9 16.5 8.6 9.4 10.3 11.9 12.8 13.5 15.4 15.3 17.3 19.2 5.1 5.6 5.8 6.0 6.6 7.1 8.0 9.0 5.0 5.8 6.0 6.6 6.7 7.6 7.9 7.5 8.5 9.4 8.8 9.1 r mm 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 8.9 8.9 8.9 7.6 7.6 8.9 7.6 8.9 7.6 8.9 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 Root Radius Depth Between Fillets d mm 224.2 219.0 224.8 219.0 225.0 219.0 224.9 199.7 199.8 199.6 199.7 199.7 200.3 199.7 200.3 199.7 200.3 199.6 199.6 200.3 199.6 200.3 275.8 275.8 275.9 275.9 275.9 265.2 265.2 265.2 275.2 275.9 265.2 276.0 265.2 275.9 265.2 246.9 246.7 246.8 246.7 246.8

C b

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Area Of Section A cm2 31.1 39.7 41.8 47.2 48.9 54.8 56.9 62.5 73.8 79.3 85.4 108 93.1 102 113 129 136 146 167 168 190 213 26.8 30.4 31.6 35.9 41.8 47.2 53.4 61.2 39.4 49.3 51.3 56.5 58.7 66.7 68.8 75.6 85.2 94.5 100 110

Ratios For Local Buckling Flange Web b/T d/t 11.33 8.49 7.99 6.72 6.60 5.80 5.72 9.19 7.57 8.49 6.49 6.40 8.96 8.17 7.41 6.58 6.31 5.86 5.18 5.16 4.62 4.18 8.83 7.53 7.26 5.78 4.74 5.76 5.14 4.48 11.08 8.54 8.09 7.46 7.02 6.31 6.09 7.82 7.00 6.33 8.70 7.85 44.8 36.5 36.8 34.8 34.1 30.4 29.5 27.1 25.0 16.4 22.5 12.1 23.3 21.2 19.4 16.7 15.6 14.8 13.0 13.1 11.6 10.4 54.3 49.3 47.6 46.0 41.8 37.4 33.2 29.5 55.0 47.2 44.2 41.8 39.6 36.2 33.6 33.0 29.0 26.3 28.2 27.0

Dimensions For Detailing End Clearance C mm 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 8 6 10 6 7 7 8 8 9 10 10 11 12 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 7 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 6 7

Notch N mm 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 107 107 107 107 107 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 133 58 58 58 58 58 68 68 68 90 89 90 90 90 89 90 108 108 108 133 133 n mm 14 16 17 19 19 20 21 24 26 25 28 29 27 28 30 32 33 35 38 38 41 44 13 14 15 16 18 20 21 23 15 17 19 19 21 21 23 28 30 31 30 31

W10-10x8 (254x203)

W10-10x10 (254x254)

W12-12x4 (305x102)

W12-12x5 (305x127) W12-12x6 1/2 (305x165)

W12-12x8 (305x203) W12-12x10 (305x254)

42

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

41

x

x

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W10-10x5 3/4 (254x146) lb/ft kg/m 16 24.0 21 31.1 22 32.7 25 37.0 26 38.7 29 43.0 30 44.6 33 49.1 39 58.0 42 62.5 45 67.0 57 84.8 49 73.1 54 80.4 60 88.9 68 101 72 107 77 115 88 131 89 132 100 149 112 167 14 20.8 16 23.8 16.5 24.8 19 28.2 22 32.8 25 37.0 28 41.9 32 48.1 21 31.0 26 38.7 27 40.3 30 44.6 31 46.1 35 52.1 36 54.0 40 59.5 45 67.0 50 74.4 53 78.9 58 86.3 Surface Area per Metre m2 1.06 1.06 1.08 1.07 1.08 1.08 1.09 1.27 1.28 1.25 1.29 1.31 1.49 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.52 1.52 1.54 1.55 1.56 1.58 0.985 0.990 0.992 1.00 1.01 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.24 1.26 1.24 1.26 1.25 1.27 1.26 1.38 1.39 1.40 1.58 1.59 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 3477 4413 4917 5537 5974 6544 7048 7071 8672 8430 10300 11930 11410 12590 14270 16390 17510 18950 22210 22530 25900 30000 3682 4274 4455 5366 6501 7166 8196 9575 6554 8498 8503 9864 9899 11860 11700 12840 14570 16350 17700 19740 cm4 326 448 475 571 584 677 692 1517 1865 1807 2214 2606 3908 4304 4858 5558 5928 6391 7436 7531 8598 9870 97.9 117 123 155 194 335 389 461 544 720 764 841 896 1019 1063 1823 2078 2337 3986 4444 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 10.6 10.5 10.8 10.8 11.1 10.9 11.1 10.6 10.8 10.3 11.0 10.5 11.1 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.9 11.7 11.9 11.9 12.2 12.5 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.9 13.1 12.9 13.2 13.0 13.3 13.0 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 cm 3.23 3.36 3.37 3.48 3.45 3.52 3.49 4.93 5.03 4.77 5.09 4.91 6.48 6.49 6.55 6.57 6.59 6.61 6.67 6.69 6.73 6.81 1.91 1.96 1.97 2.08 2.15 2.67 2.70 2.74 3.72 3.82 3.86 3.86 3.90 3.91 3.93 4.91 4.94 4.97 6.30 6.36 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 275 351 381 433 455 504 530 572 688 676 803 925 898 983 1096 1241 1313 1408 1613 1631 1838 2075 243 281 292 348 416 471 534 616 428 548 560 629 646 747 754 847 952 1056 1156 1275 Axis y-y cm3 44.9 61.3 65.0 78.0 79.6 92.0 93.8 150 184 175 217 247 307 338 379 432 458 494 570 576 655 744 19.4 23.1 24.2 30.5 37.9 54.4 62.6 73.6 66.4 87.4 92.7 102 108 122 127 179 203 228 314 349 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 308 393 426 483 510 566 597 634 765 768 898 1067 992 1091 1224 1398 1484 1599 1850 1869 2127 2424 286 329 342 403 481 539 614 711 476 609 623 703 720 838 846 938 1060 1183 1276 1411 Axis y-y cm3 69.0 94.1 100 119 122 141 144 229 280 271 331 385 465 512 575 657 697 752 869 878 999 1137 31.1 37.0 38.8 48.5 60.0 85.3 98.4 116 102 134 142 156 166 188 196 274 311 349 477 531 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Warping Constant

Torsional Constant

u 0.874 0.880 0.882 0.890 0.888 0.891 0.888 0.873 0.878 0.851 0.880 0.849 0.849 0.849 0.850 0.849 0.848 0.849 0.850 0.850 0.851 0.851 0.842 0.846 0.846 0.859 0.866 0.872 0.872 0.873 0.881 0.887 0.889 0.887 0.891 0.889 0.889 0.890 0.889 0.889 0.876 0.878

x 38.2 29.6 28.9 24.3 24.5 21.2 21.3 21.5 18.3 17.9 15.9 13.6 17.3 15.8 14.5 12.9 12.4 11.6 10.3 10.3 9.3 8.5 50.8 45.0 43.4 37.4 31.6 29.7 26.5 23.3 42.4 33.8 31.0 29.7 27.1 25.3 23.6 22.9 20.6 18.8 20.4 18.7

H dm6 0.0494 0.0660 0.0737 0.0857 0.0921 0.103 0.111 0.211 0.265 0.254 0.321 0.380 0.562 0.623 0.717 0.832 0.898 0.976 1.16 1.19 1.38 1.63 0.0216 0.0260 0.0273 0.0349 0.0442 0.0723 0.0847 0.102 0.121 0.163 0.164 0.192 0.195 0.236 0.234 0.384 0.442 0.503 0.848 0.956

J cm4 4.16 8.55 9.96 15.3 16.5 23.9 25.6 24.0 40.2 44.5 62.3 109 57.6 75.6 102 148 172 213 314 319 452 626 2.93 4.27 4.77 7.40 12.2 14.8 21.1 31.8 6.3 12.5 14.7 18.7 22.2 30.8 34.8 39.1 54.6 73.5 65.6 86.5

W10-10x8 (254x203)

W10-10x10 (254x254)

W12-12x4 (305x102)

W12-12x5 (305x127) W12-12x6 1/2 (305x165)

W12-12x8 (305x203) W12-12x10 (305x254)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

43

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

42

B r t N D d n

Universal Beams and Columns

T

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W12-12x12 (305x305) lb/ft 65 72 79 87 92 96 106 120 133 136 152 161 170 190 210 230 252 278 279 305 336 22 26 30 34 38 45 43 48 53 61 68 74 82 87 90 99 103 109 119 120 132 136 kg/m 96.9 107.1 117.9 129.5 136.9 142.8 158.1 178.6 198.1 202.4 226.2 240 253 282.9 312.5 342 375 413.7 415 454 500 33.1 39.1 45.0 51.0 57.0 67.1 64.0 71.4 78.9 90.8 101.2 110.1 122 129 133.9 147.3 152.9 162.2 177 178.6 196.4 201.9 Depth Of Section D mm 307.9 311.1 314.5 318.3 320.5 322.8 327.1 333.2 339.9 340.6 348.2 352.5 356.4 365.3 373.6 382.3 391.4 402.6 402.6 414.5 427.2 349.0 353.4 351.4 355.0 358.0 363.4 347.0 350.3 353.6 352.8 356.6 359.9 363.5 355.6 356.1 359.7 362.0 363.7 368.2 367.8 372.4 374.6 Width Of Section B mm 305.3 305.8 307.4 308.0 309.2 308.9 311.2 312.9 314.5 315.0 317.0 318.4 319.3 322.2 324.9 327.5 330.3 333.8 333.8 336.2 340.0 125.4 126.0 171.1 171.5 172.2 173.2 203.1 204.0 204.7 253.9 254.8 255.8 257.3 368.6 368.8 370.0 370.5 371.0 372.6 372.6 374.0 374.7 Thickness Flange Web T mm 15.4 17.0 18.7 20.6 21.7 22.9 25.0 28.1 31.4 31.8 35.6 37.7 39.6 44.1 48.3 52.6 57.2 62.7 62.7 68.7 75.1 8.5 10.7 9.7 11.5 13.0 15.7 13.4 15.1 16.7 16.3 18.3 19.9 21.7 17.5 18.0 19.8 20.7 21.8 23.8 23.9 26.2 27.0 t mm 9.9 10.9 12.0 13.1 13.8 14.0 15.8 18.0 19.1 20.1 22.1 23.0 24.4 26.8 30.0 32.6 35.4 38.9 38.9 41.3 45.1 6.0 6.6 7.0 7.4 8.1 9.1 7.8 8.6 9.4 9.5 10.5 11.4 12.9 10.4 11.2 12.3 12.3 13.3 14.4 15.0 16.4 16.5 r mm 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 Root Radius Depth Between Fillets d mm 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.8 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.8 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.6 246.7 246.8 246.7 246.6 311.6 311.6 311.6 311.6 311.6 311.6 289.8 289.7 289.8 289.8 289.6 289.6 289.7 290.2 289.6 289.7 290.2 289.6 290.2 289.6 289.7 290.2

C b

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Area Of Section A cm2 123 136 150 165 174 182 201 228 252 258 289 306 323 360 399 437 478 529 528 578 638 42.1 49.8 57.3 64.9 72.6 85.5 81.2 91.2 100 115 129 141 155 164 171 188 195 207 226 228 250 257

Ratios For Local Buckling Flange Web b/T d/t 9.91 8.98 8.22 7.49 7.12 6.76 6.22 5.57 5.01 4.96 4.46 4.22 4.03 3.65 3.37 3.11 2.89 2.66 2.66 2.45 2.26 7.38 5.89 8.82 7.46 6.62 5.52 7.58 6.75 6.13 7.79 6.97 6.41 5.92 10.5 10.2 9.34 8.95 8.49 7.83 7.80 7.15 6.94 24.9 22.6 20.6 18.9 17.9 17.7 15.6 13.7 12.9 12.3 11.2 10.7 10.1 9.21 8.23 7.57 6.97 6.35 6.34 5.97 5.47 51.9 47.2 44.5 42.1 38.5 34.2 37.4 33.5 30.8 30.4 27.5 25.3 22.5 27.9 25.9 23.5 23.6 21.7 20.2 19.3 17.7 17.6

Dimensions For Detailing End Clearance C mm 7 7 8 9 9 9 10 11 12 12 13 14 14 15 17 18 20 21 21 23 25 5 5 6 6 6 7 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10

Notch N mm 158 157 158 157 158 157 158 157 158 157 157 158 157 158 157 157 157 157 157 157 157 70 70 92 92 92 92 108 108 108 132 132 132 132 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 189 n mm 31 32 34 36 37 38 40 43 47 47 51 53 55 59 63 68 72 78 78 84 90 19 21 20 22 23 26 29 30 32 32 33 35 37 33 33 35 36 37 39 39 41 42

W14-14x5 (356x127) W14-14x6 3/4 (356x171)

W14-14x8 (356x203) W14-14x10 (356x254)

W14-14x14 1/2 (356x368)

44

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

43

x

x

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W12-12x12 (305x305) lb/ft 65 72 79 87 92 96 106 120 133 136 152 161 170 190 210 230 252 278 279 305 336 22 26 30 34 38 45 43 48 53 61 68 74 82 87 90 99 103 109 119 120 132 136 kg/m 96.9 107 118 130 137 143 158 179 198 202 226 240 253 283 313 342 375 414 415 454 500 33.1 39.1 45.0 51.0 57.0 67.1 64.0 71.4 78.9 90.8 101 110 122 129 134 147 153 162 177 179 196 202 Surface Area per Metre m2 1.79 1.80 1.81 1.82 1.82 1.83 1.84 1.86 1.87 1.87 1.89 1.91 1.92 1.94 1.96 1.98 2.01 2.04 2.04 2.07 2.10 1.17 1.18 1.36 1.36 1.37 1.38 1.46 1.47 1.48 1.68 1.69 1.69 1.70 2.14 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.16 2.17 2.17 2.18 2.19 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 22250 24830 27670 30810 32820 34670 38750 44560 50900 51790 59610 64200 68490 78870 89270 100600 113200 129600 129500 147600 169000 8250 10170 12070 14140 16040 19460 17760 20170 22480 26540 30060 33120 36680 40250 41580 46240 48590 51540 57120 57290 63720 66260 cm4 7308 8117 9060 10030 10700 11240 12570 14350 16300 16560 18910 20320 21540 24640 27660 30880 34470 39040 39010 43690 49420 280 358 811 968 1108 1362 1874 2140 2391 4451 5048 5569 6175 14610 15080 16730 17550 18600 20530 20600 22820 23690 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.7 13.8 13.9 14.0 14.2 14.2 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.8 15.0 15.2 15.4 15.7 15.7 16.0 16.3 14.0 14.3 14.5 14.8 14.9 15.1 14.8 14.9 15.0 15.2 15.3 15.3 15.4 15.6 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.8 15.9 15.9 16.0 16.1 cm 7.69 7.72 7.77 7.80 7.83 7.86 7.90 7.94 8.04 8.02 8.09 8.15 8.17 8.27 8.33 8.41 8.49 8.59 8.59 8.69 8.80 2.58 2.68 3.76 3.86 3.91 3.99 4.80 4.84 4.88 6.21 6.26 6.29 6.31 9.43 9.40 9.43 9.49 9.49 9.54 9.51 9.55 9.60 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 1445 1596 1760 1936 2048 2148 2369 2675 2995 3041 3424 3643 3844 4318 4779 5261 5783 6437 6435 7122 7913 473 576 687 796 896 1071 1024 1151 1271 1505 1686 1840 2018 2264 2335 2571 2685 2834 3103 3115 3422 3538 Axis y-y cm3 479 531 589 651 692 728 808 917 1037 1052 1193 1276 1349 1529 1702 1886 2087 2339 2338 2599 2907 44.7 56.8 94.8 113 129 157 185 210 234 351 396 435 480 793 818 904 948 1003 1102 1106 1221 1264 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 1592 1767 1958 2164 2297 2413 2680 3053 3440 3501 3975 4247 4502 5105 5703 6332 7020 7890 7888 8807 9882 543 659 775 896 1010 1211 1138 1285 1424 1668 1878 2058 2270 2479 2565 2838 2965 3142 3455 3475 3838 3972 Axis y-y cm3 726 806 895 990 1053 1106 1230 1399 1581 1606 1823 1951 2064 2342 2613 2898 3211 3604 3602 4006 4487 70.3 89.1 147 174 199 243 283 322 359 534 604 665 734 1199 1238 1370 1435 1519 1671 1678 1853 1920 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Warping Constant

Torsional Constant

u 0.850 0.850 0.850 0.851 0.851 0.853 0.851 0.851 0.853 0.852 0.853 0.854 0.854 0.855 0.855 0.856 0.856 0.857 0.857 0.860 0.861 0.863 0.871 0.874 0.881 0.882 0.886 0.891 0.891 0.892 0.886 0.886 0.886 0.884 0.844 0.842 0.842 0.844 0.843 0.844 0.842 0.843 0.844

x 19.3 17.6 16.2 14.9 14.2 13.6 12.5 11.2 10.2 10.1 9.2 8.7 8.4 7.7 7.1 6.6 6.2 5.7 5.7 5.4 5.0 42.2 35.2 36.8 32.1 28.8 24.4 25.9 23.3 21.3 21.5 19.4 18.0 16.6 19.9 19.2 17.7 17.0 16.2 15.0 14.9 13.7 13.4

H dm6 1.56 1.75 1.98 2.22 2.39 2.53 2.87 3.34 3.88 3.95 4.62 5.03 5.40 6.35 7.32 8.39 9.62 11.3 11.3 13.1 15.3 0.0813 0.105 0.237 0.286 0.330 0.412 0.521 0.601 0.679 1.26 1.44 1.61 1.80 4.18 4.31 4.83 5.11 5.43 6.09 6.09 6.84 7.16

J cm4 91.2 122 161 212 249 285 378 537 734 771 1074 1271 1480 2034 2693 3490 4495 5953 5946 7719 10110 8.79 15.1 15.8 23.8 33.4 55.7 43.2 60.4 80.1 90.3 126 161 211 153 169 223 251 296 381 390 511 558

W14-14x5 (356x127) W14-14x6 3/4 (356x171)

W14-14x8 (356x203) W14-14x10 (356x254)

W14-14x14 1/2 (356x368)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

45

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

44

B r t N D d n

Universal Beams and Columns

T

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W14-14x16 (356x406) lb/ft 118 145 158 159 176 193 211 219 228 233 257 264 283 311 314 342 370 398 426 455 500 550 605 665 730 26 31 36 40 45 50 57 67 77 89 100 35 40 45 46 50 55 41 45 50 55 60 65 66 71 kg/m 175.6 215.8 235.1 236.6 261.9 287.1 314 326 339.9 346.7 382.5 393 421.1 462.8 467 509 551 592.3 633.9 677.1 744.1 818.5 900.3 989.6 1086 39.0 46.0 54.1 60.1 67.1 74.2 84.8 99.7 114.6 132.4 148.8 52.3 59.8 67.2 68.5 74.2 82.1 61 67.1 74.3 82.0 89.3 96.7 98.3 105.7 Depth Of Section D mm 360.0 375.4 381.0 380.5 386.6 393.6 399.3 403.1 406.4 407.4 416.1 419.0 425.2 434.8 436.6 445.5 455.6 464.6 474.6 483.1 497.8 514.1 531.4 549.7 569.5 398.0 403.2 402.6 406.4 409.4 412.8 417.3 414.8 419.6 425.4 431.0 449.8 454.6 458.0 458.7 462.0 465.8 450.0 453.4 457.0 460.0 463.4 466.1 467.2 469.1 Width Of Section B mm 396.0 393.7 394.8 395.4 397.5 399.0 401.3 402.0 403.0 403.6 406.3 407.0 409.2 412.2 412.2 415.5 418.5 421.4 424.0 427.6 432.1 436.9 442.3 448.3 454.4 141.8 142.2 177.7 177.9 178.8 179.5 180.8 260.0 261.5 263.3 264.8 152.4 152.9 153.8 153.9 154.4 155.3 189.0 189.9 190.4 191.3 191.9 192.8 192.8 193.9 Thickness Flange Web T mm 20.0 27.7 30.2 30.2 33.3 36.5 39.6 41.2 42.9 43.7 48.0 49.2 52.6 57.4 58.0 62.7 67.5 72.3 77.0 81.5 88.9 97.0 105.6 114.8 124.7 8.6 11.2 10.9 12.8 14.3 16.0 18.2 16.9 19.3 22.2 25.0 10.9 13.3 15.0 15.3 17.0 18.9 10.8 12.7 14.5 16.0 17.7 19.1 19.6 20.6 t mm 20.0 17.3 18.4 18.9 21.1 22.6 24.9 25.5 26.6 27.2 29.8 30.6 32.8 35.8 35.8 39.1 42.1 45.0 47.6 51.2 55.6 60.5 65.9 71.9 78.0 6.4 6.8 7.7 7.9 8.8 9.5 10.9 10.0 11.6 13.3 14.9 7.6 8.1 9.0 9.1 9.6 10.5 8.1 8.5 9.0 9.9 10.5 11.4 11.4 12.6 r mm 15.0 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 Root Radius Depth Between Fillets d mm 290.0 289.6 290.2 289.6 289.7 290.2 289.7 290.3 290.2 289.6 289.7 290.2 289.6 289.6 290.2 289.6 290.2 289.7 290.2 289.6 289.6 289.6 289.8 289.7 289.7 360.4 360.4 360.4 360.4 360.4 360.4 360.6 360.6 360.6 360.6 360.6 407.6 407.6 407.6 407.7 407.6 407.6 408.4 407.6 407.6 407.6 407.6 407.6 407.6 407.6

C b

Area Of Section A cm2 224 275 299 302 334 366 400 415 433 442 488 501 537 590 595 649 702 755 808 863 948 1043 1147 1261 1385 49.7 58.6 69.0 76.5 85.5 94.5 108 127 146 169 190 66.6 76.2 85.6 87.1 94.5 105 76 85.5 94.6 104 114 123 125 134

Ratios For Local Buckling Flange Web b/T d/t 9.90 7.11 6.54 6.54 5.97 5.47 5.06 4.88 4.70 4.62 4.23 4.14 3.89 3.59 3.55 3.31 3.10 2.92 2.75 2.62 2.43 2.25 2.09 1.95 1.82 8.24 6.35 8.15 6.95 6.25 5.61 4.98 7.70 6.77 5.92 5.29 6.99 5.75 5.13 5.03 4.54 4.11 8.75 7.48 6.57 5.98 5.42 5.06 4.92 4.71 14.5 16.8 15.8 15.3 13.7 12.8 11.6 11.4 10.9 10.7 9.71 9.48 8.84 8.09 8.11 7.40 6.89 6.44 6.10 5.66 5.21 4.79 4.40 4.03 3.72 56.3 53.0 46.8 45.6 41.0 37.9 33.0 36.0 31.2 27.0 24.3 53.6 50.3 45.3 44.6 42.5 38.8 50.4 48.0 45.3 41.2 38.8 35.7 35.8 32.4

Dimensions For Detailing End Clearance C mm 12 11 11 11 13 13 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 20 20 22 23 24 26 28 30 32 35 38 41 5 5 6 6 6 7 7 7 8 9 9 6 6 7 7 7 7 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 8

Notch N mm 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 198 78 78 95 95 95 95 95 135 135 135 135 82 82 82 82 82 82 750 101 101 101 101 101 101 101 n mm 35 43 45 45 48 52 55 56 58 59 63 64 68 73 73 78 83 87 92 97 104 112 121 130 140 19 21 21 23 25 26 28 27 30 32 35 21 24 25 26 27 29 21 23 25 26 28 29 30 31

W16-16x5 1/2 (406x140) W16-16x7 (406x178)

W16-16x10 1/4 (406x260)

W18-18x6 (457x152)

W18-18x7 1/2 (457x191)

46

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

45

x

x

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W14-14x16 (356x406) lb/ft 118 145 158 159 176 193 211 219 228 233 257 264 283 311 314 342 370 398 426 455 500 550 605 665 730 26 31 36 40 45 50 57 67 77 89 100 35 40 45 46 50 55 41 45 50 55 60 65 66 71 kg/m 176 216 235 237 262 287 314 326 340 347 383 393 421 463 467 509 551 592 634 677 744 819 900 990 1086 39.0 46.0 54.1 60.1 67.1 74.2 84.8 99.7 115 132 149 52.3 59.8 67.2 68.5 74.2 82.1 61.0 67.1 74.3 82.0 89.3 96.7 98.3 106 Surface Area per Metre m2 2.24 2.26 2.28 2.28 2.29 2.31 2.33 2.34 2.35 2.35 2.37 2.38 2.40 2.42 2.42 2.45 2.47 2.50 2.52 2.55 2.59 2.63 2.67 2.72 2.77 1.33 1.34 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.51 1.52 1.83 1.84 1.86 1.87 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.51 1.62 1.63 1.64 1.65 1.66 1.66 1.67 1.67 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 51770 71240 79090 79160 89040 99880 110500 116400 122500 125100 141500 146600 159800 180100 183000 203800 226900 249800 274800 299400 341900 392400 450600 518100 597000 12510 15690 18720 21600 24330 27310 31520 39730 46110 54060 61830 21370 25500 28930 29530 32670 36590 25380 29380 33320 37050 41020 44590 45730 48760 cm4 20730 28180 30990 31170 34860 38680 42720 44660 46850 47930 53750 55370 60150 67130 67830 75180 82670 90380 98130 106600 120000 135500 153100 173400 196300 410 538 1021 1203 1365 1546 1794 4951 5758 6768 7754 645 795 913 933 1047 1185 1218 1452 1671 1871 2089 2281 2347 2507 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 15.2 16.1 16.3 16.2 16.3 16.5 16.6 16.7 16.8 16.8 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.5 17.5 17.7 18.0 18.2 18.4 18.6 19.0 19.4 19.8 20.3 20.8 15.9 16.4 16.5 16.8 16.9 17.0 17.1 17.7 17.8 17.9 18.0 17.9 18.3 18.4 18.4 18.6 18.7 18.2 18.5 18.8 18.8 19.0 19.0 19.1 19.0 cm 9.61 10.1 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.9 11.0 11.1 11.3 11.4 11.6 11.7 11.9 2.87 3.03 3.85 3.97 3.99 4.04 4.07 6.25 6.28 6.33 6.39 3.11 3.23 3.27 3.27 3.33 3.37 3.99 4.12 4.20 4.23 4.29 4.30 4.33 4.32 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 2876 3796 4151 4161 4606 5075 5537 5777 6031 6141 6803 6998 7516 8283 8383 9151 9962 10750 11580 12400 13740 15260 16960 18850 20970 629 778 930 1063 1189 1323 1511 1915 2198 2541 2869 950 1122 1263 1288 1414 1571 1128 1296 1458 1611 1770 1913 1957 2079 Axis y-y cm3 1047 1432 1570 1577 1754 1939 2129 2222 2325 2375 2646 2721 2940 3257 3291 3619 3951 4289 4629 4987 5555 6202 6922 7736 8640 57.8 75.7 115 135 153 172 198 381 440 514 586 84.7 104 119 121 136 153 129 153 176 196 218 237 243 259 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 3235 4264 4687 4702 5244 5812 6387 6681 6999 7140 7975 8222 8887 9877 10000 11010 12080 13130 14240 15340 17160 19260 21610 24250 27230 724 888 1055 1199 1346 1501 1724 2128 2457 2859 3246 1096 1287 1453 1482 1627 1811 1286 1471 1653 1831 2014 2184 2232 2383 Axis y-y cm3 1603 2172 2383 2394 2667 2949 3243 3384 3544 3621 4038 4154 4492 4983 5034 5543 6058 6583 7108 7669 8553 9560 10680 11960 13370 90.8 118 178 209 237 267 309 581 673 788 899 133 163 187 191 213 240 201 237 272 304 338 369 379 404 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Warping Constant

Torsional Constant

u 0.810 0.832 0.834 0.833 0.833 0.835 0.834 0.836 0.836 0.836 0.837 0.837 0.837 0.838 0.839 0.840 0.841 0.842 0.843 0.843 0.844 0.846 0.848 0.849 0.851 0.858 0.871 0.871 0.880 0.880 0.882 0.881 0.888 0.887 0.887 0.887 0.859 0.868 0.869 0.869 0.873 0.873 0.865 0.872 0.877 0.877 0.880 0.879 0.881 0.877

x 16.1 13.0 12.1 12.0 11.0 10.2 9.5 9.2 8.8 8.7 8.0 7.9 7.4 6.9 6.9 6.4 6.1 5.7 5.5 5.2 4.9 4.6 4.3 4.0 3.8 47.5 38.9 38.3 33.8 30.5 27.6 24.5 25.4 22.4 19.7 17.7 43.9 37.5 33.6 33.0 30.1 27.4 42.6 37.9 33.9 30.9 28.3 26.3 25.7 24.4

H dm6 5.99 8.52 9.54 9.56 10.9 12.3 13.8 14.6 15.5 15.9 18.2 18.9 20.9 23.9 24.3 27.5 31.1 34.8 38.8 43.0 50.2 58.9 69.4 82.0 97.1 0.155 0.207 0.392 0.466 0.533 0.608 0.714 1.96 2.31 2.75 3.20 0.311 0.387 0.448 0.458 0.518 0.591 0.6 0.705 0.818 0.922 1.04 1.14 1.18 1.26

J cm4 322 632 812 822 1101 1441 1854 2073 2343 2478 3292 3545 4336 5655 5809 7401 9240 11350 13720 16460 21390 27870 36130 46760 60230 10.7 19.0 23.1 33.3 46.1 62.8 92.2 99.4 149 227 322 21.4 33.8 47.7 50.4 65.9 89.2 26 37.1 51.8 69.2 90.7 114 121 145

W16-16x5 1/2 (406x140) W16-16x7 (406x178)

W16-16x10 1/4 (406x260)

W18-18x6 (457x152)

W18-18x7 1/2 (457x191)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

47

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

46

B r t N D d n

Universal Beams and Columns

T

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W18-18x11 (457x279) lb/ft 76 86 97 106 119 130 143 158 175 44 50 57 48 55 62 68 73 82 83 93 101 111 122 132 147 166 182 201 223 248 275 55 61 62 68 76 84 94 103 114 128 146 163 181 198 218 239 100 120 160 kg/m 113.1 128 144.4 157.7 177.1 193.5 212.8 235 260 65.5 74.4 84.8 71.4 82.2 92.1 101 109 122 123.5 138.4 150.3 165.2 181.6 196.4 218.8 247 270.8 300 331 370 409 81.9 91.0 92.3 101.2 113 125.1 139.9 153 171 191 217 243 270 295 325 356 149.1 179 238.1 Depth Of Section D mm 462.5 467.1 472.2 475.7 481.8 489.0 495.0 501.0 509.0 524.8 529.1 534.9 523.2 528.3 533.1 536.7 539.5 544.5 544.3 549.1 542.5 546.4 550.7 554.5 560.3 571.0 577.1 585.0 593.0 603.0 613.0 598.7 602.5 603.0 602.6 607.6 612.2 617.2 623.1 628.9 635.0 643.1 651.0 658.6 667.0 675.1 685.0 612.4 620.2 635.8 Width Of Section B mm 280.3 281.7 283.1 284.5 286.1 283.5 285.0 287.0 289.0 165.1 165.9 166.5 206.8 208.8 209.3 210.0 210.8 211.9 212.2 213.9 312.2 313.4 314.7 316.0 317.8 315.5 317.8 319.0 322.0 324.0 327.0 177.9 178.4 178.8 227.6 228.2 229.0 230.2 228.6 229.9 231.5 234.1 235.9 238.5 240.5 243.1 245.6 304.8 307.1 311.4 Thickness Flange Web T mm 17.3 19.6 22.1 23.9 26.9 30.5 33.5 36.6 40.4 11.4 13.5 16.5 10.9 13.2 15.6 17.4 18.8 21.3 21.2 23.6 20.3 22.2 24.4 26.3 29.2 34.5 37.6 41.4 45.5 50.5 55.6 12.8 15.0 15.0 14.8 17.3 19.3 22.1 24.9 27.9 30.9 35.1 39.1 42.9 47.0 51.0 55.9 19.7 23.6 31.4 t mm 10.8 12.1 13.6 15.0 16.6 17.0 18.5 20.6 22.6 8.9 9.7 10.3 8.9 9.6 10.1 10.8 11.6 12.7 13.1 14.7 12.7 14.0 15.2 16.5 18.3 19.1 21.1 23.1 25.4 26.2 31.0 10.0 10.6 10.9 10.5 11.1 11.9 13.1 14.0 15.5 17.0 19.6 21.6 23.9 25.9 28.4 31.0 11.8 14.1 18.4 r mm 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 16.5 16.5 16.5 Root Radius Depth Between Fillets d mm 407.6 407.6 407.6 407.5 407.6 407.6 407.5 407.8 408.2 476.6 476.7 476.5 476.5 476.5 476.5 476.5 476.5 476.5 476.5 476.5 476.5 476.6 476.5 476.5 476.5 476.5 476.5 476.8 476.6 476.6 476.4 547.6 547.1 547.6 547.6 547.6 548.2 547.6 547.9 547.7 547.8 547.5 547.4 547.4 547.6 547.7 547.8 540.0 540.0 540.0

C b

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Area Of Section A cm2 144 163 184 201 226 247 271 299 331 84 95 108 91 105 117 129 139 155 157 176 192 211 231 250 279 315 346 382 422 460 521 105 116 118 129 144 158 178 195 218 242 278 310 343 376 412 454 190 228 303

Ratios For Local Buckling Flange Web b/T d/t 8.12 7.20 6.40 5.96 5.31 4.65 4.25 3.92 3.58 7.24 6.14 5.04 11.62 7.91 6.71 6.03 5.61 4.97 5.00 4.53 7.68 7.05 6.45 6.01 5.44 4.57 4.23 3.85 3.54 3.21 2.94 6.93 5.95 5.96 7.69 6.60 5.93 5.21 4.59 4.12 3.75 3.33 3.02 2.78 2.56 2.38 2.20 7.74 6.51 4.96 37.7 33.7 30.0 27.2 24.5 24.0 22.0 19.8 18.1 53.6 49.4 46.3 43.7 49.6 47.2 44.1 41.1 37.5 36.4 32.3 37.5 34.1 31.3 28.9 26.1 25.0 22.6 20.6 18.8 18.2 15.4 54.6 51.6 50.1 52.2 49.3 46.1 41.8 39.1 35.3 32.2 27.9 25.3 22.9 21.1 19.3 17.7 45.8 38.3 29.3

Dimensions For Detailing End Clearance C mm 7 8 9 9 10 11 11 12 13 6 7 7 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 8 9 10 10 11 12 13 14 15 15 18 7 7 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 8 9 11

Notch N mm 145 145 145 145 145 143 143 143 143 88 88 88 109 110 110 110 110 110 110 110 160 160 160 160 160 158 158 158 158 159 158 94 94 94 119 119 119 119 117 117 117 117 117 117 117 117 117 157 157 157 n mm 27 30 32 34 37 41 44 47 50 24 26 29 23 26 28 30 32 34 34 36 33 35 37 39 42 47 50 54 58 63 68 26 28 28 28 30 32 35 38 41 44 48 52 56 60 64 69 36 40 48

W21-21x6 1/2 (533x165) W21-21x8 1/4 (533x210)

W21-21x12 1/4 (533x312)

W24-24x7 (610x178) W24-24x9 (610x229)

W24-24x12 (610x305)

48

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

47

x

x

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W18-18x11 (457x279) lb/ft 76 86 97 106 119 130 143 158 175 44 50 57 48 55 62 68 73 82 83 93 101 111 122 132 147 166 182 201 223 248 275 55 61 62 68 76 84 94 103 114 128 146 163 181 198 218 239 100 120 160 kg/m 113 128 144 158 177 194 213 235 260 65.5 74.4 84.8 71 82.2 92.1 101 109 122 124 138 150 165 182 196 219 247 271 300 331 370 409 81.9 91.0 92.3 101 113 125 140 153 171 191 217 243 270 295 325 356 149 179 238 Surface Area per Metre m2 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.06 2.06 2.08 2.09 2.11 1.67 1.68 1.69 1.85 1.85 1.86 1.87 1.88 1.89 1.89 1.90 2.29 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.36 2.38 2.40 2.43 2.45 1.87 1.88 1.88 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.11 2.11 2.12 2.14 2.16 2.18 2.20 2.22 2.24 2.27 2.39 2.41 2.45 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 55460 63520 72710 79600 91040 102500 114400 127300 143700 35030 40810 48640 39917 47540 55230 61520 66820 76040 76240 86170 100800 111300 123300 134200 151200 178000 197200 220700 247700 278900 316900 56020 63880 64580 75780 87320 97540 111800 125000 141400 158400 183900 207900 232800 259400 287700 322200 125900 153000 209500 cm4 6344 7295 8367 9178 10530 11590 12960 14450 16300 859 1032 1276 1611 2008 2389 2692 2943 3388 3389 3868 10320 11410 12680 13850 15650 18110 20150 22450 25390 28710 32530 1210 1426 1436 2915 3434 3872 4505 4972 5670 6415 7544 8606 9768 10980 12330 13950 9308 11410 15840 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 19.6 19.7 19.9 19.9 20.1 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.8 20.5 20.8 21.2 20.9 21.3 21.7 21.9 21.9 22.1 22.0 22.1 22.9 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.8 23.9 24.1 24.2 24.6 24.7 23.2 23.5 23.4 24.2 24.6 24.8 25.0 25.3 25.4 25.6 25.7 25.9 26.1 26.3 26.4 26.6 25.7 25.9 26.3 cm 6.64 6.69 6.74 6.76 6.82 6.86 6.91 6.95 7.01 3.20 3.30 3.44 4.2 4.38 4.51 4.57 4.60 4.67 4.65 4.68 7.33 7.36 7.40 7.44 7.49 7.58 7.63 7.67 7.76 7.90 7.91 3.40 3.51 3.49 4.76 4.88 4.95 5.03 5.04 5.09 5.15 5.21 5.27 5.34 5.41 5.47 5.55 7.00 7.07 7.23 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 2398 2720 3079 3347 3779 4192 4624 5083 5646 1335 1543 1819 1524 1800 2072 2292 2477 2793 2801 3139 3715 4074 4476 4842 5396 6233 6834 7547 8355 9250 10340 1871 2120 2142 2515 2874 3187 3622 4012 4495 4990 5718 6386 7069 7778 8522 9406 4111 4935 6589 Axis y-y cm3 453 518 591 645 736 818 910 1007 1128 104 124 153 156 192 228 256 279 320 319 362 661 728 806 876 985 1148 1268 1408 1577 1772 1990 136 160 161 256 301 338 391 435 493 554 644 730 819 913 1014 1136 611 743 1017 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 2669 3039 3457 3775 4284 4761 5278 5839 6525 1561 1797 2107 1753 2059 2360 2612 2828 3196 3212 3617 4147 4565 5032 5462 6116 7080 7807 8670 9656 10730 12120 2200 2480 2512 2881 3281 3639 4142 4595 5167 5757 6643 7455 8299 9173 10110 11220 4594 5547 7486 Axis y-y cm3 692 792 906 991 1132 1257 1400 1554 1743 166 199 243 244 300 356 399 436 500 500 569 1012 1117 1238 1348 1519 1766 1956 2175 2442 2739 3096 219 256 258 400 469 528 611 680 773 871 1019 1157 1304 1458 1625 1826 937 1144 1574 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Warping Constant

Torsional Constant

u 0.885 0.886 0.886 0.884 0.885 0.891 0.891 0.890 0.891 0.847 0.853 0.862 0.858 0.864 0.872 0.874 0.875 0.877 0.874 0.873 0.885 0.885 0.885 0.884 0.884 0.891 0.890 0.890 0.890 0.894 0.890 0.843 0.850 0.848 0.864 0.870 0.872 0.875 0.878 0.878 0.879 0.877 0.878 0.877 0.878 0.877 0.877 0.886 0.886 0.886

x 27.9 24.8 22.1 20.5 18.4 16.6 15.2 14.0 12.8 47.0 41.4 35.5 47.9 41.6 36.5 33.2 30.9 27.6 27.6 24.9 27.8 25.6 23.4 21.8 19.8 17.2 15.9 14.6 13.4 12.3 11.2 48.3 43.2 42.8 43.1 38.0 34.5 30.6 27.6 24.8 22.6 20.0 18.2 16.7 15.4 14.3 13.2 32.7 27.7 21.3

H dm6 3.14 3.65 4.24 4.68 5.44 6.09 6.90 7.8 8.9 0.566 0.686 0.857 1.1 1.33 1.60 1.82 1.99 2.32 2.32 2.67 7.03 7.84 8.78 9.66 11.0 13.0 14.7 16.6 19.0 21.9 25.3 1.04 1.23 1.24 2.52 2.99 3.40 3.99 4.45 5.12 5.85 6.97 8.06 9.26 10.6 12.0 13.8 8.17 10.2 14.5

J cm4 118 170 244 311 442 603 800 1059 1423 31.9 47.1 73.8 33.4 51.5 75.7 101 126 178 181 251 217 284 373 469 643 983 1278 1700 2263 2996 4131 49.2 68.6 71.0 77.0 111 149 216 295 411 554 819 1123 1495 1952 2517 3309 200 340 785

W21-21x6 1/2 (533x165) W21-21x8 1/4 (533x210)

W21-21x12 1/4 (533x312)

W24-24x7 (610x178) W24-24x9 (610x229)

W24-24x12 (610x305)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

49

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

48

B r t N D d n

Universal Beams and Columns

T

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W24-24x12 3/4 (610x324) lb/ft 104 117 131 146 162 176 192 207 229 250 279 306 335 370 84 94 102 114 129 143 159 182 201 221 247 271 302 146 161 178 194 217 235 258 281 307 336 90 99 108 116 124 132 148 165 185 207 226 246 269 295 kg/m 154.8 174.1 194.9 217.3 241.1 261.9 285.7 308 341 372 415 455 498 551 125.2 140.1 152.4 170.2 192 213 237 271 299 329 368 404 449 217.3 239.6 264.9 288.7 322.9 349.7 383.9 418.2 456.9 500 133.9 146.9 160.7 173 184.5 196.8 220 246 275 308 337 366 401 439 Depth Of Section D mm 611.1 616.2 621.8 628.4 635.0 641.1 646.9 653.0 661.0 669.0 679.0 689.0 699.0 711.0 677.9 683.5 687.5 692.9 701.8 707.9 714.0 723.9 732.0 739.9 749.8 760.0 771.9 695.5 700.8 706.4 714.0 722.1 728.0 736.1 744.0 752.1 762.0 750.0 754.0 757.7 762.2 766.3 769.8 779.0 785.1 793.0 801.1 809.0 817.1 825.0 835.2 Width Of Section B mm 323.8 325.1 326.5 327.7 329.1 327.4 328.9 330.5 333.0 335.0 338.0 340.0 343.0 347.0 253.0 253.7 254.5 255.8 254.3 255.8 257.8 260.2 262.8 264.8 267.7 270.3 273.8 354.7 356.1 357.8 356.4 358.5 360.4 362.5 364.5 366.9 369.0 264.4 265.2 266.1 266.7 267.1 268.0 266.2 268.1 270.1 272.7 274.6 276.6 279.1 281.7 Thickness Flange Web T mm 19.1 21.6 24.4 27.7 31.0 34.0 37.1 39.9 43.9 48.0 53.1 57.9 63.0 69.1 16.2 19.0 21.0 23.7 27.9 31.0 34.0 39.1 42.9 47.0 52.1 56.9 63.0 24.8 27.4 30.2 34.0 38.1 40.9 45.0 49.0 53.1 57.9 15.5 17.5 19.3 21.6 23.6 25.4 30.0 33.0 37.1 40.9 44.9 48.0 53.1 57.9 t mm 12.7 14.0 15.4 16.5 17.9 19.1 20.6 22.1 24.4 26.4 29.5 32.0 35.1 38.6 11.7 12.4 13.2 14.5 15.5 17.0 19.1 21.6 23.9 25.9 28.9 31.5 35.1 15.4 16.8 18.4 19.1 21.1 23.1 24.9 26.9 29.5 32.0 12.0 12.8 13.8 14.3 14.9 15.6 16.5 18.5 20.6 23.1 24.9 26.9 29.5 32.0 r mm 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 13.0 13.0 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 Root Radius Depth Between Fillets d mm 547.6 547.6 547.6 547.6 547.6 547.6 547.3 547.8 540.2 540.0 539.8 540.2 547.0 546.8 615.1 615.1 615.1 615.1 615.6 615.5 615.6 615.3 615.8 615.5 615.2 615.8 615.5 615.6 615.5 615.5 615.5 615.5 615.8 615.8 615.6 615.5 615.8 686.0 686.0 686.1 686.0 686.1 686.0 686.0 686.1 685.8 686.3 686.2 688.1 685.8 686.4

C b

Area Of Section A cm2 198 222 249 277 308 333 363 392 435 475 530 579 635 702 159 178 194 217 244 270 301 345 382 418 468 513 574 277 306 337 368 411 446 489 533 582 636 171 187 205 220 235 251 281 312 351 392 428 462 511 559

Ratios For Local Buckling Flange Web b/T d/t 8.50 7.53 6.70 5.92 5.31 4.81 4.44 4.14 3.79 3.49 3.18 2.94 2.72 2.51 7.81 6.68 6.06 5.40 4.56 4.13 3.79 3.33 3.06 2.82 2.57 2.38 2.17 7.16 6.49 5.92 5.24 4.70 4.41 4.03 3.72 3.46 3.19 8.53 7.58 6.89 6.17 5.65 5.28 4.44 4.06 3.64 3.33 3.06 2.88 2.63 2.43 43.1 39.2 35.6 33.2 30.6 28.7 26.6 24.8 22.1 20.5 18.3 16.9 15.6 14.2 52.6 49.6 46.6 42.4 39.7 36.2 32.2 28.5 25.8 23.8 21.3 19.5 17.5 40.1 36.7 33.4 32.3 29.2 26.6 24.7 22.9 20.9 19.2 57.2 53.6 49.6 48.0 46.2 44.0 41.6 37.1 33.3 29.7 27.6 25.6 23.2 21.5

Dimensions For Detailing End Clearance C mm 8 9 10 10 11 12 12 13 14 15 17 18 20 21 8 8 9 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 10 10 11 12 13 14 14 15 17 18 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 11 12 14 14 15 17 18

Notch N mm 166 166 166 166 166 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 164 131 131 131 131 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 129 180 180 180 179 179 179 179 179 179 179 136 136 136 136 136 136 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 135 n mm 32 34 37 40 44 47 50 53 60 65 70 74 76 82 31 34 36 39 43 46 49 54 58 62 67 72 78 40 43 45 49 53 56 60 64 68 73 32 34 36 38 40 42 47 50 54 57 61 65 70 74

W27-27x10 (686x254)

W27-27x14 (686x356)

W30-30x10 1/2 (762x267)

50

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

49

x

x

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W24-24x12 3/4 (610x324) lb/ft 104 117 131 146 162 176 192 207 229 250 279 306 335 370 84 94 102 114 129 143 159 182 201 221 247 271 302 146 161 178 194 217 235 258 281 307 336 90 99 108 116 124 132 148 165 185 207 226 246 269 295 kg/m 155 174 195 217 241 262 286 308 341 372 415 455 498 551 125 140 152 170 192 213 237 271 299 329 368 404 449 217 240 265 289 323 350 384 418 457 500 134 147 161 173 185 197 220 246 275 308 337 366 401 439 Surface Area per Metre m2 2.47 2.48 2.50 2.51 2.53 2.53 2.55 2.56 2.58 2.60 2.62 2.65 2.68 2.71 2.32 2.33 2.34 2.35 2.36 2.38 2.39 2.42 2.44 2.46 2.49 2.51 2.54 2.75 2.77 2.78 2.79 2.81 2.83 2.85 2.87 2.89 2.91 2.51 2.51 2.52 2.53 2.54 2.55 2.56 2.58 2.60 2.62 2.64 2.66 2.68 2.70 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 129200 147200 167300 190800 215400 236600 260400 283900 319000 353900 400500 445200 494700 557510 118000 136300 150400 170300 198000 222000 247800 289300 323800 359400 406900 453800 515400 234200 261200 290800 325500 369200 402300 447800 494700 545000 604800 150700 168500 185900 205300 223100 240000 278200 310700 353200 397200 440500 480200 536500 595900 cm4 10790 12380 14160 16260 18440 19950 22030 24050 27090 30170 34310 38100 42580 48400 4383 5184 5784 6631 7670 8678 9750 11540 13060 14640 16800 18910 21790 18440 20670 23120 25720 29310 31970 35780 39680 43850 48670 4788 5456 6080 6850 7525 8175 9463 10640 12240 13900 15600 17050 19400 21780 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 25.6 25.8 25.9 26.2 26.4 26.6 26.8 26.9 27.1 27.3 27.5 27.7 27.9 28.2 27.2 27.6 27.8 28.0 28.5 28.7 28.7 29.0 29.1 29.3 29.5 29.7 30.0 29.1 29.2 29.4 29.8 30.0 30.0 30.3 30.5 30.6 30.8 29.7 30.0 30.1 30.5 30.8 30.9 31.5 31.5 31.7 31.8 32.1 32.2 32.4 32.7 cm 7.39 7.47 7.55 7.66 7.74 7.73 7.79 7.84 7.90 7.97 8.04 8.11 8.19 8.30 5.24 5.39 5.46 5.53 5.61 5.67 5.69 5.78 5.85 5.92 5.99 6.07 6.16 8.16 8.22 8.28 8.36 8.44 8.47 8.56 8.63 8.68 8.75 5.30 5.40 5.45 5.58 5.65 5.71 5.81 5.84 5.91 5.96 6.04 6.08 6.16 6.24 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 4227 4776 5383 6074 6784 7380 8050 8695 9652 10580 11800 12920 14150 15682 3481 3987 4374 4916 5644 6272 6940 7993 8847 9715 10850 11940 13350 6735 7455 8233 9118 10230 11050 12170 13300 14990 15870 4018 4470 4907 5387 5821 6234 7142 7914 8909 9916 10890 11750 13010 14270 Axis y-y cm3 666 762 867 993 1121 1218 1340 1455 1627 1801 2030 2241 2483 2790 347 409 455 518 603 678 756 887 994 1106 1255 1399 1592 1040 1161 1292 1444 1635 1774 1974 2177 2390 2638 362 411 457 514 563 610 711 794 906 1020 1136 1233 1390 1546 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 4734 5360 6057 6845 7670 8369 9163 9936 11090 12220 13720 15120 16670 18599 3994 4558 5000 5631 6462 7204 8016 9282 10330 11390 12810 14170 15950 7558 8389 9297 10300 11610 12600 13930 15290 16750 18450 4644 5156 5665 6198 6689 7167 8197 9129 10320 11550 12720 13790 15330 16900 Axis y-y cm3 1023 1170 1335 1527 1726 1878 2068 2250 2523 2797 3162 3498 3885 4377 542 638 710 811 943 1063 1191 1402 1577 1759 2005 2243 2565 1598 1787 1992 2223 2523 2745 3057 3377 3717 4111 570 647 720 807 885 959 1115 1251 1433 1620 1808 1971 2229 2486 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Warping Constant

Torsional Constant

u 0.880 0.882 0.883 0.886 0.888 0.890 0.890 0.890 0.890 0.890 0.889 0.889 0.889 0.889 0.862 0.868 0.871 0.872 0.878 0.878 0.877 0.878 0.877 0.877 0.877 0.877 0.876 0.884 0.885 0.885 0.889 0.890 0.888 0.889 0.890 0.889 0.889 0.854 0.858 0.859 0.864 0.867 0.869 0.875 0.874 0.874 0.873 0.874 0.873 0.874 0.874

x 33.6 30.0 26.8 23.9 21.6 19.9 18.4 17.2 15.7 14.5 13.2 12.2 11.3 10.4 43.9 38.7 35.5 31.8 27.7 25.2 23.0 20.3 18.6 17.2 15.6 14.4 13.2 29.7 27.0 24.6 22.3 20.1 18.8 17.2 15.9 14.8 13.7 49.8 45.2 41.5 38.1 35.4 33.2 28.9 26.4 23.7 21.6 19.9 18.7 17.0 15.8

H dm6 9.46 10.9 12.6 14.7 16.8 18.4 20.5 22.6 25.8 29.1 33.6 37.9 42.9 49.6 4.80 5.72 6.42 7.42 8.71 9.94 11.3 13.5 15.5 17.6 20.4 23.4 27.4 20.7 23.4 26.4 29.7 34.3 37.7 42.7 47.9 53.6 60.3 6.46 7.40 8.29 9.39 10.4 11.3 13.3 15.0 17.5 20.1 22.8 25.2 28.9 32.9

J cm4 196 280 395 559 770 995 1280 1593 2162 2809 3824 4940 6420 8525 116 169 220 308 462 627 840 1260 1675 2186 2993 3897 5322 454 610 813 1100 1532 1914 2518 3250 4152 5373 119 159 208 267 333 404 605 815 1147 1555 2029 2500 3361 4345

W27-27x10 (686x254)

W27-27x14 (686x356)

W30-30x10 1/2 (762x267)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

51

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

50

B r t N D d n

Universal Beams and Columns

T

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W30-30x15 (762x381) lb/ft 173 191 211 235 261 292 326 357 118 130 141 152 169 187 204 219 243 271 301 332 361 201 221 241 263 291 318 354 387 424 468 135 150 160 170 182 194 210 232 256 286 318 350 387 kg/m 257.5 284.2 314 349.7 388.4 434.5 485.1 531 175.9 193.8 209.8 226.5 252 278 304 326 362 404 449 494 537 299.1 328.9 358.6 391.4 433.1 473.2 526.8 575.9 631 697 200.9 224.2 238.1 253.4 270.8 289.1 312.5 345 381 426 474 521 576 Depth Of Section D mm 773.2 779.3 785.9 795.0 802.9 813.1 823.0 833.0 834.9 840.7 845.8 850.9 859.0 865.1 871.2 877.1 885.2 895.1 905.0 915.2 925.1 855.5 861.8 868.2 877.1 884.9 893.1 903.0 913.1 923.0 935.0 903.0 910.4 914.7 918.4 922.8 926.6 931.9 942.9 950.7 960.9 970.8 980.7 992.9 Width Of Section B mm 380.6 382.0 383.7 382.4 384.9 387.5 390.4 393.0 291.7 292.4 293.0 293.8 292.1 294.1 295.7 297.2 299.7 302.1 305.2 308.1 310.6 399.9 401.4 402.8 401.4 404.0 406.0 408.9 411.5 414.0 418.0 303.3 304.1 304.8 305.5 306.7 307.7 309.4 307.8 310.3 312.8 315.7 318.8 321.8 Thickness Flange Web T mm 27.1 30.1 33.4 38.1 41.9 47.0 52.1 56.9 18.8 21.7 24.4 26.8 31.0 34.0 37.1 39.9 43.9 49.0 54.1 58.9 64.0 29.2 32.4 35.6 39.9 43.9 48.0 53.1 57.9 63.0 69.1 20.2 23.9 25.9 27.9 30.0 32.0 34.5 39.9 43.9 48.0 54.1 58.9 65.0 t mm 16.6 18.0 19.7 21.1 23.6 25.9 29.0 31.5 14.0 14.7 15.4 16.1 17.0 19.1 20.6 22.1 24.4 26.9 30.0 33.0 35.6 18.2 19.7 21.1 22.1 24.4 26.4 29.5 32.0 35.1 38.6 15.1 15.9 16.5 17.3 18.4 19.5 21.1 22.1 24.4 26.9 29.9 33.0 36.1 r mm 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 20.0 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 20.0 20.0 19.1 19.1 19.0 19.1 19.0 19.1 19.0 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.1 19.1 Root Radius Depth Between Fillets d mm 686.1 686.1 686.1 685.8 686.1 686.1 685.9 679.2 761.7 761.7 761.4 761.7 761.4 761.5 761.4 761.7 761.8 761.5 761.2 761.8 761.5 761.5 761.4 761.5 761.7 761.4 761.5 761.2 761.7 757.0 756.8 824.4 824.4 824.9 824.4 824.9 824.4 824.8 824.9 824.7 826.7 824.4 824.7 824.7

C b

Area Of Section A cm2 328 362 400 445 495 553 617 677 224 247 268 289 319 355 386 416 460 513 572 629 684 381 420 457 499 552 603 672 734 805 889 256 286 304 323 346 368 399 440 486 536 603 663 733

Ratios For Local Buckling Flange Web b/T d/t 7.04 6.35 5.74 5.02 4.59 4.12 3.75 3.45 7.76 6.74 6.01 5.48 4.71 4.33 3.99 3.72 3.41 3.08 2.82 2.62 2.43 6.85 6.20 5.66 5.03 4.60 4.23 3.85 3.55 3.29 3.02 7.51 6.36 5.88 5.47 5.12 4.81 4.48 3.86 3.53 3.26 2.92 2.71 2.48 41.2 38.1 34.9 32.5 29.0 26.5 23.7 21.6 54.4 51.8 49.5 47.3 44.8 39.9 37.0 34.5 31.2 28.3 25.4 23.1 21.4 41.9 38.7 36.1 34.5 31.2 28.8 25.8 23.8 21.6 19.6 54.6 51.8 50.0 47.7 44.8 42.3 39.1 37.3 33.8 30.7 27.6 25.0 22.8

Dimensions For Detailing End Clearance C mm 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 9 9 10 10 11 12 12 13 14 15 17 19 20 11 12 13 13 14 15 17 18 20 21 10 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 15 17 19 20

Notch N mm 192 192 192 191 191 191 191 191 149 149 149 149 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 148 201 201 201 200 200 200 200 200 199 200 154 154 154 154 154 154 154 153 153 153 153 153 153 n mm 44 47 50 55 58 63 69 77 37 40 42 45 49 52 55 58 62 67 72 77 82 47 50 53 58 62 66 71 76 83 89 39 43 45 47 49 51 54 59 63 67 73 78 84

W33-33x11 1/2 (838x292)

W33-33x15 3/4 (838x400)

W36-36x12 (914x305)

52

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

51

x

x

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W30-30x15 (762x381) lb/ft 173 191 211 235 261 292 326 357 118 130 141 152 169 187 204 219 243 271 301 332 361 201 221 241 263 291 318 354 387 424 468 135 150 160 170 182 194 210 232 256 286 318 350 387 kg/m 258 284 314 350 388 435 485 531 176 194 210 227 252 278 304 326 362 404 449 494 537 299 329 359 391 433 473 527 576 631 697 201 224 238 253 271 289 313 345 381 426 474 521 576 Surface Area per Metre m2 3.01 3.02 3.04 3.05 3.07 3.10 3.12 3.14 2.78 2.79 2.80 2.81 2.82 2.84 2.85 2.87 2.89 2.91 2.94 2.97 2.99 3.24 3.26 3.27 3.29 3.31 3.33 3.35 3.38 3.40 3.43 2.96 2.97 2.98 2.99 3.00 3.01 3.03 3.04 3.06 3.09 3.11 3.14 3.17 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 341200 381700 427000 485900 543700 618300 697600 776600 246000 279200 310200 339700 386500 430400 473000 513500 573400 648200 729200 810000 892800 479800 534700 590000 659000 735400 812500 913500 1012000 1120000 1253000 325300 376400 406100 436300 470700 504200 549000 625200 696900 777000 884100 981300 110100 cm4 24890 28000 31500 35570 39920 45680 51790 57770 7800 9067 10250 11360 12920 14470 16050 17540 19800 22660 25820 28960 32280 31180 34970 38800 43070 48390 53680 60680 67480 74810 84520 9424 11240 12270 13300 14460 15600 17130 19480 21980 24640 28580 32080 36460 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 32.3 32.5 32.7 33.0 33.1 33.4 33.6 33.9 33.1 33.6 34.0 34.3 34.8 34.8 35.0 35.1 35.3 35.5 35.7 35.9 36.1 35.5 35.7 35.9 36.3 36.5 36.7 36.9 37.1 37.3 37.6 35.7 36.3 36.6 36.8 36.9 37.0 37.1 37.7 37.9 38.1 38.3 38.5 38.8 cm 8.71 8.80 8.87 8.94 8.98 9.09 9.16 9.24 5.90 6.06 6.18 6.27 6.36 6.38 6.45 6.49 6.56 6.64 6.72 6.79 6.87 9.05 9.13 9.21 9.29 9.36 9.43 9.50 9.59 9.64 9.75 6.07 6.27 6.36 6.42 6.47 6.51 6.55 6.66 6.72 6.78 6.89 6.95 7.05 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 8827 9796 10870 12220 13540 15210 16950 18650 5893 6642 7334 7985 8999 9950 10860 11710 12960 14480 16120 17700 19300 11220 12410 13590 15030 16620 18200 20330 22170 24260 26810 7204 8269 8879 9501 10200 10880 11780 13260 14660 16170 18210 20010 22180 Axis y-y cm3 1308 1466 1642 1860 2074 2358 2653 2940 535 620 700 773 884 984 1086 1180 1321 1500 1692 1880 2078 1559 1742 1927 2146 2396 2644 2968 3280 3614 4044 621 739 805 871 943 1014 1107 1266 1416 1575 1810 2013 2266 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 9916 11030 12270 13830 15410 17380 19500 21550 6808 7640 8416 9155 10310 11450 12530 13550 15060 16910 18920 20890 22880 12640 14020 15380 17020 18910 20780 23230 25570 28140 31270 8351 9535 10230 10940 11770 12570 13650 15340 17030 18870 21350 23590 26260 Axis y-y cm3 2012 2258 2531 2869 3208 3653 4123 4579 842 974 1097 1212 1383 1547 1710 1864 2095 2385 2704 3018 3346 2405 2690 2977 3314 3709 4101 4616 5113 5652 6342 982 1163 1266 1371 1487 1601 1754 2000 2247 2510 2895 3235 3654 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Warping Constant

Torsional Constant

u 0.883 0.885 0.886 0.889 0.888 0.889 0.888 0.888 0.856 0.862 0.867 0.870 0.875 0.874 0.874 0.874 0.874 0.875 0.874 0.873 0.873 0.881 0.882 0.884 0.888 0.887 0.888 0.887 0.887 0.886 0.886 0.854 0.861 0.864 0.866 0.866 0.867 0.866 0.872 0.872 0.871 0.872 0.871 0.871

x 30.3 27.5 25.0 22.2 20.3 18.3 16.7 15.3 46.5 41.6 37.9 35.0 30.9 28.3 26.1 24.4 22.3 20.2 18.4 17.0 15.8 31.2 28.4 26.1 23.6 21.6 19.9 18.1 16.7 15.5 14.2 46.8 41.3 38.6 36.2 33.9 31.9 29.7 26.4 24.1 22.2 19.9 18.4 16.8

H dm6 34.6 39.3 44.6 50.9 57.8 67.0 77.0 87.0 13.0 15.2 17.3 19.3 22.1 25.0 27.9 30.7 35.0 40.5 46.7 53.1 59.8 53.2 60.1 67.3 75.5 85.6 95.8 110 123 138 158 18.4 22.1 24.2 26.4 28.8 31.2 34.5 39.7 45.2 51.3 60.0 68.1 78.5

J cm4 635 859 1161 1651 2218 3090 4224 5563 221 306 404 514 735 983 1265 1569 2095 2884 3910 5088 6494 855 1146 1491 2008 2687 3488 4737 6135 7983 10569 291 422 515 626 767 926 1164 1648 2199 2891 4091 5337 7127

W33-33x11 1/2 (838x292)

W33-33x15 3/4 (838x400)

W36-36x12 (914x305)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

53

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

52

B r t N D d n

Universal Beams and Columns

T

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W36-36x16 1/2 (914x419) lb/ft 230 245 260 280 300 328 359 393 439 527 650 149 167 183 211 235 264 278 294 327 331 359 392 199 215 249 277 297 324 362 397 431 503 593 230 262 290 335 kg/m 343.3 364.6 388 416.7 446.4 488.1 534.2 584.8 653 784 967 222 249 272 314 349 393 415 438 487 494 535 584 296 321 371 412 443 483 539 591 642 748 883 343 390 433 499 Depth Of Section D mm 911.8 916.4 921.0 927.6 933.2 942.1 950.0 960.1 972.0 996.0 1028.0 970.3 980.2 990.1 1000.0 1008.1 1016.0 1020.0 1025.9 1036.1 1036.0 1046.0 1056.0 982 990 1000 1008 1012 1020 1030 1040 1048 1068 1092 1090 1100 1108 1118 Width Of Section B mm 418.5 419.4 420.5 421.5 423.0 422.4 424.9 427.5 431.0 437.0 446.0 300.0 300.0 300.0 300.0 302.0 303.0 304 305.4 308.5 309.0 311.4 314.0 400 400 400 402 402 404 407 409 412 417 424 400 400 402 405 Thickness Flange Web T mm 32.0 34.3 36.6 39.9 42.7 47.0 51.1 55.9 62.0 73.9 89.9 21.1 26.0 31.0 35.9 40.0 43.9 46.0 49.0 54.1 54.0 58.9 64.0 27.1 31.0 36.1 40.0 41.9 46.0 51.1 55.9 60.0 70.0 82.0 31.0 36.0 40.0 45.0 t mm 19.4 20.3 21.4 22.5 24.0 25.9 28.5 31.0 34.5 40.9 50.0 16.0 16.5 16.5 19.1 21.1 24.4 26.0 26.9 30.0 31.0 33.0 36.0 16.5 16.5 19.0 21.1 23.6 25.4 28.4 31.0 34.0 39.0 45.5 18.0 20.0 22.0 26.0 r mm 24.1 24.1 24.1 24.1 24.1 24.1 24.1 24.1 24.0 24.0 24.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30 30.0 30.0 30 30.0 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 20 Root Radius Depth Between Fillets d mm 799.6 799.6 799.6 799.6 799.7 799.9 799.7 800.1 800.0 800.2 800.2 868.1 868.2 868.1 868.2 868.1 868.2 868.0 867.9 867.9 868.0 868.2 868.0 868.0 868.0 868.0 868.0 868.2 868.0 867.8 868.2 868.0 868.0 868.0 988.0 988.0 988.0 988.0

C b

Area Of Section A cm2 437 465 494 532 569 622 680 746 832 998 1232 283 317 347 400 445 500 529 557 620 629 681 744 377 409 472 524 564 615 687 753 818 953 1125 437 497 551 635

Ratios For Local Buckling Flange Web b/T d/t 6.54 6.12 5.74 5.28 4.96 4.49 4.16 3.83 3.48 2.96 2.48 7.11 5.77 4.84 4.18 3.78 3.45 3.30 3.12 2.85 2.86 2.64 2.45 12.12 12.12 10.53 9.53 8.52 7.95 7.17 6.60 6.06 5.35 4.66 11.11 10.00 9.14 7.79 41.2 39.4 37.4 35.6 33.3 30.9 28.1 25.8 23.2 19.6 16.0 54.3 52.6 52.6 45.5 41.1 35.6 33.4 32.3 28.9 28.0 26.3 24.1 32.0 28.0 24.0 21.7 20.7 18.9 17.0 15.5 14.5 12.4 10.6 31.9 27.4 24.7 22.0

Dimensions For Detailing End Clearance C mm 12 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 19 22 27 10 10 10 12 13 14 15 15 17 18 19 20 10 10 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 22 25 11 12 13 15

Notch N mm 210 210 210 210 210 208 208 208 208 208 208 152 152 152 150 150 149 149 149 149 149 149 149 202 202 201 200 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 201 200 200 200 n mm 56 58 61 64 67 71 75 80 86 98 114 51 56 61 66 70 74 76 79 84 84 89 94 57 61 66 70 72 76 81 86 90 100 112 51 56 60 65

W40-40x12 (1016x305)

W40-40x16 (1016x406)

W44-4x16 (1118x406)

54

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

UNIVERSAL BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

53

x

x

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre in (mm) W36-36x16 1/2 (914x419) lb/ft 230 245 260 280 300 328 359 393 439 527 650 149 167 183 211 235 264 278 294 327 331 359 392 199 215 249 277 297 324 362 397 431 503 593 230 262 290 335 kg/m 343 365 388 417 446 488 534 585 653 784 967 222 249 272 314 349 393 415 438 487 494 535 584 296 321 371 412 443 483 539 591 642 748 883 343 390 433 499 Surface Area per Metre m2 3.42 3.43 3.44 3.45 3.47 3.48 3.50 3.53 3.56 3.62 3.70 3.06 3.08 3.10 3.11 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.17 3.19 3.19 3.22 3.24 3.48 3.50 3.51 3.53 3.53 3.55 3.58 3.60 3.62 3.67 3.74 3.71 3.73 3.75 3.77 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 625800 671700 719600 785700 846900 936400 1031000 1144000 1292000 1593000 2033000 408000 481300 554000 644200 723100 807700 853100 909900 1021000 1028000 1131000 1246100 618700 696400 812100 909800 966510 1067480 1202540 1331040 1450590 1731940 2096420 867400 1005000 1126000 1294000 cm4 39160 42240 45440 49870 53940 59170 65450 73000 83050 103300 133900 9553 11760 14010 16240 18470 20500 21710 23450 26730 26820 29970 33430 28850 33120 38480 43410 45500 50710 57630 64010 70280 85110 104970 33120 38480 43410 49980 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 37.8 38.0 38.2 38.4 38.6 38.8 38.9 39.2 39.4 40.0 40.6 38.0 39.0 40.0 40.1 40.3 40.2 40.2 40.4 40.6 40.4 40.8 40.9 40.5 41.3 41.5 41.7 41.4 41.7 41.8 42.1 42.1 42.6 43.2 44.6 45.0 45.2 45.1 cm 9.46 9.53 9.59 9.68 9.73 9.76 9.81 9.89 9.99 10.2 10.4 5.81 6.09 6.36 6.37 6.44 6.40 6.41 6.49 6.57 6.53 6.63 6.70 8.75 9.00 9.03 9.10 8.98 9.08 9.16 9.22 9.27 9.45 9.66 8.71 8.80 8.87 8.87 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 13730 14660 15630 16940 18150 19880 21700 23840 26590 31980 39540 8409 9821 11190 12880 14350 15900 16728 17740 19720 19845 21620 23600 12600 14070 16240 18050 19101 20931 23350 25597 27683 32433 38396 15920 18280 20320 23150 Axis y-y cm3 1871 2014 2161 2366 2550 2801 3081 3415 3854 4728 6003 637 784 934 1083 1223 1353 1428 1536 1733 1736 1925 2130 1443 1656 1924 2160 2264 2510 2832 3130 3412 4082 4952 1656 1924 2160 2468 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 15480 16550 17670 19170 20600 22640 24820 27390 30730 37340 46810 9807 11350 12830 14850 16590 18540 19571 20760 23200 23413 25570 28039 14220 15800 18330 20440 21777 23923 26824 29530 32097 37881 45265 18060 20780 23160 26600 Axis y-y cm3 2890 3111 3341 3658 3948 4344 4790 5320 6014 7439 9504 1020 1245 1470 1713 1941 2168 2298 2469 2800 2818 3126 3475 2235 2555 2976 3348 3529 3919 4436 4916 5379 6459 7874 2568 2988 3362 3870 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Warping Constant

Torsional Constant

u 0.883 0.884 0.885 0.887 0.887 0.887 0.886 0.887 0.887 0.887 0.886 0.850 0.861 0.873 0.872 0.872 0.868 0.868 0.868 0.867 0.867 0.866 0.869 0.878 0.887 0.887 0.887 0.882 0.884 0.883 0.883 0.882 0.882 0.883 0.876 0.878 0.879 0.876

x 30.1 28.3 26.7 24.8 23.3 21.4 19.8 18.2 16.5 14.0 11.8 45.7 39.9 35.0 30.7 27.9 25.5 24.2 23.1 21.1 20.8 19.5 17.9 38.0 34.3 29.9 27.1 25.8 23.7 21.5 19.8 18.5 16.1 14.0 38.9 33.9 30.7 27.3

H dm6 75.8 82.2 88.9 98.3 107 119 132 149 171 218 292 21.5 26.8 32.2 37.7 43.3 48.4 51.1 56.0 64.4 64.0 73.0 81.2 65.9 76.0 89.4 101.5 106.7 119.9 137.6 154.3 170.7 210.7 265.7 92.7 108.7 123.5 143.4

J cm4 1193 1442 1734 2188 2671 3500 4508 5890 8124 13730 24930 390 582 835 1264 1718 2330 2713 3185 4299 4433 5576 7230 762.6 1021 1575 2134 2545 3311 4546 5927 7440 11670 18750 1037 1564 2130 3135

W40-40x12 (1016x305)

W40-40x16 (1016x406)

W44-4x16 (1118x406)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

55

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

56

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

CELLULAR BEAMS

Cellular Beams

Section Size hxb in (mm) W6-6x6 (152x152)

Unit Weight M lb/ft 15 20 25 17 20 31 35 40 48 58 21 25 29 49 60 72 89 112 16.5 19 22 27 31 36 65 79 92 106 30 34 38 45 26 31 36 40 45 50 45 50 55 60 66 55 62 68 73 82 kg/m 22.32 29.76 37.20 25.1 30.0 46.13 52.09 59.53 71.43 86.31 31.1 37.0 43.0 72.92 89.29 107.00 132.00 166.67 24.8 28.2 32.8 40.3 46.1 54.0 96.73 117.56 137.00 157.74 45.0 51.0 57.0 67.1 38.69 46.13 53.57 59.53 66.97 74.41 67.1 74.3 82.0 89.3 98.3 82.2 92.1 101 109 122

FLOOR BEAMS H mm 217.4 222.6 226.8 289.8 293.4 269.3 272.3 275.7 281.9 288.3 359.7 364.3 367.9 362.4 368.6 375.0 384.6 397.4 435.0 438.6 442.6 433.3 436.5 440.3 437.8 444.4 450.4 457.0 503.0 506.6 509.6 515.0 571.2 576.4 575.8 579.6 582.6 586.0 648.3 651.9 654.9 658.3 662.1 759.1 763.9 767.5 770.3 775.3 D mm 150 150 150 200 200 200 200 200 200 200 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 250 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 300 350 350 350 350 400 400 400 400 400 400 450 450 450 450 450 525 525 525 525 525 S mm 225 225 225 300 300 350 350 350 350 350 375 375 375 375 375 375 375 375 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 450 525 525 525 525 600 600 600 600 600 600 675 675 675 675 675 775 775 775 775 775 Ixx cm4 2541 3543 4456 4732 5852 7906 9098 10564 13116 16161 8971 11254 13275 23472 29231 35671 45888 59801 8816 10657 12932 17237 20061 23670 45298 56163 66358 78001 24287 28501 32342 39223 24957 31451 37713 43565 49074 55063 59376 67373 74891 82871 92309 96581 112366 125204 135978 154662 Zexx cm3 233.8 318.4 393.1 326.5 398.9 Zplxx cm3 245.5 337.3 420.2 343.1 421.0 Anet cm2 23.8 32.2 39.8 25.0 30.5 48.2 54.8 62.9 76.1 91.7 30.7 37.7 44.1 79.5 97.3 116.9 145.1 184.3 21.2 25.2 30.1 40.4 46.7 54.7 104.6 127.8 149.0 172.5 42.5 49.3 55.6 66.5 34.2 42.3 50.6 57.7 64.7 72.1 62.9 70.8 78.3 86.1 95.3 75.1 86.3 95.5 103.4 116.7 H mm 239.5 244.7 248.9 309.3 312.9 322.0 325.0 328.4 334.6 341.0 383.7 388.3 391.9 399.3 405.5 411.9 421.5 434.3 463.2 466.8 470.8 461.5 464.7 468.5 486.0 492.6 498.6 505.2 532.1 535.7 538.7 554.1 604.5 609.7 609.1 612.9 615.9 619.3 682.5 686.1 689.1 692.5 696.3 796.1 800.9 804.5 807.3 812.3 D mm 180 180 180 225 225 245 245 245 245 245 275 275 275 300 300 300 300 300 325 325 325 325 325 325 370 370 370 370 375 375 375 375 425 425 425 425 425 425 475 475 475 475 475 550 550 550 550 550 S

ROOF BEAMS Ixx cm4 3080 4291 5389 5384 6656 11571 13283 15394 19013 23342 10262 12859 15160 28548 35502 43247 55032 72131 10124 12214 14801 19718 22934 27047 55687 68954 81380 95538 27436 32162 36478 44196 28367 35662 42739 49297 55511 62247 66618 75522 83924 92809 103329 107646 125070 139274 151220 171888 Zexx cm3 257.1 350.7 433.0 348.2 425.5 Zplxx cm3 267.9 368.6 458.9 364.0 446.8 Anet cm2 23.4 31.7 39.2 24.7 30.1 4.87 5.54 6.36 7.69 9.37 30.6 37.7 44 78.4 96 115.2 143.1 181.8 21.4 25.4 30.3 40.6 46.9 54.9 102.5 125.2 146 169.1 42.8 49.6 55.9 66.9 34.8 42.9 51.2 58.4 65.4 72.9 63.7 71.6 79.2 87.1 96.3 76.2 87.5 96.8 104.7 118.2

mm 225 225 225 300 300 305 305 305 305 305 350 350 350 375 375 375 375 375 400 400 400 400 400 400 470 470 470 470 475 475 475 475 525 525 525 525 525 525 600 600 600 600 600 675 675 675 675 675

W8-8x51/4 (203x133) W8-8x8 (203x203)

587.1 616.7 668.1 705.4 766.2 814.1 930.4 997.9 1120.9 1215.4 498.8 617.9 721.8 1295.5 1586.2 1902.7 2365.8 3009.9 405.3 485.9 584.3 523.2 650.1 763.0 1364.1 1683.7 2037.4 2562.5 3309.3 430.9 515.9 621.5

718.7 750.4 817.5 857.1 937.6 988.5 1136.6 1207.8 1369.1 1468.8 534.9 662.3 773.7 1429.8 1750.9 2099.7 2611.0 3321.4 437.1 523.3 628.7 559.3 694.7 815.0 1494.7 1844.0 2229.0 2801.5 3613.4 463.9 554.6 667.4

W10-10x53/4 (254x146)

W10-10x10 (254x254)

W12-12x4 (305x102)

W12-12x61/2 (305x165)

795.6 832.8 919.2 965.2 1075.2 1134.4 2069.3 2527.6 2946.6 3413.6 965.8 1125.3 1269.4 1523.4 2173.2 2674.1 3137.4 3659.8 1013.5 1182.3 1337.0 1610.9

854.5 893.0 987.0 1034.6 1154.6 1215.6 2291.6 2799.5 3264.3 3782.1 1031.2 1200.7 1354.3 1624.5 2386.7 2935.2 3442.5 4013.8 1081.0 1260.0 1424.4 1715.0

W12-12x12 (305x305)

W14-14x63/4 (356x171)

W16-16x51/2 (406x140) W16-16x7 (406x178)

8/73.8 921.2 1091.3 1149.9 1309.9 1503.3 1684.6 1879.3 1831.9 2067.1 2287.3 2517.9 2788.6 2544.5 2941.8 3262.5 3530.4 3989.3 1377.0 1580.9 1776.3 1986.0 1926.9 2176.9 2414.4 2662.5 2956.3 2682.9 3103.0 3446.4 3736.0 4232.8

938.5 989.7 1169.8 1232.6 1403.3 1608.6 1802.5 2010.1 1952.1 2201.4 2435.7 2680.3 2967.8 2704.3 3123.2 3462.4 3746.3 4232.1 1475.1 1691.1 1899.8 2123.1 2053.6 2318.2 2570.6 2833.4 3144.9 2853.7 3296.2 3658.9 3965.7 4490.7

W18-18x71/2 (457x191)

W21-21x81/4 (533x210)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

57

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

CASTELLATED BEAMS

Castellated Beams

Dc t

B

y

dc

Ds

600

x

x

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

T

1.08Ds

y

Section Size Dc x B in (mm) W4-4x4 (102x102) W5-5x5 (127x127) W6-6x4 (152x102)

Castellated Beam

Unit Weight M

Section Depth Dc

Section Width B mm 103.1

Thickness Web Flange t mm 7.11 T mm 8.76

Depth Between Fillet dc mm 126.38

Root Radius r mm 6.4

Pitch of standard castellated 1.08Ds mm 110

in(mm) 6x4 (153x102) 71/2 x 5 (191x127) 9x4 (228x102)

lb/ft 13

kg/m 19.35

mm 156.7

18 19 9 12 16 15 20 25 10 13 15 18 21 24 28 31 35 40 48 58 67 12 15 17 19 22 26 30 33 39 45 49 54 60 68 77 88 100 112 14 16 19 22 26 30 35

23.81 28.28 13.39 17.86 23.81 22.32 29.76 37.20 14.88 19.35 22.32 26.79 31.25 35.72 41.67 46.13 52.09 59.53 71.43 86.31 99.71 17.86 22.32 25.30 28.28 32.74 38.69 44.64 49.11 58.04 66.97 72.92 80.36 89.29 101.19 114.58 130.95 148.81 166.67 20.83 23.81 28.28 32.74 38.69 44.64 52.09

190.8 194.3 225.9 229.2 235.5 228.1 233.5 238.1 301.9 304.4 307.5 308.3 311.8 302.9 306.2 304.7 307.7 311.1 317.4 323.7 330.1 377.7 380.7 383.8 387.1 385.3 389.4 392.9 374.1 379.0 383.5 380.5 383.3 386.6 391.2 396.2 402.3 408.9 415.5 455.0 457.0 461.4 465.2 462.9 465.9 470.0

127.0 127.8 100.1 101.6 102.4 152.1 152.9 154.4 100.1 101.6 102.0 133.4 133.9 165.0 166.0 203.1 203.7 205.0 206.0 208.8 210.3 100.6 101.6 101.9 102.1 146.0 146.6 147.6 202.2 202.8 203.7 254.0 254.8 256.0 257.3 258.8 260.7 262.6 264.5 100.0 101.3 101.7 102.4 164.8 165.6 166.6

6.10 6.86 4.32 5.84 6.60 5.84 6.60 8.13 4.32 5.84 6.22 5.84 6.35 6.22 7.24 7.24 7.87 9.14 10.16 12.95 14.48 4.83 5.84 6.10 6.35 6.10 6.60 7.62 7.37 8.00 8.89 8.64 9.40 10.67 11.94 13.46 15.37 17.27 19.18 5.08 5.59 5.97 6.60 5.84 6.60 7.62

9.14 10.92 5.46 7.11 10.29 6.60 9.27 11.56 5.21 6.48 8.00 8.38 10.16 10.16 11.81 11.05 12.57 14.22 17.40 20.57 23.75 5.33 6.86 8.38 10.03 9.14 11.18 12.95 11.05 13.46 15.75 14.22 15.62 17.27 19.56 22.10 25.15 28.45 31.75 5.72 6.73 8.89 10.80 9.65 11.18 13.21

157.32 157.26 202.18 202.18 202.12 202.10 202.16 202.18 276.28 276.24 276.30 276.34 276.28 262.18 262.18 262.20 262.16 262.26 262.20 262.16 262.20 351.84 351.78 351.84 351.84 351.82 351.84 351.80 326.60 326.68 326.60 326.66 326.66 326.66 326.68 326.60 326.60 326.60 326.60 428.36 428.34 428.42 428.40 428.40 428.34 428.38

7.6

137 137 164 164 164 164 164 164 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 219 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 329 329 329 329 329 329 329

6.4

W6-6x6 (152x152)

9x6 (228x152)

6.4

W8-8x4 (203x102)

12x4 (305x102)

7.6

W8-8x51/4 (203x133) W8-8x61/2 (203x165) W8-8x8 (203x203)

12x51/4 (305x133) 12x61/2 (305x165) 12x8 (305x203)

7.6

10.2

10.2

W10-10x4 (254x102)

15x4 (381x102)

7.6

W10-10x53/4 (254x146)

15x53/4 (381x146)

7.6

W10-10x8 (254x203)

15x8 (381x203)

12.7

W10-10x10 (254x254)

15x10 (381x254)

12.7

W12-12x4 (305x102)

18x4 (458x102)

7.6

W12-12x61/2 (305x165)

18x61/2 (458x165)

7.6

58

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

CASTELLATED BEAMS

Castellated Beams

Dc t

B

y

dc

Ds

600

x

x

T

1.08Ds

y

Section Size Dc x B in (mm) W12-12x8 (305x203)

Castellated Beam

Unit Weight M

Section Depth Dc

Section Width B mm 203.3 204.3 205.2 253.9 254.3 304.8 305.8 306.8 308.0 308.9 310.4 312.9 315.0 317.0 319.3 321.8 324.9 327.5 330.3 333.8 336.2 340.0 127.0 127.6 170.9 171.3 172.0 203.1 204.0 204.7 253.9 254.9 255.8 257.3 368.8 370.0 371.0 372.6 374.0

Thickness Web Flange t mm 7.49 8.51 9.40 8.76 9.14 9.91 10.92 11.94 13.08 13.97 15.49 18.03 20.07 22.10 24.38 26.92 29.97 32.64 35.43 38.86 41.28 45.08 5.84 6.48 6.86 7.24 7.87 7.75 8.64 9.40 9.52 10.54 11.43 12.95 11.18 12.32 13.34 14.99 16.38 T mm 13.08 14.60 16.26 14.60 16.26 15.37 17.02 18.67 20.57 22.86 25.15 28.07 31.75 35.56 39.62 44.07 48.26 52.58 57.15 62.74 68.71 75.06 8.51 10.67 9.78 11.56 13.08 13.46 15.11 16.76 16.38 18.29 18.94 21.72 18.03 19.81 21.84 23.88 26.16

Depth Between Fillet dc mm 399.24 399.20 399.18 399.20 399.18 399.16 399.26 399.26 399.26 399.18 399.20 399.16 399.20 399.18 399.26 399.26 399.18 399.24 399.20 399.22 399.18 399.18 489.58 489.56 489.54 489.58 489.54 467.68 467.68 467.68 467.64 467.62 467.62 467.66 467.64 467.68 467.62 467.64 467.68

Root Radius r mm 15.2

Pitch of standard castellated 1.08Ds mm 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 329 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385 385

in(mm) 18x8 (458x203)

lb/ft 40 45 50 53 58 65 72 79 87 96 106 120 136 152 170 190 210 230 252 279 305 336 22 26 30 34 38 43 48 53 61 68 74 82 90 99 109 120 132

kg/m 59.53 66.97 74.41 78.87 86.31 96.73 107.14 117.56 129.46 142.86 157.74 178.57 202.38 226.19 253.98 282.74 312.50 342.26 375.00 415.18 453.87 500.00 32.74 38.69 44.64 50.60 56.55 63.99 71.43 78.87 90.78 101.19 110.12 122.02 133.93 147.32 162.20 178.57 196.43

mm 455.8 458.8 462.1 458.8 462.1 460.3 463.7 467.0 470.8 475.3 479.9 485.7 493.1 500.7 508.9 517.8 526.1 534.8 543.9 555.1 567.0 579.7 527.0 531.3 529.5 533.1 536.1 525.0 528.3 531.6 530.8 534.6 537.9 541.5 534.1 537.7 541.7 545.8 550.4

W12-12x10 (305x254) W12-12x12 (305x305)

18x10 (458x254) 18x12 (458x305)

15.2

15.2

W12*-12x12 (305x305)

18x12 (458x305)

15.2

W14-14x5 (356x127) W14-14x63/4 (356x171)

21x5 (534x127) 21x63/4 (534x171)

10.2

10.2

W14x8 (356x203)

21x8 (534x203)

15.2

W14-14x10 (356x254)

21x10 (534x254)

15.2

W14-14x141/2 (356x368)

21x141/2 (534x368)

15.2

Note : * Not included in regular rolling schedule

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

59

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

CASTELLATED BEAMS

Castellated Beams

Dc t

B

y

dc

Ds

600

x

x

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

T

1.08Ds

y

Section Size Dc x B in (mm) W16-16x51/2 (406x140) W16-16x7 (406x178)

Castellated Beam

Unit Weight M

Section Depth Dc

Section Width B mm 139.7 140.3 177.4 177.7 178.7 179.6 180.8 260.0 261.5 263.3 264.8 152.4 152.8 153.9 190.4 191.3 191.9 192.8 193.9 280.3 281.7 283.1 284.5 286.1 165.1 165.9 166.5 209.3 210.1 210.7 212.2 213.9 312.2 313.4 314.7 316.0 317.8 177.9 178.8 227.7 228.3 229.1 230.3 323.8 325.1 326.5 327.7 329.1 253.0 253.7 254.4 255.8

Thickness Web Flange t mm 6.35 6.98 7.49 7.75 8.76 9.65 10.92 10.03 11.56 13.33 14.86 7.62 8.00 9.14 9.02 9.91 10.54 11.43 12.57 10.80 12.19 13.59 14.99 16.64 8.89 9.65 10.29 10.16 10.92 11.56 13.08 14.73 12.70 13.97 15.24 16.51 18.29 10.03 10.92 10.54 11.18 11.94 13.08 12.70 13.97 15.37 16.51 17.91 11.68 12.45 13.08 14.48 T mm 8.76 11.18 10.92 12.83 14.35 16.00 18.16 16.89 19.30 22.22 25.02 10.80 13.34 15.37 14.48 16.00 17.65 19.05 20.57 17.27 19.56 22.10 23.88 26.92 11.43 13.58 16.51 15.62 17.40 18.80 21.21 23.62 20.32 22.22 24.38 26.29 29.21 12.83 14.99 14.86 17.27 19.56 22.22 19.05 21.59 24.38 27.69 30.99 16.26 18.92 21.08 23.62

Depth Between Fillet dc mm 563.58 563.64 563.56 563.64 563.64 563.60 563.58 563.62 563.60 563.56 563.56 636.10 636.12 636.06 636.04 636.10 636.10 636.10 636.06 636.06 636.08 636.10 636.04 636.06 743.04 743.02 742.98 742.96 743.00 743.00 742.98 742.96 742.96 743.06 743.04 743.02 742.98 852.64 852.62 852.58 852.66 852.58 852.66 852.60 852.62 852.64 852.62 852.62 958.48 958.56 958.54 958.56

Root Radius r mm 10.2

Pitch of standard castellated 1.08Ds mm 438 438 438 438 438 438 438 438 438 438 438 494 494 494 494 494 494 494 494 494 494 494 494 494 576 576 576 576 576 576 576 576 576 576 576 576 576 659 659 659 659 659 659 659 659 659 659 659 741 741 741 741

in(mm) 24x51/2 (609x140) 24x7 (609x178)

lb/ft 26 31 36 40 45 50 57 67 77 89 100 35 40 46 50 55 60 65 71 76 86 97 106 119 44 50 57 62 68 73 83 93 101 111 122 132 147 55 62 68 76 84 94 104 117 131 146 162 84 94 102 114

kg/m 38.69 46.13 53.57 59.53 66.97 74.41 84.83 99.71 114.58 132.44 148.81 52.09 59.53 68.46 74.41 81.85 89.29 96.73 105.65 113.10 127.98 144.35 157.74 177.08 65.48 74.41 84.83 92.26 101.19 108.63 123.51 138.39 150.30 165.18 181.55 196.43 218.75 81.85 92.27 101.19 113.10 125.00 139.88 154.76 174.11 194.44 217.27 241.07 125.00 139.88 151.78 169.64

mm 601.5 606.4 605.8 609.7 612.7 616.0 620.3 617.8 622.6 628.4 634.0 678.1 683.2 687.2 685.4 688.5 691.8 694.6 697.6 691.0 695.6 700.7 704.2 710.3 791.3 795.6 801.4 799.6 803.2 806.0 810.8 815.6 809.0 812.9 817.2 821.0 826.8 903.7 908.0 907.7 912.6 917.1 922.5 916.1 921.1 926.8 933.4 940.0 1021.4 1026.8 1031.1 1036.4

10.2

W16-16x101/4 (406x260)

24x101/4 (609x260)

10.2

W18-18x6 (457x152)

27x6 (686x152)

10.2

W18-18x71/2 (457x191)

27x71/2 (686x191)

10.2

W18-18x11 (457x279)

27x11 (686x279)

10.2

W21-21x61/2 (533x165)

311/2x61/2 (800x165)

12.7

W21-21x81/4 (533x210)

311/2x81/4 (800x210)

12.7

W21-21x121/4 (533x312)

311/2x121/4 (800x312)

12.7

W24-24x7 (610x178) W24-24x9 (610x229)

36x7 (915x178) 36x9 (915x229)

12.7

12.7

W24-24x123/4 (610x324)

36x123/4 (915x324)

12.7

W27-27x10 (686x254)

401/2x10 (1029x254)

15.2

60

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

CASTELLATED BEAMS

Castellated Beams

Dc t

B

y

dc

Ds

600

x

x

T

1.08Ds

y

Section Size Dc x B in (mm) W27*-27x14 (686x356)

Castellated Beam

Unit Weight M

Section Depth Dc

Section Width B mm 354.7 356.1 357.8 265.4 266.1 266.6 267.1 267.8 380.6 382.0 383.7 291.6 292.4 293.0 293.8 399.9 401.4 402.8 303.5 304.2 304.8 305.6 306.7 307.7 309.4 418.3 419.4 420.4 421.5 423.0

Thickness Web Flange t mm 15.37 16.76 18.42 13.21 13.84 14.35 14.86 15.62 16.64 18.03 19.68 13.97 14.73 15.37 16.13 18.16 19.68 21.08 15.24 15.88 16.51 17.27 18.42 19.43 21.08 19.30 20.32 21.34 22.48 24.00 T mm 24.76 27.43 30.23 17.02 19.30 21.59 23.62 25.40 27.05 30.10 33.40 18.80 21.72 24.38 26.80 29.21 32.38 35.56 20.07 23.88 25.91 27.94 29.97 32.00 34.54 32.00 34.29 36.58 39.88 42.67

Depth Between Fillet dc mm 958.58 958.54 958.54 1067.06 1067.10 1067.12 1067.06 1067.10 1067.10 1067.00 1067.10 1180.40 1180.46 1180.44 1180.40 1180.48 1180.44 1180.48 1281.86 1281.84 1281.88 1281.82 1281.86 1281.80 1281.82 1256.70 1256.62 1256.64 1256.64 1256.66

Root Radius r mm 15.2

Pitch of standard castellated 1.08Ds mm 741 741 741 823 823 823 823 823 823 823 823 905 905 905 905 905 905 905 987 987 987 987 987 987 987 987 987 987 987 987

in(mm) 401/2x14 (1029x366)

lb/ft 146 161 178 99 108 116 124 132 173 191 211 118 130 141 152 201 221 241 135 150 160 170 182 194 210 230 245 260 280 300

kg/m 217.26 239.58 264.88 147.32 160.71 172.62 184.52 196.43 257.44 284.23 313.99 175.60 193.45 209.82 226.19 299.11 328.87 358.63 200.89 223.21 238.10 253.98 270.83 288.69 312.50 342.26 364.58 386.90 416.67 446.43

mm 1038.5 1043.8 1049.4 1134.4 1138.7 1143.3 1147.3 1150.9 1154.2 1160.2 1166.9 1253.6 1259.5 1264.8 1269.6 1274.5 1280.8 1287.2 1360.0 1367.6 1371.7 1375.7 1379.8 1383.8 1388.9 1368.9 1373.4 1378.0 1384.6 1390.2

W30-30x101/2 (762x267)

45x101/2 (1143x267)

16.5

W30*-30x15 (762x381)

45x15 (1143x381)

16.5

W33-33x111/2 (838x292)

491/2x111/2 (1257x292)

17.8

W33*-33x151/4 (838x400)

491/2x153/4 (1257x400)

17.8

W36-36x12 (914x305)

54x12 (1371x305)

19.0

W36*-36x161/2 (914x419)

54x161/2 (1371x419)

24.1

Note : * Not included in regular rolling schedule

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

61

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

62

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

STRUCTURAL TEES

60

Structural Tees

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

General

The section sizes for structural tees are given in the tables on the following pages. Structural tees are usually cut from universal beams and columns, but can also be rolled.

Cut from Heavy Column Sections. (H/HE)

Cut from Wide Flange Sections. Web height and flange width approximately equal. (H/HE)

Cut from Medium Flange Sections. (I/IPE)

Cut from Narrow Flange Sections. (I/IPE)

Figure 5 ­ Structural Tees: Section shapes

The standard specifications used for production of structural tees in this region are listed in this table.

Material AS 3679.1 (1996) Grade 250 Grade 300 Grade 350 ASTM A36 (2001) ASTM A572 (2001) Grade 42 Grade 50 Grade 60 Grade 65 ASTM A913 (2001) Grade 50 Grade 65 Yield strength 2 N/mm 12mm 12-40 260 300 360 250 300 340 min. 250 min. 290 min. 345 min. 415 min. 450 min. 345 min. 450 40mm 230 300 330 min. 410 min. 430 min. 480 400-550 min. 415 min. 450 min. 520 min. 550 min. 450 min. 550 430-580 490-640 40mm 255 335 390 430 40mm 215 255 40mm 215 295 335 335 3-100mm 410-560 490-630 500-660 530-720 t<100mm 400-510 490-610 min 540 t<100mm 400-510 490-610 490-610 520-640 22 % 22 % 20 % 20-21 % 20+24 % 18-21 % 16-18 % 15-17 % 18-21 % 15-17 % 22 % 20 % 17-22 % 17-22 % 19 % 17 % 17-24 % 15-21 % 13-17 % 18-24 % 17-23 % 15-21 % 15-21 % 27J 27J 27J 27J 10<t 150mm 27J 27J 27J 27J JIS 3192 (1994) BS 4 Part 1 (1993) (superseded) AS 3679.1 (1996) Tensile strength Min. Elongation Min. Charpy VDimensions 2 notch. Temp. 20°C & Tolerances N/mm L0=5.65 S0

ASTM A6 (1997)

BS 4360 (1986) (superseded) Grade 43A min. 275 Grade 50B min. 355 EN 10025 (2004) S275JR S355JR S420N S460N JIS 3101 (1995) SS400 SS490 SS540 JIS 3106 (1995) SM400A, B SM490A, B SM490YA, YB SM520B 16mm 16-40 275 265 355 345 420 400 460 440 16mm 16-40 245 235 285 275 400 390 16mm 16-40 245 235 325 315 365 355 365 355

EN 10034 (1993)

Table 11 ­ Structural Tees: Standard specifications

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

63

STRUCTURAL TEES

Structural Tees

d r t

B

T

y x

Cx

x

Metric units Designation Serial Mass Size Per Metre mm 50x100 62.5x125 75x75 75x100 75x150 87.5x90 87.5x175 100x100 kg/m 8.5 11.8 7.0 10.3 15.6 9.0 20.2 9.1 10.5 10.7 15.0 15.3 24.9 28.1 32.8 12.8 14.5 14.8 21.8 22.1 32.2 33.2 35.9 36.2 41.1 16.0 18.4 27.9 28.4 32.7 42.3 43.5 46.5 47.0 52.9 52.9 20.7 24.7 24.8 34.6 39.1 39.8 53.1 57.3 65.4 67.5 68.2 77.9 79.3 28.3 32.7 33.0 Cut from Serial Mass Size Per Metre kg/m 17.2 23.6 14.0 20.7 31.1 18.0 40.4 18.2 20.9 21.3 29.9 30.6 49.9 57.8 65.7 25.7 29.0 29.6 43.6 44.1 64.4 66.5 71.8 72.4 82.2 32.0 36.7 55.8 56.8 65.4 84.6 87.0 93.0 94.0 106 106 41.4 49.4 49.6 69.2 78.1 79.7 106.2 113 130.8 135 137 159 181 56.1 65.4 66.0 Width Of Section B 100x100 125x125 150x75 150x100 150x150 175x90 175x175 200x100 200x100 200x100 200x150 200x150 200x200 200x200 200x200 250x125 250x125 250x125 250x175 250x175 250x250 250x250 250x250 250x250 250x250 300x150 300x150 300x200 300x200 300x200 300x300 300x300 300x300 300x300 300x300 300x300 350x175 350x175 350x175 350x250 350x250 350x250 350x350 350x350 350x350 350x350 350x350 350x350 350x350 400x200 400x200 400x200 mm 100 125 75 100 150 90 175 99 100 100 150 150 200 204 202 124 125 125 175 175 252 249 250 250 255 149 150 200 200 201 302 299 300 300 305 301 174 175 175 249 250 250 351 348 354 350 350 357 352 199 200 200 Depth Of Section d mm 50 62.5 75 74 75 87.5 87.5 99 100 100 97 97 100 100 104 124 125 125 122 122 122 124 125 125 125 149 150 147 147 149 147 149 150 150 150 152 173 175 175 168 170 170 169 172 172 175 175 175 178 198 200 200

b

y

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Thickness Web Flange

Root Radius

Ratio For Local Buckling

Dimension

t mm 6 6.5 5 6 7 5 7.5 4.5 5.5 5.5 6 6 8 12 10 5 6 6 7 7 11 8 9 9 14 5.5 6.5 8 8 9 12 9 10 10 15 11 6 7 7 8 9 9 13 10 16 12 12 19 14 7 8 8

T mm 8 9 7 9 10 8 11 7 8 8 9 9 12 12 16 8 9 9 11 11 11 13 14 14 14 8 9 12 12 14 12 14 15 15 15 17 9 11 11 12 14 14 13 16 16 19 19 19 22 11 13 13

r mm 8 8 8 8 8 8 13 11 8 11 8 13 13 13 13 12 8 12 13 16 16 16 13 16 16 13 13 13 18 18 18 18 13 18 18 18 14 13 14 20 13 20 20 20 20 13 20 20 20 16 13 16 d/t 8.33 9.62 15.0 12.3 10.7 17.5 11.7 22.0 18.2 18.2 16.2 16.2 12.5 8.3 10.4 24.8 20.8 20.8 17.4 17.4 11.1 15.5 13.9 13.9 8.93 27.1 23.1 18.4 18.4 16.6 12.3 16.6 15.0 15.0 10.0 13.8 28.8 25.0 25.0 21.0 18.9 18.9 13.0 17.2 10.8 14.6 14.6 9.2 12.7 28.3 25.0 25.0 b/T 6.25 6.94 5.36 5.56 7.50 5.63 7.95 7.07 6.25 6.25 8.33 8.33 8.33 8.50 6.31 7.75 6.94 6.94 7.95 7.95 11.5 9.58 8.93 8.93 9.11 9.31 8.33 8.33 8.33 7.18 12.6 10.7 10.0 10.0 10.2 8.85 9.67 7.95 7.95 10.4 8.93 8.93 13.5 10.9 11.1 9.21 9.21 9.39 8.00 9.05 7.69 7.69

Cx cm 1.00 1.19 1.79 1.56 1.37 1.93 1.55 2.15 2.31 2.29 1.80 1.79 1.73 2.09 1.91 2.63 2.81 2.78 2.28 2.27 2.39 1.98 2.08 2.08 2.58 3.26 3.41 2.85 2.83 2.91 2.84 2.36 2.47 2.47 3.03 2.55 3.71 3.76 3.75 3.02 3.11 3.09 3.21 2.67 3.40 2.87 2.86 3.59 3.05 4.17 4.26 4.23

100x150 100x200

125x125

125x175 125x250

150x150 150x200

150x300

175x175

175x250

175x350

200x200

64

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STRUCTURAL TEES

y x Cx

x

Metric units Designation Serial Mass Size Per Metre mm 50x100 62.5x125 75x75 75x100 75x150 87.5x90 87.5x175 100x100 kg/m 8.5 11.8 7.0 10.3 15.6 9.0 20.2 9.1 10.5 10.7 15.0 15.3 24.9 28.1 32.8 12.8 14.5 14.8 21.8 22.1 32.2 33.2 35.9 36.2 41.1 16.0 18.4 27.9 28.4 32.7 42.3 43.5 46.5 47.0 52.9 52.9 20.7 24.7 24.8 34.6 39.1 39.8 53.1 57.3 65.4 67.5 68.2 77.9 79.3 28.3 32.7 33.0 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 16.2 35.1 42.4 51.7 66.4 70.4 115 93.3 114 114 124 125 185 256 251 207 247 247 288 289 445 365 412 413 589 391 461 570 571 662 857 716 798 799 1108 904 675 811 811 881 1015 1017 1423 1232 1802 1519 1521 2203 1826 1188 1390 1391 cm4 66.8 147 24.7 75.2 282 48.7 492 56.8 66.9 66.9 253 254 801 851 1100 127 147 147 492 492 1469 1674 1824 1824 1938 221 254 801 801 949 2758 3120 3377 3377 3552 3866 396 492 492 1546 1824 1825 4690 5622 5923 6791 6793 7216 8002 723 868 868 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 1.22 1.53 2.18 1.98 1.83 2.48 2.11 2.84 2.92 2.90 2.55 2.53 2.41 2.68 2.45 3.56 3.65 3.62 3.22 3.21 3.29 2.93 3.00 2.99 3.36 4.38 4.44 4.01 3.97 3.99 3.99 3.59 3.67 3.65 4.05 3.66 5.06 5.08 5.07 4.47 4.52 4.48 4.59 4.11 4.65 4.20 4.18 4.71 4.25 5.74 5.77 5.75 cm 2.49 3.13 1.66 2.39 3.77 2.06 4.37 2.21 2.24 2.22 3.65 3.61 5.02 4.88 5.13 2.79 2.82 2.79 4.21 4.18 5.98 6.29 6.32 6.29 6.09 3.29 3.29 4.75 4.71 4.77 7.16 7.51 7.55 7.51 7.26 7.57 3.88 3.96 3.95 5.92 6.05 6.00 8.33 8.78 8.43 8.89 8.84 8.53 8.90 4.48 4.56 4.54 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 4.04 6.92 7.44 8.84 10.8 10.3 16.0 12.0 14.8 14.8 15.7 15.8 22.3 32.4 29.6 21.2 25.5 25.4 29.1 29.1 45.3 35.0 39.6 39.6 59.4 33.5 39.7 48.1 48.1 55.2 72.3 57.1 63.7 63.8 92.5 71.5 49.6 59.0 59.0 63.9 73.1 73.1 104 84.8 131 104 104 158 124 76.0 88.3 88.2 Axis y-y cm3 13.4 23.5 6.59 15.0 37.5 10.8 56.2 11.5 13.4 13.4 33.8 33.8 80.1 83.4 109 20.5 23.5 23.5 56.2 56.2 117 134 146 146 152 29.7 33.8 80.1 80.1 94.5 183 209 225 225 233 257 45.5 56.2 56.2 124 146 146 267 323 335 388 388 404 455 72.7 86.8 86.8 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 7.86 13.3 13.4 16.2 20.6 18.5 30.4 21.5 26.3 26.5 28.3 28.6 42.3 59.2 58.4 37.5 45.2 45.3 52.3 52.6 81.3 65.7 74.3 74.6 108 59.5 70.7 85.6 86.1 99.6 129 105 117 118 167 134 87.6 104 104 114 130 131 185 156 234 194 195 287 236 134 156 156 Axis y-y cm3 20.5 35.9 10.4 23.2 57.2 16.8 85.8 17.9 20.8 21.0 51.5 51.8 122 129 166 31.8 36.3 36.6 86.0 86.4 179 204 222 222 234 45.9 52.6 123 123 145 280 317 341 342 358 390 70.1 86.7 86.8 190 222 223 409 490 513 588 589 622 691 112 133 134

Buckling Torsional Parameter Index

Torsional Constant

Sectional Area

u 0.520 0.463 0.493 0.514 0.511 0.487 0.508 0.505 0.515 0.528 0.504 0.495 0.494 0.491 0.486 0.485

x 5.58 6.41 10.2 7.90 7.08 10.9 7.27 13.3 12.5 11.8 10.6 9.91 7.78 7.19 6.09 15.0 14.2 13.5 10.7 10.3 9.54 8.96 8.56 8.38 7.73 17.8 16.0 12.0 11.4 10.1 10.6 10.0 9.70 9.41 8.72 8.46 18.8 16.1 15.9 12.9 12.1 11.4 11.3 10.2 9.41 9.02 8.77 8.07 7.70 17.8 15.9 15.5

J cm4 2.35 3.93 1.40 3.27 6.22 2.15 10.5 1.92 2.53 2.87 4.65 5.44 14.9 19.6 33.3 3.36 4.24 4.83 10.6 11.6 19.6 23.3 27.9 29.3 39.1 4.32 6.16 15.7 17.9 26.6 30.5 35.6 40.9 44.0 57.7 62.1 6.81 11.2 11.5 22.3 28.9 33.1 44.8 60.4 81.1 92.6 99.3 134 152 13.5 19.8 21.0

A cm2 10.8 15.0 8.92 13.2 19.8 11.4 25.7 11.6 13.3 13.6 19.1 19.5 31.8 35.8 41.8 16.3 18.5 18.8 27.7 28.1 41.0 42.3 45.7 46.1 52.3 20.4 23.4 35.5 36.2 41.7 53.8 55.4 59.2 59.9 67.4 67.4 26.3 31.5 31.6 44.1 49.8 50.8 67.6 73.0 83.3 85.9 86.9 99.2 101 36.1 41.7 42.1

100x150 100x200

125x125

125x175 125x250

150x150 150x200

150x300

175x175

175x250

175x350

200x200

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BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

STRUCTURAL TEES

Structural Tees

d r t

B

T

y x

Cx

x

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Metric units Designation Serial Mass Size Per Metre mm 200x300 kg/m 47.1 52.3 53.4 70.0 73.3 84.1 85.8 98.4 116.0 142.0 207.0 302.0 33.1 37.5 38.0 53.0 60.4 61.8 39.7 44.1 44.8 51.5 57.1 62.5 64.2 47.3 51.7 52.8 59.8 67.0 68.5 73.5 75.6 87.3 83.0 90.9 92.4 95.6 103.0 105.0 105.0 120.0 141.0 152.0 Cut from Serial Mass Size Per Metre kg/m 94.3 105 107 140 147 171.6 172 200 232 283 415 605 66.2 74.9 76.0 106 121 124 77.9 88.2 89.6 102 114 125 128 92.5 103 106 120 134 137 147 151 175 166 182 185 191 207 210 210 240 283 304 Width Of Section B 400x300 400x300 400x300 400x400 400x400 400x400 400x400 400x400 400x400 400x400 400x400 400x400 450x200 450x200 450x200 450x300 450x300 450x300 500x200 500x200 500x200 500x200 500x300 500x300 500x300 600x200 600x200 600x200 600x200 600x200 600x300 600x300 600x300 600x300 700x300 700x300 700x300 800x300 800x300 800x300 900x300 900x300 900x300 900x300 mm 299 300 300 402 398 405 400 408 405 407 417 432 199 200 200 299 300 300 199 200 200 201 300 300 300 199 200 200 201 202 300 300 300 302 300 300 300 300 300 300 299 300 302 303 Depth Of Section d mm 193 195 195 194 197 197 200 200 207 214 229 249 223 225 225 217 220 220 248 250 250 253 241 244 244 298 300 300 303 306 291 294 294 297 346 350 350 396 400 400 445 450 456 459

b

y

Thickness Web Flange

Root Radius

Ratio For Local Buckling

Dimension

t mm 9 10 10 15 11 18 13 21 18 20 30 45 8 9 9 10 11 11 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 10 11 11 12 13 12 12 12 14 13 13 13 14 14 14 15 16 18 19

T mm 14 16 16 15 18 18 21 21 28 35 50 70 12 14 14 15 18 18 14 16 16 19 15 18 18 15 17 17 20 23 17 20 20 23 20 24 24 22 26 26 23 28 34 37

r mm 22 13 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 18 13 18 24 13 24 20 13 20 20 26 13 26 22 13 22 22 22 28 13 28 28 28 18 28 28 18 28 18 18 18 18 d/t 21.4 19.5 19.5 12.9 17.9 10.9 15.4 9.5 11.5 10.7 7.6 5.5 27.9 25.0 25.0 21.7 20.0 20.0 27.6 25.0 25.0 23.0 21.9 22.2 22.2 29.8 27.3 27.3 25.3 23.5 24.3 24.5 24.5 21.2 26.6 26.9 26.9 28.3 28.6 28.6 29.7 28.1 25.3 24.2 b/T 10.7 9.38 9.38 13.4 11.1 11.3 9.52 9.71 7.23 5.81 4.17 3.09 8.29 7.14 7.14 9.97 8.33 8.33 7.11 6.25 6.25 5.29 10.0 8.33 8.33 6.63 5.88 5.88 5.03 4.39 8.82 7.50 7.50 6.57 7.50 6.25 6.25 6.82 5.77 5.77 6.50 5.36 4.44 4.09

Cx cm 3.33 3.43 3.41 3.70 3.01 3.89 3.21 4.07 3.68 3.90 4.85 6.13 5.10 5.19 5.15 4.04 4.09 4.05 5.90 6.03 5.96 5.95 4.92 4.72 4.66 7.79 7.95 7.84 7.79 7.79 6.39 6.17 6.08 6.33 7.99 7.63 7.55 9.66 9.27 9.18 11.7 11.4 11.3 11.4

200x400

225x200

225x300

250x200

250x300

300x200

300x300

350x300

400x300

450x300

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STRUCTURAL TEES

y x Cx

x

Metric units Designation Serial Mass Size Per Metre mm 200x300 kg/m 47.1 52.3 53.4 70.0 73.3 84.1 85.8 98.4 116.0 142.0 207.0 302.0 33.1 37.5 38.0 53.0 60.4 61.8 39.7 44.1 44.8 51.5 57.1 62.5 64.2 47.3 51.7 52.8 59.8 67.0 68.5 73.5 75.6 87.3 83.0 90.9 92.4 95.6 103.0 105.0 105.0 120.0 141.0 152.0 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 1524 1728 1732 2480 2047 3052 2478 3652 3626 4380 7470 13250 1861 2142 2144 2341 2676 2681 2814 3187 3190 3650 3401 3607 3615 5127 5743 5749 6512 7288 6315 6668 6679 7892 11220 11960 11970 17590 18680 18690 25750 29030 34070 36650 cm4 3122 3602 3604 8129 9461 9977 11210 11900 15510 19680 30260 47180 790 935 936 3346 4053 4055 922 1069 1070 1290 3381 4053 4056 989 1137 1139 1360 1588 3834 4505 4509 5291 4511 5408 5411 4964 5860 5864 5137 6316 7827 8604 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 5.04 5.09 5.05 5.27 4.68 5.34 4.76 5.40 4.95 4.93 5.32 5.87 6.65 6.70 6.66 5.89 5.90 5.84 7.45 7.54 7.47 7.46 6.84 6.73 6.65 9.23 9.34 9.25 9.24 9.24 8.51 8.44 8.33 8.43 10.3 10.2 10.1 12.0 11.9 11.8 13.9 13.8 13.8 13.8 cm 7.21 7.35 7.28 9.54 10.1 9.65 10.1 9.8 10.2 10.4 10.7 11.1 4.33 4.43 4.40 7.04 7.26 7.18 4.27 4.36 4.33 4.43 6.82 7.14 7.04 4.05 4.16 4.12 4.22 4.31 6.63 6.94 6.84 6.90 6.53 6.83 6.78 6.39 6.67 6.62 6.20 6.43 6.59 6.67 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 95.5 108 108 158 123 193 148 229 213 250 414 706 108 124 124 133 149 149 149 168 168 189 177 183 183 233 261 259 289 319 278 287 286 338 422 437 436 588 608 607 785 863 994 1061 Axis y-y cm3 209 240 240 404 475 493 560 584 766 967 1451 2184 79.4 93.5 93.6 224 270 270 92.7 107 107 128 225 270 270 99.4 114 114 135 157 256 300 301 350 301 361 361 331 391 391 344 421 518 568 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 170 192 193 280 226 346 276 414 410 504 863 1501 193 219 220 235 265 267 266 299 300 337 314 323 325 424 470 470 522 574 494 505 508 601 751 771 774 1053 1076 1078 1415 1541 1773 1892 Axis y-y cm3 318 365 367 619 720 755 850 897 1166 1470 2218 3362 123 145 145 343 412 414 145 166 167 201 348 412 415 158 179 181 214 249 396 461 464 542 468 555 558 518 605 608 539 659 811 889

Buckling Torsional Parameter Index

Torsional Constant

Sectional Area

u 0.565 0.563 0.559 0.598 0.599 0.594 0.582 0.167 0.660 0.662 0.656 0.644 0.636 0.501 0.465 0.460 0.466 0.572 0.540 0.536 0.617 0.591 0.588 0.662 0.639 0.627 0.623

x 12.9 12.3 11.6 11.3 10.5 9.62 9.11 8.38 7.04 5.83 4.27 3.21 18.2 16.8 16.1 13.5 12.5 11.7 17.6 16.7 15.8 13.8 14.7 14.0 13.0 19.9 19.2 18.0 15.9 14.2 16.1 15.6 14.4 12.8 17.2 15.7 15.0 18.4 17.0 16.3 21.1 17.9 15.1 14.0

J cm4 39.9 49.7 56.7 77.7 96.8 131 151 205 356 657 1934 5488 19.1 25.7 28.4 51.9 70.5 81.6 30.3 37.9 42.8 65.7 58.8 71.5 85.8 41.1 48.5 56.3 83.2 118 86.2 99.3 120 178 130 171 191 170 220 243 180 289 488 616

A cm2 60.0 66.6 68.0 89.2 93.4 107 109 125 148 180 264 385 42.1 47.7 48.4 67.5 76.9 78.7 50.6 56.1 57.1 65.6 72.8 79.6 81.8 60.2 65.9 67.2 76.2 85.3 87.2 93.6 96.2 111 106 116 118 122 132 134 133 153 180 194

200x400

225x200

225x300

250x200

250x300

300x200

300x300

350x300

400x300

450x300

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y

STRUCTURAL TEES

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d r t

B

T

y x

Cx

x

y

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Imperial units Designation Serial Mass Size Per Metre Bxd mm 102x76 kg/m 6.70 8.93 11.91 11.00 12.60 14.20 12.40 14.10 16.40 18.50 21.00 24.00 16.50 19.50 12.50 15.00 19.50 23.00 15.60 18.50 21.50 11.50 15.00 18.50 26.20 29.90 33.60 34.23 37.10 41.00 17.86 20.83 19.35 20.10 22.32 23.10 26.04 27.00 32.74 37.20 42.41 22.50 25.50 28.50 33.50 27.10 30.00 33.60 37.10 42.41 Cut from Serial Mass Size Per Metre kg/m 13.4 17.9 23.8 22.0 25.0 28.0 25.0 28.0 33.0 37.0 42.0 48.0 33.0 39.0 25.0 30.0 39.0 46.0 31.0 37.0 43.0 23.0 30.0 37.0 52.0 60.0 67.0 68.5 74.0 82.0 35.7 41.7 38.7 40.0 44.6 46.0 52.1 54.0 65.5 74.4 84.8 45.0 51.0 57.0 67.0 54.0 60.0 67.0 74.0 84.8 Width Of Section B 152x102 152x102 152x102 254x102 254x102 254x102 305x102 305x102 305x102 305x127 305x127 305x127 356x127 356x127 203x133 203x133 406x140 406x140 254x146 254x146 254x146 152x152 152x152 152x152 457x152 457x152 457x152 457x152 457x152 457x152 203x165 203x165 305x165 305x165 305x165 305x165 305x165 305x165 533x165 533x165 533x165 356x171 356x171 356x171 356x171 406x178 406x178 406x178 406x178 406x178 mm 100.1 101.6 102.4 101.6 101.9 102.2 101.6 101.8 102.4 123.4 124.3 125.3 125.4 126.0 133.2 133.9 141.8 142.2 146.1 146.4 147.3 152.2 152.9 154.4 152.4 152.9 153.8 153.9 154.4 155.3 165.0 166.0 164.8 165.0 165.6 165.7 166.6 166.9 165.1 165.9 166.5 171.1 171.5 172.2 173.2 177.7 177.9 178.8 179.5 180.8 Depth Of Section d mm 74.9 76.6 79.8 126.9 128.5 130.1 152.5 154.3 156.3 152.1 153.5 155.4 174.4 176.6 101.5 103.3 198.9 201.5 125.6 127.9 129.7 76.1 78.7 80.8 224.8 227.2 228.9 229.4 230.9 232.8 100.7 102.4 155.2 151.6 156.7 153.2 158.8 155.1 262.4 264.5 267.5 175.6 177.4 178.9 181.6 201.2 203.1 204.6 206.3 208.7

b

Thickness Web Flange

Root Radius

Ratios For Local Buckling

Dimension

t mm 4.32 5.84 6.60 5.70 6.00 6.30 5.80 6.00 6.60 7.10 8.00 9.00 6.00 6.60 5.70 6.40 6.40 6.80 6.00 6.30 7.20 5.80 6.50 8.00 7.60 8.10 9.00 9.14 9.60 10.50 6.22 7.24 5.84 6.00 6.60 6.70 7.62 7.90 8.89 9.65 10.29 7.00 7.40 8.10 9.10 7.70 7.90 8.80 9.50 10.92

T mm 5.46 7.11 10.29 6.80 8.40 10.00 7.00 8.80 10.80 10.70 12.10 14.00 8.50 10.70 7.80 9.60 8.60 11.20 8.60 10.90 12.70 6.80 9.40 11.50 10.90 13.30 15.00 15.37 17.00 18.90 10.16 11.81 9.65 10.20 11.18 11.80 13.21 13.70 11.43 13.59 16.51 9.70 11.50 13.00 15.70 10.90 12.80 14.30 16.00 18.16

r mm 6.4 6.4 6.4 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 8.9 8.9 8.9 10.2 10.2 7.6 7.6 10.2 10.2 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.6 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 7.6 8.9 7.6 8.9 7.6 8.9 12.7 12.7 12.7 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 d/t 17.3 13.1 12.1 22.3 21.4 20.7 26.3 25.7 23.7 21.4 19.2 17.3 29.1 26.8 17.8 16.1 31.1 29.6 20.9 20.3 18.0 13.1 12.1 10.1 29.6 28.0 25.4 25.1 24.1 22.2 16.2 14.1 26.6 25.3 23.7 22.9 20.8 19.6 29.5 27.4 26.0 25.1 24.0 22.1 20.0 26.1 25.7 23.3 21.7 19.1 b/T 9.17 7.14 4.98 7.47 6.07 5.11 7.26 5.78 4.74 5.77 5.14 4.48 7.38 5.89 8.54 6.97 8.24 6.35 8.49 6.72 5.80 11.2 8.13 6.71 6.99 5.75 5.13 5.01 4.54 4.11 8.12 7.03 8.54 8.09 7.41 7.02 6.31 6.09 7.22 6.10 5.04 8.82 7.46 6.62 5.52 8.15 6.95 6.25 5.61 4.98

Cx cm 1.58 1.72 1.72 3.45 3.32 3.24 4.43 4.20 4.14 3.78 3.87 3.94 4.56 4.44 2.10 2.11 5.32 5.02 2.66 2.55 2.64 1.39 1.41 1.53 6.04 5.84 5.91 5.92 5.88 5.96 1.76 1.87 3.16 3.03 3.22 3.07 3.31 3.21 7.58 7.44 7.24 4.05 3.94 3.97 4.00 4.83 4.64 4.73 4.76 4.93

102x127

102x152

127x152

127x178 133x102 140x203 146x127

152x76

152x229

165x102 165x152

165x267

171x178

178x203

68

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

STRUCTURAL TEES

y Cx

x

x

Imperial units Designation Serial Mass Size Per Metre mm 102x76 kg/m 6.70 8.93 11.91 11.00 12.60 14.20 12.40 14.10 16.40 18.50 21.00 24.00 16.50 19.50 12.50 15.00 19.50 23.00 15.60 18.50 21.50 11.50 15.00 18.50 26.20 29.90 33.60 34.23 37.10 41.00 17.86 20.83 19.35 20.10 22.32 23.10 26.04 27.00 32.74 37.20 42.41 22.50 25.50 28.50 33.50 27.10 30.00 33.60 37.10 42.41 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 39.4 54.8 70.3 221 249 276 374 418 485 499 571 660 621 724 131 154 971 1117 259 292 343 58.5 72.3 93.2 1660 1871 2113 2161 2325 2589 147 176 485 467 560 535 664 641 2934 3317 3745 795 879 984 1152 1289 1391 1569 1733 2026 cm4 45.7 62.3 92.3 59.7 74.4 89.3 61.5 77.7 97.1 168 194 231 140 179 154 192 205 269 224 285 339 200 280 353 323 397 456 469 523 592 381 451 360 382 424 448 510 532 431 520 638 406 484 554 681 511 602 683 773 897 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 2.14 2.19 2.14 3.97 3.94 3.91 4.86 4.83 4.81 4.60 4.62 4.64 5.43 5.39 2.86 2.84 6.26 6.17 3.61 3.52 3.54 2.00 1.94 1.99 7.06 7.01 7.03 7.03 7.02 7.04 2.54 2.57 4.44 4.27 4.44 4.27 4.46 4.32 8.37 8.36 8.33 5.27 5.21 5.21 5.19 6.11 6.03 6.06 6.06 6.12 cm 2.30 2.33 2.46 2.07 2.16 2.23 1.97 2.08 2.15 2.67 2.70 2.74 2.58 2.68 3.10 3.17 2.87 3.03 3.36 3.48 3.52 3.70 3.83 3.87 3.11 3.23 3.27 3.28 3.33 3.37 4.08 4.12 3.82 3.86 3.86 3.91 3.91 3.93 3.21 3.31 3.44 3.76 3.86 3.91 3.99 3.85 3.97 4.00 4.04 4.07 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 6.67 9.22 11.2 23.9 26.1 28.2 34.5 37.2 42.2 43.6 49.7 56.9 48.2 54.7 16.2 18.7 66.7 73.8 26.1 28.5 33.2 9.41 11.2 14.2 101 111 124 127 135 149 17.7 21.0 39.3 38.5 45.0 43.7 52.8 52.1 157 174 192 58.8 63.7 70.7 81.4 84.3 88.8 99.8 109 127 Axis y-y cm3 9.14 12.3 18.0 11.8 14.6 17.5 12.1 15.3 19.0 27.3 31.3 36.8 22.4 28.4 23.1 28.7 28.9 37.9 30.6 39.0 46.0 26.3 36.7 45.7 42.3 52.0 59.4 60.9 67.8 76.3 46.2 54.3 43.7 46.3 51.2 54.1 61.2 63.7 52.2 62.7 76.7 47.4 56.5 64.4 78.7 57.5 67.6 76.4 86.1 99.2 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 11.8 16.5 20.6 44.3 46.9 50.4 63.3 69.1 75.8 77.9 88.9 102 87.2 98.1 28.7 33.5 123 132 46.0 50.7 59.5 16.9 20.9 27.1 187 199 223 227 242 267 32.4 39.0 68.8 67.7 79.1 77.2 93.6 92.8 288 319 347 104 113 125 145 150 157 177 194 226 Axis y-y cm3 14.0 18.9 27.7 18.5 22.9 27.3 19.3 24.1 29.9 42.5 49.0 57.8 34.9 44.3 35.4 44.0 45.2 58.8 46.9 59.6 70.4 40.0 55.7 69.6 66.4 81.2 93.0 95.5 106.2 119.9 70.0 82.5 66.8 70.7 78.2 82.6 93.8 97.6 82.9 99.4 121 73.0 86.8 99.1 121 89 104 118 133 154 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Torsional Constant

Sectional Area

u 0.662 0.628 0.606 0.701 0.681 0.656 0.606 0.606 0.602 0.654 0.632 0.673 0.633 0.375 0.230 0.198 0.678 0.648 0.646 0.645 0.636 0.634 0.434 0.392 0.427 0.379 0.422 0.388 0.704 0.692 0.672 0.546 0.521 0.514 0.499 0.587 0.561 0.561 0.555 0.559

x 13.1 10.2 7.67 18.2 15.7 13.8 21.8 18.7 15.8 14.9 13.3 11.7 21.1 17.6 12.8 10.8 23.8 19.5 14.8 12.2 10.6 10.4 8.00 6.67 22.0 18.8 16.8 16.5 15.1 13.7 9.63 8.43 16.9 15.5 14.8 13.6 12.7 11.8 23.5 20.6 17.8 18.4 16.1 14.4 12.2 19.2 16.9 15.2 13.8 12.3

J cm4 0.841 1.87 4.64 2.06 3.20 4.77 2.37 3.69 6.08 7.36 10.5 15.8 4.38 7.53 2.97 5.13 5.33 9.49 4.26 7.65 11.9 2.30 5.24 9.54 10.7 16.9 23.8 25.4 32.9 44.5 7.22 11.2 6.22 7.35 9.49 11.1 15.4 17.3 16.0 23.7 36.8 7.90 11.9 16.6 27.8 11.5 16.6 23.0 31.3 46.0

A cm2 8.64 11.5 15.3 14.0 16.0 18.0 15.8 17.9 20.9 23.6 26.7 30.6 21.1 24.9 16.0 19.1 24.8 29.3 19.8 23.6 27.4 14.6 19.1 23.5 33.3 38.1 42.8 43.7 47.2 52.3 22.8 26.6 24.7 25.7 28.4 29.4 33.3 34.4 41.9 47.4 54.0 28.7 32.4 36.3 42.7 34.5 38.3 42.8 47.2 54.1

102x127

102x152

127x152

127x178 133x102 140x203 146x127

152x76

152x229

165x102 165x152

165x267

171x178

178x203

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

69

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

STRUCTURAL TEES

Structural Tees

d r t

B

T

y x

Cx

x

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

Imperial units Designation Serial Mass Size Per Metre Bxd mm 178x305 191x229 kg/m 40.92 46.13 33.60 37.10 41.00 44.60 48.37 49.20 52.83 23.00 26.00 30.00 35.50 43.00 49.85 24.55 29.02 33.48 29.76 33.48 37.20 41.10 46.10 50.50 54.50 61.00 61.76 69.20 50.60 56.50 62.50 69.90 36.50 40.18 44.50 50.60 53.50 57.29 66.00 74.41 83.34 45.39 50.60 55.06 61.01 62.60 69.94 75.90 84.83 73.66 80.36 86.31 92.27 98.22 Cut from Serial Mass Size Per Metre kg/m 81.8 92.3 67.0 74.0 82.0 89.0 96.7 98.0 106 46.0 52.0 60.0 71.0 86.0 99.7 49.1 58.0 67.0 59.5 67.0 74.4 82.0 92.0 101 109 122 124 138 101 113 125 140 73 80 89 101 107 115 132 149 167 91 101 110 122 125 140 152 170 147 161 173 185 196 Width Of Section B 610x178 610x178 457x191 457x191 457x191 457x191 457x191 457x191 457x191 203x203 203x203 203x203 203x203 203x203 203x203 254x203 254x203 254x203 305x203 305x203 305x203 533x210 533x210 533x210 533x210 533x210 533x210 533x210 610x229 610x229 610x229 610x229 254x254 254x254 254x254 254x254 254x254 254x254 254x254 254x254 254x254 356x254 356x254 356x254 356x254 686x254 686x254 686x254 686x254 762x267 762x267 762x267 762x267 762x267 mm 177.9 178.8 189.9 190.4 191.3 191.9 192.8 192.8 193.9 203.6 204.3 205.8 206.4 209.1 210.3 202.2 202.8 203.7 203.3 204.3 205.2 208.8 209.3 210.0 210.8 211.9 212.2 213.9 227.6 228.2 229.0 230.2 254.6 254.8 256.3 257.3 258.8 258.8 261.3 262.6 264.5 253.9 254.9 255.8 257.3 253.0 253.7 254.4 255.8 265.4 266.1 266.6 267.1 267.8 Depth Of Section d mm 299.3 301.5 226.6 228.4 229.9 231.6 233.0 233.5 234.6 101.5 103.0 104.7 107.8 111.0 114.3 123.6 126.0 128.3 151.6 143.2 154.8 264.1 266.5 268.3 269.7 272.2 272.2 274.6 301.2 303.7 306.0 308.5 127.0 128.1 130.1 132.1 133.3 134.6 138.1 139.7 144.3 176.4 178.3 180.0 181.7 338.9 341.9 344.0 346.6 376.6 378.8 381.2 383.2 384.9

b

Thickness Web Flange

Root Radius

Ratios For Local Buckling

Dimension

t mm 10.03 10.92 8.50 9.00 9.90 10.50 11.43 11.40 12.57 7.20 7.90 9.40 10.00 12.70 14.48 7.37 8.00 8.89 7.49 8.51 9.40 9.60 10.10 10.80 11.60 12.70 18.08 14.73 10.50 11.10 11.90 13.10 8.60 9.40 10.30 11.94 12.80 13.46 15.30 17.27 19.18 9.53 10.54 11.43 12.95 11.70 12.45 13.08 14.48 13.21 13.84 14.35 14.86 15.62

T mm 12.83 14.99 12.70 14.50 16.00 17.70 19.05 19.60 20.57 11.00 12.50 14.20 17.30 20.50 23.75 11.05 13.46 15.75 13.08 14.60 16.26 13.20 15.60 17.40 18.80 21.30 21.21 23.62 14.80 17.30 19.60 22.10 14.20 15.62 17.30 19.56 20.50 22.10 25.30 28.45 31.75 16.38 18.29 20.94 21.72 16.20 18.92 21.08 23.62 17.02 19.30 21.59 23.62 25.40

r mm 12.7 12.7 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 12.7 12.7 12.7 15.2 15.2 15.2 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 d/t 29.8 27.6 26.7 25.4 23.2 22.1 20.4 20.5 18.7 14.1 13.0 11.1 10.8 8.74 7.89 16.8 15.8 14.4 20.2 16.8 16.5 27.5 26.4 24.8 23.3 21.4 15.1 18.6 28.7 27.4 25.7 23.5 14.8 13.6 12.6 11.1 10.4 10.0 9.03 8.09 7.52 18.5 16.9 15.8 14.0 29.0 27.5 26.3 23.9 28.5 27.4 26.6 25.8 24.6 b/T 6.93 5.96 7.48 6.57 5.98 5.42 5.06 4.92 4.71 9.25 8.17 7.25 5.97 5.10 4.43 9.15 7.53 6.47 7.77 7.00 6.31 7.91 6.71 6.03 5.61 4.97 5.00 4.53 7.69 6.60 5.84 5.21 8.96 8.16 7.41 6.58 6.31 5.86 5.16 4.62 4.17 7.75 6.97 6.11 5.92 7.81 6.70 6.03 5.41 7.80 6.89 6.17 5.65 5.27

Cx cm 8.88 8.79 5.46 5.38 5.47 5.47 5.58 5.53 5.73 1.69 1.75 1.89 1.95 2.20 2.38 2.21 2.22 2.31 2.75 2.63 2.96 6.75 6.55 6.53 6.61 6.66 6.76 6.95 7.78 7.58 7.54 7.61 2.05 2.12 2.21 2.37 2.45 2.51 2.70 2.85 3.07 3.16 3.27 3.32 3.53 8.85 8.67 8.57 8.69 10.4 10.2 10.0 9.90 9.91

203x102

203x127

203x152

210x267

229x305

254x127

254x178

254x343

267x381

70

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

STRUCTURAL TEES

y Cx

x

x

Imperial units Designation Serial Mass Size Per Metre mm 178x305 191x229 kg/m 40.92 46.13 33.60 37.10 41.00 44.60 48.37 49.20 52.83 23.00 26.00 30.00 35.50 43.00 49.85 24.55 29.02 33.48 29.76 33.48 37.20 41.10 46.10 50.50 54.50 61.00 61.76 69.20 50.60 56.50 62.50 69.90 36.50 40.18 44.50 50.60 53.50 57.29 66.00 74.41 83.34 45.39 50.60 55.06 61.01 62.60 69.94 75.90 84.83 73.66 80.36 86.31 92.27 98.22 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 4818 5427 2028 2218 2468 2679 2937 2962 3252 177 200 244 281 373 452 321 368 427 599 568 778 3510 3870 4232 4591 5149 5240 5989 5666 6244 6880 7724 418 463 524 621 676 726 871 995 1193 1204 1358 1503 1712 8930 9906 10680 12010 13340 14440 15470 16410 17480 cm4 605 718 726 836 936 1045 1141 1174 1254 774 889 1032 1269 1564 1844 762 937 1111 918 1040 1173 1004 1195 1346 1472 1694 1690 1934 1458 1717 1966 2253 1954 2155 2429 2779 2964 3196 3766 4299 4904 2237 2527 2924 3088 2192 2581 2900 3305 2661 3041 3421 3763 4079 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 9.60 9.61 6.89 6.85 6.87 6.86 6.90 6.88 6.95 2.45 2.46 2.53 2.49 2.61 2.67 3.20 3.16 3.16 3.97 3.69 4.05 8.19 8.12 8.11 8.13 8.14 8.18 8.24 9.38 9.32 9.29 9.31 3.00 3.01 3.04 3.10 3.15 3.15 3.22 3.24 3.35 4.56 4.59 4.55 4.70 10.6 10.5 10.5 10.5 11.9 11.9 11.8 11.8 11.8 cm 3.40 3.50 4.12 4.20 4.23 4.29 4.30 4.33 4.32 5.14 5.18 5.20 5.30 5.34 5.39 4.93 5.03 5.10 4.92 4.99 4.98 4.38 4.51 4.57 4.60 4.67 4.65 4.68 4.76 4.89 4.97 5.03 6.48 6.50 6.55 6.57 6.59 6.62 6.69 6.74 6.79 6.22 6.26 6.34 6.31 5.24 5.38 5.47 5.53 5.32 5.45 5.57 5.65 5.70 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 229 254 118 127 141 151 166 166 183 20.9 23.4 28.4 31.8 41.9 50.0 31.7 35.5 40.5 48.3 48.6 62.1 179 193 208 225 250 193 292 254 274 298 332 39.2 43.3 48.6 57.3 62.2 66.3 78.4 89.5 105 83.2 93.2 102 117 357 388 414 463 489 522 550 577 612 Axis y-y cm3 68.0 80.3 76.5 87.8 97.8 109 118 122 129 76.1 87.0 100 123 150 175 75.4 92.4 109 90.3 102 114 96.2 114 128 140 160 159 181 128 151 172 196 154 169 190 216 229 247 288 327 371 176 198 229 240 173 204 228 258 201 229 257 282 305 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 419 465 209 225 250 269 295 296 327 39.0 44.5 54.4 63.6 84.6 103 57.0 65.4 76.2 86.7 88.6 113 320 343 371 401 446 449 522 456 489 531 592 74.1 82.8 94.1 112 122 132 159 185 219 150 170 189 215 643 695 738 825 892 944 990 1035 1095 Axis y-y cm3 109 128 118 136 152 169 184 189 202 115 132 152 187 228 267 114 140 166 137 155 174 150 177 199 217 249 259 284 200 234 267 305 232 256 287 328 348 375 438 499 566 268 302 348 366 270 317 355 403 315 359 402 441 477 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Torsional Constant

Sectional Area

u 0.716 0.708 0.597 0.583 0.583 0.576 0.579 0.573 0.583 0.634 0.613 0.606 0.605 0.600 0.599 0.609 0.644 0.626 0.617 0.613 0.651 0.635 0.624 0.623 0.680 0.667 0.654 0.645 0.641

x 24.2 21.5 18.9 16.9 15.5 14.1 13.2 12.9 12.2 8.86 7.92 7.04 5.96 5.11 4.51 10.7 9.12 7.96 11.4 9.56 9.40 20.8 18.3 16.6 15.5 13.8 13.8 12.5 21.6 19.0 17.1 15.3 8.63 7.91 7.24 6.47 6.20 5.80 5.17 4.61 4.24 10.7 9.71 8.57 8.30 22.0 19.4 17.7 16.0 22.8 20.8 19.1 17.7 16.6

J cm4 24.5 35.4 18.5 25.8 34.5 45.2 56.7 60.5 72.2 11.0 15.8 23.5 40.0 68.1 105 12.1 20.3 31.4 19.8 27.0 37.0 25.7 37.7 50.3 63.0 88.9 90.8 125 38.3 55.5 76.9 108 28.8 37.9 51.1 73.9 85.9 106 159 225 312 45.6 62.7 91.1 105 57.9 83.7 110 152 78.1 103 133 166 202

A cm2 52.2 58.8 42.7 47.3 52.2 56.9 61.6 62.6 67.2 29.4 33.1 38.2 45.2 54.8 63.5 31.3 37.0 42.8 38.0 41.8 47.4 52.3 58.7 64.3 69.4 77.7 78.7 88.2 64.4 72.0 79.7 89.1 46.5 51.1 56.6 64.5 68.2 73.0 84.1 94.6 106 57.8 64.5 72.7 77.6 79.7 89.2 96.9 108 93.8 102 110 118 125

203x102

203x127

203x152

210x267

229x305

254x127

254x178 254x178x55 254x343

267x381

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

71

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

STRUCTURAL TEES

Structural Tees

d r t

B

T

y x

Cx

x

y

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

Imperial units Designation Serial Mass Size Per Metre Bxd mm 279x229 kg/m 56.55 64.00 72.18 78.87 88.55 87.80 96.70 104.9 113.1 48.40 53.57 58.90 64.73 68.50 71.43 79.00 89.29 101.2 113.1 126.5 141.4 74.60 89.50 100.5 111.6 119.1 126.5 135.4 144.4 156.3 111.0 124.0 136.0 157.0 175.0 75.15 82.59 90.78 98.22 109.4 77.38 87.06 97.47 108.6 120.5 109.0 120.0 132.0 66.97 73.66 81.10 89.29 98.22 Cut from Serial Mass Size Per Metre kg/m 113 128 144 158 177 176 193 210 226 97 107 118 129 137 143 158 179 202 226 253 283 149 179 201 223 238 253 271 289 313 222 248 272 314 350 150 165 182 196 219 155 174 195 217 241 218 240 264 134 147 162 179 196 Width Of Section B 457x279 457x279 457x279 457x279 457x279 838x292 838x292 838x292 838x292 305x305 305x305 305x305 305x305 305x305 305x305 305x305 305x305 305x305 305x305 305x305 305x305 610x305 610x305 914x305 914x305 914x305 914x305 914x305 914x305 914x305 1016x305 1016x305 1016x305 1016x305 1016x305 533x312 533x312 533x312 533x312 533x312 610x324 610x324 610x324 610x324 610x324 686x356 686x356 686x356 356x368 356x368 356x368 356x368 356x368 mm 280.3 281.7 283.1 284.5 286.1 291.6 292.4 293.0 293.8 305.3 305.8 307.4 308.0 309.2 308.9 311.2 312.9 315.0 317.0 319.3 321.8 304.8 307.1 303.5 304.2 304.8 305.6 306.7 307.7 309.4 300.0 300.0 300.0 300.0 302.0 312.2 313.4 314.7 316.0 317.8 323.9 325.1 326.5 327.7 329.1 355.0 356.0 358.0 368.8 370.0 371.0 372.6 374.0 Depth Of Section d mm 231.3 232.6 236.1 237.9 240.9 417.3 420.2 422.9 425.3 153.9 155.6 157.2 159.1 160.2 161.4 163.5 166.6 170.3 174.1 178.2 182.6 306.1 310.0 451.5 455.3 457.3 459.4 461.4 463.4 466.0 485.0 490.0 495.0 500.0 504.0 271.3 273.2 275.3 277.2 280.2 305.6 308.1 310.9 314.2 317.5 348.0 350.0 353.0 178.1 179.8 181.9 183.9 186.2

b

Thickness Web Flange

Root Radius

Ratios For Local Buckling

Dimension

t mm 10.80 12.19 13.59 14.99 16.64 13.97 14.73 15.37 16.13 9.90 10.92 12.00 13.08 13.80 13.97 15.80 18.03 20.07 22.10 24.38 26.92 11.80 14.10 15.24 15.88 16.51 17.27 18.42 19.43 21.08 16.00 16.50 16.50 19.10 21.10 12.70 13.97 15.24 16.51 18.29 12.70 13.97 15.37 16.51 17.91 15.40 16.80 18.40 11.28 12.32 13.34 14.99 16.38

T mm 17.27 19.56 22.10 23.88 26.92 18.80 21.72 24.38 26.80 15.40 17.02 18.70 20.57 21.70 22.86 25.00 28.07 31.75 35.56 39.62 44.07 19.70 23.60 20.07 23.88 25.91 27.94 29.97 32.00 34.54 21.10 26.00 31.00 35.90 40.00 20.32 22.22 24.38 26.29 29.21 19.05 21.59 24.38 27.69 30.99 24.80 27.40 30.20 18.03 19.81 21.84 23.88 26.16

r mm 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.2 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 16.5 16.5 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0 19.0 29.0 29.0 29.0 29.0 29.0 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 12.7 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 d/t 21.4 19.1 17.4 15.9 14.5 29.9 28.5 27.5 26.4 15.5 14.2 13.1 12.2 11.6 11.6 10.3 9.24 8.49 7.88 7.31 6.78 25.9 22.0 29.6 28.7 27.7 26.6 25.0 23.8 22.1 30.3 29.7 30.0 26.2 23.9 21.4 19.6 18.1 16.8 15.3 24.1 22.1 20.2 19.0 17.7 22.6 20.8 19.2 15.8 14.6 13.6 12.3 11.4 b/T 8.12 7.20 6.40 5.96 5.31 7.76 6.73 6.01 5.48 9.91 8.98 8.22 7.49 7.12 6.76 6.22 5.57 4.96 4.46 4.03 3.65 7.74 6.51 7.56 6.37 5.88 5.47 5.12 4.81 4.48 7.11 5.77 4.84 4.18 3.78 7.68 7.05 6.45 6.01 5.44 8.50 7.53 6.70 5.92 5.31 7.16 6.50 5.93 10.2 9.34 8.49 7.80 7.15

Cx cm 4.58 4.69 4.84 5.00 5.15 11.3 11.1 10.9 10.8 2.50 2.60 2.69 2.79 2.86 2.88 3.04 3.25 3.44 3.64 3.86 4.11 6.45 6.69 12.6 12.1 12.0 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.4 13.9 13.2 12.5 12.9 13.1 5.53 5.66 5.78 5.91 6.08 6.59 6.65 6.73 6.75 6.85 7.49 7.59 7.74 2.80 2.89 2.98 3.14 3.27

292x419

305x152

305x305 305x457

305x508

312x267

324x305

356x343

368x178

72

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STRUCTURAL TEES

y Cx

x

x

Imperial units Designation Serial Mass Size Per Metre mm 279x229 kg/m 56.55 64.00 72.18 78.87 88.55 87.80 96.70 104.9 113.1 48.40 53.57 58.90 64.73 68.50 71.43 79.00 89.29 101.2 113.1 126.5 141.4 74.60 89.50 100.5 111.6 119.1 126.5 135.4 144.4 156.3 111.0 124.0 136.0 157.0 175.0 75.15 82.59 90.78 98.22 109.4 77.38 87.06 97.47 108.6 120.5 109.0 120.0 132.0 66.97 73.66 81.10 89.29 98.22 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 2987 3387 3902 4340 4938 19410 21260 22890 24560 858 965 1080 1205 1287 1330 1533 1807 2107 2434 2824 3288 7397 9026 26340 28940 30670 32610 35080 37400 40900 33450 36990 39550 46440 52090 5599 6221 6881 7532 8506 7854 8815 9904 10970 12200 14010 15430 17180 1530 1701 1887 2152 2408 cm4 3172 3647 4184 4589 5262 3897 4539 5126 5681 3655 4059 4530 5013 5351 5620 6285 7175 8282 9455 10770 12260 4655 5705 4693 5621 6135 6668 7233 7800 8564 4782 5886 7011 8125 9239 5158 5707 6341 6924 7827 5400 6189 7081 8132 9220 9258 10320 11570 7540 8366 9299 10300 11410 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 6.44 6.45 6.51 6.57 6.61 13.2 13.1 13.1 13.0 3.73 3.76 3.79 3.82 3.84 3.82 3.90 3.99 4.04 4.11 4.18 4.27 8.82 8.90 14.3 14.2 14.2 14.2 14.2 14.3 14.3 15.4 15.3 15.1 15.2 15.3 7.64 7.68 7.71 7.76 7.81 8.92 8.92 8.93 8.89 8.90 10.0 10.1 10.1 4.23 4.25 4.27 4.35 4.39 cm 6.64 6.69 6.74 6.76 6.82 5.90 6.06 6.18 6.27 7.70 7.72 7.77 7.80 7.83 7.86 7.90 7.94 8.02 8.09 8.17 8.25 7.00 7.07 6.05 6.28 6.36 6.43 6.47 6.51 6.55 5.82 6.10 6.36 6.37 6.45 7.33 7.36 7.40 7.44 7.49 7.39 7.47 7.55 7.66 7.74 8.17 8.22 8.29 9.39 9.43 9.48 9.51 9.55 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 161 182 208 231 261 639 687 729 775 66.5 74.5 82.9 91.8 97.8 100 115 135 155 177 202 232 306 371 809 867 911 961 1031 1095 1195 965 1033 1070 1252 1398 259 287 316 345 388 328 365 407 445 490 513 563 624 102 113 124 141 157 Axis y-y cm3 226 259 296 323 368 267 310 350 387 239 265 295 326 346 364 404 459 526 597 674 762 305 372 309 370 403 436 472 507 554 319 392 467 542 612 330 364 403 438 493 333 381 434 496 560 522 580 646 409 452 501 553 610 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 284 323 371 414 470 1163 1239 1307 1385 123 139 156 175 188 195 225 266 311 361 419 488 538 656 1477 1565 1639 1727 1852 1965 2146 1778 1953 1921 2251 2512 457 508 562 616 695 576 643 719 790 874 904 996 1106 190 212 236 271 305 Axis y-y cm3 345 396 453 495 566 419 486 547 604 362 402 447 494 525 552 614 698 802 910 1030 1166 468 571 487 580 631 685 741 798 875 504 617 729 850 964 505 558 618 673 759 511 584 667 763 862 801 891 995 618 684 759 838 926 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Torsional Constant

Sectional Area

u 0.675 0.659 0.647 0.639 0.483 0.484 0.688 0.666 0.659 0.654 0.654 0.652 0.653 0.701 0.689 0.648 0.651 0.651 0.320 0.325 0.322 0.325 0.326 0.469 0.461 0.455 0.439 0.431 0.475 0.472 0.471 -

x 13.9 12.4 11.1 10.3 9.22 23.3 20.8 19.0 17.5 9.64 8.81 8.09 7.44 7.09 6.79 6.25 5.63 5.06 4.60 4.20 3.84 16.4 13.8 23.5 20.7 19.3 18.1 17.0 16.0 14.9 23.1 20.1 17.6 15.4 14.0 13.9 12.8 11.7 10.9 9.92 16.8 15.0 13.4 12.0 10.8 14.8 13.5 12.3 9.63 8.83 8.09 7.45 6.86

J cm4 58.8 85.0 122 155 220 110 153 201 256 45.5 60.8 80.3 106 124 142 188 267 384 535 736 1010 99.8 170 145 210 257 312 383 460 580 191 287 412 625 851 108 142 186 234 320 98.0 139 197 279 384 227 303 404 84.6 111 148 195 255

A cm2 72.0 81.5 92.1 100 113 112 124 134 144 61.72 68.17 75.09 82.47 87.20 90.96 101 114 129 144 161 180 95.0 114 128 143 152 161 173 184 199 141 158 173 200 222 96.0 105 116 125 139 98.8 111 124 139 154 139 153 168 85.5 94.0 103 114 125

292x419

305x152

305x305 305x457

305x508

312x267

324x305

356x343

368x178

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

73

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

STRUCTURAL TEES

Structural Tees

d r t

B

T

y x

Cx

x

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

y

Imperial units Designation Serial Mass Size Per Metre Bxd mm 381x381 kg/m 129.0 142.0 157.0 150.0 165.0 179.0 107.9 118.3 131.0 143.6 157.0 173.4 191.2 211.0 232.0 255.0 276.0 296.0 317.0 339.0 372.0 129.0 148.0 160.0 186.0 206.0 171.0 182.0 194.0 209.0 224.0 143.0 164.0 182.0 199.0 222.0 244.0 Cut from Serial Mass Size Per Metre kg/m 258 284 314 300 330 358 216 237 262 287 314 347 382 422 464 510 552 592 634 678 744 258 296 320 372 412 342 364 388 418 448 286 328 364 398 444 488 Width Of Section B 762x381 762x381 762x381 838x400 838x400 838x400 356x406 356x406 356x406 356x406 356x406 356x406 356x406 356x406 356x406 356x406 356x406 356x406 356x406 356x406 356x406 1016x406 1016x406 1016x406 1016x406 1016x406 914x419 914x419 914x419 914x419 914x419 1016x457 1016x457 1016x457 1016x457 1016x457 1016x457 mm 381.0 382.0 384.0 400.0 401.0 403.0 393.7 395.4 397.5 399.0 401.3 403.6 406.3 409.0 412.0 416.0 418.0 421.0 424.0 428.0 432.0 400.0 400.0 400.0 400.0 402.0 418.0 419.0 420.0 422.0 423.0 450.0 450.0 450.0 451.0 453.0 455.0 Depth Of Section d mm 387.0 390.0 393.0 428.0 431.0 434.0 187.7 190.2 193.3 188.7 199.6 203.7 208.0 213.0 217.0 223.0 228.0 232.0 237.0 242.0 249.0 485.0 491.0 495.0 500.0 504.0 456.0 458.0 461.0 464.0 467.0 485.0 491.0 496.0 500.0 504.0 508.0

b

Thickness Web Flange

Root Radius

Ratios For Local Buckling

Dimension

t mm 16.60 18.00 19.70 18.20 19.70 21.10 17.27 18.92 21.08 22.61 24.89 27.18 29.84 32.80 35.80 39.10 42.00 45.00 47.60 51.20 55.60 16.50 16.50 16.50 19.10 21.10 19.30 20.30 21.30 22.50 24.00 18.00 18.00 18.00 19.10 21.10 23.10

T mm 27.10 30.10 33.40 29.20 32.40 35.60 27.69 30.23 33.27 36.58 39.62 43.69 48.01 52.60 57.40 62.70 67.60 72.30 77.10 81.50 88.90 21.10 27.10 31.00 36.10 40.00 32.00 34.30 36.60 39.90 42.70 21.10 27.10 32.00 35.90 40.00 43.90

r mm 17.0 17.0 17.0 18.0 18.0 18.0 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 29.0 29.0 29.0 29.0 29.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 29.0 29.0 29.0 29.0 29.0 29.0 d/t 23.3 21.7 19.9 23.5 21.9 20.6 10.9 10.1 9.17 8.35 8.02 7.49 6.97 6.49 6.06 5.70 5.43 5.16 4.98 4.73 4.48 29.4 29.8 30.0 26.2 23.9 23.6 22.6 21.6 20.6 19.5 26.9 27.3 27.6 26.2 23.9 22.0 b/T 7.03 6.35 5.75 6.85 6.19 5.66 7.11 6.54 5.97 5.45 5.06 4.62 4.23 3.89 3.59 3.32 3.09 2.91 2.75 2.63 2.43 9.48 7.38 6.45 5.54 5.03 6.53 6.11 5.74 5.29 4.95 10.7 8.30 7.03 6.28 5.66 5.18

Cx cm 8.41 8.50 8.63 9.62 9.70 9.76 3.28 3.43 3.63 3.63 3.98 4.20 4.45 4.73 4.98 5.30 5.58 5.84 6.10 6.39 6.79 12.4 11.4 10.9 11.2 11.4 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.5 12.2 11.2 10.6 10.5 10.8 11.0

400x419

406x178

406x508

419x457

457x508

74

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

STRUCTURAL TEES

y Cx

x

x

Imperial units Designation Serial Mass Size Per Metre mm 381x381 kg/m 129.0 142.0 157.0 150.0 165.0 179.0 107.9 118.3 131.0 143.6 157.0 173.4 191.2 211.0 232.0 255.0 276.0 296.0 317.0 339.0 372.0 129.0 148.0 160.0 186.0 206.0 171.0 182.0 194.0 209.0 224.0 143.0 164.0 182.0 199.0 222.0 244.0 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 20680 22840 25380 30210 33240 36230 2602 2922 3353 3305 4230 4828 5542 6419 7280 8480 9591 10680 11910 13430 15630 37390 40850 42850 50380 56440 38770 41230 43990 47320 51060 41160 44940 47640 51900 58190 64590 cm4 12510 14000 15790 15600 17440 19450 14090 15580 17430 19380 21360 23970 26870 30040 33520 37700 41250 45090 49130 53440 59970 11290 14490 16570 19300 21710 19510 21070 22640 25040 26990 16070 20620 24340 27490 31040 34530 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 11.2 11.2 11.3 12.6 12.6 12.6 4.35 4.40 4.48 4.27 4.60 4.68 4.77 4.89 4.97 5.11 5.23 5.32 5.43 5.58 5.74 15.1 14.7 14.5 14.6 14.7 13.3 13.3 13.4 13.3 13.4 15.0 14.7 14.4 14.3 14.3 14.4 cm 8.73 8.80 8.88 9.04 9.12 9.22 10.1 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.9 11.0 11.1 11.2 8.28 8.77 9.01 9.03 9.10 9.46 9.53 9.58 9.70 9.73 9.39 9.93 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.5 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 683 749 827 910 995 1077 168 187 214 217 265 299 339 387 436 499 557 615 677 754 863 1035 1082 1109 1299 1449 1095 1159 1229 1312 1411 1134 1186 1221 1316 1468 1623 Axis y-y cm3 657 733 822 780 870 965 716 788 877 971 1065 1188 1323 1469 1627 1813 1974 2142 2317 2497 2776 564 724 828 965 1080 934 1006 1078 1187 1276 714 916 1082 1219 1371 1518 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 1204 1324 1468 1607 1760 1910 331 374 430 452 547 626 719 829 942 1087 1221 1356 1501 1669 1920 1867 1920 1959 2301 2573 1936 2052 2179 2331 2513 2039 2098 2152 2323 2601 2885 Axis y-y cm3 1008 1127 1266 1201 1341 1490 1085 1196 1332 1475 1620 1809 2017 2243 2487 2774 3024 3284 3556 3838 4271 876 1116 1272 1486 1668 1437 1549 1662 1830 1971 1106 1410 1658 1868 2104 2334 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Torsional Constant

Sectional Area

u 0.497 0.493 0.489 0.532 0.528 0.522 0.632 0.585 0.560 0.563 0.564 0.533 0.529 0.527 0.520 0.521 0.607 0.556 0.521 0.510 0.510 0.511

x 15.2 13.8 12.5 15.6 14.2 13.0 6.51 6.01 5.52 4.85 4.73 4.36 4.02 3.73 3.45 3.22 3.04 2.87 2.73 2.62 2.45 22.7 19.1 17.1 14.9 13.6 15.1 14.2 13.4 12.4 11.7 22.1 18.7 16.4 14.8 13.4 12.4

J cm4 319 429 581 427 572 747 315 410 548 719 923 1233 1638 2157 2806 3671 4593 5633 6825 8154 10580 230 377 512 790 1064 592 718 861 1094 1334 269 435 632 858 1173 1540

A cm2 164 181 200 191 210 229 138 151 167 181 200 221 244 269 295 324 351 377 404 432 474 165 189 204 237 262 218 232 247 266 285 182 209 231 254 283 311

400x419

406x178

406x508

419x457

457x508

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BEAMS AND COLUMNS

BEAMS AND COLUMNS

76

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BEARING PILES

74

Bearing Piles

General

The section sizes of bearing piles are given in the tables on the following pages. Bearing piles are different from universal beams and columns because the flange and the web thickness are approximately equal and the height and the width are almost the same.

BEARING PILES

Figure 6 ­ Bearing Piles: Section shape

The standard specifications used for production of bearing piles in this region are listed in this table.

Material AS 3679.1 (1996) Grade 250 Grade 300 Grade 350 ASTM A36 (2001) ASTM A572 (2001) Grade 42 Grade 50 Grade 60 Grade 65 ASTM A913 (2001) Grade 50 Yield strength 2 N/mm 12mm 12-40 260 300 360 250 300 340 min. 250 min. 290 min. 345 min. 415 min. 450 min. 345 40mm 230 300 330 min. 410 min. 430 min. 480 400-550 min. 415 min. 450 min. 520 min. 550 min. 450 min. 550 430-580 490-640 3-100mm 410-560 490-630 500-660 530-720 t<100mm 400-510 490-610 min 540 t<100mm 400-510 490-610 490-610 520-640 22 % 22 % 20 % 20-21 % 20+24 % 18-21 % 16-18 % 15-17 % 18-21 % 15-17 % 22 % 20 % 17-22 % 17-22 % 19 % 17 % 17-24 % 15-21 % 13-17 % 18-24 % 17-23 % 15-21 % 15-21 % 27J 27J 27J 27J 10<t 150mm 27J 27J 27J 27J JIS 3192 (1994) BS 4 Part 1 (1993) (superseded) AS 3679.1 (1996) Tensile strength Min. Elongation Min. Charpy VDimensions 2 notch. Temp. 20°C & Tolerances N/mm L0=5.65 S0

ASTM A6 (1997)

Grade 65 min. 450 BS 4360 (1986) (superseded) Grade 43A min. 275 Grade 50B min. 355 EN 10025 (2004) 16mm 16-40 40mm S275JR S355JR S420N S460N JIS 3101 (1995) SS400 SS490 SS540 JIS 3106 (1995) SM400A, B SM490A, B SM490YA, YB SM520B 275 355 420 460 265 345 400 440 255 335 390 430 40mm 215 255 40mm 215 295 335 335

EN 10034 (1993)

16mm 16-40 245 235 285 275 400 390 16mm 16-40 245 325 365 365 235 315 355 355

Table 12 ­ Bearing Piles: Standard specifications

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77

BEARING PILES

Bearing Piles

r t T

B

n

D

d C

N

Metric units Designation Size Mass Per Metre DxD mm 200x200 250x250

BEARING PILES

b

Depth Of Section D mm 200 244 244 250 294 294 300 310 338 338 344 344 350 350 388 394 400 408

Width Of Section B mm 204 252 252 255 302 302 305 310 351 351 354 354 357 357 402 405 408 412

Thickness Flange T mm 12 11 11 14 12 12 15 20 13 13 16 16 19 19 15 18 21 25

Root Depth Radius Between Web Fillet t mm 12 11 11 14 12 12 15 20 13 13 16 16 19 19 15 18 21 25 r mm 13 13 16 16 13 18 18 18 13 20 13 20 13 20 22 22 22 22 d mm 150 196 190 190 244 234 234 234 286 272 286 272 286 272 314 314 314 314

Area Of Section A cm2 71.5 81.3 82.1 105 106 108 135 181 133 135 165 167 196 198 178 214 251 300

Ratios For Local Buckling Flange Web b/T d/t

Dimensions For Detailing End Notch Clearance C mm N mm 106 131 131 131 155 155 155 155 179 179 179 179 179 179 204 204 204 204 n mm 25 24 27 30 25 30 33 38 26 33 29 36 32 39 37 40 43 47

kg/m 56.2 63.8 64.4 82.2

8.50 11.5 11.5 9.11 12.6 12.6 10.2 7.75 13.5 13.5 11.1 11.1 9.39 9.39 13.4 11.3 9.71 8.24

12.5 17.8 17.3 13.6 20.3 19.5 15.6 11.7 22.0 20.9 17.9 17.0 15.1 14.3 20.9 17.4 15.0 12.6

8 8 8 9 8 8 10 12 9 9 10 10 12 12 10 11 13 15

300x300

83.4 84.5 106 142

350x350

105 106 129 131 154 156

400x400

140 168 197 235

78

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

BEARING PILES

y

x

x

Metric units Designation Size Mass Per Metre mm 200x200 250x250 kg/m 56.2 63.8 64.5 82.2 300x300 83.4 84.5 106 142 350x350 105 106 129 131 154 156 400x400 140 168 197 235 Surface Area Per Metre m2 1.17 1.45 1.45 1.46 1.75 1.74 1.76 1.79 2.03 2.02 2.05 2.04 2.07 2.06 2.32 2.33 2.35 2.38 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 4983 8703 8787 11480 16640 16870 21540 29870 27740 28190 34880 35330 42350 42800 48970 59720 70890 86470 cm4 1702 2938 2939 3877 5514 5517 7106 9955 9377 9381 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 8.35 10.3 10.3 10.5 12.5 12.5 12.6 12.9 14.4 14.4 cm 4.88 6.01 5.98 6.09 7.20 7.16 7.26 7.42 8.39 8.33 8.48 8.43 8.57 8.53 9.55 9.65 9.75 9.87 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 498 713 720 919 1132 1147 1436 1927 1642 1668 2028 2054 2420 2446 2524 3031 3545 4239 Axis y-y cm3 167 233 233 304 365 365 466 642 534 535 669 669 808 809 809 986 1167 1418 Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 565 797 805 1039 1260 1277 1614 2199 1822 1851 2269 2299 2730 2760 2802 3390 3992 4818 Axis y-y cm3 257 357 358 468 558 560 716 992 815 818 1024 1027 1241 1244 1237 1511 1794 2185 0.826 0.828 0.829 0.827 0.829 0.831 0.829 0.828 0.827 0.829 0.826 0.828 0.826 0.827 0.830 0.828 0.828 0.827 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Warping Constant

Torsional Constant

u

x

H dm6

J cm4 39.6 37.1 39.5 79.0 56.3 61.4 116 271 81.4 90.3 151 164 252 270 156 264 415 694

BEARING PILES

14.3 19.5 19.0 15.4 21.9 21.1 17.4 13.4 23.5 22.5 19.4 18.7 16.5 16.1 22.5 19.2 16.7 14.2

0.150 0.399 0.399 0.540 1.10 1.10 1.44 2.09 2.48 2.48 3.19 3.19 3.95 3.95 5.66 7.05 8.55 10.7

11840 14.6 11850 14.6 14430 14.7 14430 14.7 16260 16.6 19960 16.7 23810 16.8 29200 17.0

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79

BEARING PILES

Bearing Piles

r t T

B

n

D

d C

N

Imperial units Designation Size Mass Per Metre DxB in (mm) 8x8 (203x203) 10x10

BEARING PILES

b

Depth Of Section D mm 200.2 204.0 247.1 249.7 254.3 299.3 301.7 303.3 303.7 307.9 311.9 312.3 318.5 326.7 328.3 337.9 318.5 323.8 328.9 334.0 346.4 352.0 356.4 361.4 362.9

Width Thickness Of Section Flange Web B mm 205.9 207.7 256.6 258.0 260.4 306.4 307.8 308.0 308.7 310.7 312.3 312.9 316.0 319.7 320.9 325.7 327.7 330.3 332.9 335.4 371.0 373.8 376.0 378.5 378.8 T mm 9.5 11.4 10.7 12 14.3 11.1 12.3 13.1 13.3 15.4 17.4 17.6 20.7 24.8 25.6 30.4 11.68 14.35 16.89 19.43 12.9 15.7 17.9 20.4 21.1 t mm 9.5 11.3 10.6 12 14.4 11 12.4 13.1 13.3 15.3 17.4 17.5 20.6 24.8 25.5 30.3 11.68 14.35 16.89 19.43 12.8 15.6 17.8 20.3 21.1

Root Depth Radius Between Fillet r mm 10.2 10.2 12.7 12.7 12.7 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 15.2 d mm 160.8 160.8 200.3 200.3 200.3 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 246.7 264.7 264.7 264.7 264.7 290.2 290.2 290.2 290.2 290.3

Area Ratios For Of Local Buckling Section Flange Web A cm2 57.2 68.7 80.2 90.4 108 100 112 119 121 140 159 161 190 229 237 284 113 139 164 190 139 169 194 221 230 10.8 9.11 12.0 10.8 9.10 13.8 12.5 11.8 11.6 10.1 8.97 8.89 7.63 6.45 6.27 5.36 14.0 11.5 9.85 8.63 14.4 11.9 10.5 9.28 8.98 16.9 14.2 18.9 16.7 13.9 22.4 19.9 18.8 18.5 16.1 14.2 14.1 12.0 9.95 9.67 8.14 22.7 18.4 15.7 13.6 22.7 18.6 16.3 14.3 13.8 b/T d/t

Dimensions For Detailing End Notch Clearance C mm 7 8 7 8 9 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 12 14 15 17 8 9 10 12 8 10 11 12 13 N mm 108 108 133 133 133 158 158 157 158 158 157 158 158 157 158 158 168 168 168 168 189 189 189 189 189 n mm 20 22 23 25 27 26 28 28 29 31 33 33 36 40 41 46 27 30 32 35 28 31 33 36 36

lb/ft 30 36 42 48 57

kg/m 44.9 53.9 63.0 71.0 85.1 78.9 88.0 93.0 94.9 110.0 125.0 126.1 149.1 180.0 186.0 222.9 89.3 108.6 129.5 148.8 108.9 133.0 152.0 173.9 180.0

(254x254)

12x12 (305x305)

53 59 63 64 74 84 85 100 121 125 149

13x13 (330x330)

60 73 87 100

14x14 1/2 (356x368)

73 89 102 117 121

80

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BEARING PILES

y

x

x

Imperial units Designation Mass Size Per Metre in (mm) 8x8 (203x203) 10x10 (254x254) lb/ft 30 36 42 48 57 12x12 (305x305) 53 59 63 64 74 84 85 100 121 125 149 13x13 (330x330) 60 73 87 100 14x14 1/2 (356x368) 73 89 102 117 121 kg/m 44.9 53.9 63.0 71.0 85.1 78.9 88.0 93.0 94.9 110.0 125.0 126.1 149.1 180.0 186.0 222.9 89.3 108.6 129.5 148.8 108.9 133.0 152.0 173.9 180.0 Surface Area Per metre m2 1.19 1.20 1.48 1.49 1.50 1.78 1.78 1.79 1.79 1.80 1.81 1.82 1.83 1.86 1.86 1.89 1.90 1.91 1.93 1.94 2.13 2.14 2.16 2.17 2.17 Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 4100 5027 8861 10070 12290 16450 18430 19690 20050 23560 27040 27410 cm4 1384 1705 3016 3439 4216 5327 5985 6387 6529 7710 8849 9002 Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm cm 8.46 4.92 8.55 4.98 10.5 6.13 10.6 6.17 10.6 6.24 12.8 7.28 12.8 7.31 12.9 7.33 12.9 7.35 13.0 7.42 13.0 7.46 13.1 7.49 Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 410 493 717 807 966 1099 1221 1298 1320 1531 1734 1755 2076 2508 2596 3119 1315 1618 1911 2207 1769 2158 2468 2823 2923 Axis y-y cm3 134 164 235 267 324 348 389 415 423 496 567 575 691 847 881 1079 418 522 625 730 592 732 845 976 1011 Plastic Modulus Axis Axis x-x y-y cm3 459 557 799 904 1092 1218 1360 1449 1474 1720 1961 1986 cm3 206 252 360 409 498 531 595 635 648 762 872 885 0.827 0.827 0.827 0.826 0.825 0.832 0.830 0.831 0.830 0.830 0.829 0.829 0.828 0.827 0.827 0.826 0.830 0.829 0.828 0.828 0.823 0.822 0.821 0.821 0.821 Buckling Parameter

y

Torsional Index

Warping Constant

Torsional Constant

u

x 18.6 15.8 20.5 18.4 15.6 23.9 21.6 20.5 20.2 17.7 15.8 15.7 13.5 11.5 11.1 9.55 24.3 20.1 17.3 15.2 24.2 20.1 17.8 15.8 15.3

H dm6 0.126 0.158 0.421 0.486 0.607 1.11 1.25 1.34 1.38 1.65 1.92 1.95 2.42 3.09 3.24 4.16 1.61 2.07 2.53 3.03 3.06 3.87 4.55 5.37 5.59

J cm4 19.2 32.7

BEARING PILES

34.3 48.4 81.8 46.9 64.2 76.4 80.0 122 177 182 295 510 560 943 57.9 106 171 260 84.6 151 223 330 367

33070 10910 13.2 7.58 40970 13550 13.4 7.69 42610 14140 13.4 7.73 52700 17580 13.6 7.87 20940 26200 6857 8628 13.6 7.79 13.7 7.88

2370 1066 2897 1313 3003 1366 3653 1680 1457 1808 2151 639 800 959

31430 10400 13.8 7.96 36860 12240 13.9 8.03 30630 10990 14.9 8.90 37980 13680 15.0 8.99 43970 15880 15.1 9.05 51010 18460 15.2 9.13 53040 19140 15.2 9.13

2502 1123 1956 903

2406 1119 2767 1293 3186 1497 3306 1552

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BEARING PILES

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HOT FINISHED ELLIPCON SECTIONS

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Hot Finished Ellipcon Sections

General

Hot finished ellipcon sections are new and exciting section types. They come in two shapes, one is an ellipse (ellipcon sections) and the other is half of an ellipse with one flat side (semi ellipcon sections). Both shapes give the structures very outstanding architectural looks, and the sections have many structural advantages. The new elliptical sections are good alternatives to traditional section types. They have all the properties of the hot finished structural tubes, which are already used in many construction works. In addition, the architects are given full vent to expressing the structure in creative and exciting architecture, and end up with something both practical and aesthetic. For structures with limited space these new sections might provide smaller column footprints than other design solutions, increasing the open floor area. Their special shapes both serve the structural purpose and give continuity in the structure. For non-symmetric load situations the sections might be more cost efficient than circular or square hollow sections, because the designer can choose sections with different stiffness about the two axis, x and y. As for other hollow sections such as square, rectangular and circular, the ellipcon sections have constant external dimension within the same serial size, only the thickness is increasing. In other words, the same column size can be maintained throughout the full height of the building, simplifying architectural details and ensuring economy in fabrication (See "Hot Finished Hollow Sections"). The tubes are produced according to EN 10210 Part 1 (1994): Technical delivery requirements for Hot finished hollow sections, and Part 2 (1997): Tolerances, dimensions and sectional properties. A few points are not included in EN 10210: - The tolerance on the twist = 4mm +1mm/m length - The tolerance on the straightness = 0.40% of total length - Section properties for the hot ellipcon sections are not included in EN 10210. The mechanical properties of the hollow sections, calculations of torsional inertia constants and torsional modulus constants are according to standards ISO/DIS 657-XIV.

Architect: S. Gresy

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ELLIPCON

HOT FINISHED ELLIPCON SECTIONS

Ellipcon

t b y

x

y

h

x

Designation Size Thickness

Mass Per Metre

Area Of Section A cm2 8.58 10.6 13.1 15.6 20.2 13.3 16.4 19.5 25.5 31.3 24.1 31.7 39.0 29.6 39.0 48.1 32.5 42.9 52.9 62.8 58.3 72.3 86.0 99.4 73.4 91.1 109 126 110 131 152 Ix

Second Moment Of Inertia Iy cm4 40.5 48.8 58.4 67.1 81.8 85.9 103 120 148 172 250 315 371 438 556 662 519 661 788 901 1978 2393 2779 3137 3966 4829 5646 6416 8529 10014 11432

Radius Of Gyration rx cm 3.67 3.65 3.61 3.58 3.51 4.62 4.59 4.55 4.48 4.42 5.54 5.47 5.40 6.85 6.78 6.71 7.65 7.58 7.51 7.44 10.0 9.97 9.90 9.83 12.6 12.5 12.5 12.4 15.1 15.1 15.0 ry cm 2.17 2.14 2.11 2.08 2.01 2.55 2.51 2.48 2.41 2.34 3.22 3.15 3.09 3.85 3.78 3.71 4.00 3.93 3.86 3.79 5.82 5.75 5.69 5.62 7.35 7.28 7.21 7.14 8.81 8.74 8.67

Elastic Modulus

Plastic Modulus

Torsional Constant

Surface Area Per Metre m2/m 0.298 0.298 0.298 0.298 0.298 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.367 0.451 0.451 0.451 0.546 0.546 0.546 0.596 0.596 0.596 0.596 0.807 0.807 0.807 0.807 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.21 1.21 1.21

hxb mm 117x60

t mm 3.2 4 5 6 8 kg/m 6.92 8.57 10.60 12.60 16.40 10.80 13.30 15.90 20.80 25.50 19.50 25.60 31.50 24.00 31.60 39.00 26.60 35.00 43.30 51.40 47.10 58.40 69.60 80.50 59.30 73.60 87.80 102.00 88.90 106.00 123.00

Zx cm3 19.8 24.1 29.2 34.0 42.6 38.1 46.4 54.3 68.9 81.8 83.2 106 128 126 163 197 153 198 241 280 367 449 526 600 584 717 845 968 1049 1240 1425

Zy cm3 13.5 16.3 19.5 22.4 27.3 24.5 29.6 34.2 42.3 49.1 55.6 69.9 82.4 82.7 105 125 95.3 121 145 165 247 299 347 392 397 483 565 642 711 835 953

Sx cm3 27.6 33.9 41.5 48.7 62.1 53.6 65.8 77.6 99.8 120 117 152 184 177 231 282 217 283 346 406 513 631 745 855 811 1001 1186 1366 1457 1730 1997

Sy cm3 17.2 21.1 25.6 29.9 37.6 31.3 38.3 44.9 57.0 67.9 72.0 92.4 111 106 137 165 121 157 190 221 315 385 453 517 500 615 726 832 897 1062 1222

cm4 116 141 171 199 249 284 346 405 513 610 740 947 1136 1388 1790 2163 1903 2461 2983 3472 5877 7181 8422 9604 11690 14350 16910 19370 25170 29750 34190

J cm4 120 145 175 201 248 264 319 370 461 539 749 947 1123 1334 1701 2033 1635 2088 2501 2874 5928 7192 8375 9483 11860 14470 16960 19320 25510 30010 34320

C cm3 30.0 36.0 42.7 48.7 58.8 55.3 66.2 76.1 93.2 107 123 154 179 185 234 276 217 274 324 369 553 665 769 863 890 1079 1257 1422 1594 1865 2122

149x70

4 5 6 8 10

178x90

ELLIPCON

6 8 10

220x106

6 8 10

248x109

6 8 10 12

320x160

8 10 12 14

400x200

8 10 12 14

480x240

10 12 14

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Semi Ellipcon

h

b

y

x t y

x

Designation Size Thickness

Mass Per Metre

Area Of Section A

Second Moment Of Inertia Ix cm4 29.9 33.2 39.2 44.3 68.0 81.1 92.9 113 121 146 168 207 227 275 320 401 412 481 607 717 890 1045 1335 1598 1509 1938 2331 2692 2354 3037 3671 4258 3359 4350 5279 6148 Iy cm4 26.9 30.0 35.5 40.3 61.1 73.1 84.1 103 109 131 152 188 203 247 288 362 369 431 546 649 794 935 1198 1439 1348 1736 2095 2427 2448 3170 3849 4484 3759 4888 5957 6968

Radius Of Gyration rx cm 2.14 2.12 2.08 2.04 2.69 2.65 2.61 2.53 3.25 3.21 3.18 3.10 4.01 3.97 3.93 3.86 4.54 4.50 4.42 4.35 5.87 5.83 5.75 5.67 6.59 6.51 6.43 6.35 7.53 7.45 7.37 7.29 8.41 8.34 8.26 8.18 ry cm 2.03 2.01 1.98 1.95 2.54 2.51 2.48 2.42 3.08 3.05 3.02 2.95 3.79 3.76 3.73 3.66 4.30 4.26 4.20 4.13 5.54 5.51 5.45 5.38 6.22 6.16 6.09 6.03 7.68 7.61 7.55 7.48 8.90 8.84 8.77 8.71

Elastic Modulus

Plastic Modulus

Torsional Constant

Surface Area Per Metre m2/m 39.0 34.4 28.0 23.7 34.0 27.5 23.2 17.9 33.7 27.2 22.9 17.6 33.5 27.0 22.7 17.3 26.9 22.5 17.2 13.9 26.7 22.3 16.9 13.7 22.3 16.9 13.6 11.5 22.0 16.7 13.4 11.3 21.9 16.6 13.4 11.2

ELLIPCON

hxb mm 60x60

t mm 3.5 4 5 6 kg/m 5.15 5.82 7.12 8.35 7.40 9.09 10.70 13.80 8.98 11.10 13.10 17.00 11.10 13.70 16.30 21.20 15.70 18.60 24.30 29.80 20.30 24.20 31.70 39.00 27.30 35.90 44.30 52.40 32.60 42.90 53.00 62.80 37.20 49.10 60.80 72.10

Zx cm3 8.57 9.56 11.4 13.0 15.5 18.7 21.6 26.6 22.9 27.8 32.3 40.4 35.0 42.7 49.9 63.2 55.9 65.6 83.6 99.9 93.9 111 143 172 142 183 222 258 196 254 310 362 251 327 400 469

Zy cm3 8.97 9.99 11.8 13.4 16.3 19.5 22.4 27.4 24.1 29.1 33.7 41.8 36.9 44.9 52.3 65.8 59.0 69.0 87.4 104 99.3 117 150 180 150 193 233 270 220 284 345 402 290 377 460 538

Sx cm3 12.9 14.1 16.2 17.9 23.6 27.6 31.0 35.9 35.4 42.0 47.7 56.8 54.9 65.8 75.7 92.2 87.2 101 124 143 149 173 218 257 224 283 336 382 299 379 449 511 383 487 582 666

Sy cm3 12.0 13.5 16.2 18.7 21.7 26.3 30.6 38.3 31.9 38.8 45.4 57.5 48.4 59.3 69.8 89.2 77.6 91.4 118 142 130 153 199 242 196 255 311 363 287 375 459 539 380 497 611 719

J cm4 48.5 54.5 65.7 75.9 109 133 155 195 193 235 276 350 358 439 517 663 651 769 991 1197 1390 1647 2140 2606 2365 3083 3765 4413 3981 5220 6413 7559 5845 7683 9462 11180

C cm3 15.9 17.7 20.8 23.5 29.0 34.5 39.4 47.7 43.1 51.8 59.6 73.3 66.4 80.3 93.1 116 106 123 155 183 179 210 267 319 270 345 414 477 385 497 600 697 502 650 789 919

cm2 6.56 7.41 9.07 10.6 9.43 11.6 13.7 17.6 11.4 14.1 16.7 21.6 14.1 17.5 20.7 27.0 20.0 23.0 31.0 38.0 25.8 30.8 40.4 49.7 34.8 45.8 56.4 66.7 41.5 54.7 67.5 80.0 47.4 62.6 77.4 91.9

75x75

4 5 6 8

90x90

4 5 6 8

110x110

4 5 6 8

125x125

5 6 8 10

160x160

5 6 8 10

180x180

6 8 10 12

203x223

6 8 10 12

225x259

6 8 10 12

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ELLIPCON

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HOT FINISHED HOLLOW SECTIONS

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Hot Finished Hollow Sections

General

Structural hollow sections make beautiful, efficient structures with a nice continuity. The hot finished hollow sections - square, rectangular and circular, have constant external dimension within the same serial size, and only the thickness is increasing. In other words, the same column size can be maintained throughout the full height of the building, only changing the thickness, simplifying architectural details and ensuring economy in fabrication. When used in compression, as columns, hollow sections are more efficient than other column types. The resulting reduction in structural weight can be as much as 1 storey for every 9 storeys built. Due to their high sectional properties hollow sections provide smaller column footprints than other design solutions, with increased floor area. Added together these qualities give an efficient and economic structure. It has long been the opinion among structural people that for low-rise buildings only concrete will be economical, but with multi-storey hollow sections steel structures can compete with concrete. Steel might be more expensive per metric ton, but with the fabrication and erection time, a lighter structure, labour cost, and easy maintenance taken into account, a steel structure might give the most economic design.

Comparable specifications

Specification Grade Min. Yield strength N/mm JIS G 3444 (1994) ASTM A501 (1996) BS 4360 (1986) EN 10210 (1994) BS 4360 (1986) EN 10210 (1994) BS 4360 (1986) ASTM A618 (1996) JIS G 3444 (1994) BS 4360 (1986) EN 10210 (1994) BS 4360 (1986) EN 10210 (1994) BS 4360 (1986) NORSEC 360 (1991) JIS G 3444 (1994) BS 4360 (1986) Note: STK400 Shapes 43C S275J0H 43D S275J2H 43EE Grade I & II STK500 50C S355J0H 50D S355J2H 50EE Eqv. 50EE STK540 55C 235 250 275 275 275 275 275 345 355 355 355 355 355 355 360 390 450

2

Tensile strength N/mm

2

Charpy V-Notch Impact Joules 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 100 50 27 °C 0 0 -20 -20 -50 0 0 -20 -20 -50 -20 -60 0

min. 400 min. 400 430-580 430-580 430-580 430-580 430-580 min. 485 min. 500 490-640 510-680 490-640 510-680 490-640 490-630 min. 540 550-700

The values are for sections of thickness less than 16mm for BS 4360 and less than 3mm for EN 10025. BS 4360 (1986): an old, but well known British Standard for weldable structural steels. EN 10210-1 (1994): European Norms superseding parts of the old BS 4360, see Explanatory notes. ASTM A501 (1996): standard from American Society for Testing of Materials for hot formed welded and seamless carbon steels structural tubing. ASTM A618 (1996): standard from American Society for Testing of Materials for Hot-Formed welded and seamless high-strength low-alloy structural tubing. JIS G 3444 (1994): Japanese Industrial Standard for Carbon steel tubes for general structural purposes. NORSEC 360 (1991): a steel product from British Steel for marine structures in the arctic regions.

Table 13 ­ Hot Finished Hollow Sections: Comparable specifications

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HOT HOLLOW SECTIONS

HOT FINISHED HOLLOW SECTIONS

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Product specifications

Production of hot finished Structural Hollow Sections has been standardised in EN 10210:1994: "Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain structural steels" Part 1, Grades S235, S275, S355, but other grades and sub-grades can be supplied, subject to minimum order quantities. Our ex-stock material is mainly of grade S355J2H. Dimensions, tolerances and sectional properties meet the requirements of EN 10210:1997: "Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain structural steels", Part 2.

Chemical composition

The chemical composition of hot finished hollow sections is given in EN 10210-1: 1994, Table A.1 and B.1. When a carbon equivalent value (CEV) is required it shall be determined from the cast analysis using the formula: CEV = C +

Mn (Cr + Mo + V ) ( Ni + Cu ) + + 6 5 15

Mechanical properties

The mechanical properties for hot finished sections in accordance with EN 102101:1994, are summarised below.

Designation

HOT HOLLOW SECTIONS

Minimum Yield strength ReH in N/mm t 16 N/mm

2 2

Tensile strength Rm in N/mm t<3 N/mm

2 2

Min. elongation in % L0=5.65(S0) t 40 26 22 22 40<t 65 25 21 21

1/2

Test temp.

Impact KV

Nominal thickness in mm 16<t 40 40<t 65 N/mm 225 265 345

2

Nominal thickness in mm 3<t 65 N/mm

2

t 40 40<t 65 Transverse 24 20 20 23 19 19 C 20 0 -20 0 -20 J 27 27 27 27 27

N/mm 215 255 335

2

Longitudinal

S235JRH S275J0H S275J2H S355J0H S355J2H

235 275 355

360-510 430-580 510-680

340-470 410-560 490-630

Table 14 ­ Hot Finished Hollow Sections: Mechanical properties

Tensile test

The tensile strength, yield strength and elongation are determined from standard test pieces, which may be the full section of the product or longitudinal or transverse strip specimen. The location of strip test pieces should be away from the weld, for circular hollow sections, and midway between corners on a side not affected by the weld, for square and rectangular hollow sections. The requirements of EN 10002-1: "Metallic materials - Tensile testing - Method of test (at ambient temperature)", shall apply.

Charpy V-notch impact test

The test pieces for impact testing shall be taken longitudinally or transverse from the test object. The location of strip test pieces should be away from the weld, for circular hollow sections, and midway between corners on a side not affected by the weld, for square and rectangular hollow sections. Where thickness permits, standard specimens 10x10mm in cross-section are cut longitudinally or transverse from the section and a 2mm deep V-notch accurately machined into one face. The specimens, in accordance with EN 10045-1: "Metallic

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materials - Charpy impact test - Test method", are tested at the required temperature according to grade. If the nominal product thickness is not sufficient for the preparation of standard test pieces ( 12mm), the test shall be carried out using test pieces of width less than 10mm, but not less than 5mm.

Manufacturing tolerances

Hot finished structural hollow sections are manufactured according to EN 10210: 1994, Part 2, and the rolling tolerances are as shown in Table 15 below.

Characteristic Outside dimensions (D, B, H) Thickness (T) Out-of-roundness (O) Concavity/convexity Squareness of side External corner profile (C 1, 5) C2 or R) Twist (V) (see drawing under) Straightness Mass (M)

4)

Circular hollow sections ±1% with a minimum of ±0.5mm and a maximum of ±10mm -10% 2% for hollow sections having a diameter 3) to thickness ratio not exceeding 100 1) 2)

Square and rectangular hollow sections ±1% with a minimum of ±0.5mm

1% 90°±1° Maximum 3T at each corner 2mm plus 0.5mm/m length

±6% on individual lengths

6)

Type of length measure Random length

Length 4 000 to 16 000 with a range of 2000 per order item

Tolerances 10% of sections supplied may be below the minimum for the ordered range, but not less than 75% of the minimum of the range 500mm +10/-0 mm +15/-0 mm

Approximate length Exact length Notes:

4 000 to 16 000 2 000 to 6 000 6 000

1) The positive deviation is limited by the tolerance on mass. 2) For seamless sections the tolerance for the thickness is: thickness less than 10% but not less than 12.5% of the nominal thickness may occur in the smooth transition areas, but not over more than 22.5% of the circumference. 3) Where the diameter to thickness ratio exceeds 100mm the tolerance on out-of-roundness shall be agreed. 4) The tolerance on concavity and convexity are independent of the tolerance on the outside dimensions. 5) The sides need not be tangential to the corner arcs. 6) The positive tolerance on the mass of seamless hollow sections shall be 8%.

Table 15 ­ Hot Finished Hollow Sections: Manufacturing tolerances

All external dimensions, including out-of-roundness, shall be measured at a distance from the end of the hollow section of not less than D for circular sections, B for square sections and H for rectangular sections, with a minimum of 100mm. D= diameter B= width H= height R= outer corner radius C1 and C2= see drawing under. V= see drawing under.

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0.2% of total length

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87

The thickness T of welded sections shall be measured at a position not less than 2T from the weld.

V

Figure 7 ­ Twist of square or rectangular hollow sections

C1 5 mm*

T

C2 R B 5 mm*

HOT HOLLOW SECTIONS

B or H

* This dimension is a maximum when measuring B or H, and a minimum when measuring T.

Figure 8 ­ How to measure cross-sectional dimensions of hollow sections

Other specifications

Hot finished structural hollow sections are also supplied to other international standards and National specifications, see Table 13 on first page of this chapter.

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Circular

x t

D y

x

Designation Outside Thickness Diameter D t mm mm 21.3 2.3 3.2 26.9 2.3 3.2 33.7 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.2 4.0 5.0 42.4 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.6 4.0 5.0 6.3 8.0 48.3 2.5 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.2 4.0 5.0 6.3 8.0 60.3 2.5 2.6 3.0 3.2 4.0 5.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 76.1 2.5 2.6 3.0 3.2 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0

Mass Per Metre kg/m 1.08 1.43 1.40 1.87 1.99 2.20 2.27 2.41 2.93 3.54 2.55 2.82 2.91 3.09 3.44 3.79 4.61 5.61 6.79 2.82 2.93 3.25 3.35 3.56 4.37 5.34 6.53 7.95 3.56 3.70 4.24 4.51 5.55 6.82 8.39 10.32 12.40 4.54 4.71 5.41 5.75 7.11 8.77 10.37 10.84 13.44 16.30 18.97

Area Of Section A cm2 1.37 1.82 1.78 2.38 2.54 2.81 2.89 3.07 3.73 4.51 3.25 3.60 3.71 3.94 4.39 4.83 5.87 7.14 8.65 3.60 3.73 4.14 4.27 4.53 5.57 6.80 8.31 10.1 4.54 4.71 5.40 5.74 7.07 8.69 10.7 13.1 15.8 5.78 6.00 6.89 7.33 9.06 11.2 13.2 13.8 17.1 20.8 24.2

Second Moment Of Inertia I cm4 0.629 0.768 1.36 1.70 3.09 3.36 3.44 3.60 4.19 4.78 6.46 7.06 7.25 7.62 8.33 8.99 10.5 12.0 13.5 9.46 9.78 10.7 11.0 11.6 13.8 16.2 18.7 21.4 19.0 19.7 22.2 23.5 28.2 33.5 39.5 46.0 52.0 39.2 40.6 46.1 48.8 59.1 70.9 81.8 84.8 101 116 128

Radius Of Gyration r cm 0.677 0.650 0.874 0.846 1.10 1.09 1.09 1.08 1.06 1.03 1.41 1.40 1.40 1.39 1.38 1.36 1.33 1.30 1.25 1.62 1.62 1.61 1.61 1.60 1.57 1.54 1.50 1.45 2.05 2.04 2.03 2.02 2.00 1.96 1.92 1.87 1.81 2.60 2.60 2.59 2.58 2.55 2.52 2.49 2.48 2.42 2.36 2.31

Elastic Modulus Z cm3 0.590 0.722 1.01 1.27 1.84 1.99 2.04 2.14 2.49 2.84 3.05 3.33 3.42 3.59 3.93 4.24 4.93 5.66 6.36 3.92 4.05 4.43 4.55 4.80 5.70 6.69 7.76 8.85 6.30 6.52 7.37 7.78 9.34 11.1 13.1 15.3 17.2 10.3 10.7 12.1 12.8 15.5 18.6 21.5 22.3 26.4 30.5 33.8

Plastic Modulus S cm3 0.834 1.06 1.40 1.81 2.52 2.76 2.84 2.99 3.55 4.16 4.12 4.53 4.67 4.93 5.44 5.92 7.04 8.29 9.64 5.25 5.44 5.99 6.17 6.52 7.87 9.42 11.2 13.2 8.36 8.66 9.86 10.4 12.7 15.3 18.5 22.1 25.6 13.5 14.1 16.0 17.0 20.8 25.3 29.6 30.8 37.3 44.0 49.9 J

Torsional Constants

C cm3 1.18 1.44 2.02 2.53 3.67 3.98 4.08 4.28 4.97 5.68 6.10 6.66 6.84 7.19 7.86 8.48 9.86 11.3 12.7 7.83 8.10 8.86 9.11 9.59 11.4 13.4 15.5 17.7 12.6 13.0 14.7 15.6 18.7 22.2 26.2 30.5 34.5 20.6 21.3 24.2 25.6 31.0 37.3 43.0 44.6 52.9 61.0 67.5

Surface Area Per Metre m2/m 0.0669 0.0669 0.0845 0.0845 0.106 0.106 0.106 0.106 0.106 0.106 0.133 0.133 0.133 0.133 0.133 0.133 0.133 0.133 0.133 0.152 0.152 0.152 0.152 0.152 0.152 0.152 0.152 0.152 0.189 0.189 0.189 0.189 0.189 0.189 0.189 0.189 0.189 0.239 0.239 0.239 0.239 0.239 0.239 0.239 0.239 0.239 0.239 0.239

cm4 1.26 1.54 2.71 3.41 6.19 6.71 6.88 7.21 8.38 9.57 12.9 14.1 14.5 15.2 16.7 18.0 20.9 24.0 27.0 18.9 19.6 21.4 22.0 23.2 27.5 32.3 37.5 42.7 38.0 39.3 44.4 46.9 56.3 67.0 79.0 92.0 104 78.4 81.2 92.2 97.6 118 142 164 170 201 232 257

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HOT HOLLOW SECTIONS

HOT FINISHED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Circular

x t

D y

x

Designation Outside Thickness Diameter D t mm mm 88.9 2.5 3.0 3.2 3.6 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 101.6 3.6 5.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 114.3 3.0 3.2 3.6 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 139.7 3.2 3.6 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0

Mass Per Metre kg/m 5.33 6.36 6.76 7.57 8.38 10.35 12.27 12.83 15.96 19.46 22.76 25.86 8.70 11.91 14.81 18.47 22.59 26.52 30.24 8.23 8.77 9.83 10.88 13.48 16.03 16.78 20.97 25.72 30.27 34.63 38.79 10.77 12.08 13.39 16.61 19.78 20.73 25.98 31.99 37.79 43.40

Area Of Section A cm2 6.79 8.10 8.62 9.65 10.7 13.2 15.6 16.3 20.3 24.8 29.0 32.9 11.1 15.2 18.9 23.5 28.8 33.8 38.5 10.5 11.2 12.5 13.9 17.2 20.4 21.4 26.7 32.8 38.6 44.1 49.4 13.7 15.4 17.1 21.2 25.2 26.4 33.1 40.7 48.1 55.3

Second Moment Of Inertia I cm4 63.4 74.8 79.2 87.9 96.3 116 135 140 168 196 220 239 133 177 215 260 305 345 379 163 172 192 211 257 300 313 379 450 511 566 613 320 357 393 481 564 589 720 862 990 1105

Radius Of Gyration r cm 3.06 3.04 3.03 3.02 3.00 2.97 2.94 2.93 2.87 2.81 2.75 2.69 3.47 3.42 3.38 3.32 3.26 3.20 3.14 3.94 3.93 3.92 3.90 3.87 3.83 3.82 3.77 3.70 3.64 3.58 3.52 4.83 4.81 4.80 4.77 4.73 4.72 4.66 4.60 4.53 4.47

Elastic Modulus Z cm3 14.3 16.8 17.8 19.8 21.7 26.2 30.4 31.5 37.8 44.1 49.4 53.8 26.2 34.9 42.3 51.1 60.1 67.9 74.6 28.4 30.2 33.6 36.9 45.0 52.5 54.7 66.4 78.7 89.5 99.0 107 45.8 51.1 56.2 68.8 80.8 84.3 103 123 142 158

Plastic Modulus S cm3 18.7 22.1 23.5 26.2 28.9 35.2 41.3 43.1 52.5 62.6 71.5 79.5 34.6 46.7 57.3 70.3 84.2 96.9 108 37.2 39.5 44.1 48.7 59.8 70.4 73.6 90.6 109 126 142 156 59.6 66.7 73.7 90.8 107 112 139 169 196 222 J

Torsional Constants

C cm3 28.5 33.6 35.6 39.5 43.3 52.4 60.7 63.1 75.6 88.2 98.8 108 52.5 69.9 84.7 102 120 136 149 56.9 60.4 67.2 73.9 89.9 105 109 133 157 179 198 214 91.6 102 112 138 162 169 206 247 283 317

Surface Area Per Metre m2/m 0.279 0.279 0.279 0.279 0.279 0.279 0.279 0.279 0.279 0.279 0.279 0.279 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.439 0.439 0.439 0.439 0.439 0.439 0.439 0.439 0.439 0.439

cm4 127 150 158 176 193 233 270 280 336 392 439 478 266 355 430 519 611 690 758 325 345 384 422 514 600 625 759 899 1023 1131 1225 640 713 786 961 1129 1177 1441 1724 1980 2211

HOT HOLLOW SECTIONS

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Continental Steel Pte Ltd

HOT FINISHED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Circular

x t

D y

x

Designation Outside Thickness Diameter D t mm mm 168.3 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 14.0 177.8 4.5 5.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 193.7 3.6 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 14.0 16.0 219.1 3.6 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 14.2 16.0 20.0

Mass Per Metre kg/m 13.03 14.62 16.21 18.18 20.14 24.02 25.17 31.63 39.04 46.26 48.03 53.27 19.23 21.31 26.65 33.50 41.38 49.07 56.55 16.88 23.27 27.77 29.12 36.64 45.30 53.77 55.86 62.04 70.12 19.13 26.40 31.53 33.06 41.65 51.57 61.29 63.69 71.75 80.14 98.20

Area Of Section A cm2 16.6 18.6 20.6 23.2 25.7 30.6 32.1 40.3 49.7 58.9 61.2 67.9 24.5 27.1 33.9 42.7 52.7 62.5 72.0 21.5 29.6 35.4 37.1 46.7 57.7 68.5 71.2 79.0 89.3 24.4 33.6 40.2 42.1 53.1 65.7 78.1 81.1 91.4 102 125

Second Moment Of Inertia I cm4 566 632 697 777 856 1009 1053 1297 1564 1810 1868 2036 920 1014 1250 1541 1862 2159 2434 972 1320 1560 1630 2016 2442 2839 2934 3210 3554 1415 1928 2282 2386 2960 3598 4200 4345 4820 5297 6261

Radius Of Gyration r cm 5.84 5.82 5.81 5.79 5.78 5.74 5.73 5.67 5.61 5.54 5.53 5.48 6.13 6.11 6.07 6.01 5.94 5.88 5.81 6.72 6.67 6.64 6.63 6.57 6.50 6.44 6.42 6.37 6.31 7.62 7.57 7.54 7.53 7.47 7.40 7.33 7.32 7.26 7.20 7.07

Elastic Modulus Z cm3 67.2 75.1 82.8 92.4 102 120 125 154 186 215 222 242 104 114 141 173 209 243 274 100 136 161 168 208 252 293 303 331 367 129 176 208 218 270 328 383 397 440 483 572

Plastic Modulus S cm3 87.2 97.7 108 121 133 158 165 206 251 294 304 334 135 149 185 231 282 330 377 130 178 211 221 276 338 397 411 453 507 167 229 273 285 357 438 515 534 597 661 795 J

Torsional Constants

C cm3 134 150 166 185 203 240 250 308 372 430 444 484 207 228 281 347 419 486 548 201 273 322 337 416 504 586 606 663 734 258 352 417 436 540 657 767 793 880 967 1143

Surface Area Per Metre m2/m 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.559 0.559 0.559 0.559 0.559 0.559 0.559 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688

cm4 1131 1264 1394 1554 1712 2017 2107 2595 3128 3620 3737 4073 1841 2028 2499 3083 3724 4318 4868 1943 2640 3119 3260 4031 4883 5678 5869 6419 7109 2830 3856 4564 4772 5919 7197 8400 8689 9640 10590 12520

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Circular

x t

D y

x

Designation Outside Thickness Diameter D t mm mm 244.5 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 14.0 14.2 16.0 20.0 273 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 14.0 14.2 16.0 20.0 25.0 323.9 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 14.0 14.2 16.0 20.0 25.0 355.6 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 14.0 14.2 16.0 20.0 25.0

Mass Per Metre kg/m 29.53 35.29 37.01 46.66 57.83 68.81 71.52 79.58 80.65 90.16 110.73 33.05 39.51 41.44 52.28 64.86 77.24 80.30 89.42 90.63 101.41 124.79 152.90 39.32 47.04 49.34 62.32 77.41 92.30 95.99 107.00 108.45 121.49 149.89 184.28 51.73 54.27 68.58 85.23 101.68 105.77 117.94 119.56 134.00 165.53 203.83

Area Of Section A cm2 37.6 45.0 47.1 59.4 73.7 87.7 91.1 101 103 115 141 42.1 50.3 52.8 66.6 82.6 98.4 102 114 115 129 159 195 50.1 59.9 62.9 79.4 98.6 118 122 136 138 155 191 235 65.9 69.1 87.4 109 130 135 150 152 171 211 260

Second Moment Of Inertia I cm4 2699 3199 3346 4160 5073 5938 6147 6758 6837 7533 8957 3781 4487 4696 5852 7154 8396 8697 9580 9695 10710 12800 15130 6369 7572 7929 9910 12160 14320 14850 16400 16600 18390 22140 26400 10070 10550 13200 16220 19140 19850 21950 22230 24660 29790 35680

Radius Of Gyration r cm 8.47 8.43 8.42 8.37 8.30 8.23 8.21 8.16 8.16 8.10 7.97 9.48 9.44 9.43 9.37 9.31 9.24 9.22 9.17 9.16 9.10 8.97 8.81 11.3 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.1 11.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 10.9 10.8 10.6 12.4 12.4 12.3 12.2 12.2 12.1 12.1 12.1 12.0 11.9 11.7

Elastic Modulus Z cm3 221 262 274 340 415 486 503 553 559 616 733 277 329 344 429 524 615 637 702 710 784 938 1108 393 468 490 612 751 884 917 1012 1025 1136 1367 1630 566 593 742 912 1076 1117 1235 1250 1387 1676 2007

Plastic Modulus S cm3 287 341 358 448 550 649 673 745 754 837 1011 359 428 448 562 692 818 849 940 952 1058 1283 1543 509 606 636 799 986 1168 1213 1345 1363 1518 1850 2239 733 769 967 1195 1417 1472 1635 1656 1847 2255 2738 J

Torsional Constants

C cm3 441 523 547 681 830 972 1006 1106 1119 1232 1465 554 657 688 857 1048 1230 1274 1404 1421 1569 1875 2216 787 935 979 1224 1501 1768 1833 2025 2050 2271 2734 3260 1133 1186 1485 1825 2153 2233 2469 2500 2774 3351 4013

Surface Area Per Metre m2/m 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12

cm4 5397 6397 6692 8321 10150 11880 12300 13520 13670 15070 17910 7562 8974 9392 11700 14310 16790 17400 19160 19390 21410 25600 30250 12740 15150 15860 19820 24320 28640 29690 32790 33200 36780 44280 52800 20140 21090 26400 32450 38280 39700 43900 44460 49330 59580 71350

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Circular

x t

D y

x

Designation Outside Thickness Diameter D t mm mm 406.4 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 14.0 14.2 16.0 20.0 25.0 32.0 457 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 14.2 16.0 20.0 25.0 32.0 40.0 508 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 14.2 16.0 20.0 25.0 32.0 40.0 50.0

Mass Per Metre kg/m 59.25 62.16 78.60 97.76 116.72 121.43 135.48 137.35 154.05 190.58 235.15 295.46 70.02 88.58 110.24 131.69 137.03 155.07 174.01 215.54 266.34 335.40 411.35 77.95 98.65 122.81 146.79 152.75 172.93 194.14 240.70 297.79 375.64 461.66 564.75

Area Of Section A cm2 75.5 79.2 100 125 149 155 173 175 196 243 300 376 89.2 113 140 168 175 198 222 275 339 427 524 99.3 126 156 187 195 220 247 307 379 479 588 719

Second Moment Of Inertia I cm4 15130 15850 19870 24480 28940 30030 33260 33690 37450 45430 54700 66430 22650 28450 35090 41560 43150 48460 53960 65680 79420 97010 114900 31250 39280 48520 57540 59760 67200 74910 91430 110900 136100 162200 190900

Radius Of Gyration r cm 14.2 14.1 14.1 14.0 14.0 13.9 13.9 13.9 13.8 13.7 13.5 13.3 15.9 15.9 15.8 15.7 15.7 15.7 15.6 15.5 15.3 15.1 14.8 17.7 17.7 17.6 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.4 17.3 17.1 16.9 16.6 16.3

Elastic Modulus Z cm3 745 780 978 1205 1424 1478 1637 1658 1843 2236 2692 3269 991 1245 1536 1819 1888 2121 2361 2874 3475 4246 5031 1230 1546 1910 2265 2353 2646 2949 3600 4367 5360 6385 7515

Plastic Modulus S cm3 962 1009 1270 1572 1867 1940 2157 2185 2440 2989 3642 4497 1280 1613 1998 2377 2470 2785 3113 3822 4671 5791 6977 1586 2000 2480 2953 3070 3463 3874 4766 5837 7261 8782 10530 J

Torsional Constants

C cm3 1489 1560 1956 2409 2848 2956 3274 3315 3686 4472 5384 6539 1983 2490 3071 3637 3776 4242 4723 5749 6951 8491 10060 2460 3093 3820 4530 4705 5291 5898 7199 8734 10720 12770 15030

Surface Area Per Metre m2/m 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60

cm4 30260 31700 39750 48950 57870 60060 66520 67370 74900 90860 109400 132900 45310 56890 70180 83110 86290 96930 107900 131400 158800 194000 229900 62490 78560 97040 115100 119500 134400 149800 182900 221800 272300 324400 381800

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

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Square

D

x

D y

x

t

Designation Size Thickness

DxD mm 20x20 25x25 t mm 2 2.5 2 2.5 3 3.2 2.5 3 3.2 4 6 2.5 3 3.2 4 5 4 5 2.5 3 3.2 4 5 6 6.3 8 10 3 3.2 4 5 6 6.3 8 10 3 3.6 5 6 6.3 8 3.2 4 5 6 6.3 8 10

Mass Per Metre kg/m m 1.12 1.35 1.41 1.74 2.00 2.15 2.14 2.47 2.65 3.76 5.16 2.92 3.45 3.66 4.46 5.40 5.01 6.07 3.71 4.39 4.66 5.72 6.97 8.15 8.49 10.31 11.70 5.39 5.67 6.97 8.54 10.00 10.50 12.80 14.90 6.28 7.46 10.10 11.90 12.50 15.30 7.25 8.93 11.00 12.90 13.50 16.60 19.60

Area Of Section A cm2 1.40 1.68 1.80 2.18 2.54 2.68 2.68 3.14 3.32 4.79 6.57 3.68 4.34 4.60 5.59 6.73 6.39 7.73 4.68 5.54 5.88 7.19 8.73 10.2 10.6 12.7 14.9 6.74 7.16 8.79 10.7 12.6 13.1 16.0 18.9 7.94 9.42 12.7 15.0 15.6 19.2 9.08 11.2 13.7 16.2 16.9 20.8 24.9

Second Moment Of Area I cm4 0.739 0.835 1.56 1.81 2.00 2.06 3.33 3.74 3.89 7.48 8.81 8.54 9.78 10.2 11.8 13.4 17.6 20.1 17.5 20.2 21.2 25.0 28.9 32.0 32.8 35.2 37.6 36.2 38.2 45.4 53.3 59.9 61.6 69.7 75.5 59.0 68.6 88.5 101 104 120 77.5 93.2 111 126 131 152 170

Radius Of Gyration r cm 0.727 0.705 0.932 0.909 0.886 0.877 1.11 1.09 1.08 1.25 1.16 1.52 1.50 1.49 1.45 1.41 1.66 1.61 1.93 1.91 1.90 1.86 1.82 1.77 1.76 1.7 1.59 2.32 2.31 2.27 2.23 2.18 2.17 2.09 2.00 2.73 2.70 2.64 2.59 2.58 2.50 2.92 2.89 2.84 2.80 2.78 2.71 2.61

Elastic Modulus Z cm3 0.739 0.835 1.25 1.44 1.60 1.65 2.22 2.50 2.59 4.28 5.03 4.27 4.89 5.11 5.91 6.68 7.82 8.95 6.99 8.08 8.49 9.99 11.6 12.8 13.1 14.1 15.0 12.1 12.7 15.1 17.8 20.0 20.5 23.2 25.2 16.9 19.6 25.3 28.7 29.7 34.2 20.7 24.8 29.6 33.7 34.9 40.5 45.4

Plastic Modulus S cm3 0.930 1.08 1.53 1.82 2.06 2.15 2.74 3.14 3.29 5.47 6.91 5.14 5.97 6.28 7.44 8.66 9.71 11.41 8.29 9.70 10.2 12.3 14.5 16.5 17.0 19.2 21.4 14.3 15.2 18.3 21.9 25.1 26.0 30.4 34.4 19.9 23.3 30.8 35.5 36.9 43.8 24.3 29.6 35.8 41.4 43.0 51.3 59.4 J

Torsional Constants C cm3 1.07 1.20 1.81 2.08 2.30 2.37 3.22 3.60 3.74 6.16 7.19 6.22 7.10 7.42 8.54 9.60 11.3 12.9 10.2 11.8 12.4 14.5 16.7 18.4 18.8 20.1 21.4 17.7 18.6 22.0 25.7 28.8 29.6 33.4 36.0 24.8 28.7 36.8 41.6 42.9 49.2 30.3 36.3 43.0 48.9 50.5 58.4 65.1

Surface Area Per Metre m2/m 0.0748 0.0736 0.0948 0.0936 0.0923 0.0918 0.114 0.112 0.112 0.130 0.125 0.154 0.152 0.152 0.150 0.147 0.170 0.167 0.194 0.192 0.192 0.190 0.187 0.185 0.184 0.179 0.174 0.232 0.232 0.230 0.227 0.225 0.224 0.219 0.214 0.272 0.271 0.267 0.265 0.264 0.259 0.292 0.290 0.287 0.285 0.284 0.279 0.274

30x30

35x35 40x40

45x45 50x50

60x60

70x70

75x75

cm4 1.22 1.41 2.52 2.97 3.35 3.48 5.40 6.16 6.44 12.5 15.4 13.6 15.7 16.5 19.5 22.5 28.7 33.5 27.5 32.1 33.8 40.4 47.6 53.6 55.2 60.9 66.7 56.9 60.2 72.5 86.4 98.6 102 118 131 92 108 142 163 169 200 121 147 177 204 212 252 289

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Continental Steel Pte Ltd

HOT FINISHED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Square

D

x

D y

x

t

y

Designation Size Thickness

DxD mm 80x80 t mm 3 3.6 5 6 6.3 8 10 3.6 5 6 6.3 8 10 4 5 6 6.3 8 10 12 5 6 6.3 8 10 12.5 5 6 8 10 12.5 5 6 6.3 8 10 12.5 16 12.5 16 6 6.3 8 10 12.5 16

Mass Per Metre kg/m m 7.18 8.59 11.70 13.80 14.40 17.80 21.10 9.72 13.30 15.70 16.40 20.40 24.30 12.00 14.80 17.60 18.40 22.90 27.90 31.90 18.00 21.30 22.30 27.90 34.20 41.60 21.10 25.10 32.90 40.40 49.50 22.70 27.00 28.30 35.40 43.60 52.40 66.40 57.30 70.20 32.60 34.20 43.00 53.00 65.20 81.40

Area Of Section A cm2 9.14 10.9 14.7 17.4 18.1 22.4 26.9 12.3 16.7 19.8 20.7 25.6 30.9 15.2 18.7 22.2 23.2 28.8 34.9 40.7 22.7 27.0 28.2 35.2 42.9 52.1 26.7 31.8 41.6 50.9 62.1 28.7 34.2 35.8 44.8 54.9 67.1 83.0 72.1 89.4 41.4 43.3 54.4 66.9 82.1 102

Second Moment Of Area I cm4 89.8 105 137 156 162 189 214 152 200 230 238 281 322 232 279 323 336 400 462 512 498 579 603 726 852 982 807 944 1195 1416 1653 1002 1174 1223 1491 1773 2080 2430 2576 3028 2077 2168 2661 3193 3790 4504

Radius Of Gyration r cm 3.13 3.11 3.05 3.00 2.99 2.91 2.82 3.52 3.45 3.41 3.40 3.32 3.23 3.91 3.86 3.82 3.80 3.73 3.64 3.55 4.68 4.63 4.62 4.55 4.46 4.34 5.50 5.45 5.36 5.27 5.16 5.90 5.86 5.85 5.77 5.68 5.57 5.41 5.98 5.82 7.09 7.07 7.00 6.91 6.80 6.64

Elastic Modulus Z cm3 22.5 26.2 34.2 39.1 40.5 47.3 53.5 33.8 44.4 51.1 53.0 62.6 71.6 46.4 55.9 64.6 67.1 79.9 92.4 102.0 83.0 96.6 100 121 142 164 115 135 171 202 236 134 156 163 199 236 277 324 322 379 231 241 296 355 421 500

Plastic Modulus S cm3 26.3 31.0 41.1 47.8 49.7 59.5 69.3 39.7 53.0 61.8 64.3 77.6 91.3 54.4 66.4 77.6 80.9 98.2 116 132 97.6 115 120 146 175 207 135 159 204 246 293 156 184 192 237 286 342 411 395 476 269 281 349 424 511 621 J

Torsional Constants C cm3 33.0 38.5 49.8 56.8 58.7 68.3 76.8 49.7 64.8 74.3 77.0 90.5 103.0 68.2 81.8 94.3 97.8 116 133 147 122 141 147 176 206 236 170 198 249 294 342 197 230 240 291 344 402 467 467 546 340 355 434 518 613 724

Surface Area Per Metre m2/m 0.312 0.311 0.307 0.305 0.304 0.299 0.294 0.351 0.347 0.345 0.344 0.339 0.334 0.390 0.387 0.385 0.384 0.379 0.374 0.369 0.467 0.465 0.464 0.459 0.454 0.448 0.547 0.545 0.539 0.534 0.528 0.587 0.585 0.584 0.579 0.574 0.568 0.559 0.608 0.599 0.705 0.704 0.699 0.694 0.688 0.679

90x90

100x100

120x120

140x140

150x150

+

160x160 180x180

cm4 140 164 217 252 262 312 360 237 316 367 382 459 536 361 439 513 534 646 761 858 777 911 950 1160 1382 1623 1253 1475 1892 2272 2696 1550 1828 1909 2351 2832 3375 4026 4158 4988 3215 3361 4162 5048 6070 7343

+ Seamless process

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

97

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Square

D

x

D y

x

t

y

Designation Size Thickness

DxD mm 200x200 t mm 5 6 6.3 8 10 12.5 16 5 6 8 10 12 14 6 6.3 8 10 12.5 16 6 6.3 8 10 12 12.5 14 14.2 16 6 6.3 8 9 10 12 12.5 16 6 8 10 12 12.5 14 14.2 16 19 22 25

Mass Per Metre kg/m m 30.50 36.40 38.20 48.00 59.30 73.00 91.50 33.50 40.00 52.70 65.10 77.20 88.90 45.80 48.10 60.50 75.00 92.60 117.00 47.60 49.90 62.80 77.70 92.20 95.80 106.00 108.00 120.00 55.10 57.95 73.10 81.93 90.70 107.97 112.00 142.00 64.50 85.70 106.00 127.00 132.00 146.00 148.00 167.00 190.00 217.00 242.00

Area Of Section A cm2 38.7 46.2 48.4 60.8 74.9 92.1 115 42.7 51.0 67.2 82.9 98.3 113 58.2 61.0 76.8 94.9 117 147 60.6 63.5 80.0 98.9 117 122 136 137 153 70 73.6 92.8 104 115 137 142 179 82.2 109 135 161 167 186 189 211 248 283 318

Second Moment Of Area I cm4 2445 2883 3011 3709 4471 5336 6394 3281 3875 5002 6050 7023 7922 5752 6014 7455 9055 10920 13270 6491 6788 8423 10240 11950 12370 13560 13710 15060 10080 10550 13130 14600 16030 18780 19440 23850 16170 21130 25880 30440 31540 34790 35210 38940 44820 50270 55320

Radius Of Gyration r cm 7.95 7.90 7.89 7.81 7.72 7.61 7.46 8.76 8.72 8.63 8.54 8.45 8.36 9.94 9.93 9.86 9.77 9.66 9.50 10.4 10.3 10.3 10.2 10.1 10.1 10.0 9.99 9.91 12.0 12.0 11.9 11.9 11.8 11.7 11.7 11.5 14.0 13.9 13.9 13.8 13.7 13.7 13.7 13.6 13.5 13.3 13.2

Elastic Modulus Z cm3 245 288 301 371 447 534 639 298 352 455 550 638 720 460 481 596 724 873 1061 499 522 648 788 920 951 1043 1055 1159 672 703 875 973 1068 1252 1296 1590 924 1207 1479 1739 1802 1988 2012 2225 2561 2873 3161

Plastic Modulus S cm3 283 335 350 436 531 643 785 344 408 532 650 762 868 531 556 694 851 1037 1280 576 603 753 924 1087 1127 1244 1259 1394 772 809 1013 1130 1246 1470 1525 1895 1058 1392 1715 2030 2107 2334 2364 2630 3055 3460 3845 J

Torsional Constants C cm3 362 426 444 545 655 778 927 442 521 669 807 933 1049 681 712 880 1065 1279 1546 740 773 956 1159 1348 1394 1525 1542 1689 997 1043 1294 1437 1575 1840 1904 2325 1373 1789 2185 2563 2654 2922 2957 3264 3744 4187 4595

Surface Area Per Metre m2/m 0.787 0.785 0.784 0.779 0.774 0.768 0.759 0.867 0.865 0.859 0.854 0.849 0.844 0.985 0.984 0.979 0.974 0.968 0.959 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.01 1.01 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.18 1.18 1.18 1.18 1.17 1.17 1.17 1.16 1.38 1.38 1.37 1.37 1.37 1.36 1.36 1.36 1.35 1.34 1.34

220x220

250x250

260x260

300x300

350x350

cm4 3756 4449 4653 5778 7031 8491 10340 5028 5963 7765 9473 11090 12620 8825 9238 11530 14110 17160 21140 9951 10420 13010 15930 18730 19410 21400 21660 23940 15407 16140 20190 22520 24810 29250 30330 37620 24650 32380 39890 47150 48930 54190 54880 60990 70760 80010 88750

HOT HOLLOW SECTIONS

98

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

HOT FINISHED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Square

D

x

D y

x

t

y

Designation Size Thickness

DxD mm 400x400 t mm 8 10 12 12.5 14 14.2 16 20 22 25 12 16 19 22 25 28 32 12 16 19 22 25 28 32 36 16 19 22 25 28 32 36 40 25 28 32 36 40 25 28 32 36 40

Mass Per Metre kg/m m 97.90 122.00 145.00 152.00 168.00 170.00 192.00 237.00 251.00 282.00 162.00 213.00 250.00 286.00 321.00 355.00 399.00 181.00 238.00 280.00 320.00 360.00 399.00 450.00 498.00 263.00 309.00 355.00 399.00 443.00 500.00 555.00 608.00 439.00 487.00 550.00 611.00 671.00 517.00 575.00 651.00 724.00 797.00

Area Of Section A cm2 125 155 185 192 214 217 243 300 327 368 209 275 324 371 418 464 524 233 307 362 415 468 520 588 654 339 400 459 518 576 652 726 799 568 632 716 798 879 668 744 844 942 1039

Second Moment Of Area I cm4 31860 39130 46130 47840 52870 53530 59340 71540 77260 85380 66460 85860 99540 112500 124700 136300 150700 92030 119300 138600 157100 174600 191300 212300 231700 160400 186800 212100 236300 259500 288700 316100 341800 311100 342100 381600 418800 453900 504700 556600 623100 686500 746900

Radius Of Gyration r cm 16.0 15.9 15.8 15.8 15.7 15.7 15.6 15.4 15.4 15.2 17.8 17.7 17.5 17.4 17.3 17.1 17.0 19.89 19.71 19.58 19.44 19.31 19.18 19.00 18.82 21.75 21.62 21.49 21.35 21.22 21.04 20.86 20.68 23.40 23.26 23.08 22.91 22.73 27.48 27.35 27.17 26.99 26.81

Elastic Modulus Z cm3 1593 1956 2306 2392 2643 2676 2967 3577 3863 4269 2954 3816 4424 5000 5544 6058 6696 3681 4771 5545 6283 6986 7653 8491 9269 5833 6793 7714 8594 9436 10500 11500 12430 10370 11410 12720 13960 15130 14420 15900 17800 19610 21340

Plastic Modulus S cm3 1830 2260 2679 2782 3087 3127 3484 4247 4612 5141 3419 4459 5208 5929 6624 7292 8143 4248 5554 6498 7411 8295 9149 10242 11283 6769 7930 9058 10150 11220 12580 13890 15140 12200 13490 15160 16770 18310 16850 18670 21040 23330 25540 J

Torsional Constants C cm3 2363 2895 3405 3530 3894 3942 4362 5237 5646 6223 4368 5620 6497 7324 8101 8832 9735 5451 7038 8159 9222 10230 11180 12370 13470 8616 10010 11340 12610 13810 15330 16740 18060 15230 16720 18600 20370 22030 21240 23380 26110 28700 31160

Surface Area Per Metre m2/m 1.58 1.57 1.57 1.57 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.55 1.54 1.54 1.77 1.76 1.75 1.74 1.74 1.73 1.72 1.97 1.96 1.95 1.94 1.94 1.93 1.92 1.91 2.16 2.15 2.14 2.14 2.13 2.12 2.11 2.10 2.34 2.33 2.32 2.31 2.30 2.74 2.73 2.72 2.71 2.70

#

450x450

500x500

550x550

600x600

700x700

cm4 48700 60090 71180 73910 81960 83030 92440 112500 122100 135900 102200 133200 155400 176700 197200 216800 241700 141200 184400 215500 245600 274600 302600 338200 372000 247300 289500 330400 370100 408400 457500 504400 549000 485300 536300 601900 664900 725100 782900 867000 975800 1081000 1182000

# Grade S355J2H only S.A.W process

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

99

HOT HOLLOW SECTIONS

HOT FINISHED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Rectangular

D x

B y

x t y

Designation Thickness Size

Mass Per Metre

Area Of Section

DxB mm 50x25

t mm 2.5 3 3.2 4 2.5 3 3.2 4 5 2.5 3 3.2 4 5 6 6.3 8 3 3.2 4 5 6 6.3 8 10 3 4 5 6 8 10 3 3.2 3.6 4 5 6 6.3 8 10 3 3.2 4 5 6 6.3 8 10 kg/m 2.72 3.22 3.41 4.07 2.92 3.45 3.66 4.46 5.40 3.71 4.39 4.66 5.72 6.97 8.15 8.49 10.00 5.34 5.67 6.97 8.54 10.00 10.50 12.80 14.90 5.81 7.53 9.33 11.00 14.11 16.40 6.28 6.63 7.46 8.15 10.10 11.90 12.50 15.30 18.00 6.75 7.18 8.86 10.90 12.90 13.40 16.60 19.60

A cm2 3.43 4.04 4.28 5.19 3.68 4.34 4.60 5.59 6.73 4.68 5.54 5.88 7.19 8.73 10.2 10.6 12.8 6.74 7.16 8.79 10.7 12.6 13.1 16.0 18.9 7.34 9.59 11.7 13.8 17.6 20.9 7.94 8.44 9.42 10.4 12.7 15.0 15.6 19.2 22.9 8.54 9.08 11.2 13.7 16.2 16.9 20.8 24.9

Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 10.4 11.9 12.5 14.4 11.8 13.6 14.2 16.5 18.7 22.8 26.5 27.8 32.8 38.1 42.3 43.4 47.9 54.2 57.2 68.2 80.3 90.5 93.3 106 115 63.1 79.8 94.4 107 127 140 84.4 89.1 98.3 107 127 145 150 174 194 110 116 140 167 190 197 230 259 cm4 3.39 3.83 3.98 4.48 5.22 5.94 6.20 7.08 7.89 12.1 13.9 14.6 17.0 19.5 21.4 21.9 23.7 18.0 18.9 22.2 25.7 28.5 29.2 32.1 33.7 30.2 37.7 44.1 49.5 57.4 62.1 33.5 35.3 38.7 41.9 49.2 55.4 57.0 64.6 70.2 36.8 38.8 46.2 54.3 61.2 63.0 71.7 78.4

Radius Of Gyration Axis x-x cm 1.74 1.72 1.71 1.66 1.79 1.77 1.76 1.72 1.67 2.21 2.18 2.18 2.14 2.09 2.04 2.02 1.94 2.84 2.83 2.79 2.74 2.68 2.67 2.58 2.47 2.93 2.88 2.84 2.79 2.69 2.59 3.26 3.25 3.23 3.21 3.16 3.11 3.10 3.01 2.91 3.58 3.57 3.53 3.48 3.43 3.42 3.33 3.22 Axis y-y cm 0.994 0.973 0.964 0.929 1.19 1.17 1.16 1.13 1.08 1.60 1.58 1.57 1.54 1.50 1.45 1.44 1.36 1.63 1.63 1.59 1.55 1.50 1.49 1.42 1.33 2.03 1.98 1.94 1.90 1.81 1.72 2.05 2.04 2.03 2.01 1.97 1.92 1.91 1.84 1.75 2.08 2.07 2.03 1.99 1.95 1.93 1.86 1.77

Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 4.16 4.76 4.98 5.75 4.73 5.43 5.68 6.60 7.49 7.61 8.82 9.27 10.9 12.7 14.1 14.5 16.0 13.6 14.3 17.1 20.1 22.6 23.3 26.5 28.8 15.8 19.9 23.6 26.8 31.7 35.0 18.8 19.8 21.8 23.8 28.3 32.2 33.3 38.6 43.0 21.9 23.2 27.9 33.3 38.1 39.4 46.0 51.8 Axis y-y cm3 2.71 3.06 3.18 3.59 3.48 3.96 4.13 4.72 5.26 6.03 6.95 7.29 8.52 9.77 10.7 11.0 11.9 9.00 9.46 11.1 12.9 14.2 14.6 16.1 16.9 12.1 15.1 17.7 19.8 23.0 24.8 13.4 14.1 15.5 16.8 19.7 22.1 22.8 25.8 28.1 14.7 15.5 18.5 21.7 24.5 25.2 28.7 31.4

Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 5.33 6.18 6.50 7.67 5.92 6.88 7.25 8.59 10.0 9.32 10.9 11.5 13.8 16.4 18.6 19.2 22.1 17.1 18.0 21.8 26.1 30.0 31.1 36.5 41.3 19.4 24.9 29.9 34.4 42.2 48.3 23.2 24.6 27.2 29.8 36.0 41.6 43.2 51.4 59.3 27.3 28.9 35.2 42.6 49.4 51.3 61.4 71.2 Axis y-y cm3 3.22 3.71 3.89 4.54 4.11 4.76 5.00 5.88 6.80 7.02 8.19 8.64 10.3 12.2 13.7 14.2 16.1 10.4 11.0 13.2 15.7 17.8 18.4 21.2 23.5 13.9 17.8 21.3 24.4 29.6 33.4 15.3 16.2 18.0 19.6 23.5 27.0 28.0 32.9 37.4 16.8 17.7 21.5 25.8 29.7 30.8 36.3 41.4

Torsional Constants

Surface Area Per Metre

J cm4 8.42 9.64 10.1 11.6 11.7 13.5 14.2 16.6 19.0 25.1 29.2 30.8 36.7 43.0 48.2 49.5 55.4 43.8 46.2 55.2 65.1 73.4 75.6 85.8 92.5 64.8 82.6 98.4 112 135 150 76.5 80.9 89.4 97.5 116 133 138 160 179 88.4 93.4 113 135 154 160 186 209

C cm3 4.61 5.20 5.41 6.11 5.73 6.51 6.80 7.77 8.67 9.73 11.2 11.7 13.7 15.7 17.3 17.6 19.2 15.3 16.1 18.9 21.9 24.2 24.8 27.4 28.9 19.7 24.6 28.8 32.3 37.5 40.6 22.4 23.6 25.9 28.0 32.9 37.0 38.1 43.2 47.1 25.0 26.4 31.4 36.9 41.6 42.9 48.9 53.6 m2/m 0.144 0.142 0.142 0.140 0.154 0.152 0.152 0.150 0.147 0.194 0.192 0.192 0.190 0.187 0.185 0.184 0.179 0.232 0.232 0.230 0.227 0.225 0.224 0.219 0.214 0.252 0.250 0.247 0.245 0.239 0.234 0.272 0.272 0.271 0.270 0.267 0.265 0.264 0.259 0.254 0.292 0.292 0.290 0.287 0.285 0.284 0.279 0.274

50x30

60x40

80x40

HOT HOLLOW SECTIONS

80x50

90x50

100x50

100

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

HOT FINISHED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Rectangular

D x

B y

x t y

Designation Thickness Size

Mass Per Metre

Area Of Section

DxB mm 100x60

t mm 3 3.6 5 6 6.3 8 3.6 4 5 6 6.3 8 10 5 6 6.3 8 10 5 6 6.3 8 10 12 12.5 4.5 5 6 6.3 8 10 12 12.5 5 6 6.3 8 10 12 12.5 16 5 6.3 8 10 12.5 16 kg/m 7.22 8.59 11.70 13.80 14.40 17.80 9.72 10.70 13.30 15.70 16.40 20.40 24.30 14.80 17.60 18.40 22.90 27.90 18.70 22.30 23.30 29.10 35.70 41.40 42.80 16.24 18.00 21.30 22.30 27.90 34.20 39.50 41.60 22.70 27.00 28.30 35.40 43.60 50.80 53.40 66.40 24.1 30.1 37.6 46.3 55.7 71.38

A cm2 9.14 10.9 14.7 17.4 18.1 22.4 12.3 13.6 16.7 19.8 20.7 25.6 30.9 18.7 22.2 23.2 28.8 34.9 23.7 28.2 29.5 36.8 44.9 52.7 54.6 20.6 22.7 27.0 28.2 35.2 42.9 50.3 52.1 28.7 34.2 35.8 44.8 54.9 64.7 67.1 83.0 30.7 38.3 48.0 58.9 71.7 89.4

Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 124 145 189 217 225 264 227 249 299 345 358 425 488 365 423 440 525 609 739 862 898 1087 1282 1450 1488 679 744 868 903 1091 1284 1449 1485 1495 1754 1829 2234 2664 3047 3136 3678 1690 2070 2530 3030 3468 4221 cm4 55.7 64.8 83.6 95.0 98.1 113 76.3 83.1 98.8 113 116 135 152 193 222 230 273 313 392 456 474 569 665 745 763 229 249 288 299 356 411 455 465 505 589 613 739 869 979 1004 1147 762 929 1130 1340 1524 1813

Radius Of Gyration Axis x-x cm 3.68 3.65 3.58 3.53 3.52 3.44 4.30 4.28 4.23 4.18 4.16 4.08 3.97 4.42 4.37 4.36 4.27 4.18 5.58 5.53 5.52 5.44 5.34 5.25 5.22 5.75 5.72 5.67 5.66 5.57 5.47 5.37 5.34 7.21 7.16 7.15 7.06 6.96 6.86 6.84 6.66 7.40 7.34 7.26 7.17 6.99 6.87 Axis y-y cm 2.47 2.44 2.38 2.34 2.33 2.25 2.49 2.47 2.43 2.39 2.37 2.30 2.21 3.21 3.17 3.15 3.08 2.99 4.07 4.02 4.01 3.94 3.85 3.76 3.74 3.33 3.31 3.27 3.26 3.18 3.10 3.01 2.99 4.19 4.15 4.14 4.06 3.98 3.89 3.87 3.72 4.98 4.92 4.85 4.76 4.63 4.50

Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 24.7 28.9 37.8 43.4 45.0 52.8 37.9 41.5 49.9 57.5 59.7 70.8 81.4 60.9 70.6 73.3 87.5 102 98.5 115 120 145 171 193 198 84.9 93.0 108 113 136 161 181 186 149 175 183 223 266 305 314 368 168 207 253 303 347 422 Axis y-y cm3 18.6 21.6 27.9 31.7 32.7 37.8 25.4 27.7 32.9 37.5 38.8 45.0 50.5 48.2 55.6 57.6 68.1 78.1 78.5 91.2 94.8 114 133 149 153 57.1 62.3 72.0 74.8 89.0 103 114 116 101 118 123 148 174 196 201 229 127 155 188 223 254 302

Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 30.2 35.6 47.4 55.1 57.3 68.7 47.2 51.9 63.1 73.6 76.7 92.7 109.2 74.6 87.3 91.0 111 131 119 141 147 180 216 249 256 106 116 136 142 175 209 240 247 185 218 228 282 341 395 408 491 205 253 313 379 444 550 Axis y-y cm3 21.2 24.9 32.9 38.1 39.5 47.1 28.9 31.7 38.4 44.5 46.3 55.4 64.4 56.1 65.5 68.2 82.6 97.3 90.1 106 110 135 161 185 190 64.8 71.1 83.3 86.8 106 125 142 146 114 134 140 172 206 237 245 290 144 177 218 263 308 377

Torsional Constants

Surface Area Per Metre

J cm4 121 142 188 216 224 265 183 201 242 279 290 344 396 401 468 487 587 688 807 946 986 1203 1432 1633 1679 547 600 701 730 883 1041 1175 1204 1204 1414 1475 1804 2156 2469 2541 2982 1650 2030 2490 3000 3568 4247

C cm3 30.7 35.6 45.9 52.1 53.8 62.2 43.3 47.1 56.0 63.8 65.9 76.6 86.1 77.9 89.6 92.9 110 126 127 147 153 183 214 240 246 97.2 106 122 127 151 175 194 198 172 200 208 251 295 333 341 391 210 255 310 367 426 497 m2/m 0.312 0.311 0.307 0.305 0.304 0.299 0.351 0.350 0.347 0.345 0.344 0.339 0.334 0.387 0.385 0.384 0.379 0.374 0.487 0.485 0.484 0.479 0.474 0.469 0.468 0.468 0.467 0.465 0.464 0.459 0.454 0.449 0.448 0.587 0.585 0.584 0.579 0.574 0.569 0.568 0.559 0.627 0.624 0.619 0.614 0.608 0.599

120x60

120x80

150x100

160x80

200x100

+

200x120

+ Seamless process

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

101

HOT HOLLOW SECTIONS

HOT FINISHED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Rectangular

D x

B y

x t y

Designation Thickness Size

Mass Per Metre

Area Of Section

DxB mm 200x150

t mm 6 6.3 8 9 10 12 12.5 6 6.3 8 10 12.5 16 5 6 6.3 8 10 12 16 6 6.3 8 10 12 12.5 16 6.3 8 10 12.5 16 6.3 8 10 12.5 16 8 10 12.5 16 6.3 8 10 12.5 6.3 8 10 12.5 16 kg/m 31.70 33.22 41.70 46.60 51.40 60.90 63.20 36.40 38.00 48.00 59.30 73.00 91.50 30.52 36.20 38.00 48.00 58.80 70.30 91.50 45.80 48.10 60.50 75.00 89.15 92.60 117.00 53.00 66.80 82.80 102.00 129.00 48.10 60.50 75.00 92.60 117.00 73.10 90.70 112.00 142.00 50.00 63.10 78.10 96.60 53.00 66.80 82.80 102.00 129.00

A cm2 40.2 42.1 52.8 58.9 64.9 76.7 79.6 46.2 48.4 60.8 74.9 92.1 115 38.7 46.2 48.4 61.1 74.9 88.7 117 58.2 61.0 76.8 94.9 113 117 147 67.5 85.1 106 130 165 61 77 94.9 117 149 93 116 143 181 63.7 80.3 99.5 123 67.5 85.1 106 130 165

Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 2318 2420 2971 3276 3568 4109 4236 3965 4143 5111 6174 7387 8879 4146 4893 5111 6386 7613 8818 11240 7486 7829 9717 11820 13800 14270 17390 9239 11500 14050 17050 20930 9551 11880 14320 17300 21500 16560 20270 24680 30440 11880 14790 18050 21900 13350 16630 20340 24720 30400 cm4 1485 1549 1894 2084 2264 2596 2673 1796 1874 2298 2755 3265 3873 731 854 890 1087 1275 1447 1747 4013 4193 5184 6278 7294 7537 9109 6984 8682 10580 12810 15670 2537 3125 3737 4450 5386 9854 12020 14580 17860 1752 2146 2569 3040 2863 3528 4257 5087 6108

Radius Of Gyration Axis x-x cm 7.60 7.58 7.50 7.46 7.41 7.32 7.30 9.27 9.25 9.17 9.08 8.96 8.79 10.3 10.3 10.3 10.2 10.1 9.97 9.82 11.3 11.3 11.3 11.2 11.1 11.0 10.9 11.7 11.6 11.5 11.4 11.3 12.5 12.4 12.3 12.2 12.0 13.3 13.2 13.1 13.0 13.7 13.6 13.5 13.3 14.1 14.0 13.9 13.8 13.6 Axis y-y cm 6.08 6.07 5.99 5.95 5.91 5.82 5.80 6.24 6.22 6.15 6.06 5.96 5.80 4.34 4.30 4.29 4.22 4.13 4.04 3.87 8.31 8.29 8.22 8.13 8.05 8.02 7.87 10.20 10.10 10.00 9.91 9.76 6.44 6.36 6.27 6.17 6.02 10.30 10.20 10.10 9.95 5.24 5.17 5.08 4.97 6.51 6.44 6.35 6.24 6.09

Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 232 242 297 328 357 411 424 317 331 409 494 591 710 276 326 341 426 508 588 749 499 522 648 788 920 952 1159 616 767 937 1137 1395 546 679 818 988 1229 946 1158 1410 1739 594 740 903 1095 667 832 1017 1236 1520 Axis y-y cm3 198 207 253 278 302 346 356 239 250 306 367 435 516 146 171 178 217 255 289 349 401 419 518 628 729 754 911 559 695 847 1025 1254 338 417 498 593 718 788 963 1166 1429 292 358 428 507 382 470 568 678 814

Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 277 289 359 398 436 508 525 385 402 501 611 740 906 354 419 439 551 666 779 1008 596 624 779 956 1124 1165 1441 720 902 1109 1358 1689 680 851 1035 1263 1586 1124 1385 1700 2121 766 960 1180 1444 841 1054 1297 1589 1978 Axis y-y cm3 227 237 294 325 356 414 428 270 283 350 426 514 625 161 190 199 247 296 343 431 451 472 589 721 847 877 1080 636 796 978 1196 1485 375 467 566 686 850 892 1098 1345 1672 322 399 486 588 420 524 640 778 957

Torsional Constants

Surface Area Per Metre

J cm4 2820 2947 3643 4033 4409 5119 5287 3877 4054 5021 6090 7326 8868 2040 2399 2504 3066 3676 4223 5142 8100 8476 10560 12910 15140 15680 19250 12140 15170 18600 22680 28020 6383 7917 9633 11620 14110 19010 23330 28490 35280 5035 6212 7501 8973 7588 9415 11450 13820 16810

C cm3 313 326 398 437 475 543 559 396 413 506 605 717 849 262 306 319 387 458 520 620 651 681 840 1015 1178 1217 1468 862 1067 1295 1561 1898 587 721 867 1032 1235 1255 1526 1843 2248 527 645 771 912 673 828 998 1191 1427 m2/m 0.685 0.684 0.679 0.677 0.674 0.669 0.668 0.785 0.784 0.779 0.774 0.768 0.759 0.787 0.785 0.784 0.780 0.774 0.769 0.769 0.985 0.984 0.979 0.974 0.969 0.968 0.959 1.082 1.077 1.071 1.065 1.055 0.974 0.974 0.974 0.968 0.968 1.18 1.18 1.18 1.18 1.03 1.02 1.02 1.01 1.09 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.06

250x150

300x100

300x200

HOT HOLLOW SECTIONS

300x250

350x150

350x250

400x120

400x150

102

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

HOT FINISHED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Rectangular

D x

B y

x t y

Designation Thickness Size

Mass Per Metre

Area Of Section

DxB mm 400x200

t mm 6.3 8 10 12.5 16 8 10 12.5 16 8 10 12.5 16 8 10 12.5 16 10 12.5 16 20 kg/m 57.90 73.10 90.70 112.00 142.00 85.70 106.00 132.00 167.00 85.40 106.00 132.00 167.00 85.70 106.00 132.00 167.00 122.00 152.00 192.00 237.00

A cm2 73.6 92.8 115 142 179 109 136 168 213 109 135 167 211 109 135 168 213 155 192 243 302

Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 15700 19560 23910 29060 35740 25860 31750 38800 48100 30080 36900 45030 55710 34270 41760 51510 63930 53760 65810 81780 100100 cm4 5376 6660 8084 9738 11820 16620 20360 24800 30620 12140 14820 17970 22040 8170 9891 12020 14670 24440 29780 36770 44550

Radius Of Gyration Axis x-x cm 14.6 14.5 14.4 14.3 14.1 15.4 15.3 15.2 15.0 16.6 16.5 16.4 16.2 17.7 17.6 17.5 17.3 18.6 18.5 18.3 18.2 Axis y-y cm 8.55 8.47 8.39 8.28 8.13 12.30 12.30 12.20 12.00 10.6 10.5 10.4 10.2 8.7 8.6 8.5 8.31 12.6 12.5 12.3 12.1

Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 785 978 1196 1453 1787 1293 1587 1940 2405 1337 1640 2001 2476 1371 1670 2060 2557 2150 2633 3271 4006 Axis y-y cm3 538 666 808 974 1182 1108 1357 1654 2041 971 1185 1438 1763 817 989 1202 1467 1629 1985 2451 2970

Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 960 1203 1480 1813 2256 1524 1882 2316 2899 1622 2000 2458 3070 1716 2105 2609 3267 2595 3196 4005 4942 Axis y-y cm3 594 743 911 1111 1374 1252 1544 1898 2371 1081 1331 1631 2029 900 1101 1354 1683 1826 2244 2804 3442

Torsional Constants

Surface Area Per Metre

J cm4 12610 15740 19260 23440 28870 30980 38140 46750 58200 27080 33280 40720 50550 21100 25870 31480 38830 52450 64390 80330 97310

C cm3 917 1135 1376 1656 2010 1749 2136 2593 3186 1629 1986 2406 2947 1430 1737 2097 2554 2696 3281 4044 4845 m2/m 1.18 1.18 1.17 1.17 1.16 1.37 1.37 1.37 1.37 1.38 1.37 1.37 1.36 1.37 1.37 1.37 1.37 1.57 1.57 1.56

400x300

450x250

500x200

500x300

S.A.W process

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

103

HOT HOLLOW SECTIONS

HOT HOLLOW SECTIONS

104

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

COLD FORMED HOLLOW SECTIONS

102

Cold Formed Hollow Sections

General

Structural hollow sections make beautiful, efficient structures with a nice continuity. The cold formed hollow sections, square, rectangular and circular, have constant external dimension within the same serial size only the thickness is increasing. In other words, the same column size can be maintained throughout the full height of the building, only changing the thickness, simplifying architectural details and ensuring economy in fabrication. By using multi-storey columns the number of joints will be smaller and the number of welds affecting the capacity of cold formed sections will therefore be reduced (see "Comparison between hot finished and cold formed hollow sections"). Due to their high sectional properties hollow sections provide smaller column footprints than other design solutions, with increased floor area. Added together these qualities give an efficient and economic structure. It has long been the opinion amongst structural people that for low-rise buildings only concrete will be economical, but with multi-storey hollow sections steel structures can compete with concrete structures. Steel might be more expensive per metric ton, but with the fabrication and erection time, a lighter structure, labour cost, and easy maintenance taken into account, a steel structure might give the most economic design.

Comparable specifications

Specification EN 10219-1 (1997) JIS G 3444 (1994) JIS G 3466 (1988) AS 1163 (1991) EN 10219-1 (1997) EN 10219-1 (1997) ASTM A500 (1996) Round tubing Shaped tubing Round tubing Shaped tubing JIS G 3466 (1988) AS 1163 (1991) JIS G 3444 (1994) EN 10219-1 (1997) EN 10219-1 (1997) JIS G 3444 (1994) AS 1163 (1991) Note: Grade A " Grade B " STKR490 C350L0 STK500 S355J0H S355J2H STK540 C450L0 228 269 290 317 325 350 355 355 355 390 450 min. 310 min. 310 min. 400 min. 400 min. 490 min. 430 min. 500 490-630 490-630 min. 540 min. 500 27 27 27 27 0 0 -20 0 Grade S235JRH STK400 STKR400 C250L0 S275J0H S275J2H Min. Yield strength N/mm 235 235 245 250 275 275

2

Tensile strength N/mm

2

Charpy V-Notch Impact Joules 27 27 27 27 °C 20 0 0

COLD HOLLOW SECTIONS

340-470 min. 400 min. 400 min. 320 410-560 410-560

-20

For EN 10219-1 and ASTM A500 the values given are for section thickness above 3mm. EN 10219-1 (1997): one of the new European Norms, see Explanatory notes. ASTM A36 (1991): standard from American Society for Testing of Materials for carbon structural steel. ASTM 500 (1996): standard from American Society for Testing of Materials for cold formed welded and seamless carbon steels structural tubing in rounds and shapes. JIS G 3444 (1994): Japanese Industrial Standard for Carbon steel tubes for general structural purposes. JIS G 3466 (1988): Japanese Industrial Standard for Carbon steel square pipes for general structural purposes. AS 1163 (1991): Australian Standard for Structural steel hollow sections.

Table 16 ­ Cold Formed Hollow Sections: Comparable specifications

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Product specifications

Productions of cold formed structural hollow sections have been standardised in EN 10219: 1997: "Cold formed structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steel" Part 1, Grades S235, S275, S355, but other grades and sub-grades can be supplied, subject to minimum order quantities. Dimensions, tolerances and sectional properties meet the requirements of EN 10219:1997: "Cold formed structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain structural steels" Part 2. The cold formed hollow sections, square, rectangular and circular have constant external dimension within the same serial size, only the thickness is increasing. In other words, the same column size can be maintained throughout the full height of the building, simplifying architectural details and ensuring economy in fabrication.

Chemical composition

The chemical compositions of hot finished hollow sections are given in EN 10219-1: 1997, Table A.1, B.1 and B.2. When a carbon equivalent value (CEV) is required it shall be determined from the cast analysis using the formula: CEV = C +

Mn (Cr + Mo + V ) ( Ni + Cu ) + + 6 5 15

Mechanical properties

The mechanical properties for cold formed sections in accordance with EN 102191:1997 are summarised below.

Designation Min. Yield strength ReH in N/mm t 16 N/mm S235JRH S275J0H S275J2H S355J0H S355J2H 355 345 510-680 490-630 20 235 275

COLD HOLLOW SECTIONS

2 2

Tensile strength Rm in N/mm t<3 N/mm

2 2

Min. elongation (%) L0=5.65(S0) t 40 % 24 20

1/2

Test temp.

Impact KV

Nominal thickness in mm 16>t 40 N/mm 225 265

2

3 t 40 N/mm

2

C 20 0 -20 0 -20

J 27 27 27 27 27

360-510 430-580

340-470 410-560

Table 17 ­ Cold Formed Hollow Sections: Mechanical properties

Tensile test

The tensile test shall be carried out according with EN 10002-1: "Metallic materials Tensile testing - Method of test (at ambient temperature)". See chapter "Hot finished Hollow Sections".

Charpy V-notch impact test

The specimens, in accordance with EN 10045-1: "Metallic materials - Charpy impact test - Test method", are tested at the required temperature according to grade. See chapter "Hot finished Hollow Sections".

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Manufacturing tolerances

The tolerances for cold formed hollow sections are specified in EN 10219: 1997, Part 2. The tolerances are mostly similar to those specified in EN 10210: 1997, Part 2, for hot finished hollow sections. The tolerances are listed in Table 18 below.

Characteristic Outside dimensions (D, B, H) Circular hollow sections ±1% with a minimum of ±0.5mm and a maximum of ±10mm Square and rectangular hollow sections Size in mm Tolerance H, B <100: 100 H, B 200: H, B >200: Thickness (T) - For D 406.4mm: T 5mm: ±10% T>5mm: ±0.50mm ±10% with a max. of 2mm 2% for hollow sections having a diameter 1) to thickness ratio not exceeding 100 For T 6mm: For 6<T 10mm: For 10<T: Twist (V) Straightness Mass (M) 0.20% of total length - For D>406.4mm: For T>5mm: For T 5mm: ±0.50mm ±10% ±1% with a minimum of: ±0.5mm. ±0.8% ±0.6 %

Out-of-roundness (O) Concavity/convexity Squareness of side External corner profile (C 1, C2 or R)

2)

Max. 0.8% with a minimum of 0.5mm 90°±1° 1.6T to 2.4T 2.0T to 3.0T 2.4T to 3.6T

2mm plus 0.5mm/m length 0.15% of total length ±6% on individual lengths

Type of length

Random length

Length 4 000 to 16 000 with a range of 2000 per order item 4 000 < 6 000 6 000 to 10 000 > 10 000

Tolerances 10% of sections supplied may be below the minimum for the ordered range, but not less than 75% of the minimum of the range +50/0 mm +5/0 mm +15/0 mm +5/0 mm +1mm/m

Approximate length Exact length

Notes:

1) Where diameter to thickness ratio exceeds 100mm the tolerance on out-of-roundness shall be agreed. 2) The tolerance on concavity and convexity is independent of the tolerance on the outside dimensions.

Table 18 ­ Cold Formed Hollow Sections: Manufacturing tolerances

All external dimensions including out-of-roundness shall be measured at a distance from the end of the hollow section of not less than D for circular sections, B for square sections and H for rectangular sections, with a minimum of 100mm. D= diameter, B= width, H= height, R= outer corner radius V, C1 and C2= see drawings in chapter "Hot Finished Hollow Sections". The thickness T of welded sections shall be measured at a position not less than 2T from the weld.

Other specifications

Cold formed structural hollow sections are also supplied to other international standards and National specifications, see Table 16 the on first page of this chapter.

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D y

Circular

x t

x

y

Designation Thickness Outside

Mass Per Metre

Area Of Section A cm2 1.92 2.38 2.89 3.07 3.73 3.71 3.94 4.39 4.83 4.27 4.53 5.06 5.57 5.40 5.74 6.41 7.07 8.69 6.89 7.33 8.20 9.06 11.26 8.10 8.62 10.7 13.2 12.3 13.7 15.2 18.0 10.5 11.2 12.5 17.2 20.4 21.4 21.2 25.2 26.4 33.1 40.7

Ratio For Local Buckling D/t 10.8 8.41 11.2 10.5 8.43 14.1 13.3 11.8 10.6 16.1 15.1 13.4 12.1 20.1 18.8 16.8 15.1 12.1 25.4 23.8 21.1 19.0 15.2 29.6 27.8 22.2 17.8 25.4 22.6 20.3 16.9 38.1 35.7 31.8 22.9 19.1 18.1 27.9 23.3 22.2 17.5 14.0

Second Moment Of Inertia I cm4 1.44 1.70 3.44 3.60 4.19 7.25 7.62 8.33 8.99 11.0 11.6 12.7 13.8 22.2 23.5 25.9 28.2 33.5 46.1 48.8 54.0 59.1 70.9 74.8 79.2 96.3 116 146 162 177 207 163 172 192 257 300 313 481 564 589 720 862

Radius Of Gyration r cm 0.867 0.846 1.09 1.08 1.06 1.40 1.39 1.38 1.36 1.61 1.60 1.59 1.57 2.03 2.02 2.01 2.00 1.96 2.59 2.58 2.57 2.55 2.52 3.04 3.03 3.00 2.97 3.45 3.44 3.42 3.39 3.94 3.93 3.92 3.87 3.83 3.82 4.77 4.73 4.72 4.66 4.60

Elastic Modulus

Plastic Modulus

Torsional Constants

Surface Area Per Metre C cm3 2.14 2.53 4.08 4.28 4.97 6.84 7.19 7.86 8.48 9.11 9.59 10.5 11.4 14.7 15.6 17.2 18.7 22.2 24.2 25.6 28.4 31.0 37.3 33.6 35.6 43.3 52.4 57.6 63.8 69.9 81 56.9 60.4 67.2 89.9 105 109 138 162 169 206 247 m2/m 0.0845 0.0845 0.106 0.106 0.106 0.133 0.133 0.133 0.133 0.152 0.152 0.152 0.152 0.189 0.189 0.189 0.189 0.189 0.239 0.239 0.239 0.239 0.239 0.279 0.279 0.279 0.279 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.319 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.359 0.439 0.439 0.439 0.439 0.439

D mm 26.9 33.7

42.4

48.3

60.3

76.1

88.9

101.6

114.3

139.7

t mm 2.5 3.2 3.0 3.2 4.0 3.0 3.2 3.6 4.0 3.0 3.2 3.6 4.0 3.0 3.2 3.6 4.0 5.0 3.0 3.2 3.6 4.0 5.0 3.0 3.2 4.0 5.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 3.0 3.2 3.6 5.0 6.0 6.3 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0

* * * * *

* *

* *

* *

*

* *

kg/m 1.50 1.87 2.27 2.41 2.93 2.91 3.09 3.44 3.79 3.35 3.56 3.97 4.37 4.24 4.51 5.03 5.55 6.82 5.41 5.75 6.44 7.11 11.2 6.36 6.76 8.38 10.35 9.63 10.80 11.90 14.10 8.23 8.77 9.83 13.48 16.03 16.78 16.61 19.78 20.73 25.98 31.99

Z cm3 1.07 1.27 2.04 2.14 2.49 3.42 3.59 3.93 4.24 4.55 4.80 5.26 5.70 7.37 7.78 8.58 9.34 11.1 12.1 12.8 14.2 15.5 18.6 16.8 17.8 21.7 26.2 28.8 31.9 34.9 40.7 28.4 30.2 33.6 45.0 52.5 54.7 68.8 80.8 84.3 103 123

S cm3 1.49 1.81 2.84 2.99 3.55 4.67 4.93 5.44 5.92 6.17 6.52 7.21 7.87 9.86 10.4 11.6 12.7 15.3 16.0 17.0 18.9 20.8 25.3 22.1 23.5 28.9 35.2 38.1 42.5 46.7 54.9 37.2 39.5 44.1 59.8 70.4 73.6 90.8 107 112 139 169

J cm4 2.88 3.41 6.88 7.21 8.38 14.5 15.2 16.7 18.0 22.0 23.2 25.4 27.5 44.4 46.9 51.7 56.3 67 92.2 97.6 108 118 142 150 158 193 233 293 324 355 413 325 345 384 514 600 625 961 1130 1177 1441 1724

COLD HOLLOW SECTIONS

* Sizes not included in BS EN 10219 Part 2 (1997)

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D y

Circular

x t

x

y

Designation Outside Thickness

Mass Per Metre

Area Of Section A cm2 20.6 25.7 32.1 40.3 49.7 61.2 23.8 26.7 29.6 35.4 37.1 46.7 57.7 71.2 30.3 33.6 40.2 42.1 53.1 65.7 78.1 81.1 102 37.6 45.0 47.1 59.4 73.7 87.7 91.1 115 42.1 50.3 52.8 66.6 82.6 98.4 102 129 50.1 59.9 62.9 79.4 98.6 118 122 155

Ratio For Local Buckling D/t 42.1 33.7 26.7 21.0 16.8 13.5 48.4 43.0 38.7 32.3 30.7 24.2 19.4 15.5 48.7 43.8 36.5 34.8 27.4 21.9 18.3 17.5 13.7 48.9 40.8 38.8 30.6 24.5 20.4 19.6 15.3 54.6 45.5 43.3 34.1 27.3 22.8 21.8 17.1 64.8 54.0 51.4 40.5 32.4 27.0 25.9 20.2

Second Moment Of Inertia I cm4 697 856 1053 1297 1564 1868 1073 1198 1320 1560 1630 2016 2442 2934 1747 1928 2282 2386 2960 3598 4200 4345 5297 2699 3199 3346 4160 5073 5938 6147 7533 3781 4487 4696 5852 7154 8396 8697 10710 6369 7572 7929 9910 12160 14320 14850 18390

Radius Of Gyration r cm 5.81 5.78 5.73 5.67 5.61 5.53 6.71 6.69 6.67 6.64 6.63 6.57 6.50 6.42 7.59 7.57 7.54 7.53 7.47 7.40 7.33 7.32 7.20 8.47 8.43 8.42 8.37 8.30 8.23 8.21 8.10 9.48 9.44 9.43 9.37 9.31 9.24 9.22 9.10 11.3 11.2 11.2 11.2 11.1 11.0 11.0 10.9

Elastic Modulus

Plastic Modulus

Torsional Constants

Surface Area Per Metre C cm3 166 203 250 308 372 444 222 247 273 322 337 416 504 606 319 352 417 436 540 657 767 793 967 441 523 547 681 830 972 1006 1232 554 657 688 857 1048 1230 1274 1569 787 935 979 1224 1501 1768 1833 2271 m2/m 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.529 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.609 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.688 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.768 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 0.858 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02

D mm 168.3

193.7

219.1

244.5

273

*

* Sizes not included in BS EN 10219 Part 2 (1997)

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323.9

t mm 4.0 5.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.5 4.5 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 16.0 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 16.0 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 16.0 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 16.0

* *

*

*

*

*

kg/m 16.21 20.14 25.17 31.63 39.04 48.03 18.71 21.00 23.27 27.77 29.12 36.64 45.30 55.86 23.82 26.40 31.53 33.06 41.65 51.57 61.29 63.69 80.14 29.53 35.29 37.01 46.66 57.83 68.81 71.52 90.16 33.05 39.51 41.44 52.28 64.86 77.24 80.30 101.41 39.32 47.04 49.34 62.32 77.41 92.30 95.99 121.49

Z cm3 82.8 102 125 154 186 222 111 124 136 161 168 208 252 303 159 176 208 218 270 328 383 397 483 221 262 274 340 415 486 503 616 277 329 344 429 524 615 637 784 393 468 490 612 751 884 917 1136

S cm3 108 133 165 206 251 304 144 161 178 211 221 276 338 411 207 229 273 285 357 438 515 534 661 287 341 358 448 550 649 673 837 359 428 448 562 692 818 849 1058 509 606 636 799 986 1168 1213 1518

J cm4 1394 1712 2107 2595 3128 3737 2146 2395 2640 3119 3260 4031 4883 5869 3494 3856 4564 4772 5919 7197 8400 8689 10600 5397 6397 6692 8321 10150 11880 12300 15070 7562 8974 9392 11700 14310 16790 17400 21410 12740 15150 15860 19820 24320 28640 29690 36780

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108

D y

Circular

x t

x

y

Designation Outside Thickness

Mass Per Metre

Area Of Section A cm2 55.1 65.9 69.1 87.4 109 130 135 171 75.5 79.2 100 125 149 155 196 85.0 89.2 113 140 168 175 222 94.6 99.3 126 156 187 195 247

Ratio For Local Buckling D/t 71.1 59.3 56.4 44.5 35.6 29.6 28.4 22.2 67.7 64.5 50.8 40.6 33.9 32.5 25.4 76.2 72.5 57.1 45.7 38.1 36.6 28.6 84.7 80.6 63.5 50.8 42.3 40.6 31.8

Second Moment Of Inertia I cm4 8464 10070 10550 13200 16220 19140 19850 24660 15130 15850 19870 24480 28940 30030 37450 21620 22650 28450 35090 41560 43150 53960 29810 31250 39280 48520 57540 59760 74910

Radius Of Gyration r cm 12.4 12.4 12.4 12.3 12.2 12.2 12.1 12.0 14.2 14.1 14.1 14.0 14.0 13.9 13.8 15.9 15.9 15.9 15.8 15.7 15.7 15.6 17.7 17.7 17.7 17.6 17.5 17.5 17.4

Elastic Modulus

Plastic Modulus

Torsional Constants

Surface Area Per Metre C cm3 952 1133 1186 1485 1825 2153 2233 2774 1489 1560 1956 2409 2848 2956 3686 1892 1983 2490 3071 3637 3776 4723 2347 2460 3093 3820 4530 4705 5898 m2/m 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.28 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.44 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60 1.60

D mm 355.6

406.4

457

508

t mm 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 16.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 16.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 16.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 16.0

kg/m 43.23 51.73 54.27 68.58 85.23 101.68 105.77 134.00 59.25 62.16 78.60 97.76 116.72 121.43 154.05 66.73 70.02 88.58 110.24 131.69 137.03 174.01 74.28 77.95 98.65 122.81 146.79 152.75 194.14

Z cm3 476 566 593 742 912 1076 1117 1387 745 780 978 1205 1424 1478 1843 946 991 1245 1536 1819 1888 2361 1174 1230 1546 1910 2265 2353 2949

S cm3 615 733 769 967 1195 1417 1472 1847 962 1009 1270 1572 1867 1940 2440 1220 1280 1613 1998 2377 2470 3113 1512 1586 2000 2480 2953 3070 3874

J cm4 16930 20140 21090 26400 32450 38280 39700 49330 30260 31700 39750 48950 57870 60060 74900 43240 45310 56890 70180 83110 86290 107900 59620 62490 78560 97040 115100 119500 149800

* Sizes not included in BS EN 10219 Part 2 (1997)

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Square

D x

D y

x t y

Designation Size Thickness

DxD mm 12x12 t mm 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.2 1.6 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.0 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.5 1.2 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.0 1.2 1.6 1.8 2.3 3.0 3.2 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.3 3.0 1.6 2.0 2.3 3.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 1.5 1.6 2.0 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0

Mass Per Metre kg/m 0.357 0.421 0.540 0.400 0.500 0.456 0.540 0.699 0.555 0.659 0.859 1.05 1.25 0.897 1.18 1.33 1.36 1.54 1.70 1.64 1.89 1.08 1.41 1.57 1.97 2.48 2.62 1.13 1.50 1.82 2.02 2.68 1.81 2.22 2.48 3.29 2.31 2.82 3.30 4.20 2.44 2.45 2.93 3.40 4.25 4.54 5.45 6.11 6.69 7.71

13x13 16x16

19x19

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

20x20 25x25

30x30

* * * * * * * * * * * * * *

32x32

38x38

40x40

50x50

* * * * *

Area Of Section A cm 2 0.414 0.481 0.600 0.529 0.664 0.574 0.673 0.856 0.694 0.817 1.05 1.34 1.59 1.11 1.43 1.59 1.74 1.95 2.02 2.09 2.41 1.35 1.75 1.95 2.41 3.01 3.17 1.44 1.88 2.30 2.60 3.25 2.26 2.78 3.15 3.97 2.94 3.59 4.21 5.35 2.85 3.03 3.74 4.25 5.41 5.73 6.95 7.67 8.36 9.63

Second Moment Of Area I cm 4 0.0808 0.0897 0.102 0.118 0.136 0.210 0.239 0.284 0.368 0.421 0.511 0.692 0.766 1.03 1.28 1.38 1.48 1.61 1.65 1.69 1.84 1.83 2.31 2.52 2.99 3.50 3.62 2.25 2.84 3.36 3.71 4.38 4.92 5.88 6.54 7.85 6.94 8.22 9.32 11.1 11.1 11.7 14.1 15.9 19.5 20.4 23.7 25.5 27.0 29.5

Radius Of Gyration r cm 0.442 0.432 0.412 0.473 0.453 0.605 0.595 0.576 0.728 0.718 0.698 0.720 0.694 0.963 0.944 0.934 0.924 0.909 0.904 0.899 0.874 1.17 1.15 1.14 1.11 1.08 1.07 1.25 1.23 1.21 1.20 1.16 1.47 1.46 1.44 1.41 1.54 1.51 1.49 1.44 1.97 1.96 1.95 1.93 1.90 1.89 1.85 1.82 1.80 1.75

Elastic Modulus Z cm 3 0.135 0.150 0.169 0.182 0.209 0.263 0.298 0.354 0.387 0.444 0.538 0.692 0.766 0.820 1.02 1.11 1.19 1.29 1.32 1.35 1.47 1.22 1.54 1.68 2.00 2.34 2.41 1.41 1.78 2.10 2.32 2.74 2.59 3.10 3.44 4.13 3.47 4.11 4.66 5.54 4.43 4.68 5.66 6.34 7.79 8.16 9.49 10.2 10.8 11.8

Plastic Modulus S cm 3 0.167 0.189 0.224 0.228 0.273 0.318 0.366 0.449 0.463 0.537 0.668 0.877 1.00 0.975 1.24 1.35 1.47 1.62 1.67 1.71 1.91 1.44 1.84 2.03 2.45 2.96 3.08 1.65 2.12 2.54 2.84 3.44 3.06 3.70 4.15 5.10 4.13 4.97 5.72 7.01 5.15 5.46 6.66 7.52 9.39 9.89 11.7 12.8 13.7 15.3

Torsional Constants J cm 4 0.138 0.157 0.187 0.205 0.247 0.349 0.403 0.498 0.600 0.699 0.876 1.21 1.39 1.66 2.12 2.33 2.53 2.80 2.88 2.97 3.33 2.93 3.77 4.16 5.07 6.15 6.42 3.58 4.62 5.58 6.24 7.62 7.90 9.60 10.8 13.3 11.3 13.6 15.8 19.4 17.4 18.5 22.6 25.6 32.1 33.9 40.4 44.1 47.5 53.2 C cm 3 0.205 0.229 0.263 0.278 0.324 0.397 0.453 0.543 0.584 0.671 0.819 1.06 1.19 1.24 1.54 1.68 1.80 1.97 2.02 2.07 2.27 1.84 2.32 2.54 3.03 3.58 3.71 2.11 2.68 3.18 3.52 4.18 3.90 4.67 5.20 6.28 5.23 6.21 7.07 8.48 6.65 7.03 8.51 9.55 11.8 12.3 14.4 15.6 16.6 18.2

Surface Area Per Metre m 2/m 0.0446 0.0439 0.0425 0.0479 0.0465 0.0606 0.0599 0.0585 0.0726 0.0719 0.0705 0.0731 0.0714 0.0959 0.0945 0.0938 0.0931 0.0921 0.0918 0.0914 0.0897 0.116 0.115 0.114 0.112 0.110 0.109 0.124 0.123 0.121 0.120 0.118 0.147 0.145 0.144 0.142 0.153 0.151 0.150 0.146 0.195 0.195 0.193 0.192 0.190 0.189 0.186 0.185 0.183 0.179

* Sizes not included in EN 10219 Part 2 (1997)

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Square

D x

D y

x t y

Designation Size Thickness

DxD mm 60x60 t mm 1.6 2.3 3.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 2.3 3.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 1.6 2.3 3.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 2.5 3.0 3.6 4.0 5.0 2.3 3.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 3.0 3.6 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.3 2.3 3.0 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0

Mass Per Metre kg/m 2.88 4.06 5.19 6.71 7.43 8.13 9.44 4.31 5.52 8.04 8.92 10.57 3.06 4.31 5.59 7.08 7.88 8.92 10.40 5.17 6.13 7.24 7.97 9.70 5.23 6.81 8.66 9.70 10.76 12.78 7.07 8.37 9.22 11.30 13.20 13.50 6.23 8.01 8.33 9.50 10.50 11.50 12.80 15.10

* *

*

63.5x63.5

65x65

* * * * * * * * * * * *

70x70

*

75x75

* * * * * * *

80x80

90x90

* * * *

Area Of Section A cm 2 3.67 5.17 6.61 8.55 9.47 10.40 12.0 5.49 7.03 10.1 11.4 12.9 3.99 5.63 7.21 9.35 10.4 11.4 13.2 6.59 7.81 9.23 10.1 12.4 6.55 8.41 10.9 12.2 13.4 15.6 9.01 10.7 11.7 14.4 16.8 17.2 7.93 10.2 10.8 12.1 13.3 14.9 16.4 19.2

Second Moment Of Area I cm 4 20.7 28.3 35.1 43.6 47.2 50.5 56.1 33.9 42.1 57.0 66.1 68.2 26.5 36.4 45.4 56.6 61.6 66.1 73.9 49.4 57.5 66.5 72.1 84.6 57.1 71.6 90.2 98.6 106 120 88 102 111 131 149 149 101 127 135 149 162 178 193 220

Radius Of Gyration r cm 2.37 2.34 2.31 2.26 2.23 2.21 2.16 2.48 2.45 2.38 2.41 2.30 2.58 2.54 2.51 2.46 2.44 2.41 2.36 2.74 2.71 2.69 2.67 2.62 2.95 2.92 2.87 2.85 2.82 2.77 3.12 3.09 3.07 3.03 2.98 2.94 3.56 3.53 3.52 3.50 3.48 3.46 3.43 3.39

Elastic Modulus Z cm 3 6.89 9.44 11.7 14.5 15.7 16.8 18.7 10.7 13.3 18.0 20.3 21.5 8.16 11.2 14.0 17.4 18.9 20.3 22.7 14.1 16.4 19.0 20.6 24.2 15.2 19.1 24.1 26.3 28.4 32.0 22.0 25.5 27.8 32.9 37.3 37.1 22.4 28.3 29.9 33.0 36.0 39.5 42.9 49.0

Plastic Modulus S cm 3 8.0 11.1 14.0 17.6 19.3 20.9 23.7 12.5 15.8 21.9 25.0 27.0 9.4 13.1 16.6 21.0 23.1 25.0 28.5 16.5 19.4 22.7 24.8 29.6 17.7 22.5 28.8 31.7 34.5 39.6 25.8 30.2 33.1 39.7 45.8 46.1 25.9 33.0 35.0 38.9 42.6 47.1 51.4 59.5

Torsional Constants J cm 4 32.4 45.2 57.1 72.6 79.8 86.4 98.4 53.8 68.2 95.7 112 119 41.4 57.9 73.3 93.7 103 112 128 78.5 92.4 108 119 142 90.0 115 147 163 177 205 140 165 180 218 252 261 158 201 214 238 261 289 316 368 C cm 3 10.4 14.2 17.7 22.0 23.9 25.6 28.6 16.0 20.0 27.2 30.9 32.8 12.2 16.9 21.0 26.3 28.7 30.9 34.7 21.2 24.7 28.7 31.1 36.7 22.9 28.7 36.3 39.7 42.9 48.7 33.0 38.4 41.8 49.7 56.6 57.9 33.6 42.5 44.9 49.6 54.2 59.6 64.7 74.2

Surface Area Per Metre m 2/m 0.235 0.232 0.230 0.226 0.225 0.223 0.219 0.246 0.244 0.239 0.243 0.233 0.255 0.252 0.250 0.246 0.245 0.243 0.239 0.271 0.270 0.268 0.266 0.263 0.292 0.290 0.286 0.285 0.283 0.279 0.310 0.308 0.306 0.303 0.299 0.293 0.352 0.350 0.349 0.348 0.346 0.345 0.343 0.339

COLD HOLLOW SECTIONS

* Sizes not included in EN 10219 Part 2 (1997)

112

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

COLD FORMED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Square

D x

D y

x t y

Designation Size Thickness

DxD mm 100x100 t mm 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 9.0 10.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.5 5.0 6.0 6.4 9.0 3.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 9.0 10.0 12.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 9.0 12.7 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 10.0 12.0 12.5

Mass Per Metre kg/m 6.95 8.96 9.60 11.70 13.30 14.40 17.00 17.50 21.40 24.10 25.60 14.20 17.50 20.70 21.40 26.40 8.75 11.30 12.00 16.90 18.70 22.10 23.20 31.38 13.70 18.00 20.50 22.30 26.40 27.40 33.90 38.20 41.30 47.10 21.20 23.70 26.20 31.10 45.30 62.50 27.00 32.10 33.30 41.50 50.70 58.50 60.50

* * *

*

120x120

125x125

150x150

* * * * * * * * * *

*

175x175

* * * * * *

180x180

Area Of Section A cm 2 8.85 11.4 12.1 14.9 16.7 18.4 21.6 22.2 27.2 30.0 32.6 18.1 22.4 26.4 27.3 33.6 11.2 14.4 15.3 21.2 23.4 27.6 29.0 39.0 17.4 22.9 25.7 28.4 33.6 34.8 43.2 48.0 52.6 60.1 26.9 30.2 33.4 39.6 57.0 75.5 34.4 40.8 42.4 52.8 64.6 74.5 77.0

Second Moment Of Area I cm 4 140 177 187 226 249 271 311 314 366 391 411 402 485 562 572 677 278 355 376 506 553 641 660 838 623 808 896 982 1146 1174 1412 1537 1650 1780 1303 1449 1591 1864 2546 3124 1737 2037 2096 2546 3017 3322 3406

Radius Of Gyration r cm 3.97 3.94 3.93 3.89 3.87 3.84 3.79 3.76 3.67 3.61 3.55 4.71 4.66 4.61 4.58 4.49 4.99 4.96 4.95 4.89 4.86 4.82 4.78 4.64 5.98 5.93 5.91 5.89 5.84 5.80 5.71 5.66 5.61 5.44 6.95 6.93 6.91 6.86 6.68 6.43 7.11 7.06 7.03 6.94 6.84 6.68 6.65

Elastic Modulus Z cm 3 27.9 35.4 37.5 45.3 49.9 54.2 62.3 62.8 73.2 78.1 82.2 67.0 80.9 93.7 95.3 113 44.5 56.7 60.1 80.9 88.4 103 106 134 83.0 108 120 131 153 156 188 205 220 237 149 166 182 213 291 357 193 226 233 283 335 369 378

Plastic Modulus S cm 3 32.3 41.2 43.7 53.3 59.0 64.6 75.1 76.4 91.1 98.6 105.0 78.3 95.4 112 114 138 51.1 65.6 69.6 94.8 104 122 126 165 95.5 125 139 153 180 185 226 248 269 298 172 192 211 249 348 443 224 264 273 336 404 454 467

Torsional Constants J cm 4 217 279 296 362 402 441 514 536 645 700 750 637 778 913 955 1163 430 553 587 804 884 1038 1101 1454 965 1265 1411 1554 1833 1922 2364 2608 2840 3231 2028 2265 2498 2954 4246 5585 2724 3223 3383 4189 5074 5865 6050 C cm 3 41.9 53.2 56.3 68.1 75.1 81.7 94.1 97.0 114 123 130 101 122 141 146 175 66.8 85.1 90.2 122 133 154 162 208 125 162 180 197 230 239 289 316 341 380 224 249 273 320 446 568 290 340 354 432 515 584 600

Surface Area Per Metre m 2/m 0.392 0.390 0.389 0.386 0.385 0.383 0.379 0.373 0.366 0.361 0.357 0.466 0.463 0.459 0.453 0.446 0.492 0.490 0.489 0.485 0.483 0.479 0.473 0.461 0.590 0.586 0.585 0.583 0.579 0.573 0.566 0.561 0.557 0.538 0.686 0.685 0.683 0.679 0.661 0.635 0.703 0.699 0.693 0.686 0.677 0.658 0.656

* Sizes not included in EN 10219 Part 2 (1997)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

113

COLD HOLLOW SECTIONS

COLD FORMED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Square

D x

D y

x t y

Designation Size Thickness DxD mm 200x200 t mm 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 9.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 4.5 6.4 9.5 12.7 6.0 6.3 8.0 9.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 6.4 9.5 12.7 6.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 16.0 9.0 12.0 16.0 9.0 12.0 16.0

Mass Per Metre kg/m 30.10 35.80 37.20 46.50 52.30 57.00 66.00 68.30 28.10 38.40 56.00 72.60 45.20 47.10 59.10 66.50 72.70 84.80 88.00 48.50 71.20 92.90 54.70 71.60 80.60 88.40 104.00 108.00 138.00 94.70 124.00 163.00 109.00 143.00 188.00

*

203x203

* * * *

250x250

*

254x254

* * *

300x300

*

350x350

*

400x400

COLD HOLLOW SECTIONS

*

Area Of Section A cm 2 38.4 45.6 47.4 59.2 66.0 72.6 84.1 87.0 35.2 48.9 70.4 89.7 57.6 60.0 75.2 84.0 92.6 108 112 62.0 89.8 116 69.6 91.2 102 113 132 137 171 120 156 203 138 180 235

Second Moment Of Area I cm 4 2410 2833 2922 3566 3918 4251 4730 4859 2295 3103 4288 5161 5672 5873 7229 7984 8707 9859 10160 6257 8781 10830 9964 12800 14180 15520 17770 18350 22080 22970 29050 36510 34790 44320 56150

Radius Of Gyration r cm 7.93 7.88 7.85 7.76 7.71 7.65 7.50 7.47 8.07 7.96 7.80 7.58 9.92 9.89 9.80 9.75 9.70 9.55 9.52 10.0 9.89 9.68 12.0 11.8 11.8 11.7 11.6 11.6 11.4 13.8 13.6 13.4 15.9 15.7 15.5

Elastic Modulus Z cm 3 241 283 292 357 392 425 473 486 226 306 422 508 454 470 578 639 697 789 813 493 691 853 664 853 946 1035 1184 1223 1472 1312 1660 2086 1739 2216 2808

Plastic Modulus S cm 3 279 330 341 421 465 508 576 594 261 357 503 621 524 544 676 750 822 944 975 571 813 1023 764 991 1102 1211 1402 1451 1774 1522 1949 2488 2009 2587 3322

Torsional Constants J cm 4 3763 4459 4682 5815 6454 7072 8230 8502 3567 4973 7088 9030 8843 9290 11600 12910 14200 16690 17280 9898 14240 18420 15430 20310 22660 24970 29510 30600 37840 36370 47600 61480 54720 71840 93280 C cm 3 362 426 444 544 599 651 743 765 339 464 646 801 681 711 878 972 1062 1226 1266 746 1053 1328 997 1293 1434 1572 1829 1892 2299 1987 2552 3238 2630 3395 4336

Surface Area Per Metre m 2/m 0.783 0.779 0.773 0.766 0.761 0.757 0.738 0.736 0.797 0.785 0.771 0.747 0.979 0.973 0.966 0.961 0.957 0.938 0.936 0.989 0.975 0.951 1.18 1.17 1.16 1.16 1.14 1.14 1.12 1.36 1.34 1.32 1.56 1.54 1.52

* Sizes not included in EN 10219 Part 2 (1997)

114

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COLD FORMED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Rectangular

D x

B y

x t

Designation Thickness Size

Mass Per Metre

Area Of Section A

DxB mm 19x9

t mm 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.2 1.6 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.0 1.2 1.6 1.0 1.2 1.6 2.0 2.3 2.5 3.0 3.2 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 1.6 2.3 2.5 3.0 4.0 4.5 1.6 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 1.6 1.9 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * kg/m 0.411 0.421 0.540 0.555 0.659 0.859 0.670 0.860 0.707 0.838 1.10 0.858 1.02 1.34 0.949 1.13 1.50 1.15 1.37 1.81 2.15 2.48 2.62 3.07 3.41 2.31 2.82 3.30 4.20 2.37 3.33 3.60 4.25 5.45 6.01 2.45 3.40 4.38 4.54 5.64 2.70 3.22 3.86 4.99 5.17 6.27 6.94

Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 0.206 0.231 0.268 0.510 0.583 0.705 0.617 0.749 1.15 1.34 1.66 1.99 2.32 2.91 2.40 2.80 3.55 4.69 5.50 7.02 8.38 9.31 9.89 11.2 11.6 9.54 11.3 12.8 15.3 15.2 20.7 22.1 25.4 31.0 33.3 17.8 24.2 29.8 31.3 36.5 25.3 29.4 34.6 42.8 45.0 52.8 57.1 cm4 0.0621 0.0689 0.0783 0.160 0.181 0.215 0.219 0.262 0.391 0.449 0.550 0.676 0.783 0.973 1.26 1.47 1.85 1.60 1.88 2.37 2.81 3.10 3.28 3.67 3.80 4.29 5.05 5.70 6.69 8.16 11.0 11.7 13.4 16.3 17.4 7.79 10.5 12.8 13.4 15.5 8.85 10.2 12.0 14.7 15.4 17.9 19.2

Radius Of Gyration Axis x-x cm 0.645 0.633 0.607 0.869 0.857 0.833 0.869 0.845 1.14 1.12 1.10 1.36 1.35 1.33 1.42 1.41 1.39 1.81 1.80 1.77 1.75 1.73 1.72 1.69 1.68 1.80 1.77 1.75 1.69 2.24 2.20 2.19 2.17 2.11 2.08 2.39 2.35 2.31 2.30 2.25 2.71 2.69 2.67 2.63 2.62 2.57 2.54 Axis y-y cm 0.354 0.346 0.328 0.487 0.478 0.460 0.517 0.500 0.661 0.652 0.634 0.793 0.784 0.766 1.03 1.02 1.00 1.06 1.05 1.03 1.01 1.00 0.991 0.969 0.960 1.21 1.19 1.16 1.12 1.64 1.61 1.60 1.58 1.53 1.51 1.58 1.55 1.51 1.51 1.47 1.60 1.59 1.57 1.54 1.53 1.50 1.47

Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 0.216 0.243 0.282 0.408 0.467 0.564 0.494 0.599 0.722 0.836 1.04 1.05 1.22 1.53 1.26 1.48 1.87 1.87 2.20 2.81 3.35 3.72 3.95 4.47 4.65 3.81 4.52 5.13 6.10 5.07 6.88 7.36 8.46 10.3 11.1 5.49 7.46 9.18 9.63 11.2 6.76 7.85 9.23 11.4 12.0 14.1 15.2 Axis y-y cm3 0.138 0.153 0.174 0.266 0.302 0.358 0.337 0.402 0.488 0.562 0.688 0.711 0.824 1.02 1.01 1.17 1.48 1.28 1.50 1.90 2.25 2.48 2.62 2.93 3.04 2.86 3.37 3.80 4.46 4.08 5.50 5.87 6.72 8.14 8.72 4.10 5.53 6.75 7.06 8.17 4.66 5.39 6.30 7.72 8.09 9.40 10.1

Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 0.283 0.323 0.390 0.521 0.604 0.749 0.632 0.786 0.905 1.06 1.34 1.30 1.53 1.95 1.52 1.79 2.30 2.31 2.73 3.53 4.26 4.78 5.11 5.86 6.14 4.74 5.70 6.57 8.05 6.12 8.44 9.06 10.5 13.2 14.3 6.70 9.24 11.5 12.2 14.5 8.3 9.7 11.5 14.5 15.3 18.3 19.9 Axis y-y cm3 0.165 0.188 0.224 0.310 0.358 0.440 0.398 0.492 0.558 0.650 0.818 0.805 0.943 1.20 1.14 1.35 1.72 1.43 1.69 2.17 2.62 2.92 3.12 3.56 3.73 3.33 3.98 4.58 5.58 4.64 6.38 6.84 7.94 9.89 10.7 4.63 6.37 7.93 8.35 9.89 5.21 6.08 7.19 8.98 9.46 11.2 12.3

Torsional Constants

Surface Area Per Metre

J cm4 0.165 0.187 0.222 0.410 0.473 0.582 0.549 0.679 0.962 1.12 1.41 1.65 1.93 2.46 2.63 3.10 3.99 3.85 4.54 5.85 7.06 7.90 8.43 9.64 10.1 9.77 11.7 13.5 16.5 16.9 23.4 25.1 29.3 36.7 39.9 17.4 24.0 30.0 31.6 37.5 21.2 24.7 29.2 36.6 38.6 45.9 50.0

C cm3 0.244 0.273 0.315 0.467 0.532 0.638 0.586 0.707 0.847 0.978 1.21 1.23 1.43 1.79 1.66 1.94 2.45 2.22 2.59 3.29 3.92 4.34 4.60 5.18 5.38 4.84 5.72 6.49 7.71 6.72 9.10 9.72 11.2 13.7 14.7 6.91 9.36 11.5 12.1 14.0 8.03 9.30 10.9 13.4 14.1 16.5 17.8 m2/m 0.0526 0.0519 0.0505 0.0706 0.0699 0.0685 0.0719 0.0705 0.0926 0.0919 0.0905 0.111 0.110 0.109 0.123 0.122 0.121 0.147 0.146 0.145 0.143 0.142 0.141 0.140 0.139 0.153 0.151 0.150 0.146 0.195 0.192 0.191 0.190 0.186 0.185 0.201 0.198 0.196 0.195 0.192 0.221 0.219 0.218 0.216 0.215 0.212 0.211

25x12

25x13 32x16

38x19

38x25

50x25

50x30

60x40

* *

65x38

* * *

75x38

* * * * * * * *

cm2 0.494 0.577 0.728 0.674 0.793 1.02 0.817 1.05 0.894 1.06 1.37 1.07 1.27 1.66 1.19 1.42 1.85 1.43 1.71 2.23 2.74 3.10 3.34 3.91 4.13 2.94 3.59 4.21 5.35 3.03 4.25 4.59 5.41 6.95 7.67 3.13 4.39 5.59 5.92 7.19 3.45 4.06 4.85 6.19 6.56 7.99 8.84

* Sizes not included in BS EN 10219 Part 2 (1997)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

115

COLD HOLLOW SECTIONS

COLD FORMED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Rectangular

D x

B y

x t

Designation Size Thickness

Mass Per Metre

Area Of Section A

DxB mm 75x50

t mm 1.9 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 4.6 4.8 5.0 6.0 3.0 4.0 3.0 3.6 4.0 5.0 1.9 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 6.3 3.0 3.6 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.3 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 4.6 4.8 5.0 6.0 3.0 3.6 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.3 4.0 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 * * * * * * * * * * kg/m 3.60 4.31 5.59 5.80 7.08 7.88 8.04 8.33 8.53 9.92 5.19 6.71 6.13 7.24 7.97 9.70 4.36 5.23 6.60 7.07 8.59 9.70 10.50 12.30 12.50 7.07 8.37 9.22 11.30 13.20 13.50 6.04 8.02 8.33 10.20 11.50 11.70 12.10 12.80 15.10 8.01 9.50 10.50 12.80 15.10 15.50 11.70 14.40 17.00 17.50 21.40

Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 35.5 41.9 52.2 54.9 65.0 70.6 71.6 73.7 75.6 84.4 52.3 64.8 81.9 94.7 103 121 71.6 84.8 106 112 134 147 158 179 176 121 140 153 181 205 203 112 142 150 180 198 201 208 215 245 189 221 241 287 328 327 295 353 406 408 476 cm4 19.1 22.4 27.8 29.2 34.3 37.2 37.7 38.8 39.7 44.1 17.6 21.5 32.7 37.7 40.7 47.4 24.5 29.0 36.1 38.0 44.9 48.9 52.5 58.7 58.2 54.6 63.3 68.7 80.8 91.2 90.9 72.3 91.1 96.2 115 127 129 133 137 156 64.4 74.8 81.2 96.0 109 109 157 188 215 217 252

Radius Of Gyration Axis x-x cm 2.81 2.79 2.75 2.74 2.69 2.67 2.66 2.65 2.64 2.58 2.81 2.75 3.24 3.20 3.18 3.12 3.62 3.60 3.56 3.55 3.50 3.47 3.44 3.38 3.32 3.66 3.63 3.60 3.55 3.49 3.44 3.82 3.78 3.77 3.73 3.71 3.70 3.69 3.68 3.63 4.30 4.27 4.25 4.19 4.13 4.07 4.44 4.39 4.33 4.28 4.18 Axis y-y cm 2.05 2.04 2.00 2.00 1.96 1.94 1.93 1.92 1.91 1.87 1.63 1.59 2.05 2.02 2.00 1.96 2.12 2.10 2.07 2.06 2.03 2.00 1.98 1.94 1.91 2.46 2.44 2.42 2.37 2.33 2.30 3.06 3.03 3.02 2.99 2.96 2.96 2.95 2.94 2.89 2.51 2.48 2.47 2.42 2.38 2.35 3.24 3.20 3.15 3.12 3.04

Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 9.48 11.2 13.9 14.6 17.3 18.8 19.1 19.6 20.2 22.5 13.1 16.2 18.2 21.1 22.8 26.8 14.3 17.0 21.3 22.5 26.8 29.3 31.6 35.8 35.1 24.1 28.0 30.5 36.2 41.1 40.7 22.5 28.4 30.0 36.0 39.6 40.3 41.6 42.9 49.0 31.5 36.8 40.1 47.8 54.7 54.5 49.1 58.9 67.7 68.1 79.3 Axis y-y cm3 7.62 8.96 11.1 11.7 13.7 14.9 15.1 15.5 15.9 17.6 8.78 10.7 13.1 15.1 16.3 18.9 9.82 11.6 14.4 15.2 18.0 19.5 21.0 23.5 23.3 18.2 21.1 22.9 26.9 30.4 30.3 19.3 24.3 25.6 30.8 33.7 34.3 35.4 36.5 41.6 21.5 24.9 27.1 32.0 36.3 36.4 39.3 46.9 53.8 54.3 62.9

Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 11.4 13.6 17.1 18.0 21.7 23.8 24.2 24.9 25.7 29.2 16.5 20.9 22.6 26.4 28.8 34.4 17.6 21.0 26.7 28.2 34.1 37.6 40.8 46.9 46.9 29.6 34.7 37.9 45.6 52.5 52.8 26.6 33.9 35.9 43.7 48.3 49.2 51.0 52.7 61.0 39.2 46.1 50.5 60.9 70.6 71.2 59.8 72.4 84.3 85.6 102.0 Axis y-y cm3 8.65 10.3 12.9 13.6 16.3 17.9 18.2 18.8 19.3 21.9 10.2 12.8 15.0 17.5 19.1 22.7 10.9 13.0 16.4 17.4 20.9 23.0 25.0 28.5 28.6 20.8 24.3 26.6 31.9 36.6 36.9 21.9 27.9 29.5 35.9 39.6 40.3 41.8 43.2 49.9 24.2 28.4 31.1 37.4 43.1 43.7 45.2 54.7 63.5 64.7 76.9

Torsional Constants

Surface Area Per Metre

J cm4 39.5 46.9 59.3 62.6 75.3 82.7 84.1 86.8 89.5 102 43.9 55.2 76.7 89.6 97.7 116 58.7 69.9 88.6 93.7 113 124 135 154 158 122 143 156 188 216 223 138 177 187 228 253 257 267 276 320 156 184 201 242 280 289 331 402 469 488 584

C cm3 12.5 14.8 18.4 19.3 22.9 24.9 25.2 26.0 26.7 29.8 15.3 18.8 22.4 25.8 28.0 32.7 16.9 20.0 25.0 26.4 31.3 34.2 36.8 41.4 42.1 30.6 35.6 38.7 45.8 51.9 53.0 31.0 39.1 41.3 49.7 54.6 55.5 57.4 59.2 67.7 37.1 43.2 47.0 55.8 63.6 65.1 64.9 77.8 89.4 92.1 108.0 m2/m 0.243 0.242 0.240 0.239 0.236 0.235 0.234 0.234 0.233 0.229 0.230 0.226 0.270 0.268 0.266 0.263 0.293 0.292 0.290 0.289 0.286 0.285 0.283 0.279 0.273 0.310 0.308 0.306 0.303 0.299 0.293 0.342 0.340 0.339 0.336 0.335 0.334 0.334 0.333 0.329 0.350 0.348 0.346 0.343 0.339 0.333 0.386 0.383 0.379 0.373 0.366

80x40 90x50

*

100x50

* * * *

100x60

*

100x75

* * * * * * * * * *

120x60

120x80

cm2 4.51 5.40 6.91 7.33 8.95 9.92 10.1 10.5 10.9 12.6 6.61 8.55 7.81 9.23 10.1 12.4 5.46 6.55 8.41 8.93 10.9 12.2 13.4 15.6 15.9 9.01 10.7 11.7 14.4 16.8 17.2 7.70 9.91 10.5 12.9 14.4 14.7 15.3 15.9 18.6 10.2 12.1 13.3 16.4 19.2 19.7 14.9 18.4 21.6 22.2 27.2

COLD HOLLOW SECTIONS

* Sizes not included in BS EN 10219 Part 2 (1997)

116

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

COLD FORMED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Rectangular

D x

B y

x t

Designation Size Thickness

Mass Per Metre

Area Of Section A

DxB mm 125x50

t mm 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 4.6 4.8 5.0 6.0 6.4 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 6.4 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 4.6 4.8 5.0 6.0 6.4 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 4.6 4.8 5.0 6.0 6.4 9.0 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 4.6 4.8 5.0 6.0 6.3 6.4 8.0 9.0 9.5 12.7 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * kg/m 6.04 8.02 8.33 10.20 11.50 11.70 12.10 12.80 15.10 15.60 6.95 9.23 9.60 11.80 13.30 14.70 17.20 18.20 9.23 9.60 11.80 13.30 13.50 14.00 14.70 17.30 18.20 10.10 10.90 13.40 15.10 15.30 14.00 16.70 19.70 20.70 27.60 11.58 12.00 14.90 16.90 17.10 17.80 18.30 21.70 22.40 23.20 27.70 31.40 33.30 42.30

Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 148 187 198 238 261 265 274 282 322 322 192 243 257 311 342 373 428 435 299 316 381 420 427 442 456 523 528 380 402 488 539 549 568 588 679 693 865 461 488 595 658 670 695 719 835 848 858 1008 1089 1127 1232 cm4 35.5 44.4 46.7 55.6 60.6 61.5 63.4 65.2 73.3 74.0 87.5 111 117 141 155 168 192 196 52.6 55.5 66.2 72.2 73.4 75.7 77.9 87.9 89.3 130 137 166 183 186 192 198 228 233 287 248 262 319 352 358 371 384 444 453 458 536 577 597 655

Radius Of Gyration Axis x-x cm 4.39 4.34 4.33 4.28 4.25 4.25 4.23 4.22 4.16 4.08 4.65 4.61 4.60 4.56 4.53 4.50 4.45 4.39 5.12 5.10 5.05 5.02 5.01 5.00 4.99 4.92 4.84 5.42 5.41 5.37 5.34 5.33 5.32 5.31 5.25 5.19 5.01 5.65 5.64 5.60 5.58 5.57 5.56 5.55 5.50 5.45 5.44 5.35 5.29 5.26 4.96 Axis y-y cm 2.15 2.12 2.11 2.07 2.05 2.04 2.04 2.03 1.98 1.95 3.14 3.11 3.10 3.07 3.04 3.02 2.98 2.94 2.15 2.14 2.10 2.08 2.08 2.07 2.06 2.02 1.99 3.17 3.16 3.13 3.11 3.10 3.09 3.08 3.04 3.01 2.89 4.15 4.14 4.10 4.08 4.07 4.06 4.05 4.01 3.98 3.98 3.90 3.85 3.82 3.61

Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 23.7 29.9 31.6 38.0 41.7 42.4 43.8 45.2 51.5 51.6 30.6 38.9 41.1 49.7 54.8 59.6 68.5 69.6 39.8 42.1 50.9 56.0 57.0 58.9 60.8 69.8 70.4 50.6 53.6 65.1 71.9 73.2 75.8 78.4 90.5 92.4 115 61.4 65.1 79.3 87.7 89.4 92.7 95.9 111 113 114 134 145 150 164 Axis y-y cm3 14.2 17.7 18.7 22.2 24.2 24.6 25.3 26.1 29.3 29.6 23.3 29.5 31.1 37.5 41.2 44.7 51.1 52.2 21.1 22.2 26.5 28.9 29.4 30.3 31.1 35.2 35.7 34.7 36.6 44.2 48.7 49.5 51.2 52.9 60.7 62.2 76.6 49.5 52.5 63.7 70.4 71.7 74.3 76.8 88.8 90.5 91.6 107 115 119 131

Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 29.9 38.1 40.4 49.0 54.2 55.2 57.2 59.1 68.3 69.6 37.0 47.3 50.1 61.1 67.7 74.1 86.2 88.5 51.4 54.5 66.5 73.6 75.0 77.8 80.5 93.5 95.7 62.5 66.3 81.1 90.0 91.7 95.2 98.6 115 119 153 73.5 78.0 95.7 106 108 113 117 137 140 142 169 185 192 221 Axis y-y cm3 15.7 20.0 21.1 25.5 28.1 28.6 29.6 30.6 35.1 35.9 26.1 33.3 35.3 43.0 47.5 52.0 60.3 62.1 23.5 24.9 30.1 33.2 33.8 35.0 36.2 41.7 42.9 38.7 41.0 50.1 55.5 56.5 58.6 60.7 70.6 73.1 93.6 55.8 59.2 72.5 80.5 82.1 85.2 88.3 103 106 107 128 140 145 167

Torsional Constants

Surface Area Per Metre

J cm4 93.9 119 126 152 167 170 176 182 209 217 190 243 258 315 349 382 444 467 150 159 192 212 215 223 230 264 275 312 331 404 448 457 474 491 572 603 775 507 539 662 736 751 780 809 948 992 1005 1206 1320 1374 1619

C cm3 25.3 31.6 33.4 39.8 43.5 44.2 45.6 47.0 53.1 54.7 39.1 49.5 52.3 63.1 69.5 75.6 86.7 90.3 38.3 40.4 48.3 52.9 53.7 55.4 57.1 64.8 66.9 59.8 63.3 76.6 84.4 85.9 88.9 91.9 105.8 110.4 138.1 81.4 86.2 105 116 118 123 127 147 152 154 182 197 204 234 m2/m 0.342 0.340 0.339 0.336 0.335 0.334 0.334 0.333 0.329 0.323 0.392 0.390 0.389 0.386 0.385 0.383 0.379 0.373 0.390 0.389 0.386 0.385 0.384 0.384 0.383 0.379 0.373 0.440 0.439 0.436 0.435 0.434 0.434 0.433 0.429 0.423 0.411 0.490 0.489 0.486 0.485 0.484 0.484 0.483 0.479 0.473 0.473 0.466 0.461 0.459 0.435

125x75

150x50

150x75

150x100

* * * *

cm2 7.70 9.91 10.5 12.9 14.4 14.7 15.3 15.9 18.6 19.4 8.85 11.4 12.1 14.9 16.7 18.4 21.6 22.6 11.4 12.1 14.9 16.7 17.0 17.7 18.4 21.6 22.6 12.9 13.7 16.9 18.9 19.3 20.1 20.9 24.6 25.8 34.5 14.4 15.3 18.9 21.2 21.6 22.5 23.4 27.6 28.5 29.0 35.2 39.0 40.8 50.1

* Sizes not included in BS EN 10219 Part 2 (1997)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

117

COLD HOLLOW SECTIONS

COLD FORMED HOLLOW SECTIONS

Rectangular

D x

B y

x t

Designation Size Thickness

Mass Per Metre

Area Of Section A

DxB mm 160x80

t mm 5.0 6.0 8.0 4.8 6.4 9.5 12.7 4.8 6.4 9.5 12.7 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 9.0 9.5 12.0 12.7 4.5 6.0 6.3 9.0 9.5 12.0 12.7 5.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 9.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 6.0 6.3 10.0 6.0 6.3 8.0 9.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 6.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 12.0 12.5 kg/m 17.50 20.70 26.40 19.70 25.70 37.10 47.30 21.60 28.30 40.90 52.40 18.00 20.50 22.30 26.40 27.40 33.90 40.52 40.90 49.10 52.40 25.40 31.10 33.30 45.30 48.40 58.50 62.50 30.10 35.80 37.20 46.50 52.30 57.00 66.00 68.30 35.8 37.2 57.0 45.20 47.10 59.10 66.50 72.70 84.80 88.00 54.70 71.60 80.60 88.40 104.00 108.00

Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y cm4 722 836 1001 1013 1260 1673 1867 1187 1487 1999 2286 1200 1331 1459 1703 1739 2091 2276 2362 2607 2679 1761 2268 2330 3097 3225 3668 3794 3304 3886 4001 4886 5369 5825 6458 6633 4777 4907 7106 7370 7624 9389 10370 11310 12790 13180 14790 18970 21020 23000 26250 27100 cm4 244 281 335 426 528 694 777 708 886 1184 1356 411 455 497 577 591 705 764 792 876 898 1135 1457 1499 1985 2066 2353 2432 1508 1768 1825 2219 2433 2634 2925 3002 842 868 1224 3962 4104 5042 5561 6058 6854 7060 5092 6517 7204 7864 8977 9260

Radius Of Gyration Axis x-x cm 5.68 5.62 5.46 6.38 6.26 6.06 5.75 6.60 6.49 6.30 6.03 7.23 7.20 7.17 7.12 7.06 6.95 6.89 6.85 6.59 6.53 7.64 7.56 7.53 7.37 7.34 7.14 7.09 9.28 9.23 9.18 9.08 9.02 8.96 8.77 8.73 10 10 10 11.3 11.3 11.2 11.1 11.1 10.9 10.8 14.6 14.4 14.4 14.3 14.1 14.1 Axis y-y cm 3.30 3.26 3.16 4.14 4.05 3.90 3.71 5.09 5.01 4.85 4.65 4.23 4.21 4.19 4.14 4.12 4.04 3.99 3.97 3.82 3.78 6.13 6.06 6.04 5.90 5.88 5.71 5.67 6.27 6.23 6.20 6.12 6.07 6.02 5.90 5.87 4.30 4.28 4.11 8.29 8.27 8.19 8.14 8.09 7.96 7.94 8.55 8.45 8.40 8.36 8.24 8.22

Elastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 90.2 105 125 116 144 191 213 136 170 228 261 120 133 146 170 174 209 228 236 261 268 176 227 233 310 322 367 379 264 311 320 391 430 466 517 531 318 327 474 491 508 626 691 754 853 879 739 949 1051 1150 1312 1355 Axis y-y cm3 61.0 70.2 83.7 85.2 106 139 155 113 142 189 217 82.2 90.9 99.4 115 118 141 153 158 175 180 151 194 200 265 275 314 324 201 236 243 296 324 351 390 400 168 174 245 396 410 504 556 606 685 706 509 652 720 786 898 926

Plastic Modulus Axis x-x cm3 113 132 163 142 180 246 288 163 207 285 340 148 165 181 213 219 267 293 306 350 363 209 271 280 379 396 463 482 320 378 391 482 533 582 658 678 411 425 631 588 610 757 840 921 1056 1091 906 1173 1305 1434 1656 1714 Axis y-y cm3 69.7 81.3 100 96.7 122 166 195 129 164 226 270 91.7 102 112 132 135 165 180 188 215 223 172 223 230 312 326 380 396 225 266 276 340 375 409 463 477 188 194 285 446 463 574 637 698 801 828 562 728 809 888 1027 1062

Torsional Constants

Surface Area Per Metre

J cm4 601 702 882 969 1251 1719 2052 1410 1832 2554 3129 985 1097 1206 1417 1483 1811 1988 2073 2414 2496 2169 2826 2965 4055 4244 5099 5316 3285 3886 4078 5050 5596 6121 7088 7315 2403 2515 3681 8115 8524 10630 11820 12990 15240 15770 12070 15820 17620 19370 22780 23590

C cm3 106 122 150 144 182 243 283 184 234 317 377 142 157 172 200 208 250 272 282 322 331 243 313 325 435 454 532 552 337 396 412 504 554 602 684 704 306 318 455 651 680 838 927 1012 1167 1204 877 1133 1255 1373 1591 1644 m2/m 0.463 0.459 0.446 0.534 0.523 0.509 0.485 0.584 0.573 0.559 0.535 0.586 0.585 0.583 0.579 0.573 0.566 0.561 0.559 0.538 0.535 0.685 0.679 0.673 0.661 0.659 0.638 0.635 0.783 0.779 0.773 0.766 0.761 0.757 0.738 0.736 0.779 0.773 0.757 0.979 0.973 0.966 0.961 0.957 0.938 0.936 1.18 1.17 1.16 1.16 1.14 1.14

175x100

175x125

* * * * * * * * *

200x100

* * * * * * * * * *

200x150

250x150

*

300x100

300x200

*

400x200

* * * *

cm2 22.4 26.4 33.6 24.9 32.2 45.5 56.5 27.3 35.4 50.3 62.8 22.9 25.7 28.4 33.6 34.8 43.2 48.0 50.3 60.1 62.8 30.2 39.6 41.1 57.0 59.8 72.1 75.5 38.4 45.6 47.4 59.2 66.0 72.6 84.1 87.0 45.6 47.4 72.6 57.6 60.0 75.2 84.0 92.6 108 112 69.6 91.2 102 113 132 137

COLD HOLLOW SECTIONS

* Sizes not included in BS EN 10219 Part 2 (1997)

118

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

CHANNELS

116

Channels

Rolling tolerances ­ EN 10279 : 2000

This European standard specifies requirements for the tolerances on dimensions, shape and mass on hot rolled steel channels with parallel flanges.

Range Tolerance mm ± 1.5 ± 2.0 ± 3.0 ± 4.0 ± 1.5 ± 2.0 ± 2.5 ± 3.0 ± 0.5 ± 0.7 ± 1.0 -0.5 -1 -1.5

Designation

Property Height h Flange width b Web thickness s Flange thickness t Heel radius r3 Out of squareness K + K' Web flatness f

mm h 65 65< h 200 200< h 400 400 < h b 50 50 < b 100 100 < b 125 125 < b s 10 10 s 15 15 s t 10 10 t 15 15 t

Tolerance limited by weight

All Sizes b 100

< 0.3 * t 2 2% of b

100 < b

h

100 200 400

± 0.5 ± 1.0 ± 1.5 ± 1.5

100< h 200< h

400 < h Straightness (x direction) h 150 150< h 300 300 < h h 150 150< h 300 300 < h h 125 125 < h All L All 100 50

Straightness (y direction) Mass per unit length Standard Alternative Standard (by agreement) kg/m Length

0 -50

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

119

CHANNELS

0.30% L 0.20% L 0.15% L 0.50% L 0.30% L 0.20% L ± 6.0% ± 4.0%

CHANNELS

Tapered Flange

T D r1 t

y r2 x cy y x

Metric

Designation Size Mass Per Metre kg/m 3.86 6.92 9.36 13.40 18.60 24.00 21.40 24.60 30.30 28.40 34.60 40.20 38.10 43.80 48.60 54.50 62.00 67.30 Thickness Web Flange Root Toe Area Of Section A cm2 4.92 8.82 11.9 17.1 23.7 30.5 27.2 31.3 38.7 36.1 44.1 51.2 48.6 55.7 61.9 69.4 79.0 85.7 Radius

B

Centre Of Gravity Cy cm 0.81 1.27 1.55 1.94 2.31 2.31 2.15 2.24 2.77 2.15 2.42 2.39 2.23 2.33 2.28 2.41 2.29 2.25

Second Moment Of Area Ix cm4 16.8 75.9 189 425 864 1060 1380 1950 2490 2900 4180 4690 6440 7400 7870 14500 15600 17600 Iy cm4 2.49 12.4 26.9 65.5 122 151 137 177 286 200 306 342 325 373 379 557 584 655

Radius Of Gyration rx cm 1.85 2.93 3.99 4.99 6.04 5.90 7.12 7.89 8.02 8.96 9.74 9.47 11.5 11.5 11.3 14.5 14.1 14.3 ry cm 0.71 1.19 1.50 1.96 2.27 2.22 2.24 2.38 2.72 2.35 2.63 2.58 2.59 2.59 2.48 2.83 2.72 2.76 Zx cm3 6.73 20.2 37.8 68.0 115 141 154 195 249 252 335 375 429 494 525 762 822 926

Elastic Modulus

DxBxt mm 50x25x5 75x40x5 100x50x5 125x65x6 150x75x6.5 150x75x9 180x75x7 200x80x7.5 200x90x8 230x80x8 250x90x9 250x90x11 300x90x9 300x90x10 300x90x12 380x100x10.5 380x100x13 380x100x13

t mm 5.0 5.0 5.0 6.0 6.5 9.0 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.0 9.0 11.0 9.0 10.0 12.0 10.5 13.0 13.0

T mm 6.0 7.0 7.5 8.0 10.0 12.5 10.5 11.0 13.5 12.0 13.0 14.5 12.0 15.5 16.0 16.0 16.5 20.0

r1 mm 6 8 8 8 10 15 11 12 14 13 14 17 14 19 19 18 18 24

r2 mm 3 4 4 4 5 7.5 5.5 6 7 6.5 7 8.5 7 9.5 9.5 9 9 12

Zy cm4 1.48 4.54 7.82 14.4 23.6 29.1 25.5 30.8 45.9 34.2 46.5 51.7 48.0 56.0 56.4 73.3 75.8 87.8

Note : The flange thickness is measured at the centre of the flange

CHANNELS

120

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

CHANNELS

Tapered Flange

T

y

D

x t Cy y x

Imperial

Designation Size Mass Per Metre lb/ft 4.5 7 10 12 16 14 kg/m 6.7 10.42 14.90 17.88 23.84 20.84 Depth Width Thickness Area Of Of Web Flange Of Section Section Section D mm 76.2 101.6 127.0 152.4 152.4 177.8 B mm 38.1 50.8 63.5 76.2 88.9 76.2 t mm 5.1 6.1 6.4 6.4 7.1 6.6 T mm 6.8 7.6 9.2 9.0 11.6 10.3 A Centre Of Gravity Cy cm 1.12 1.41 1.82 2.04 2.67 2.05 Second moment Of Area Ix Iy

B

Radius Of Gyration rx cm 2.95 3.95 5.04 6.11 6.20 7.10 ry cm 1.08 1.48 1.88 2.24 2.66 2.25

Elastic Modulus

Plastic Modulus

Zx

Zy

Sx

Sy

in x in 3x11/2 4x2 5x21/2 6x3 6x31/2 7x3

cm2

8.62 13.16 18.79 22.48 30.02 26.39

cm4

75.1 206 477 838 1154 1329

cm4

10.1 27.7 64.7 109 210 129

cm3

19.71 40.51 75.1 110 151.4 149.5

cm3

3.78 7.64 14.5 20 34.5 23.6

cm3

23.7 48.7 89.1 129 177 176

cm3

7.5 14.9 27.7 38.3 63.7 45.3

(British Channels) Note : The flange thickness is measured at the centre of the flange

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

121

CHANNELS

CHANNELS

Tapered Flange

T

y

D

x t Cy y x

Imperial

Designation Size Mass Per Metre lb/ft 4.1 5 6 5.4 7.2 6.7 9 8.2 10.5 13 9.8 12.25 14.75 11.5 13.7 18.5 13.4 15 20 15.3 20 25 30 20.7 25 30 33.9 40 50 kg/m 6.1 7.4 8.90 8.00 10.80 10.40 13.00 12.20 15.60 19.30 14.60 18.20 22.00 17.10 20.50 27.90 19.90 22.00 30.00 22.80 30.00 37.00 45.00 30.80 37.00 45.00 50.40 60.00 74.00 Depth Width Thickness Area Of Of Web Flange Of Section Section Section D mm 76.2 76.2 76.2 101.6 101.6 127.0 127.0 152.4 152.4 152.4 177.8 177.8 177.8 203.0 203.0 203.0 228.6 228.6 228.6 254.0 254.0 254.0 254.0 305.0 305.0 305.0 381.0 381.0 381.0 B mm 35.0 37.0 40.0 40.0 43.0 47.0 48.0 48.0 51.0 54.0 53.0 55.0 58.0 57.0 59.0 64.0 61.0 63.0 67.0 65.0 69.0 73.0 76.0 74.0 77.0 80.0 86.0 89.0 94.0 t mm 4.3 6.6 9 4.7 8.2 4.8 8.3 5.1 8 11.1 5.3 8 10.6 5.6 7.7 12.4 5.9 7.2 11.4 6.1 9.6 13.4 17.1 7.2 9.8 13 10.2 13.2 18.2 T mm 6.9 6.9 6.9 7.5 7.5 8.1 8.1 8.7 8.7 8.7 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.9 9.9 9.9 10.5 10.5 10.5 11.1 11.1 11.1 11.1 12.7 12.7 12.7 16.5 16.5 16.5 A Centre Of Gravity Cy cm 1.06 1.06 1.13 1.15 1.13 1.29 1.21 1.26 1.24 1.28 1.36 1.31 1.33 1.44 1.39 1.43 1.50 1.49 1.47 1.58 1.53 1.56 1.63 1.74 1.70 1.70 1.99 1.97 2.02 Second moment Of Area Ix Iy

B

Radius Of Gyration rx cm 2.98 2.85 2.76 3.97 3.72 5.01 4.66 5.94 5.63 5.41 6.94 6.59 6.39 7.86 7.57 7.15 8.86 8.66 8.19 9.81 9.29 8.93 8.68 11.70 11.20 10.90 14.30 13.80 13.30 ry cm 1.01 1.01 1.03 1.16 1.12 1.36 1.27 1.37 1.35 1.31 1.52 1.46 1.42 1.57 1.54 1.51 1.73 1.73 1.65 1.78 1.74 1.70 1.67 2.00 1.97 1.92 2.28 2.24 2.19

Elastic Modulus

Plastic Modulus

Zx

Zy

Sx

Sy

in x in 3x13/8 3x11/2 3x15/8 4x15/8 4x13/4 5x13/4 5x17/8 6x17/8 6x2 6X21/8 7x21/8 7x21/4 7x21/4 8x21/4 8x23/8 8x21/2 9x23/8 9x21/2 9x25/8 10x25/8 10x23/4 10x27/8 10x3 12x3 12x3 12x31/8 15x33/8 15x31/2 15x33/4

cm2

7.81 9.48 11.30 10.30 13.70 12.70 17.00 15.50 19.90 24.70 18.50 23.20 27.90 21.80 26.10 35.50 25.40 28.10 37.90 29.00 37.90 47.40 56.90 39.30 47.40 56.90 64.30 76.10 94.80

cm4

69.11 76.58 86.37 160.3 190.8 332.4 371.3 548.4 630 720.8 895.5 1007 1143 1340 1490 1820 1991 2132 2544 2770 3260 3790 4270 5340 5970 6720 13100 14400 16700

cm4

8.0 9.6 12.1 13.8 17.4 24.3 27.4 29.2 36 42.4 42.7 49.2 56.8 53.8 62 81.7 76.1 85.3 103 91.2 114 138 158 157 183 209 334 379 454

cm3

18.14 20.1 22.67 31.56 37.56 52.34 58.47 72 82.68 94.59 100.7 113.3 128.6 132 147 179 174.2 186.5 222.5 218 257 298 336 350 391 441 688 756 877

cm3

3.27 3.65 4.2 4.89 5.48 7.19 7.65 8.3 9.36 10.3 10.9 11.8 12.7 12.6 13.7 16.4 16.7 17.8 19.8 18.5 21.2 24 26.5 27.7 30.5 33.2 50.5 54.7 61.5

cm3

21.7 24.9 28.7 37.8 47 61.8 73.1 85.6 103 121 120 140 163 156 177 226 208 226 282 257 315 377 434 415 477 551 825 934 1120

cm3

6.4 7.36 8.8 9.4 11.3 14.1 15.3 16.1 18.7 22.1 21.1 23.4 27 27.6 30 35.9 31.9 34.3 41 40.3 46.5 52.6 57.4 60.2 66 72.1 107 115 130

CHANNELS

(American Standard Channels)

122

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

CHANNELS

Tapered Flange

T

y

D

x t Cy y x

Imperial

Designation Size Mass Per Metre lb/ft 12 15.1 15.3 16.3 18 19.1 22.7 8.5 18.7 20 21.4 22.8 23.9 25.4 8.4 22 25 28.5 33.6 41.1 10.6 31 35 40 45 50 31.8 35 40 50 42.7 45.8 51.9 58 kg/m 17.90 22.50 22.80 24.30 26.80 28.40 33.80 12.60 27.80 29.80 31.80 33.90 35.60 37.80 12.50 33.00 37.00 42.40 50.00 61.20 15.80 46.00 52.00 60.00 67.00 74.00 47.30 52.00 60.00 74.00 63.50 68.20 77.20 86.00 Depth Width Area Thickness Of Of Web Flange Of Section Section Section D mm 152.0 152.0 152.0 152.0 152.0 178.0 178.0 203.0 203.0 203.0 203.0 203.0 229.0 229.0 254.0 254.0 254.0 254.0 254.0 254.0 305.0 305.0 305.0 305.0 305.0 305.0 330.0 330.0 330.0 330.0 457.0 457.0 457.0 457.0 B mm 63.0 74.0 88.0 76.0 88.0 87.0 91.0 47.0 75.0 76.0 87.0 88.0 87.0 88.0 38.0 84.0 86.0 100.0 104.0 110.0 38.0 93.0 96.0 98.0 102.0 105.0 102.0 103.0 106.0 112.0 100.0 102.0 104.0 107.0 t mm 7.9 8 8.6 9.5 9.6 8.9 12.8 4.5 9 10.2 9.5 10.8 10.2 11.4 4.3 7.4 9.7 T mm 9.5 12.1 9.8 12.1 12.1 127.0 12.7 7.9 12.7 12.7 13.3 13.3 14.0 14.0 7.1 14.6 14.0 A Centre Of Gravity Cy cm 1.63 2.18 2.31 2.17 2.53 2.46 2.42 1.07 1.99 1.97 2.36 2.33 2.29 2.26 0.71 2.30 2.25 2.58 2.55 2.59 0.69 2.61 2.55 2.48 2.53 2.59 2.58 2.50 2.45 2.52 2.11 2.12 2.10 2.14 Second moment Of Area Ix Iy

B

Radius Of Gyration rx cm 5.83 6.01 6.01 5.91 5.99 7.05 6.77 7.77 7.83 7.72 7.94 7.83 8.84 8.73 9.20 10.13 9.81 9.87 9.52 9.17 10.78 12.00 11.67 11.33 11.10 10.87 12.87 12.58 12.27 11.74 16.88 16.64 16.29 16.00 ry cm 1.75 2.16 2.48 2.17 2.54 2.52 2.51 1.30 2.13 2.10 2.49 2.46 2.46 2.44 0.94 2.46 2.46 2.83 2.80 2.73 0.89 2.74 2.71 2.63 2.65 2.65 2.88 2.82 2.75 2.74 2.57 2.58 2.49 2.50

Elastic Modulus

Plastic Modulus

Zx

Zy

Sx

Sy

in x in 6x21/2 6x3 6x31/2 6x3 6x31/2 7x31/2 7x35/8 8x17/8 8x3 8x3 8x31/2 8x31/2 9x31/2 9x31/2 10x11/2 10x33/8 10x33/8 10x4 10x41/8 10x43/8 12x11/2 12X35/8 12x33/4 12x37/8 12x4 12x41/8 13x4 13x41/8 13x41/8 13x43/8 18x4 18x4 18x41/8 18x41/8

cm2

22.80 28.60 29.00 30.90 34.10 36.20 43.00 16.10 35.50 37.90 40.50 43.2 45.30 48.20 15.90 41.60 47.40 54.00 63.70 78.10 20.00 58.90 66.20 76.10 85.02 94.80 60.30 66.40 76.01 94.80 81.30 87.10 98.70 110.00

cm4

773 1033 1050 1081 1223 1797 1973 971.2 2171 2261 2555 2645 3547 3670 1354 4310 4543 5257 5750 6550 2338 8292 8998 9732 10510 11140 9986 10500 11470 12990 23040 24010 26090 27850

cm4

69.8 134 178 147 219 230 271 27.1 160 167 251 262 275 286 14.1 255 285 433 498 582 15.9 436 487 526 597 664 500 526 576 708 535 576 611 682

cm3

101.7 135.9 138.2 142.2 160.9 201.9 221.7 95.69 213.9 222.7 251.7 260.6 309.8 320.5 106.6 339.4 357.7 414 452.8 515.8 153.3 543.7 590.1 638.2 689 730.7 605.2 636.1 694.9 787.4 1008 1051 1142 1219

cm3

15.1 25.8 27.9 27.2 35.4 37.4 40.8 7.53 29.3 29.8 40 40.7 43.2 43.9 4.59 42.2 45.3 59 63.8 69.2 5.08 65 68.7 71.5 77.5 83.5 65.1 67 70.2 81 67.4 70.9 73.2 79.3

cm3

123 162 164 171 192 239 271 115 258 271 300 314 373 389 132 397 430 496 558 654 196 661 726 798 873 939 739 786 870 1016 1263 1330 1463 1587

cm3

29.6 49.7 55.2 53.3 68.7 72.2 80.9 14.5 56.8 58.7 78 80.3 83.8 86.3 9.14 81.3 86.5 114 126 146 10.8 129 138 146 161 175 136 140 150

10.8 .614.6 145 20.2 4.8 9.4 11.8 15 18 21.2 9.5 11.4 14.2 20 11.4 12.7 15.2 17.8 14.6 14.6 7.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 17.8 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.9 15.9 15.9 15.9

141 149 159 173

(American Standard Channels)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

123

CHANNELS

175

CHANNELS

Parallel Flange

r1 D t B

y T

x cy

x

y

Designation Size Mass Per DxB Metre

100x50 125x65 150x75 150x90 180x75 180x90 200x75 200x90 230x75 230x90 250x90 260x75 260x90 300x90 300x100 380x100 430x100 kg/m 10.2 14.8 17.9 23.9 20.3 26.1 23.4 29.7 25.7 32.2 35.5 27.6 34.8 41.4 45.5 54.0 64.4

Thickness Root Depth Area Of Web Flange Radius Between Section Fillets t T r1 d A

mm 5.0 5.5 5.5 6.5 6.0 6.5 6.0 7.0 6.5 7.5 8.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 9.0 9.5 11.0 mm 8.5 9.5 10.0 12.0 10.5 12.5 12.5 14.0 12.5 14.0 15.0 12.0 14.0 15.5 16.5 17.5 19.0 mm 9 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 15 15 15 mm 65.0 82.0 106 102 135 131 151 148 181 178 220 212 208 245 237 315 362 cm2 13.0 18.8 22.8 30.4 25.9 33.2 29.9 37.9 32.7 41.0 45.2 35.1 44.4 52.7 58.0 68.7 82.1

Centre Of Gravity Cy cm 1.73 2.25 2.58 3.30 2.41 3.17 2.48 3.12 2.30 2.92 2.86 2.10 2.74 2.60 3.05 2.79 2.62

Ratios For Local Buckling Flange Web

B/T 5.88 6.84 7.50 7.50 7.14 7.20 6.00 6.43 6.00 6.43 6.00 6.25 6.43 5.81 6.06 5.71 5.26 d/t 13.0 14.9 19.3 15.7 22.5 20.2 25.2 21.1 27.8 23.7 27.5 30.3 26.0 27.2 26.3 33.2 32.9

Second Moment Of Area Axis Axis x-x y-y

cm4 208 483 861 1162 1370 1817 1963 2523 2748 3518 4510 3619 4728 7218 8229 15030 21940 cm4 32.3 80.0 131 253 146 277 170 314 181 334 364 185 353 404 568 643 722

Designation Size Mass Per DxB Metre 100x50 125x65 150x75 150x90 180x75 180x90 200x75 200x90 230x75 230x90 250x90 260x75 260x90 300x90 300x100 380x100 430x100 kg/m 10.2 14.8 17.9 23.9 20.3 26.1 23.4 29.7 25.7 32.2 35.5 27.6 34.8 41.4 45.5 54.0 64.4

Radius Of Gyration Axis Axis x-x y-y cm 4.00 5.07 6.15 6.18 7.27 7.40 8.11 8.16 9.17 9.27 9.99 10.1 10.3 11.7 11.9 14.8 16.3 cm 1.58 2.06 2.40 2.89 2.38 2.89 2.39 2.89 2.35 2.86 2.84 2.30 2.82 2.77 3.13 3.06 2.97

Elastic Modulus Axis Axis x-x y-y cm3 41.5 77.3 115 155 152 202 196 252 239 306 361 278 364 481 549 791 1020 cm3 9.89 18.8 26.6 44.4 28.8 47.4 33.8 53.4 34.8 55.0 59.3 34.4 56.3 63.1 81.7 89.2 97.9

Plastic Modulus Axis Axis x-x y-y cm3 48.9 89.9 132 179 176 232 227 291 278 355 421 328 425 568 641 933 1222 cm3 17.5 33.2 47.2 76.9 51.8 83.5 60.6 94.5 63.2 98.9 107 62.0 102 114 148 161 176

Buckling Parameter u 0.942 0.942 0.946 0.936 0.946 0.949 0.956 0.954 0.947 0.950 0.948 0.932 0.942 0.934 0.944 0.932 0.917

Torsional Index x 10.0 11.1 13.1 10.8 15.3 12.8 14.8 12.9 17.3 15.1 15.5 20.5 17.2 18.4 17.0 21.2 22.5

Warping Constant H dm6 0.000491 0.00194 0.00467 0.00890 0.00754 0.0141 0.0107 0.0197 0.0153 0.0279 0.0359 0.0203 0.0379 0.0581 0.0813 0.150 0.219

Torsional Constant J cm4 2.53 4.72 6.10 11.8 7.34 13.3 11.1 18.3 11.8 19.3 23.8 11.7 20.6 28.8 36.8 45.7 63.0

CHANNELS

124

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

PURLINS

122

Purlins

Introduction

Light-gauge plain and lipped channels are cold roll-formed from hot-rolled steel strips/coils of material according to JIS 3101 Grade SS400 (1995), or EN 10025 (1993). The sections are cold roll-formed according to JIS 3350 Grade SSC400 (1987), SPIM C100, SS104 (1996), or BS 5950 Part 7 (1992). The cold roll-forming of channels produces sections with excellent mechanical properties and yet light in weight. They are specially designed to ensure the ability to resist forces applied onto them. High-tensile galvanised C and Z purlins (sections) are cold roll-formed from high tensile Zinc coated steel sheets according to ASTM A446 (replaced by ASTM A653 (1997) and A924 (1997). Due to the lightweight, the high strength of the steel and the Zinc-coated surface, high-tensile galvanised C and Z purlins are versatile and economic in use. They require minimal maintenance throughout the life span of the buildings. The light-gauge channels and high-tensile galvanised purlins are suitable for roofing and wall cladding supports and for structural frames of buildings. Because of the lightweight of the sections, no heavy equipment is needed to move them from one place to another, or for the fabrication of the structure.

C-Purlin

Z-Purlin

Figure 9 ­ C and Z Purlins

Material specifications

Light-Gauge Plain and Lipped Channels

Specification Strength Yield N/mm JIS 3350 SSC400 SPIM C100 SS 104 BS5950 Part7* Notes:

2

Tolerances Height H<150 ±1.5mm ±1.5mm ±1.5mm ±1.0mm 150-300 ±2.0mm ±2.0mm ±2.0mm ±1.25mm H>300 ±3.0mm ±3.0mm ±3.0mm ±2.0mm ±1.5mm ±1.5mm ±1.5mm ±2.0mm ±2.0mm ±2.0mm Side Lip Corner Angle ±1.5° ±1.0° ±1.0°

2

Tensile N/mm

min. 245 250/450 min. 235

400-540 min. 295 430/480 340-470

As for Height ±2.0/±3.0

*For BS5950 Part 7: The yield and tensile strengths are given by EN 10025 (1993) and are the smallest strengths from this standard. The intervals between heights are: H<50mm, 50-100, 100-200, H>200mm (first interval excluded here). The tolerance for the side length is split in two t<3mm/ 3 t <8mm.

Table 19 ­ Purlins: Material specifications and tolerances

125

PURLINS

General

PURLINS

123

Specification L 7m *L 6m JIS 3350 SSC400 +40mm -0mm SPIM C100 +40mm -0mm SS104* +30mm -5.0mm BS5950 P7** Notes:

Length L>7m *L>6m 7m+Xm: X*5mm +40mm 7m+Xm: X*5mm +40mm 6m+Xm: X*5mm +40mm ±3.0mm ±0.17mm ±0.18mm +0.20mm -0.10mm +0.20mm -0.12mm ±0.22mm ±0.25mm ±0.22mm 1.6mm 2.0mm -2.3mm ±0.25mm

Thickness 2.8mm ±0.28mm 3.0mm -3.2mm ±0.30mm 4.0mm -4.5mm ±0.45mm ±0.60mm 6.0mm

PURLINS

±0.28mm

±0.30mm

±0.45mm

±0.60mm

+0.25mm -0.15mm ±0.20mm

+0.30mm -0.17mm ±0.22mm

+0.35mm -0.20mm ±0.24mm

+0.40mm -0.22mm ±0.26mm

*For SS104 the tolerance for the length has a change at 6 metres, and the intervals between the thickness are: t<2.0mm, 2.0-2.5, 2.5-3.0, 3.0-3.5, 3.5-4.0, 4.0-4.5, 4.5-5.0, 5.0-6.0mm (the two last intervals excluded from the table). **For BS5950 Part 7 the intervals between thickness are: t<2.0mm, 2.0-2.5, 2.5-3.0, 3.0-4.0, 4.0-5.0, 5.0-6.0, 6.07.0, 8.0-10.0, 10.0-12.5, 12.5-15.0, 15.0-25.0mm, (the five last intervals excluded from the table).

Table 20 ­ Purlins: Tolerances on length and thickness

High-Tensile Galvanised C and Z Purlins

Steel grade Base steel Thickness mm AS 1397 G450 AS 1397 G500 AS 1397 G550 1.5, 1.9, 2.4, 3.0 1.2 1.0 Mechanical properties Yield strength N/mm 450 500 550

2

Chemical properties C P Mn S Max (%) 0.03 0.03 0.03

Tensile strength N/mm 490 520 550

2

Minimum elongation % 9 7 2

Max (%) Max (%) Max (%) 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.04 0.04 0.04 1.2 1.2 1.2

Table 21 ­ High-Tensile Galvanised Purlins: Mechanical properties/Tolerances

Storage and handling

C and Z Purlins should be kept dry during storage before use. They should be stacked clear of the ground with timber sleepers and covered to prevent bundles from getting wet. If bundles become wet during transportation or storage, the purlins must be separated and wiped dry with clean cloth as soon as possible. Care must be taken to prevent bundles or loose pieces from dropping to the ground or banging against the building during loading and unloading, or when lifting onto the top of the building.

126

PURLINS

124

The figures under show the positioning of the holes on both the purlins. Z and C sections are normally supplied with holes punched to the Australian institute Steel Construction (AISC) gauge lines, except, in Victoria where the 150 series sections are punched to the structural Steel Fabricators Association, Victoria recommended gauge lines.

35mm

22mm

G (Gauge line) DH

Nominal section size (mm) 100 150-Victoria only 150-other states 200 250 300 350

G (mm) 40 70 60 110 160 210 210

DH (mm) 18 18 18 18 18 22 22

Figure 10 ­ Holing and cleats for C purlins

The holes are required at cleat supports at ends of laps and at bridging points. For the webs of 300 and 350 sections, centreline holes are also available on request, and may be combined with cleat holes to provide 3-bolt fastening to the cleats. For the 100, 150, 200, and 250 deep sections the holes are elongated with dimensions of 18mm x 22mm suitable for M12 bolts. For the 300 and 350 deep sections the holes are 22mm diameter suitable for M16 bolts. Sections are also available unpunched if required.

127

PURLINS

Holing and cleating for C Purlins

PURLINS

125

130 mm 80 mm

PURLINS

X

Y

B

Nominal section size (mm) 100 150-Victoria only 150-other states 200 250 300 350

X 40 70 60 110 160 210 260

B 40 50 55 55 55 65 65

Y 105 145 145 195 245 305 355

t (thickness) 8 8 8 8 8 12 12

Gap 10 6010 10 10 10 20 20

DH 18 18 18 18 18 22 22

Table 22 ­ High-Tensile Galvanised Purlins: Cleat holes position

128

PURLINS

Plain Channels

D x

t cy x

y

B

Designation Size Mass Per Metre DxB mm kg/m 60x30 1.44 2.03 75x45 2.00 2.84 3.65 100x50 2.44 3.47 4.47 5.87 125x50 3.92 5.06 6.65 7.42 150x65 4.91 6.36 8.38 9.36 175x75 5.73 7.42 9.79 10.95 200x75 6.18 8.01 10.60 11.84 225x75 6.63 8.59 11.40 12.72 250x75 7.08 9.18 12.10 13.60

Thickness

Modulus

t mm 1.6 2.3 1.6 2.3 3.0 1.6 2.3 3.0 4.0 2.3 3.0 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.0 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.0 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.0 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.0 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.0 4.0 4.5

A

cm2

1.84 2.59 2.56 3.62 4.65 3.12 4.43 5.70 7.47 5.00 6.45 8.47 9.46 6.27 8.10 10.67 11.9 7.30 9.45 12.47 14.0 7.88 10.2 13.5 15.1 8.45 11.0 14.5 16.2 9.03 11.7 15.5 17.3

Cy cm 0.823 0.856 1.30 1.34 1.37 1.32 1.36 1.39 1.43 1.21 1.24 1.29 1.31 1.61 1.64 1.69 1.71 1.83 1.86 1.91 1.93 1.71 1.74 1.78 1.80 1.60 1.63 1.67 1.70 1.50 1.54 1.58 1.60

Ix

Iy

cm4

10.3 14.2 23.9 33.1 41.7 50.0 69.9 88.6

cm4

1.63 2.25 5.37 7.49 9.46 7.87 11.0 14.0

rx cm

ry cm

Zx

case b Zy Sx

Sy

u 0.897 0.891 0.891 0.885 0.878 0.901 0.898 0.895 0.890 0.900 0.898 0.896 0.895 0.902 0.900 0.898 0.897 0.902 0.901 0.899 0.898 0.899 0.898 0.897 0.897 0.894 0.894 0.893 0.893 0.888 0.888 0.888 0.888

x 29.7 20.4 37.7 26.1 19.9 50.1 34.6 26.3 19.5 43.2 32.7 24.2 21.3 52.2 39.7 29.4 26.0 61.1 46.5 34.6 30.6 70.0 53.3 39.5 35.0 79.0 60.1 44.6 39.4 88.2 67.1 49.8 44.0

H

J

cm3

3.45 4.72 6.37 8.83 11.1 10.0 14.0 17.7 22.7 18.8 23.9 30.7 34.0 29.1 37.2 48.2 53.4 39.7 50.8 66.1 73.5 47.3 60.8 79.2 88.1 55.5 71.3 93 104 64.2 82.5 108 120

cm3

0.75 1.05 1.68 2.37 3.02 2.14 3.03 3.88 5.05 3.12 4.01 5.22 5.81 5.29 6.81 8.91 9.94 7.09 9.14 12.0 13.4 7.21 9.30 12.2 13.6 7.30 9.43 12.4 13.8 7.39 9.54 12.5 14.0

cm3 mm3

4.00 1.37 5.54 1.94 7.22 5.85 10.1 7.83 12.9 9.51 11.5 3.88 16.1 5.52 20.6 7.12 26.6 9.37 22.0 5.72 28.2 7.46 36.6 9.97 40.6 11.2 33.7 9.56 43.4 12.4 56.6 16.5 63.0 18.5 45.9 12.8 59.1 16.6 77.4 22.1 86.3 24.8 55.4 13.0 71.4 16.9 94 22.7

dm6 x 10-3

0.0101 0.0138 0.0528 0.0739 0.0939 0.136 0.189 0.240 0.307 0.315 0.397 0.505 0.555 1.00 1.27 1.63 1.81 2.12 2.70 3.49 3.87 2.88 3.67 4.74 5.24 3.79 4.83 6.22 6.88 4.84 6.17 7.95 8.79

cm4

0.0165 0.0490 0.0226 0.0673 0.150 0.0274 0.0815 0.181 0.430 0.0916 0.204 0.483 0.689 0.114 0.253 0.601 0.856 0.132 0.294 0.697 0.992 0.142 0.316 0.75 1.07 0.152 0.339 0.80 1.14 0.163 0.361 0.86 1.22

2.37 0.944 2.34 0.932 3.06 3.02 2.99 4.01 3.97 3.94 3.89 4.85 4.81 4.76 4.74 5.90 5.87 5.82 5.79 6.89 6.86 6.81 6.79 7.75 7.72 7.67 7.64 8.60 8.56 8.51 8.48 9.43 9.39 9.34 9.31 1.45 1.44 1.43 1.59 1.58 1.57 1.55 1.54 1.53 1.51 1.51 2.03 2.02 2.00 2.00 2.35 2.33 2.32 2.31 2.30 2.29 2.28 2.27 2.26 2.25 2.23 2.23 2.22 2.21 2.19 2.18

113.3 18.0 117 149 192 212 218 279 361 401 347 445 579 643 473 608 792 881 624 803 1048 1166 802 1032 1349 1502 11.8 15.1 19.4 21.4 25.8 33.1 42.9 47.6 40.2 51.5 67.1 74.6 41.7 53.6 69.8 77.7 43.1 55.4 72.2 80.4 44.3 56.9 74.3 82.7

104 25.6 65.6 13.2 84.6 17.3 111 23.3 124 26.3 76.5 13.4 98.8 17.6 130 23.9 145 27.1

129

PURLINS

Area Centre Of Of Section Gravity

Second Moment Of Area

Radius Of Gyration

Elastic Modulus

Plastic

Buckling Torsional Warping Torsional Constant Index Constant Constant

PURLINS

Lipped Channels

r2 D r1 B C

y

t

x Cy x

y

Designation Thickness Size Mass Per Metre DxBxC t

mm 60x30x10 kg/m 1.62 1.99 2.25 75x45x15 2.31 2.86 3.24 4.12 4.37 100x50x20 2.88 3.60 4.06 5.18 5.50 6.71 7.43 125x50x20 3.95 4.51 5.77 6.13 7.50 8.31 150x65x20 5.50 7.07 7.51 9.22 10.25 175x75x20 6.31 8.13 8.63 10.63 11.84 200x75x20 6.76 8.71 9.27 11.40 12.73 mm 1.6 2.0 2.3 1.6 2.0 2.3 3.0 3.2 1.6 2.0 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 2.0 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5

Inside Outside Radius

r1 4.0 5.0 5.8 4.0 5.0 5.8 7.5 8.0 4.0 5.0 5.8 7.5 8.0 r2 2.4 3.0 3.5 2.4 3.0 3.5 4.5 4.8 2.4 3.0 3.5 4.5 4.8

Area Centre Of Of Section Gravity A cm2 2.05 2.50 2.83 2.93 3.60 4.09 5.18 5.48 3.65 4.50 5.13 6.53 6.92 8.41 9.29 5.00 5.70 7.28 7.72 9.41 10.4 6.97 8.93 9.48 11.6 12.9 8.00 10.3 10.9 13.4 14.9 8.58 11.0 11.7 14.4 16.0 Cy cm 1.06 1.05 1.05 1.72 1.71 1.71 1.70 1.70 1.86 1.86 1.86 1.85 1.85 1.84 1.84 1.68 1.68 1.68 1.68 1.67 1.66 2.11 2.10 2.10 2.09 2.09 2.34 2.33 2.33 2.32 2.31 2.19 2.18 2.18 2.17 2.17

Second Moment Of Area

Ix cm4 Iy cm4

Radius Of Gyration

rx cm ry cm

Elastic Plastic Modulus

Buckling Torsional Constant Index

Warp Torsion Constant

PURLINS

Zx

Zy

Sx

Sy

u 0.808 0.804 0.801 0.776 0.774 0.772 0.769 0.767 0.788 0.786 0.785 0.781 0.780 0.775 0.772 0.820 0.819 0.814 0.813 0.808 0.804 0.840 0.836 0.835 0.831 0.828 0.853 0.850 0.849 0.845 0.842 0.860 0.856 0.855 0.850 0.847

x 35.5 28.3 24.5 46.7 37.2 32.2 24.5 22.9 62.9 50.1 43.5 33.1 31.0 24.7 21.8 59.5 51.6 39.4 36.9 29.4 26.1 59.6 45.6 42.7 34.1 30.3 68.0 52.0 48.7 38.9 34.6 76.8 58.8 55.1 44.1 39.2

H dm6 x 10-3 0.0219 0.0257 0.0281 0.129 0.154 0.171 0.206 0.215 0.373 0.450 0.503 0.616 0.645 0.747 0.802 0.684 0.767 0.942 0.987 1.15 1.24 2.03 2.53 2.66 3.14 3.41 3.92 4.90 5.17 6.15 6.71 5.22 6.53 6.89 8.22 8.98

J cm4 0.0182 0.0352 0.0530 0.0258 0.0499 0.0754 0.165 0.199 0.032 0.062 0.094 0.205 0.248 0.478 0.674 0.069 0.104 0.228 0.275 0.531 0.750 0.126 0.277 0.336 0.649 0.917 0.144 0.318 0.385 0.745 1.05 0.154 0.340 0.412 0.798 1.13

mm mm

cm3 cm3 cm3 cm3

11.4 2.50 2.36 1.10 3.81 1.29 4.48 2.12 13.7 2.93 2.34 1.08 4.56 1.50 5.41 2.54 15.2 3.20 2.32 1.06 5.06 1.64 6.05 2.57 26.8 8.59 3.03 1.71 7.15 3.09 8.27 4.62 32.5 10.3 3.00 1.69 8.66 3.69 10.1 5.61 36.5 11.5 2.99 1.67 9.73 4.11 11.4 6.31 44.9 13.8 2.94 1.63 12.0 4.94 14.2 7.79 47.1 14.4 2.93 1.62 12.6 5.15 14.9 8.18 57.9 13.8 3.98 1.95 11.6 4.41 13.5 6.73 70.5 16.7 3.96 1.93 14.1 5.32 16.5 8.22 79.6 18.7 3.94 1.91 15.9 5.95 18.7 9.28 99 22.9 3.90 1.87 19.8 7.27 23.6 11.6

104 24.0 3.88 1.86 20.9 7.60 24.9 12.2 123 27.7 3.83 1.82 24.7 8.79 29.8 14.5 134 29.7 3.80 1.79 26.8 9.40 32.6 14.4 119 18.1 4.88 1.90 19.1 5.46 22.5 7.90 135 20.3 4.86 1.89 21.5 6.11 25.5 8.91 169 24.8 4.81 1.85 27.0 7.47 32.2 11.2 178 26.0 4.80 1.84 28.4 7.82 34.0 11.8 212 30.2 4.74 1.79 33.9 9.05 40.9 14.1 231 32.3 4.71 1.76 36.9 9.7 45.0 15.4 245 40.5 5.93 2.41 32.7 9.23 38.1 13.8 310 50.2 5.89 2.37 41.3 11.4 48.4 17.4 327 52.7 5.87 2.36 43.6 12.0 51.2 18.4 393 62.0 5.82 2.31 52.4 14.1 62.1 22.1 432 67.1 5.78 2.28 57.5 15.2 68.5 24.2 386 60.3 6.95 2.75 44.1 11.7 51.1 17.8 489 75.1 6.90 2.70 55.9 14.5 65.2 22.5 518 79.1 6.88 2.69 59.1 15.3 69.1 23.7 626 93.6 6.83 2.64 71.5 18.1 84.1 28.7 689 102 6.80 2.61 78.7 19.6 93.0 31.6

10.0 6.0 11.3 6.8 5.0 5.8 7.5 8.0 3.0 3.5 4.5 4.8

10.0 6.0 11.3 6.8 5.8 7.5 8.0 3.5 4.5 4.8

10.0 6.0 11.3 6.8 5.8 7.5 8.0 3.5 4.5 4.8

10.0 6.0 11.3 6.8 5.8 7.5 8.0 3.5 4.5 4.8

527 63.0 7.84 2.71 52.7 11.9 61.5 18.0 669 78.5 7.79 2.67 66.9 14.8 78.5 22.9 708 82.6 7.77 2.65 70.8 15.5 83.2 24.3 857 945 98 7.71 2.61 85.7 18.4 101 29.5

10.0 6.0 11.3 6.8

106 7.68 2.57 94.5 19.9 112 32.6

130

PURLINS

Lipped Channels

r2 D r1 C

t

x Cy x

y

Designation Size Mass Per Metre DxBxC

mm kg/m 200x75x25 6.95 8.93 9.52 11.70 13.10 225x75x20 7.21 9.30 9.89 12.20 13.61 225x75x25 7.40 9.54 10.10 12.50 14.00 250x75x20 7.67 9.89 10.52 12.99 14.49 250x75x25 7.85 10.13 10.80 13.30 14.85

Thickness

t mm 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5 2.3 3.0 3.2 4.0 4.5

r1 5.8 7.5 8.0

r2 3.5 4.5 4.8

A cm2 8.81 11.3 12.0 14.8 16.5 9.15 11.8 12.5 15.4 17.2 9.38 12.1 12.8 15.8 17.6 9.73 12.5 13.3 16.4 18.3 10 12.8 13.6 16.8 18.7

Cy cm 2.33 2.32 2.32 2.31 2.31 2.06 2.05 2.05 2.05 2.04 2.19 2.19 2.18 2.18 2.17 1.94 1.94 1.94 1.93 1.93 2.07 2.07 2.07 2.06 2.06

Ix cm4

Iy cm4

rx cm

ry cm

Zx

Zy

Sx

Sy

u 0.846 0.843 0.842 0.838 0.835 0.862 0.858 0.857 0.852 0.849 0.851 0.848 0.847 0.843 0.840 0.861 0.857 0.856 0.851 0.848 0.853 0.850 0.849 0.844 0.842

x 79.2 60.6 56.8 45.3 40.3 85.8 65.8 61.7 49.4 43.9 87.9 67.4 63.1 50.5 44.9 94.9 72.8 68.3 54.7 48.7 96.9 74.3 69.6 55.7 49.5

H dm6 x 10-3 6.07 7.62 8.03 9.59 10.5 6.74 8.46 8.92 10.7 11.6 7.77 9.76 10.3 12.3 13.5 8.50 10.7 11.3 13.5 14.7 9.73 12.2 12.9 15.5 16.9

J cm4 0.158 0.349 0.423 0.819 1.16 0.165 0.363 0.439 0.851 1.206 0.169 0.372 0.450 0.873 1.24 0.175 0.385 0.467 0.905 1.28 0.179 0.394 0.478 0.926 1.31

mm mm

cm3 cm3 cm3 cm3

540 69.0 7.83 2.80 54.0 13.3 63.3 19.6 687 86.3 7.78 2.76 68.7 16.7 80.8 24.9 727 90.9 7.77 2.75 72.7 17.5 85.7 26.4 881 972 108 7.71 2.70 88.1 20.8 105 32.0 118 7.68 2.67 97.2 22.7 116 35.4

10.0 6.0 11.3 6.8 5.8 7.5 8.0 3.5 4.5 4.8

694 65.3 8.71 2.67 61.7 12.0 72.6 18.3 883 81.4 8.66 2.63 78.4 14.9 92.8 23.4 934 85.7 8.64 2.62 83.1 15.7 98.4 24.8 1134 101 8.58 2.57 101 18.6 120 30.3 1252 110 8.54 2.53 111 20.2 133 33.6 713 71.6 8.72 2.76 63.3 13.5 74.6 19.9 907 89.6 8.66 2.72 80.6 16.9 95.5 25.3 960 94.4 8.65 2.71 85.4 17.8 101 26.9 1166 112 8.59 2.66 104 21.1 124 32.8 1288 122 8.55 2.64 115 23.0 137 36.4 890 67.3 9.57 2.63 71.2 12.1 84.4 18.6 1133 83.9 9.51 2.59 90.7 15.1 108 23.8 1200 88.4 9.49 2.58 96.0 15.9 115 25.3 1459 105 9.43 2.53 117 18.8 140 31.1 1612 114 9.39 2.49 129 20.4 155 34.6 914 74.0 9.58 2.73 73.1 13.6 86.7 20.1 1165 92.5 9.53 2.69 93.2 17.0 111 25.8 1234 97.5 9.51 2.67 98.7 17.9 118 27.4 1501 116 9.45 2.63 120 21.3 144 33.6 1659 126 9.41 2.60 133 23.2 160 37.4

10.0 6.0 11.3 6.8 5.8 7.5 8.0 3.5 4.5 4.8

10.0 6.0 11.3 6.8 5.8 7.5 8.0 3.5 4.5 4.8

10.0 6.0 11.3 6.8 5.8 7.5 8.0 3.5 4.5 4.8

10.0 6.0 11.3 6.8

131

PURLINS

Inside Outside Radius

Area Centre Of Of Section Gravity

Second Moment Of Area

Radius Of Gyration

Elastic Plastic Modulus

Buckling Torsional Constant Index

Warp Torsion Constant

PURLINS

130

High-Tensile Galvanised C Purlins

y B r1

PURLINS

Cy D x r2

Cx x t C

y

Designation Thickness Size Mass Per Number Metre t mm C10010 C10012 C10015 C10019 C15012 C15015 C15019 C15024 C20015 C20019 C20024 C25019 C25024 C30024 C30030 C35030 kg/m 1.78 2.10 2.62 3.29 2.89 3.59 4.51 5.70 4.49 5.74 7.24 6.50 8.16 10.09 12.76 15.23 mm 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.9 1.2 1.5 1.9 2.4 1.5 1.9 2.4 1.9 2.4 2.4 3.0 3.0

Web D mm 102 102 102 102 152 152 152 152 203 203 203 254 254 300 300 350

Flange B mm 51 51 51 51 64 64 64 64 76 76 76 76 76 96 96 125

Lip C mm 12.5 12.5 13.5 14.5 14.5 15.5 16.5 18.5 15.5 19.0 21.0 18.5 20.5 27.5 31.5 30.0

Area Of Section A cm

2

Moment Of Inertia Ix Iy cm

4

Radius Of Gyration rx

4

ry cm 1.87 1.86 1.87 1.87 2.31 2.31 2.31 2.33 2.67 2.73 2.74 2.64 2.65 3.46 3.50 4.47

cm

cm 4.11 4.10 4.08 4.06 6.04 6.02 6.00 5.98 7.97 7.96 7.93 9.71 9.69 11.6 11.6 13.7

2.16 2.58 3.23 4.09 3.54 4.43 5.61 7.12 5.55 7.13 9.04 8.08 10.20 12.60 16.00 19.10

36.4 43.2 53.7 67.3 129 161 202 254 353 451 569 762 962 1700 2130 3580

7.55 8.92 11.2 14.2 18.8 23.7 30.0 38.6 39.6 53.1 68.1 56.1 72.1 151 196 382

Designation Size Mass Per Metre Number mm C10010 C10012 C10015 C10019 C15012 C15015 C15019 C15024 C20015 C20019 C20024 C25019 C25024 C30024 C30030 C35030 kg/m 1.78 2.10 2.62 3.29 2.89 3.59 4.51 5.70 4.49 5.74 7.24 6.50 8.16 10.09 12.76 15.23 Zx cm

Section Modulus Zy

3

Centroid

Shear Centre xo

Torsion constant J mm

4

MonoWarping Section constant symmetry modulus in Section constant bending Iw ßy Zxe cm

6

Area in compression Ae Cm

2

cm

3

mm 16.1 16.0 161 16.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.9 19.9 20.8 21.1 18.1 18.4 25.0 25.8 33.2

mm 39.9 39.7 40.11 40.4 46.5 46.9 47.1 48.0 51.6 53.6 54.4 48.5 49.3 66.0 67.9 86.3

mm 123 123 122 122 171 171 170 169 223 221 219 276 274 320 316 378

cm

3

7.13 8.48 10.5 13.2 17.0 21.1 26.6 33.5 34.7 44.4 56.0 60.0 75.7 113 142 205

2.19 2.59 3.29 4.21 4.17 5.29 6.74 8.79 7.17 9.77 12.7 9.86 12.8 21.7 28.5 42.3

71.9 124 242 492 170 332 675 1370 416 858 1740 972 1970 2430 4790 5730

160 188 241 311 842 1070 1370 1810 3060 4240 5540 6860 8920 26800 35700 90000

5.37 6.74 8.73 12.3 11.8 17.1 21.8 30.9 24.1 36.6 47.5 46.2 64.9 91.1 124 159

113 153 217 329 165 244 340 527 251 381 541 381 543 632 897 940

Table 23 ­ High-Tensile Galvanised C-Purlins: Section sizes

132

PURLINS

131

y F L Cy D x Cx x t L E

y

Designation Size Number mm Z10010 Z10012 Z10015 Z10019 Z15012 Z15015 Z15019 Z15024 Z20015 Z20019 Z20024 Z25019 Z25024 Z30024 Z30030 Z35030 Mass Per Metre kg/m 1.78 2.10 2.62 3.29 2.89 3.59 4.51 5.70 4.49 5.74 7.24 6.50 8.16 10.09 12.76 15.23

Thickne ss t mm 1.0 1.2 1.5 1.9 1.2 1.5 1.9 2.4 1.5 1.9 2.4 1.9 2.4 2.4 3.0 3.0

Web

Flange 1 Flange 2

Lip

Area Of Section

Moment Of Inertia Ix Iy

4

D mm 102 102 102 102 152 152 152 152 203 203 203 254 254 300 300 350

E mm 53 53 53 53 65 65 65 66 79 79 79 79 79 100 100 129 Product of moment inertia Ix' Iy' 4 cm 16.8 19.8 24.9 31.4 46.9 58.8 74.4 95.0 109 145 186 181 233 457 588 1070

F mm 49 49 49 49 61 61 61 60 74 74 73 74 73 93 93 121

L mm 12.5 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.5 16.5 17.5 19.5 15.5 18.5 21.5 18.0 21.0 27.0 31.0 30.0

A cm

2

Radius Of Modulus Gyration Zy Section

4

cm

cm

cm

3

mm 14.2 14.2 14.2 14.2 18.1 18.1 18.1 18.3 21.4 21.9 22.1 21.7 21.9 28.3 28.7 36.1

() 27.6 27.5 27.8 28.1 21.8 22.0 22.1 22.5 18.5 19.1 19.4 14.0 14.3 16.0 16..3 17.8

o

2.16 2.58 3.23 4.09 3.54 4.43 5.61 7.12 5.55 7.13 9.07 8.08 10.30 12.60 16.00 19.10

45.1 53.6 66.8 84.0 147 184 232 292 389 502 636 808 1020 1830 2310 3920

4.37 5.16 6.52 8.29 1.15 1.45 1.84 2.38 2.55 3.42 4.43 3.81 4.93 1.01 1.32 2.49

1.55 1.84 2.32 2.94 3.14 3.96 5.02 6.38 5.53 7.45 9.64 7.82 10.2 16.8 21.9 32.8

Designation Size Mass Per Metre Number mm kg/m Z10010 Z10012 Z10015 Z10019 Z15012 Z15015 Z15019 Z15024 Z20015 Z20019 Z20024 Z25019 Z25024 Z30024 Z30030 Z35030 1.78 2.10 2.62 3.29 2.89 3.59 4.51 5.70 4.49 5.74 7.24 6.50 8.16 10.09 12.76 15.23

Moment of inertia Ix' 4 cm 36.4 43.2 53.7 67.3 128 160 201 253 353 452 570 762 964 1700 2130 3580 Iy' 4 cm 13.1 15.5 19.7 25.0 30.3 38.3 48.7 63.2 62.1 84.3 110 83.3 108 232 304 593

Section modulus Zx' 3 cm 7.00 8.32 10.3 13.0 16.7 20.8 26.1 32.6 34.3 43.9 55.3 59.3 74.9 112 140 202 Zy' 3 cm 2.56 3.02 3.84 4.92 4.78 6.06 7.73 10.0 8.05 11.0 14.4 10.8 14.2 23.8 31.4 47.2

Radius of gyration

Torsion Warping Section Area in constant constant modulus compreJ 4 mm 71.9 124 242 492 170 332 675 1370 416 858 1740 972 1970 2430 4790 5730 Iw 6 cm 215 253 321 409 1160 1460 1860 2410 4260 5830 7630 9480 12400 36600 48200 124000 Zx'e 3 cm 5.33 6.73 8.82 12.4 11.9 17.2 22.4 31.4 23.8 36.4 48.4 45.7 66.0 89.9 125 159 Ae 2 mm 113 153 217 329 169 248 347 535 248 378 546 379 547 628 908 940

in ssion bending constant

rx' mm 41.1 41.0 40.8 40.6 60.3 60.1 59.9 59.6 79.7 79.6 79.3 97.1 96.9 116 116 137

ry' mm 24.7 24.5 24.7 24.7 29.3 29.4 29.5 29.8 33.4 34.4 34.8 32.1 32.5 42.8 43.6 55.7

Table 24 ­ High-Tensile Galvanised Z-Purlins: Section sizes

133

PURLINS

High-Tensile Galvanised Z Purlins

ANGLES

133

Angles

Rolling tolerances ­ EN 10056-2 : 1993

This European specifies tolerances on shapes dimensions and mass of hot rolled structural steel equal and unequal leg angles. Tolerances on shapes and dimensions Leg length (a or b) The deviation from nominal on length shall be within the tolerance given in the following table. For unequal leg angles, the longer leg length (a) shall be used to determine the tolerance band.

Leg length a (mm) Up to and including 50 Greater than 50 up to and including 100 Greater than 100 up to and including 150 Greater than 150 up to and including 200 Greater than 200 Tolerance (mm) +1.0 +2.0 +3.0 +4.0 +6.0 -1.0 -2.0 Greater than 200 -3.0 -4.0 -4.0 3.0

shall be used to determine the tolerance band.

Out of square ­ leg length (mm) Up to and including 100 Greater than 100 up to and including 150 Greater than 150 up to and including 200

Tolerance (mm) 1.0 1.5 2.0

Straightness (q) The deviation from straightness shall not exceed the tolerances given in the following table. For unequal leg angles, the longer leg length (a) shall be used to determine the tolerance band.

Over full bar length Deviation q (mm) 0.4% L 0.2% L 0.1% L Tolerance over any part bar length (mm) Deviation Length considered (q) 1,500 2,000 +1.20 -0.5 -0.75 -1.20

Leg length a (mm) Up to and including 150

Section thickness (t) The deviation from nominal on thickness shall be within the tolerance given in the following table.

Leg length a (mm) Up to and including 5 Greater than 5 up to and including 10 Greater than 10 up to and including 15 Greater than 15 Tolerance (mm) +0.5 +0.75 +1.0 +1.20 -0.5 -0.75 -1.0 -1.20

Up to and including 200 Greater than 200

Tolerance on mass The deviation from the nominal mass of any individual piece shall not exceed: a. ±6% for thickness for t 4mm or b. ±4% for thickness for t > 4mm The deviation from the nominal mass is the difference between the actual mass of the piece and the calculated mass. The calculated mass shall be 3 determined using a density of 7850 kg/m . Tolerance on length The tolerance on ordered length shall be either: a. ±50mm; or b. -0 / +100mm where minimum lengths are requested

Out of square (k) Out-of-squareness of the section shall not exceed the maximum following table. For unequal leg angles, the longer leg length (a)

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

135

ANGLES

ANGLES

Equal

A t

r2 v 90 r1

o

y u cy x

r2 t

x cy u y

A

v

Designation Size Thickness

Mass Per Metre

Radius Root Toe

Area Of Section

Distance Centre Of Gravity Cx and Cy

Second Moment Of Area Axis x-x , y-y cm4 0.381 0.784 1.00 1.19 1.41 1.81 2.17 4.13 2.99 3.85 4.66 5.40 3.51 4.53 5.48 6.37 6.59 7.99 9.31 7.06 9.17 10.2 11.2 13.0 16.5 19.8 23.2 23.1 27.1 34.5 25.5 29.9 38.2 42.0 37.7 43.1 48.3 38.7 45.7 59.0 65.3 71.3 82.7 56.0 72.4 87.7 81.0 93.2 105 117 128 149 159 Axis u-u cm4 0.601 1.24 1.58 1.87 2.23 2.86 3.42 6.51 4.72 6.10 7.36 8.51 5.55 7.18 8.68 10.1 10.4 12.6 14.7 11.1 14.5 16.1 17.7 20.6 25.9 31.4 36.8 36.6 42.9 54.6 40.3 47.4 60.4 66.4 59.8 68.3 76.5 61.2 72.4 93.5 103 113 130 88.7 115 139 128 148 167 185 202 235 251 Axis v-v cm4 0.160 0.326 0.422 0.516 0.590 0.758 0.921 1.76 1.25 1.61 1.95 2.29 1.47 1.89 2.29 2.69 2.75 3.34 3.90 2.97 3.82 4.23 4.64 5.43 6.97 8.24 9.65 9.58 11.2 14.4 10.6 12.4 15.9 17.6 15.7 17.9 20.1 16.2 19.0 24.5 27.2 29.8 35.0 23.2 30.0 36.5 33.7 38.7 43.5 48.2 52.9 62.1 66.6

Radius Of Gyration Axis x-x , y-y cm 0.585 0.745 0.737 0.728 0.901 0.893 0.884 1.03 1.15 1.15 1.14 1.13 1.22 1.21 1.20 1.19 1.37 1.36 1.35 1.54 1.53 1.52 1.52 1.51 1.49 1.84 1.83 1.93 1.92 1.90 2.00 1.98 1.96 1.95 2.15 2.13 2.12 2.29 2.28 2.27 2.26 2.25 2.23 2.45 2.43 2.41 2.76 2.76 2.75 2.74 2.73 2.70 2.69 Axis u-u cm 0.735 0.938 0.926 0.912 1.13 1.12 1.11 1.30 1.45 1.44 1.43 1.41 1.53 1.52 1.51 1.50 1.72 1.71 1.69 1.93 1.92 1.92 1.91 1.90 1.87 2.31 2.30 2.44 2.42 2.39 2.51 2.50 2.47 2.45 2.70 2.69 2.67 2.88 2.88 2.85 2.84 2.83 2.80 3.08 3.06 3.03 3.48 3.47 3.46 3.45 3.43 3.40 3.39 Axis v-v cm 0.380 0.481 0.479 0.479 0.582 0.578 0.576 0.674 0.748 0.741 0.736 0.733 0.789 0.782 0.776 0.773 0.884 0.878 0.873 0.997 0.987 0.984 0.980 0.974 0.968 1.19 1.18 1.25 1.24 1.23 1.29 1.28 1.27 1.26 1.38 1.38 1.37 1.48 1.47 1.46 1.46 1.45 1.45 1.58 1.56 1.55 1.78 1.77 1.77 1.76 1.76 1.75 1.74

Elastic Modulus Axis x-x , y-y cm3 0.271 0.440 0.574 0.701 0.652 0.853 1.04 1.71 1.08 1.41 1.73 2.04 1.20 1.58 1.94 2.28 2.02 2.49 2.93 1.92 2.52 2.82 3.11 3.67 4.74 4.56 5.40 5.05 5.98 7.76 5.39 6.38 8.29 9.21 7.46 8.59 9.70 7.02 8.38 11.0 12.3 13.5 15.9 9.6 12.6 15.5 12.3 14.3 16.2 18.0 19.9 23.5 25.2

AxA mm 20x20 25x25

t mm 3 3 4 5 3 4 5 6 3 4 5 6 3 4 5 6 4 5 6 3 4 4.5 5 6 8 5 6 5 6 8 5 6 8 9 6 7 8 5 6 8 9 10 12 6 8 10 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 kg/m 0.885 1.12 1.45 1.70 1.36 1.76 2.16 1.65 1.72 2.36 2.79 3.33 1.83 2.42 2.95 3.52 2.74 3.38 3.99 2.33 3.06 3.40 3.77 4.43 5.78 4.55 5.42 4.75 5.71 7.42 5.00 5.91 7.66 8.55 6.38 7.38 8.43 5.69 6.85 9.03 9.96 10.99 13.00 7.34 9.66 11.8 8.30 9.61 10.90 12.20 13.40 15.90 17.00

r1 mm 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11

r2 mm 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 cm2 1.11 1.41 1.84 2.25 1.74 2.27 2.78 3.87 2.24 2.93 3.60 4.25 2.36 3.09 3.80 4.49 3.52 4.33 5.12 2.99 3.92 4.38 4.83 5.72 7.44 5.86 6.95 6.16 7.31 9.55 6.40 7.59 9.91 11.0 8.19 9.46 10.71 7.37 8.76 11.5 12.8 14.1 16.7 9.36 12.3 15.1 10.6 12.3 13.9 15.6 17.2 20.3 21.9

30x30

ANGLES

35X35 38x38

40x40

45x45

50x50

60x60 63X63

65x65

70x70

75x75

80x80

90x90

cm 0.593 0.718 0.758 0.796 0.836 0.879 0.919 1.08 1.03 1.07 1.12 1.15 1.08 1.12 1.17 1.20 1.24 1.29 1.33 1.32 1.37 1.39 1.41 1.45 1.53 1.65 1.70 1.73 1.77 1.85 1.77 1.82 1.90 1.94 1.94 1.98 2.02 2.00 2.04 2.13 2.17 2.21 2.29 2.17 2.26 2.34 2.41 2.46 2.50 2.54 2.58 2.66 2.70

136

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

ANGLES

Equal

A t

r2 v 90 r1

o

y u cy x

r2 t

x cy u y

A

v

Designation Size Thickness

Mass Per Metre

Radius Root Toe

Area Of Section

Distance Centre Of Gravity Cx and Cy

Second Moment Of Area Axis x-x , y-y cm4 113 130 146 178 208 222 250 259 316 371 448 294 360 422 332 370 406 477 578 610 518 635 748 909 960 1060 1109 1208 1474 1829 1967 2237 2369 2627 2877 3357 3472 3586 7030 7741 8650 9305 16300 26600 Axis u-u cm4 178 206 232 283 330 352 395 411 502 588 710 466 570 669 527 586 645 758 916 966 820 1008 1187 1442 1523 1680 1756 1920 2342 2906 3126 3555 3765 4174 4569 5322 5502 5680 11170 12290 13710 14720 25900 42300 Axis v-v cm4 47.0 53.9 60.6 73.8 86.5 92.8 105 107 130 153 186 122 149 174 138 153 168 197 240 253 215 263 309 375 397 440 462 497 606 753 809 919 973 1080 1185 1391 1442 1492 2891 3195 3593 3887 6690 10800

Radius Of Gyration Axis x-x , y-y cm 3.08 3.08 3.07 3.05 3.02 3.01 2.99 3.71 3.69 3.66 3.63 3.87 3.84 3.82 4.03 4.02 4.01 3.98 3.95 3.94 4.66 4.64 4.62 4.59 4.57 4.55 4.54 5.43 5.39 6.23 6.22 6.19 6.18 6.15 6.13 6.08 6.07 6.05 7.67 7.63 7.58 7.54 9.09 10.70 Axis u-u cm 3.88 3.87 3.86 3.84 3.81 3.79 3.76 4.67 4.64 4.62 4.57 4.87 4.84 4.81 5.07 5.06 5.05 5.02 4.97 4.95 5.87 5.85 5.82 5.78 5.76 5.73 5.71 6.84 6.80 7.85 7.84 7.81 7.79 7.76 7.72 7.65 7.64 7.62 9.67 9.61 9.54 9.49 11.50 13.50 Axis v-v cm 1.99 1.98 1.97 1.96 1.95 1.95 1.94 2.38 2.37 2.36 2.34 2.49 2.47 2.46 2.59 2.58 2.57 2.56 2.54 2.54 3.01 2.99 2.97 2.95 2.94 2.93 2.93 3.48 3.46 4.00 3.99 3.97 3.96 3.95 3.93 3.91 3.91 3.91 4.92 4.90 4.89 4.88 5.82 6.83

Elastic Modulus Axis x-x , y-y cm3 15.3 17.8 20.2 24.8 29.4 31.5 35.8 29.5 36.4 43.1 52.8 32.2 39.7 47.0 34.9 39.0 43.1 51.1 62.6 66.3 46.9 58.0 68.9 84.6 89.8 99.8 105 94.9 117 125 135 154 164 183 201 237 246 255 394 436 491 532 766 1060

AxA mm 100x100

t mm 6 7 8 10 12 13 15 8 10 12 15 8 10 12 8 9 10 12 15 16 8 10 12 15 16 18 19 12 15 12 13 15 16 18 20 24 25 26 25 28 32 35 35 35 kg/m 9.20 10.70 12.20 15.00 17.80 19.10 21.90 14.70 18.20 21.60 26.60 14.90 19.09 22.67 15.90 17.90 19.70 23.50 28.80 30.70 18.00 23.00 27.30 33.80 35.70 40.10 41.90 31.80 39.40 36.55 39.49 45.30 48.50 54.20 59.90 71.10 73.60 76.80 93.70 104.00 118.00 128.00 155.00 182.00

r1 mm 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 13 13 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 20 20 20 20 24 24

r2 mm 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 18 18 cm2 11.9 13.7 15.6 19.2 22.8 24.5 28.0 18.8 23.3 27.6 34.0 19.7 24.3 28.9 20.5 22.9 25.3 30.1 37.1 39.4 23.8 29.5 35.0 43.2 45.9 51.2 53.8 41.0 50.7 47.2 50.9 58.3 62.0 69.4 76.6 90.8 94.3 97.8 120 133 151 164 197 232

120x120

125x125

130x130

150x150

175x175 200x200

250x250

300x300 350x350

cm 2.65 2.70 2.75 2.83 2.91 2.95 3.02 3.24 3.32 3.41 3.52 3.36 3.44 3.53 3.48 3.53 3.57 3.65 3.77 3.81 3.97 4.06 4.14 4.26 4.30 4.38 4.42 4.77 4.89 5.38 5.42 5.50 5.54 5.62 5.70 5.85 5.89 5.93 7.14 7.25 7.40 7.51 8.71 9.96

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137

ANGLES

ANGLES

Unequal

A

r2 v u Cx r2 Cy B t u y v x x

o

t

90 r1

Designation Size Thickness

Mass Per Metre

Radius Root Toe

Area Of Section

Distance Centre Of Gravity

Cx Cy cm 0.870 0.930 1.21 1.29 1.52 1.56 1.58 1.64 1.70 1.84 1.88 1.92 1.96 2.03 2.07 1.62 1.64 1.69 1.73 1.77 1.84 1.87 1.50 1.54 1.55 1.62 1.70 1.81 1.97 2.00 2.04 2.12 2.24 2.24 2.30 2.34 2.41 2.50 2.53 2.03 2.11 2.18 2.23 3.63 3.75 3.86

Second Moment Of Area

Radius of Gyration

Elastic Modulus

AxB mm 63x38 75x50

ANGLES

t mm 4.5 6 6 8 7 8 9 10 12 7 8 9 10 12 13 6.5 7 8 9 10 12 13 7 8 9 10 12 15 8 9 10 12 15 8 9 10 12 14 15 10 12 14 15 12 15 18 kg/m 3.45 4.43 5.65 7.39 8.8 9.4 11.0 12.3 14.4 9.3 10.6 11.8 13.0 15.4 16.5 10.0 10.7 12.2 13.5 15.0 17.8 19.1 12.1 13.8 15.3 17.0 20.2 24.8 14.3 16.4 18.2 21.6 26.6 15.2 17.1 19.0 22.4 26.1 27.7 23.0 27.3 31.6 33.7 32.0 39.6 47.4

r1 mm 6 6 7 7 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 10 12 11 12 11 11 11 10 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 12 12 12 15 15 15 15 15 15 15

r2 mm 2.4 2.4 2.4 2.4 4.8 4.8 7.0 4.8 7.0 5.0 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 7.0 5.0 4.8 8.5 4.8 4.8 4.8 5.0 6.0 4.8 4.8 4.8 8.5 6.0 6.5 8.5 6.0 8.5 4.8 4.8 7.5 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 cm2 4.4 5.75 7.22 9.44 11.2 12.7 14.0 15.6 18.4 11.9 13.5 15.1 16.6 19.7 21.2 12.7 13.7 15.5 17.4 19.2 22.7 24.3 15.5 17.5 19.4 21.7 25.7 31.7 18.7 20.9 23.2 27.6 34.0 19.4 21.8 24.2 28.6 33.2 35.2 29.4 34.9 40.3 43.1 40.9 50.6 60.1

Axis x-x cm4 18.0 23.0 40.9

Axis y-y cm4 4.90 6.30 14.6

Axis Axis Axis Axis Axis u-u v-v x-x y-y u-u cm4 cm4 cm cm cm

Axis v-v cm

Axis Axis x-x y-y cm3 4.20 5.50 8.10 10.5 16.7 18.9 20.6 23.2 27.0 17.0 19.3 21.6 23.8 28.1 30.2 24.4 26.2 29.7 33.2 36.7 43.4 46.1 37.0 42.1 45.8 52.0 61.6 75.5 43.3 48.2 53.7 63.6 78.1 42.8 49.1 54.1 63.4 74.3 78.2 94.5 112 128 138 120 148 175 cm3 1.68 2.18 3.87 5.01 7.56 8.57 9.26 10.5 12.1 10.1 11.4 12.7 14.0 16.5 17.7 9.63 10.3 11.7 13.1 14.4 17.0 17.9 10.5 11.9 12.7 14.7 17.3 21.1 17.2 19.0 21.2 25.0 30.6 20.3 23.5 25.8 30.1 35.3 37.0 27.0 31.9 36.1 39.0 71.5 87.9 104

Angle x-x Axis to u-u Axis

cm 2.10 2.17 2.45 2.53 3.23 3.28 3.31 3.36 3.43 3.06 3.11 3.15 3.19 3.27 3.31 4.07 4.10 4.14 4.19 4.23 4.32 4.35 5.17 5.23 5.25 5.32 5.41 5.53 4.93 4.95 5.00 5.09 5.21 4.70 4.77 4.80 4.88 4.98 5.01 6.95 7.04 7.12 7.17 6.10 6.22 6.34

20.0 3.00 2.01 1.06 2.12 0.820 25.0 3.80 1.99 1.04 2.10 0.820 47.1 8.48 2.38 1.42 2.55 60.1 128 144 157 175 201 144 163 181 198 230 245 228 244 275 306 336 392 414 386 436 473 533 626 756 484 537 595 698 844 508 579 635 738 856 897 1309 1544 1755 1879 2046 2496 2923 10.9 22.1 24.9 26.8 30.2 34.7 30.7 34.6 38.4 42.2 49.5 53.1 34.4 36.7 41.3 45.8 50.2 58.8 61.9 40.8 45.8 48.7 55.8 65.3 79.2 72.7 80.5 89.2 105 127 90.9 104 114 132 153 161 138 162 182 197 434 530 622 2.36 3.18 3.17 3.14 3.14 3.11 3.15 3.14 3.13 3.12 3.10 3.09 4.02 4.01 4.00 3.99 3.98 3.95 3.93 4.85 4.84 4.79 4.82 4.79 4.75 4.83 4.81 4.81 4.78 4.74 4.77 4.79 4.78 4.74 4.74 4.71 6.48 6.45 6.41 6.41 6.38 6.34 6.30 1.40 1.84 1.83 1.80 1.81 1.78 2.19 2.18 2.17 2.16 2.14 2.13 2.11 2.10 2.10 2.09 2.08 2.06 2.04 2.02 2.02 1.97 2.00 1.98 1.95 2.54 2.52 2.52 2.50 2.47 2.86 2.88 2.86 2.83 2.82 2.80 2.70 2.68 2.65 2.65 4.45 4.42 4.38 2.52 3.39 3.38 3.34 3.35 3.30 3.49 3.48 3.46 3.45 3.42 3.40 4.23 4.22 4.21 4.20 4.18 4.16 4.13 5.00 4.99 4.93 4.96 4.93 4.89 5.09 5.06 5.06 5.03 4.99 5.12 5.15 5.13 5.08 5.08 5.04 6.68 6.65 6.60 6.60 7.07 7.02 6.97 1.08 1.07 1.41 1.40 1.38 1.39 1.37 1.61 1.60 1.60 1.59 1.59 1.58 1.64 1.64 1.63 1.62 1.62 1.61 1.60 1.62 1.62 1.58 1.60 1.59 1.58 1.97 1.96 1.96 1.95 1.93 2.17 2.18 2.17 2.15 2.15 2.14 2.17 2.16 2.12 2.14 3.26 3.23 3.22

0.362 0.358 0.436 0.430 0.415 0.414 0.410 0.410 0.404 0.548 0.548 0.546 0.545 0.541 0.539 0.360 0.360 0.360 0.359 0.358 0.354 0.352 0.263 0.263 0.259 0.261 0.259 0.254 0.364 0.361 0.361 0.359 0.354 0.437 0.439 0.437 0.435 0.434 0.431 0.264 0.263 0.261 0.260 0.554 0.552 0.549

100x65

100x75

125x75

150x75

150x90

150x100

200x100

200x150

52.4 18.6 113 37.7 127 42.3 138 45.5 154 51.1 177 58.0 118 56.9 133 64.2 148 71.1 162 77.7 189 90.3 202 96.3 206 56.6 220 60.5 249 68.1 276 75.5 303 82.6 355 96.0 376 101 364 63.1 411 71.2 447 75.3 503 86.3 591 100 715 120 436 121 485 133 536 147 630 172 764 207 441 158 502 181 552 198 642 228 744 265 781 276 1233 215 1454 252 1654 282 1772 303 1667 813 2037 989 2390 1155

138

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

BARS

Flat

Section Size Thickness mm 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 Width mm 12 16 19 25 32 38 50 65 75 100 25 32 35 38 44 50 65 75 100 25 32 35 38 40 44 50 65 75 90 100 125 150 175 200 25 32 38 44 50 65 75 90 100

Unit Weight M kg/m 0.283 0.377 0.447 0.589 0.754 0.895 1.18 1.53 1.77 2.36 0.883 1.13 1.24 1.34 1.55 1.77 2.30 2.65 3.53 1.18 1.51 1.65 1.79 1.88 2.07 2.36 3.06 3.53 4.24 4.71 5.89 7.07 8.24 9.42 1.57 2.01 2.39 2.76 3.14 4.08 4.71 5.65 6.28

Section Area A cm2 0.360 0.480 0.570 0.750 0.960 1.14 1.50 1.95 2.25 3.00 1.13 1.44 1.58 1.71 1.98 2.25 2.93 3.38 4.50 1.50 1.92 2.10 2.28 2.40 2.64 3.00 3.90 4.50 5.40 6.00 7.50 9.00 10.5 12.0 2.00 2.56 3.04 3.52 4.00 5.20 6.00 7.20 8.00

Section Size Thickness mm 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 Width mm 125 150 200 19 25 32 38 44 50 65 75 90 100 125 150 180 200 250 300 25 32 38 40 44 50 65 75 90 100 125 150 180 200 250 300 25 32 38 50 65 75 90 100

Unit Weight M kg/m 7.85 9.42 12.56 1.34 1.77 2.26 2.68 3.11 3.53 4.59 5.30 6.36 7.07 8.83 10.60 12.72 14.13 17.66 21.20 2.36 3.01 3.58 3.77 4.14 4.71 6.12 7.07 8.48 9.42 11.78 14.13 16.96 18.84 23.55 28.26 3.14 4.02 4.77 6.28 8.16 9.42 11.30 12.56

Section Area A cm2 10.0 12.0 16.0 1.71 2.25 2.88 3.42 3.96 4.50 5.85 6.75 8.10 9.00 11.3 13.5 16.2 18.0 22.5 27.0 3.00 3.84 4.56 4.80 5.28 6.00 7.80 9.00 10.8 12.0 15.0 18.0 21.6 24.0 30.0 36.0 4.00 5.12 6.08 8.00 10.4 12.0 14.4 16.0

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BARS

BARS

Flat

Section Size Thickness mm 16 16 16 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 25 25 25 25 Width mm 125 150 200 38 50 65 75 90 100 125 150 200 250 300 50 65 75 90

Unit Weight M kg/m 15.70 18.84 25.12 5.67 7.46 9.69 11.19 13.42 14.92 18.64 22.37 29.83 37.29 44.75 9.81 12.76 14.72 17.66

Section Area A cm2 20.0 24.0 32.0 7.2 9.5 12.4 14.3 17.1 19.0 23.8 28.5 38.0 47.5 57.0 12.5 16.3 18.8 22.5

Section Size Thickness mm 25 25 25 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 36 36 36 36 36 Width mm 100 125 150 100 125 150 180 200 230 250 280 300 100 125 150 180 200

Unit Weight M kg/m 19.63 24.53 29.44 25.12 31.40 37.68 45.22 50.24 57.78 62.80 70.34 75.36 28.26 35.33 42.39 50.87 56.52

Section Area A cm2 25.0 31.3 37.5 32.0 40.0 48.0 57.6 64.0 73.6 80.0 89.6 96.0 36.0 45.0 54.0 64.8 72.0

BARS

140

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

BARS

Square

a

Size a mm 9 10 12 13 16 18 19 22 25 28 30 32 36 38 40 44 45 50 55 60 65 75 80 85 90 95 100

Designation Mass Per Metre kg/m 0.64 0.79 1.13 1.33 2.01 2.54 2.83 3.80 4.91 6.15 7.07 8.04 10.17 11.34 12.56 15.20 15.90 19.63 23.75 28.26 33.17 44.16 50.24 56.72 63.59 70.85 78.50 Ib/ft 0.43 0.53 0.76 0.89 1.35 1.71 1.90 2.55 3.30 4.14 4.75 5.40 6.84 7.62 8.44 10.21 10.68 13.19 15.96 18.99 22.29 29.67 33.76 38.11 42.73 47.61 52.75

Area Of Section mm2 81.0 100 144 169 256 324 361 484 625 784 900 1024 1296 1444 1600 1936 2025 2500 3025 3600 4225 5625 6400 7225 8100 9025 10000

Second Moment Of Inertia mm4 547 833 1728 2380 5461 8748 10860 19520 32550 51220 67500 87380 140000 173800 213300 312300 341700 520800 762600 1080000 1488000 2637000 3413000 4350000 5468000 6788000 8333000

Radius Of Gyration mm 2.60 2.89 3.46 3.75 4.62 5.20 5.48 6.35 7.22 8.08 8.66 9.24 10.4 11.0 11.5 12.7 13.0 14.4 15.9 17.3 18.8 21.7 23.1 24.5 26.0 27.4 28.9

Elastic Modulus mm3 121 167 288 366 683 972 1143 1775 2604 3659 4500 5461 7776 9145 10670 14200 15190 20830 27730 36000 45770 70310 85330 102400 121500 142900 166700

Plastic Modulus mm3 182 250 432 549 1024 1458 1715 2662 3906 5488 6750 8192 11660 13720 16000 21300 22780 31250 41590 54000 68660 105500 128000 153500 182300 214300 250000

BARS

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BARS

Deformed and Round

Deformed Section Size mm 6 8 10 12 13 16 18 19 20 22 25 28 30 32 38 40 50

BARS

Round Unit Weight M kg/m 0.222 0.395 0.617 0.888 1.04 1.58 2.00 2.23 2.47 2.98 3.85 4.83 5.55 6.31 8.90 9.86 15.4 Section Area A cm2 0.283 0.503 0.785 1.13 1.33 2.01 2.54 2.84 3.14 3.80 4.91 6.16 7.07 8.04 11.3 12.6 19.6 Section Size mm 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110 115 120 125 130 135 140 145 150 160 170 180 190 Unit Weight M kg/m 0.222 0.395 0.499 0.617 0.888 1.04 1.21 1.58 2.00 2.23 2.47 2.72 2.98 3.55 3.85 4.17 4.83 5.19 5.55 5.92 6.31 7.55 8.90 9.86 10.88 11.9 12.5 15.4 Section Area A cm2 0.283 0.503 0.636 0.785 1.13 1.33 1.54 2.01 2.54 2.84 3.14 3.46 3.80 4.52 4.91 5.31 6.16 6.61 7.07 7.55 8.04 9.62 11.3 12.6 13.9 15.2 15.9 19.6 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 320 Unit Weight M kg/m 18.7 22.2 26.0 30.2 34.7 39.5 44.5 49.9 55.6 61.7 68.0 74.6 81.5 88.8 96.3 104.2 112.4 120.8 129.6 138.7 157.8 178.2 199.8 222.6 246.6 271.9 298.4 326.1 355.1 385 417 449 483 519 555 631 Section Area A cm2 23.8 28.3 33.2 38.5 44.2 50.3 56.7 63.6 70.9 78.5 86.6 95.0 103.9 113.1 122.7 132.7 143.1 153.9 165.1 176.7 201.1 227.0 254.5 283.5 314.2 346.4 380.1 415.5 452 491 531 573 616 661 707 804

Round Section Size mm 6 8 9 10 12 13 14 16 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 32 35 38 40 42 44 45 50

142

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PLATES

143

Plates

Product specifications

Main specifications

ABS Specifications (American Bureau of Shipping Rules) ABS (1998): Rules Requirements for Materials and Welding, Part 2. Ordinary strength hull structural steel plates. Higher strength hull structural steel plates. ASTM Specifications (American Society for Testing of Materials) A36 (1996): Standard specification for Carbon Structural Steel. A283 (1993): Standard specification for Low and Intermediate Tensile Strength Carbon Steel Plates A285 (1990): Standard specification for Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, Low- and Intermediate Tensile Strength. A516 (1990): Standard specification for Pressure Vessel Plates, Carbon Steel, for Moderate- and Lower-Temperature Service. A572 (1997): Standard specification for High-Strength, Low Alloy, Columbium-Vanadium Structural Steel. BSI Specifications (British Standards Institute) BS 7191 (1989): Specification for Weldable structural steels for fixed offshore structures. EN 10028 (1993): Specification for Flat products made of steels for pressure purposes. EN 10113 (1993): Standard specification for Hot rolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels. EN 10137 (1996): Plates and wide flats made of high yield strength structural steels in the quenched and tempered or precipitation hardened conditions. EN 10149 (1996): Specification for Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming. EN 10207 (1992): Steels for simple pressure vessels - Technical delivery requirements for plates, strips and bars. JIS Specifications (Japanese Industrial Standards) G 3101 (1991): Rolled steels for general structures. G 3106 (1995): Rolled steels for welded structure. LRS Specifications (Lloyd's Register of Shipping Rules) LR (1998): Manufacture, Testing and Certification of Materials.

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PLATES

PLATES

141

List of standard specifications

Specifications t<16mm Yield strength N/mm

2

Tensile strength t>40mm N/mm

2

Elongation min. % L0=5.65 S0 20

Charpy V-notch Temp. (°C) Energy (J) 0 -20 -40 -50

16<t<40

GENERAL STRUCTURES ASTM A36 min. 250 ASTM A283 Grade A Grade B Grade C Grade D ASTM A572 Grade 42 Grade 50 Grade 60 Grade 65 EN 10025-3&4 : 2004 S275N S355N S420N S460N S275M S355M S420M S460M EN 10149-2 S315MC S355MC S420MC S460MC S500MC S550MC S600MC S650MC S700MC EN 10149-3 S260NC S315NC S355NC S420NC JIS G 3101 SS330 SS400 SS490 SS540 JIS G 3106 SM400A, B, C SM490A, B, C 245 325 235 315 215 295 400-510 490-610 18-24 17-23 205 245 285 400 195 235 275 390 175 215 255 330-430 400-510 490-610 min. 540 28-21 17-23 15-21 13-17 0 °C B/C 27/47 B/C 27/47 min. 260 min. 315 min. 355 min. 420 370-490 430-550 470-610 530-670 30 27 25 23 40 40 40 40 min. 315 min. 355 min. 420 min. 460 min. 500 min. 550 min. 600 650 (t 8mm) 700 (t 8mm) 620 680 390-510 430-550 480-620 520-670 550-700 600-760 650-820 700-880 750-950 24 23 19 17 14 14 13 12 12 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 PLATES

400-550 310-415 345-450 380-515 415-550 415 450 520 550 370-510 470-630 520-680 550-720 360-510 450-610 500-660 530-720

50mm-200mm 23-20 50mm-200mm 30-27 28-25 25-22 23-20 50mm-200mm 24-20 21-18 18-16 17-15

-

-

40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40

-

27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27

min. 165 min. 185 min. 205 min. 230 min. 290 min. 345 min. 415 min. 450 min. 275 min. 355 min. 420 min. 460 min. 275 min. 355 min. 420 min. 460

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142

Specifications t<16mm

Yield strength N/mm

2

Tensile strength

2

Elongation min. % L0=5.65S0 20

Charpy V-notch Temp. (°C) Energy (J) 0 -20 -40 -50

16<t<40

t>40mm N/mm Contd. GENERAL STRUCTURES 335 335 430 490-610 520-640 570-720

Contd. JIS G 3106 SM490YA, YB SM520B, C SM570

365 365 460

355 355 450

15-21 15-21 19-26

0°C YB 27 B/C 27/47 -

-5°C 47

-

-

BRIDGES, FLOOD GATES, STORAGE TANKS, WATER TANKS, BUILDINGS, CRANE STRUCTURES EN 10025-6 S460Q, QL, QL1 S500Q, QL, QL1 S550Q, QL, QL1 S620Q, QL, QL1 S690Q, QL, QL1 S890Q, QL, QL1 S960Q, QL, QL1 EN 10137-3 S500A, AL S550A, AL S620A, AL S690A, AL

1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1)

460 500 550 620 690 890 960

2) 2) 2) 2)

1)* 1)* 1)* 1)* 1)* 1)*

440 480 530 580 650 830 2)* 2)* 2)* 2)*

1)** 1)** 1)** 1)** 1)**

400 440 490 560 630 -

1)*** 1)*** 1)*** 1)*** 1)*** 1)*** 1)***

550-720 590-770 640-820 700-890 760-940

17 17 16 15 14 11 10 17 16 15 14

0 -20 -40 40/50/60 30/40/50 -/30/40 40/50/60 30/40/50 -/30/40 40/50/60 30/40/50 -/30/40 40/50/60 30/40/50 -/30/40 40/50/60 30/40/50 -/30/40 40/50/60 30/40/50 -/30/40 40/50/60 30/40/50 -/30/40 0 -20 40/50 40/50 40/50 40/50 -40 -/40 -/40 -/40 -/40 55/65 55/65 55/65 55/65

880-1100 980-1150

3mm<t 50mm 50mm<t 70mm 500 550 620 690 480 530 580 650 600-700 650-820 710-880 760-930

SPECIAL STEEL 275 275 275 355 355 355 355 450 450 265 265 265 345 345 345 345 415 415 265 265 340 340 430-580 430-580 430-580 490-640 490-640 460-620 460-620 550-700 550-700 22 22 22 20 20 20 20 19 19 40 50 40 40 50 50 50 60 60 PLATES

BS 7191 275D 275E 275EZ 355D 355E 355EM 355EMZ 450EM 450EMZ

HULL STRUCTURES ABS Grade A, B, D, E Gr. AH, DH, EH, FH 32 Gr. AH, DH, EH, FH 36 Gr. AH, DH, EH, FH 40 LR

3) 3)

min. 235 min. 315 min. 355 min. 390 min. 235 min. 315 min. 355 min. 390

400-550 440-590 490-620 510-650 400-520 440-590 490-620 510-650

22 22 21 20 22 22 21 20

For thickness t 50mm 27 27 27 -60 27 34 34 41 27 31 34 41 34 34 41 27 31 34 41 34 34 41 27 31 34 41 34 34 41 -60 31 34 41

Grade A, B, D, E Gr. AH, DH, EH, FH 32 Gr. AH, DH, EH, FH 36 Gr. AH, DH, EH, FH 40

PRESSURE VESSELS, GENERAL ASTM A285 Grade A Grade B Grade C min. 165 min. 185 min. 205 310-450 345-485 380-515 50mm-200mm 30-27 28-25 27-23 -

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PLATES

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Specifications t<16mm

Yield strength 2 N/mm 16<t<40

Tensile Strength

2

Elongation min. %

Charpy V-notch Temp. (°C) Energy (J) 20 0 -20 -40 -50

t>40mm N/mm Contd. PRESSURE VESSELS, GENERAL 380-515 415-550 450-585 485-620

4) 4) 4) 4) 4) 4)

ASTM A516 Grade 55 Grade 60 Grade 65 Grade 70 EN 10028-2 P235GH P265GH P295GH P355GH 16 Mo 3 13 CrMo 4-5 10 CrMo 9-10 11 CrMo 9-10 EN 10028-3 P275 N, NH NL1 NL2 P355 N, NH NL1 NL2

PLATES

min. 205 min. 220 min. 240 min. 260 235 265 295 355 275 300 310 300 min. 310 225 255 290 345 270 295

4)

50mm-200mm 27-23 25-21 23-19 21-17 25 23 22 21 24-23 20 18 18 70mm 70-150

31 31 31 31 55

27 27 27 27 47 55 90 47 55 90 47 55 90 60 60 65 60 70 70

40 47 65 40 47 65 40 47 65 55 55 65 55 70 70

34 40 34 40 34 40 50 50 60 55 65 70

27 30 27 30 27 30 45 45 50 50 65 70

215 245 285 335 260 290

4) 4) 4) 4) 4) 4) 4)

360-480 410-530 460-580 510-650 440-590 450-600 480-630

520-670

275

275

5)

265

5)*

390-510

24

23

63 100 55

355

355

5)

345

5)*

490-630

22

21

63 100 55

P460

N, NH NL1 NL2 EN 10028-4 11 MnNi 5-3 13 MnNi 6-3 15 MnNi 6 12 Ni 14 12 Ni 19 t<30mm

6) 6) 6) 6) 6) 6) 6) 6)

460

450

5)

440

5)*

570-720

17

16

63 100

30mm<t 50mm

6)* 6)* 6)* 6)* 6)* 6)* 6)* 6)*

t<50mm 420-530 490-610 490-640 490-640 530-710 640-840 680-820 680-820 24 22 22 22 20 18 18 18 70 70 65 65 70 70

285 355 355 355 390 490 585 585

275 345 345 345 380 480 575 575

X8 Ni9 HT 640 X8 Ni9 HT 680 X7 Ni 9 EN 10028-5 P355 M ML1 ML2 P420 M ML1 ML2 P460 M ML1 ML2 EN 10028-6 P355 Q, QH QL1 QL2

8)

120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 120 60 40 60 80 40 60 80 40 60 80 40 60 80 27 40 60 27 40 60 27 40 60 27 40 60 27 40 27 40 27 40 27 40 27 27 27 -60 60 27

355

355

7)

345

450-610

22

60

420

400

7)

390

500-660

19

60

460

440

7)

430

530-720

17

-

355

8)*

335

8)**

315

8)***

490-630

22

-

146

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144

Specifications t<16mm

Yield strength 2 N/mm 16<t<40

Tensile strength

2

Elongation min. %

Charpy V-notch Temp. (°C) Energy (J) 20 0 -20 -40 -50

t>40mm N/mm Contd. PRESSURE VESSELS, GENERAL

Contd. EN 10028-6 P460 Q, QH QL1 QL2 P500 Q, QH QL1 QL2 P690 Q, QH QL1 QL2 PRESSURE VESSELS, LOW TEMPERATURE SERVICE EN 10207 P235S P265S P275SL 235 265 275 225 255 265 215 245 255 360-480 410-530 390-510 3-40mm 40-60 26 25 22 24 22 24

8) 8) 8)

60 460

8)*

40 60 80 40 60 80 40 60 80

27 40 60 27 40 60 27 40 60

27 40 27 40 27 40

-60 27 27 27

440

8)**

400

8)***

500-720

19

60

500

8)*

480

8)**

440

8)***

590-770

17

60

690

8)*

670

8)**

630

8)***

770-940

14

-

-

-

28 28 -

-

28

Table 25 ­ Plates: List of standards specifications

1) 1)* 1)** 1)*** 2) 2)* 3)

For t 50mm. For 50<t 100mm For 100<t 150mm. For t>150mm, see EN 10137-2. For t 50mm. For 50<t 70mm. For LR and ABS plates the difference between A, B, D, E, F grades are the impact tests. They are made at the following temperatures: A grade B/AH grade D/DH grade +20 °C 0 °C -20 °C E/EH grade FH grade -60 °C -40 °C

PLATES

For t 100mm. For t>100mm, see EN 10137-2.

4) 5) 5)* 6) 6)* 7) 8) 8)* 8)** 8)***

For plates thicker than 60mm, see EN 10028-2:1992. For plates thicker than 50mm, see EN 10028-3:1992. For plates thicker than 70mm, see EN 10028-3:1992. For t 30mm. For 30<t 50mm Maximum thickness 63mm. For t 50mm For 50<t 100mm For 100<t<150mm For t 100mm. For 100<t 150mm, see EN 10028-6.

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PLATES

145

Mild Steel Plates

Metric units 7.85kg/mm m - 0.7293 kg/mm ft

Width x Length (ft) Thickness Weight mm 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.9 2.3 2.6 3 3.2 4.0 4.5 5 6 6.35 7.5 8 9 9.53 10 12 12.7 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 24 25 25.4 28 29 30 32 35 36 38 40 44 45 50 55 57 60 63.5 65 70 75 kg/ft

2

2

2

4x8 kg 28.0 35.0 37.3 44.3 53.7 60.7 70.0 74.7 93.3 105 117 140 148 175 187 210 222 233 280 296 303 327 350 373 420 443 467 490 513 560 583 593 653 677 700 747 817 840 887 934 1027 1050 1167 1284 1330 1400 1482 1517 1634 1750

2

4 x 16 kg 187 210 233 280 296 350 373 420 445 467 560 593 607 653 700 747 840 887 934 980 1027 1120 1167 1186 1307 1354 1400 1494 1634 1680 1774 1867 2054 2100 2334 2567 2660 2801 2964 3034 3267 3501

5 x 10 kg 43.8 54.7 58.3 69.3 83.9 94.8 109 117 146 164 182 219 232 273 292 328 348 365 438 463 474 511 547 583 656 693 729 766 802 875 912 926 1021 1057 1094 1167 1277 1313 1386 1459 1605 1641 1823 2006 2079 2188 2316 2370 2553 2735

2

5 x 20 Weight / pc kg 219 292 328 365 438 463 547 583 656 695 729 875 926 948 1021 1094 1167 1313 1386 1459 1532 1604 1750 1823 1852 2042 2115 2188 2334 2553 2625 2771 2917 3209 3282 3647 4011 4157 4376 4631 4740 5105 5470

6 x 20 kg 350 394 438 525 556 656 700 788 834 875 1050 1111 1138 1225 1313 1400 1575 1663 1750 1838 1925 2100 2188 2223 2450 2538 2625 2801 3064 3151 3326 3501 3851 3938 4376 4813 4988 5251 5557 5689 6126 6564

8 x 20 kg 700 741 875 934 1050 1112 1167 1400 1482 1517 1634 1750 1867 2100 2217 2334 2450 2567 2801 2917 2964 3267 3384 3501 3734 4085 4201 4434 4668 5134 5251 5834 6418 6651 7001 7410 7585 8168 8752

10 x 30 kg 1313 1389 1641 1750 1969 2085 2188 2625 2779 2844 3063 3282 3501 3938 4157 4376 4595 4813 5251 5470 5557 6126 6345 6564 7001 7659 7876 8314 8752 9627 9846 10940 12033 12471 13127 13893 14221 15315 16409

0.875 1.094 1.167 1.386 1.677 1.896 2.188 2.334 2.917 3.282 3.647 4.376 4.631 5.470 5.834 6.564 6.950 7.293 8.752 9.262 9.481 10.21 10.94 11.67 13.13 13.86 14.59 15.32 16.04 17.50 18.23 18.52 20.42 21.15 21.88 23.34 25.53 26.25 27.71 29.17 32.09 32.82 36.47 40.11 41.57 43.76 46.31 47.40 51.05 54.70

PLATES

Contd. from previous page Metric units 7.85kg/mm m - 0.7293 kg/mm ft

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PLATES

146

Width x Length (ft) Thickness Weight mm 80 90 100 110 120 125 130 140 150 kg/ft

2

4x8 kg 1867 2100 2334 2567 2801 2917 3034 3267 3501

4 x 16 kg 3734 4201 4668 5134 5601 5834 6068 6535 7001

5 x 10 kg 2917 3282 3647 4011 4376 4558 4740 5105 5470

5 x 20 Weight / pc kg 5834 6564 7293 8022 8752 9116 9481 10210 10940

6 x 20 kg 7001 7876 8752 9627 10502 10940 11377 12252 13127

8 x 20 kg 9335 10502 11669 12836 14003 14586 15169 16336 17503

10 x 30 kg 17503 19691 21879 24067 26255 27349 28443 30631 32819

58.34 65.64 72.93 80.22 87.52 91.16 94.81 102.1 109.4

Table 26 ­ Plates: Sizes of Mild Steel Plates

Chequered Plates

Metric units 8.08kg/mm m - 0.7507 kg/mm ft

Width x Length (ft) Thickness mm 2.3 3 3.2 4 4.3 4.5 5 5.8 6 7.5 8 9 12 Weight kg/ft

2

2

2

4x 8 kg 55.2 72.0 76.8 96.1 103 108 120 139 144 180 192 216 288

4 x 10 kg 69.1 90.1 96.1 120 129 135 150 174 180 225 240 270 360

4 x 16 kg 111 144 154 192 207 216 240 279 288 360 384 432 576

4 x 20 kg 138 180 192 240 258 270 300 348 360 450 480 541 721

5 x 10 kg 86.3 113 120 150 161 169 188 218 225 282 300 338 450

5 x 20 Kg 435 450 563 601 676 901

PLATES

Weight / pc

1.73 2.25 2.40 3.00 3.23 3.38 3.75 4.35 4.50 5.63 6.01 6.76 9.01

-

Table 27 ­ Plates: Sizes of Chequered Plates

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Plates

Metric units 7.85kg/mm m2 - 0.7293 kg/mm ft2 Thickness t mm 1.2 1.5 1.6 1.9 2.3 2.6 3 3.2 4.5 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 12.7 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

PLATES

Unit Weight M kg/ft2 0.875 1.094 1.167 1.386 1.677 1.896 2.188 2.334 3.282 3.647 4.376 5.105 5.834 6.564 7.293 8.022 8.752 9.262 9.481 10.21 10.94 11.67 12.40 13.13 13.86 14.59 15.32 16.04 16.77 17.50 18.23

Width x Length (ft) 4x8 Weight / pc kg 28.0 35.0 37.3 44.3 53.7 60.7 70.0 74.7 105 117 140 163 187 210 233 257 280 296 303 327 350 373 397 420 443 467 490 513 537 560 583 kg 210 233 280 327 373 420 467 513 560 593 607 653 700 747 793 840 887 934 980 1027 1074 1120 1167 kg 43.8 54.7 58.3 69.3 83.9 94.8 109 117 164 182 219 255 292 328 365 401 438 463 474 511 547 583 620 656 693 729 766 802 839 875 912 kg 219 328 365 438 511 583 656 729 802 875 926 948 1021 1094 1167 1240 1313 1386 1459 1532 1604 1677 1750 1823 kg 394 438 525 613 700 788 875 963 1050 1111 1138 1225 1313 1400 1488 1575 1663 1750 1838 1925 2013 2100 2188 kg 700 817 934 1050 1167 1284 1400 1482 1517 1634 1750 1867 1984 2100 2217 2334 2450 2567 2684 2801 2917 kg 1313 1532 1750 1969 2188 2407 2625 2779 2844 3063 3282 3501 3719 3938 4157 4376 4595 4813 5032 5251 5470 4 x 16 5 x 10 5 x 20 6 x 20 8 x 20 10 x 30

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Plates

Metric units 7.85kg/mm m2 - 0.7293 kg/mm ft2 Thickness t mm 25.4 26 27 28 29 30 32 34 36 38 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 90 100 110 120 125 130 140 150 Unit Weight M kg/ft2 18.52 18.96 19.69 20.42 21.15 21.88 23.34 24.80 26.25 27.71 29.17 32.82 36.47 40.11 43.76 47.40 51.05 54.70 58.34 65.64 72.93 80.22 87.52 91.16 94.81 102.1 109.4 Width x Length (ft) 4x8 Weight / pc kg 593 607 630 653 677 700 747 793 840 887 934 1050 1167 1284 1400 1517 1634 1750 1867 2100 2334 2567 2801 2917 3034 3267 3501 kg 1186 1214 1260 1307 1354 1400 1494 1587 1680 1774 1867 2100 2334 2567 2801 3034 3267 3501 3734 4201 4668 5134 5601 5834 6068 6535 7001 kg 926 948 985 1021 1057 1094 1167 1240 1313 1386 1459 1641 1823 2006 2188 2370 2553 2735 2917 3282 3647 4011 4376 4558 4740 5105 5470 kg 1852 1896 1969 2042 2115 2188 2334 2480 2625 2771 2917 3282 3647 4011 4376 4740 5105 5470 5834 6564 7293 8022 8752 9116 9481 10210 10940 kg 2223 2275 2363 2450 2538 2625 2801 2976 3151 3326 3501 3938 4376 4813 5251 5689 6126 6564 7001 7876 8752 9627 10502 10940 11377 12252 13127 kg 2964 3034 3151 3267 3384 3501 3734 3967 4201 4434 4668 5251 5834 6418 7001 7585 8168 8752 9335 10502 11669 12836 14003 14586 15169 16336 17503 kg 5557 5689 5907 6126 6345 6564 7001 7439 7876 8314 8752 9846 10940 12033 13127 14221 15315 16409 17503 21879 24067 26255 27349 28443 30631 32819

PLATES

4 x 16

5 x 10

5 x 20

6 x 20

8 x 20

10 x 30

19691

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PLATES

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Continental Steel Pte Ltd

PIPES

JIS G 3452-1988 (SGP)

Nominal size A B 6 8 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 125 150 175 200 225 250 300 350 400 450 500 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20

Outside Diameter mm in 10.5 13.8 17.3 21.7 27.2 34.0 42.7 48.6 60.5 76.3 89.1 102 114 140 165 191 216 242 267 319 356 406 457 508 0.413 0.543 0.681 0.854 1.07 1.34 1.68 1.91 2.38 3.00 3.51 4.00 4.50 5.50 6.50 7.51 8.52 9.52 10.5 12.5 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0

Thickness mm in 2.0 2.3 2.3 2.8 2.8 3.2 3.5 3.5 3.8 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.5 4.5 5.0 5.3 5.8 6.2 6.6 6.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 0.079 0.090 0.090 0.110 0.110 0.126 0.138 0.138 0.150 0.165 0.165 0.165 0.177 0.177 0.197 0.209 0.228 0.244 0.260 0.272 0.311 0.311 0.311 0.311

Unit Weight (plain end) lb/ft kg/m 0.282 0.438 0.572 0.880 1.13 1.63 2.27 2.61 3.57 5.02 5.91 6.79 8.20 10.1 13.3 16.3 20.2 24.2 28.5 35.6 45.5 52.1 58.7 65.4 0.419 0.652 0.851 1.31 1.68 2.43 3.38 3.89 5.31 7.47 8.79 10.1 12.2 15.0 19.8 24.2 30.1 36.0 42.4 53.0 67.7 77.6 87.5 97.4

Tensile Strength : 290N/mm 2 Welded steel Pipes Class Extra Light (AA) Designation of thread in. 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 Nominal bore mm 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 90 100 125 150 in. 0.84 1.06 1.33 1.67 1.9 2.3 2.99 3.49 3.98 4.48 5.53 Outside diameter of black pipe max. mm 21.4 26.9 33.8 42.5 48.4 60.2 76 88.7 102 113.9 140.6 in. 0.83 1.04 1.31 1.65 1.88 2.35 2.96 3.46 3.95 4.45 5.46 6.46 min mm 21 26.4 33.2 41.9 47.8 59.6 75.2 87.9 101.1 113 138.7 164.1 in. 0.063 0.063 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.075 0.083 0.083 0.091 0.157 0.157 mm 1.6 1.6 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.1 2.1 2.3 4.0 4.0 lb/ft Thickness Plain end kg/m 0.773 0.99 1.89 2.16 2.72 3.45 4.46 5.15 6.31 13.4 15.9

PIPES

0.52 0.666 0.994 1.27 1.45 1.83 2.31 3 3.46 4.23 8.99 10.7

1.48

6.54

166.1

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PIPES

BS 1387-1985

Steel tubes and tubulars suitable for screwing to BS 21 pipe threads Tube Designation of thread in. 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 Medium (B) 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6 Heavy (C) 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2

PIPES

Nominal bore mm 6 8 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 6 8 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150 6 8 10 15 20 25 32 40 50 65 80 100 125 150

Outside diameter of black pipe max. min in. mm in. mm 0.383 0.532 0.671 0.841 1.059 1.328 1.670 1.903 2.347 2.991 3.491 4.481 0.411 0.547 0.685 0.856 1.072 1.346 1.687 1.919 2.394 3.014 3.524 4.524 5.534 6.539 0.411 0.547 0.685 0.856 1.072 1.346 1.687 1.919 2.394 3.014 3.524 4.524 5.534 6.539 10.1 13.6 17.1 21.4 26.9 33.8 42.5 48.4 60.2 76.0 88.7 113.9 10.4 13.9 17.4 21.7 27.2 34.2 42.9 48.8 60.8 76.6 89.5 114.9 140.6 166.1 10.4 13.9 17.4 21.7 27.2 34.2 42.9 48.8 60.8 76.6 89.5 114.9 140.6 166.1 0.369 0.518 0.656 0.825 1.041 1.309 1.650 1.882 2.307 2.960 3.460 4.450 0.386 0.522 0.660 0.831 1.047 1.316 1.657 1.889 2.354 2.969 3.469 4.459 5.459 6.459 0.386 0.522 0.660 0.831 1.047 1.316 1.657 1.889 2.354 2.969 3.469 4.459 5.459 6.459 9.7 13.2 16.7 21.0 26.4 33.2 41.9 47.8 59.6 75.2 87.9 113.0 9.8 13.3 16.8 21.1 26.6 33.4 42.1 48.0 59.8 75.4 88.1 113.3 138.7 164.1 9.8 13.3 16.8 21.1 26.6 33.4 42.1 48.0 59.8 75.4 88.1 113.3 138.7 164.1

Thickness in. 0.072 0.072 0.072 0.080 0.092 0.104 1.104 0.116 0.116 0.128 0.128 0.144 0.080 0.092 0.092 0.104 0.104 0.128 0.128 0.128 0.144 0.144 0.160 0.176 0.192 0.192 0.104 0.116 0.116 0.128 0.128 0.160 0.160 0.160 0.176 0.176 0.192 0.212 0.212 0.212 mm 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.0 2.3 2.6 2.6 2.9 2.9 3.2 3.2 3.6 2.0 2.3 2.3 2.6 2.6 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.6 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.0 2.7 2.9 2.9 3.2 3.2 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.5 4.5 5.0 5.4 5.4 5.4

Light (A)

2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6

Yield Strength : 195 N/mm2 Tensile Strength : 320 to 460 N/mm2

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PIPES

Steel tubes and tubulars suitable for screwing to BS 21 pipe threads

Tube Weight of black pipe Plain end Screwed and socketed lb/ft kg/m lb/ft kg/m 0.243 0.347 0.453 0.640 0.944 1.350 1.730 2.190 2.760 3.900 4.580 6.640 Medium (B) 0.273 0.437 0.573 0.822 1.060 1.640 2.110 2.430 3.420 4.380 5.690 8.140 10.900 12.900 Heavy (C) 0.331 0.517 0.686 0.977 1.270 2.000 2.580 2.980 4.140 5.310 6.760 9.710 12.000 14.300 0.361 0.517 0.674 0.952 1.410 2.010 2.580 3.250 4.110 5.800 6.810 9.890 0.407 0.650 0.852 1.220 1.580 2.440 3.140 3.610 5.100 6.510 8.470 12.100 16.200 19.200 0.493 0.769 1.020 1.450 1.900 2.970 3.840 4.430 6.170 7.900 10.100 14.400 17.800 21.200 0.245 0.350 0.457 0.646 0.954 1.360 1.750 2.220 2.810 3.980 4.690 6.840 0.275 0.440 0.577 0.828 1.070 1.650 2.130 2.460 3.470 4.460 5.800 8.340 11.200 13.300 0.333 0.520 0.690 0.983 1.280 2.010 2.600 3.010 4.190 5.390 6.870 9.910 12.300 14.700 0.364 0.521 0.680 0.961 1.420 2.030 2.610 3.290 4.180 5.920 6.980 10.200 0.410 0.654 0.858 1.230 1.590 2.460 3.170 3.650 5.170 6.630 8.640 12.400 16.700 19.800 0.496 0.773 1.030 1.460 1.910 2.990 3.870 4.470 6.240 8.020 10.300 14.700 18.300 21.800 Ordinary sockets Min. outside dia. Min. length in. mm in. mm 19/32 23/32 7/8 1 1/16 1 9/32 1 9/16 1 15/16 2 3/16 2 11/16 3 5/16 3 7/8 4 7/8 19/32 23/32 7/8 1 1/16 1 9/32 1 9/16 1 15/16 2 3/16 2 11/16 3 5/16 3 7/8 4 7/8 5 15/16 7 19/32 23/32 7/8 1 1/16 1 9/32 1 9/16 1 15/16 2 3/16 2 11/16 3 5/16 3 7/8 4 7/8 5 15/16 7 15.0 18.5 22.0 27.0 32.5 39.5 49.0 56.0 68.0 84.0 98.0 124.0 15.0 18.5 22.0 27.0 32.5 39.5 49.0 56.0 68.0 84.0 98.0 124.0 151.0 178.0 15.0 18.5 22.0 27.0 32.5 39.5 49.0 56.0 68.0 84.0 98.0 124.0 151.0 178.0 3/4 1 1/16 1 1/8 1 7/16 1 9/16 1 13/16 2 2 2 3/8 2 11/16 2 15/16 3 7/16 3/4 1 1/16 1 1/8 1 7/16 1 9/16 1 13/16 2 2 2 3/8 2 11/16 2 15/16 3 7/16 3 3/4 3 3/4 3/4 1 1/16 1 1/8 1 7/16 1 9/16 1 13/16 2 2 2 3/8 2 11/16 2 15/16 3 7/16 3 3/4 3 3/4 19 27 28 37 39 46 51 51 60 69 75 87 19 27 28 37 39 46 51 51 60 69 75 87 96 96 19 27 28 37 39 46 51 51 60 69 75 87 96 96

PIPES

Light (A)

Yield Strength : 195 N/mm2 Tensile Strength : 320 to 460 N/mm2

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PIPES

153

API 5L (1991) and ASTM A53 (1997)

API Specification 5L line pipes (1991 edition); seamless and welded line pipes for conveying water, gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons and for the construction of chemical and industrial plants, oil refineries etc. ASTM A53 (1997 edition) Steel pipes, black and hot-dipped, zinc-coated, welded and seamless, with nominal (average) diameter from 1/8" - 26". Please note that API 5L pipes might be heat-treated, ASTM A53 pipes are all cold formed.

Chemical composition

The chemical composition of the API 5L and ASTM A53 pipes are shown below.

Delivery condition API 5L S-W S-W S-W S-W S-W S-W S-W W W W ASTM A53 S-W S-W F Grade C max. % 0.22 0.27 0.29 0.31 0.31 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.23 0.18 0.25 0.30 Mn max. % 0.90 1.15 1.25 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.40 1.60 1.80 0.95 1.20 P max. % 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.05 0.05 0.08 S max. % 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.018 0.06 0.06 0.06

A B X42 X46 X52 X56 X60 X65 X70 X80 A B

Notes: S = Seamless, W = electric-resistance Welded, F = Furnace-welded

Table 28 ­ API 5L and ASTM A53 Pipes: Chemical composition

Mechanical properties

The mechanical properties for the API 5L and ASTM A53 pipes are shown in Table 29 below.

Delivery condition API 5L S-W S-W S-W S-W S-W S-W S-W W W W ASTM A53 S-W S-W F Grade Min. Yield strength 2 N/mm 207 241 289 317 358 386 413 448 482 551 205 240 170 Min. Tensile strength 2 N/mm 331 413 413 434 455 489 517 530 565 620-827 330 415 310

PIPES

A B X42 X46 X52 X56 X60 X65 X70 X80 A B

Table 29 ­ API 5L and ASTM A53 Pipes: Mechanical properties

The tables on the following pages show the available sizes with outside diameter, plain end weight, wall thickness, designation, and hydrostatic test pressure.

156

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

PIPES

154

Section sizes

OD = outer diameter, ID = inner diameter = Sizes only from ASTM A53 (1997). Schedule Nos. are taken from ASTM A53. ASTM sizes do not have an alternative size or grades X42 to X80.

Size OD inch mm 1/8 10.3 1/4 13.7 3/8 17.2 1/2 21.3 Wall thickness Sch. No (Class) 40(Std) 80(XS) 40(Std) 80(XS) 40(Std) 80(XS) 40(Std) 80(XS) 160 (XXS) 40(Std) 80(XS) 160 (XXS) 40 (Std) 80 (XS) 160 (XXS) 40 (Std) 80 (XS) 160 (XXS) 40 (Std) 80 (XS) 160 (XXS) t mm 1.7 2.4 2.2 3.0 2.3 3.2 2.8 3.7 4.8 7.5 2.9 3.9 5.6 7.8 3.4 4.5 6.4 9.1 3.6 4.9 6.4 9.7 3.7 5.1 7.1 10.2 2.1 (Std) 2.8 3.2 3.6 40 (Std) 3.9 4.4 4.8 80 (XS) 5.5 6.4 7.1 Unit weight kg/m 0.36 0.47 0.62 0.79 0.84 1.10 1.28 1.61 1.95 2.55 1.70 2.19 2.89 3.64 2.52 3.21 4.23 5.45 3.43 4.51 5.60 7.77 4.07 5.43 7.23 9.58 3.01 3.97 4.51 5.03 5.42 6.07 6.57 7.43 8.51 9.31 ID Butt weld A 700 850 700 850 700 850 700 850 900 1000 700 850 950 1000 700 850 1000 1000 1300 1400 Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. 700 850 700 850 700 850 700 850 900 1000 700 850 950 1000 700 850 950 1000 1200 1800 1900 2200 1200 1800 1950 2200 1260 1570 1650 2070 1890 2370 2140 2500 2330 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 B 700 850 700 850 700 850 700 850 900 1000 700 850 950 1000 700 850 950 1000 1300 1900 2000 2300 1300 1900 2050 2300 1470 1830 1930 2410 2210 2500 2490 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 Hydrostatic test pressure Values given in (psi). 1psi = 6.895MPa. X42 1760 2200 2310 2890 2650 3000 2990 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X46 1930 2410 2530 3000 2910 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X52 2180 2730 2860 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X56 2350 2940 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X60 2520 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X65 2730 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X70 2940 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X80 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000

PIPES

mm 6.9 5.5 9.3 7.7 12.5 10.1 15.7 13.9 11.7 6.3 20.9 18.9 15.5 11.1 26.6 24.4 20.7 15.2 35.0 32.4 29.5 22.8 40.9 38.1 34.0 27.9 56.1 54.6 53.9 53.1 52.5 51.5 50.7 49.3 47.5 46.1

3/4 26.7

1 33.4

1 1/4 42.2

1 1/2 48.3

2 3/8 60.3

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157

PIPES

155

Size OD inch mm 2 3/8 60.3

Wall thickness Sch. no (Class) 160 (XXS) t mm 8.7 11.1 2.1 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.4 4.8 40 (Std) 5.2 5.5 6.4 80 (XS) 160 (XXS) 7.0 9.5 14.0 2.1 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.4 4.8 40 (Std) 5.5 6.4 7.1 80 (XS) 7.6

Unit weight kg/m 11.10 13.47 3.67 4.85 5.51 6.16 6.81 7.44 8.07 8.69 9.16 10.51 11.39 14.89 20.37 4.50 5.95 6.76 7.57 8.37 9.17 9.95 11.31 13.02 14.32 15.24

ID mm 42.8 38.1 68.8 67.4 66.6 65.8 65.0 64.2 63.4 62.6 62.0 60.2 59.0 54.0 45.0 84.7 83.3 82.5 81.7 80.9 80.1 79.3 77.9 76.1 74.7 73.7 Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. A 2500 2500 2500 1040 1300 1360 1710 1570 1960 1770 2210 1950 2440 2150 2500 2350 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 850 1070 1120 1400 1290 1610 1450 1810 1600 2010 1770 2210 1930 2420 2220 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 B 2500 2500 2500 1210 1520 1590 1990 1830 2280 2060 2500 2280 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 1000 1250 1310 1640 1500 1880 1690 2120 1870 2340 2060 2500 2260 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500 2500

Hydrostatic test pressure Values given in (psi). 1psi = 6.895MPa. X42 3000 3000 1460 1820 1910 2390 2190 2740 2470 3000 2730 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1200 1490 1570 1960 1800 2250 2030 2540 2250 2810 2480 3000 2710 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X46 3000 3000 1590 1990 2090 2620 2400 3000 2710 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1310 1640 1720 2150 1970 2460 2220 2780 2460 3000 2710 3000 2970 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X52 3000 3000 1800 2250 2370 2960 2710 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1480 1850 1940 2430 2230 2790 2510 3000 2780 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X56 3000 3000 1940 2430 2550 3000 2920 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1590 1990 2090 2620 2400 3000 2710 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X60 3000 3000 2030 2600 2730 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1710 2130 2240 2800 2570 3000 2900 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X65 3000 3000 2250 2810 2960 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1850 2310 2430 3000 2790 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X70 3000 3000 2430 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1990 2490 2620 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X80 3000 3000 2770 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 2270 2840 2990 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000

2 7/8 73.0

3 88.9

PIPES

158

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

PIPES

156

Size OD inch mm 3 88.9

Wall thickness Sch. no (Class) 160 (XXS) t mm 11.1 15.2 2.1 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.4 4.8 40 (Std) 5.7 6.4 7.1 80 (XS) 8.1 2.1 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6 40 (Std) 6.0 6.4 7.1 7.9 80 (XS) 8.6

Unit weight kg/m 21.30 27.63 5.15 6.82 7.76 8.70 9.63 10.55 11.46 13.48 15.02 16.55 18.68 5.81 8.77 9.83 10.88 11.92 12.96 13.99 15.01 16.02 17.03 18.77 20.73 22.42

ID mm 66.6 58.5 97.4 96.0 95.2 94.4 93.6 92.8 92.0 90.2 88.8 87.4 85.4 110.1 107.9 107.1 106.3 105.5 104.7 103.9 103.1 102.3 101.5 100.1 98.5 97.1 Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. A 2500 2500 2500 750 930 980 1230 1130 1410 1270 1590 1400 1760 1550 1940 1690 2120 2930 2540 2250 2800 2530 2800 2800 2800 660 830 1000 1250 1130 1410 1250 1560 1380 1720 1500 1880 1620 2030 1750 2190 1900 2370 2000 2500 2250 2800 2500 2800 2700 2800 B 2500 2500 2500 870 1090 1140 1430 1310 1640 1480 1850 1640 2050 1810 2260 1970 2470 2370 2800 2630 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 770 970 1170 1460 1320 1650 1460 1820 1610 2010 1750 2190 1890 2370 2040 2560 2210 2770 2330 2800 2620 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800

Hydrostatic test pressure Values given in (psi). 1psi = 6.895MPa. X42 3000 3000 1050 1310 1370 1720 1580 1970 1780 2220 1970 2460 2170 2710 2370 2960 2850 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 930 1160 1400 1750 1580 1970 1750 2180 1930 2410 2110 2630 2270 2840 2450 3000 2650 3000 2800 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X46 3000 3000 1150 1430 1500 1880 1730 2160 1950 2430 2150 2690 2370 2970 2590 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1020 1270 1530 1920 1730 2160 1910 2390 2110 2640 2310 2880 2490 3000 2690 3000 2910 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X52 3000 3000 1290 1620 1700 2130 1950 2440 2200 2750 2430 3000 2680 3000 2930 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1150 1440 1730 2170 1960 2440 2160 2700 2390 2980 2610 3000 2810 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X56 3000 3000 1390 1740 1830 2290 2100 2630 2370 2960 2620 3000 2890 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1240 1550 1870 2330 2110 2630 2330 2910 2570 3000 2810 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X60 3000 3000 1490 1870 1960 2450 2250 2810 2540 3000 2810 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1330 1660 2000 2500 2260 2820 2500 3000 2750 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X65 3000 3000 1620 2020 2130 2660 2440 3000 2750 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1440 1800 2170 2710 2440 3000 2700 3000 2980 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X70 3000 3000 1740 2180 2290 2860 2630 3000 2960 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1550 1940 2330 2920 2630 3000 2910 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X80 3000 3000 1990 2460 2620 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1770 2210 2670 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000

4 101.6

4 114.30

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

159

PIPES

PIPES

157

Size OD inch mm 4 114.30

Wall thickness Sch. no (Class) 120 160 (XXS) t mm 11.1 13.5 17.1 2.1 3.2 4.0 4.8 5.6 6.6 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 12.7 15.9 19.1

Unit weight kg/m 28.25 33.56 40.99 7.21 10.90 13.54 16.16 18.74 21.92 23.50 25.99 28.45 30.88 40.28 49.17 57.56

ID mm 92.1 87.3 80.1 137.1 134.9 133.3 131.7 130.1 128.1 127.1 125.5 123.9 122.3 115.9 109.5 103.1 Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Alt. Std. Std. Std. Std. Std. Std. Std. Std. Std. Std. Std. Std. Std. A 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 540 810 1010 1220 1420 1670 1820 2020 2230 2430 2800 2800 2800 B 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 630 940 1180 1420 1650 1950 2120 2360 2600 2800 2800 2800 2800

Hydrostatic test pressure Values given in (psi). 1psi = 6.895MPa. X42 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 750 1130 1410 1700 1990 2340 2550 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X46 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 820 1240 1550 1870 2170 2560 2790 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X52 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 930 1400 1750 2110 2460 2890 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X56 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1000 1500 1910 2270 2650 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X60 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1040 1630 2020 2430 2830 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X65 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1160 1750 2120 2640 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X70 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1250 1890 2360 2840 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X80 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1430 2160 2690 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000

5 9/16 141.3

40

80 (XS) 120 160 (XXS)

Size OD inch mm 6 5/8 168.3

Wall thickness Sch. No. (Class)

Unit weight ID mm 164.1 162.7 161.9 161.1 160.3 159.5 158.7 157.9 157.1 155.5 154.1 152.5 150.9 149.3 146.3 142.9 139.7 136.5 131.7 130.1 124.4 123.9 212.7 211.1 209.5 208.7 A Std. 450 590 680 770 850 930 1020 1100 1190 1360 1520 1700 1870 2040 2350 2720 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 520 650 780 850 Alt. 560 740 850 960 1060 1170 1280 1380 1490 1700 1900 2120 2340 2550 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 650 810 980 1060 B Std. 530 690 790 890 990 1090 1190 1290 1390 1580 1780 1980 2180 2380 2740 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 610 760 920 990

Hydrostatic test pressure Values given in (psi). 1psi = 6.895MPa. Alt. 660 860 990 1120 1240 1360 1490 1610 1740 1980 2220 2470 2500 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 760 950 1140 1240 X42 790 1040 1190 1340 1480 1640 1790 1930 2080 2380 2660 2970 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 910 1140 1370 1480 X46 860 1140 1300 1470 1620 1790 1960 2110 2280 2600 2920 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1000 1250 1500 1620 X52 980 1280 1470 1660 1840 2030 2210 2390 2580 2940 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1130 1410 1700 1840 X56 1050 1380 1580 1790 1980 2180 2380 2570 2780 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1220 1520 1830 2000 X60 1130 1480 1700 1920 2120 2340 2550 2760 2980 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1300 1630 1960 2120 X65 1220 1600 1840 2080 2300 2530 2770 2990 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1410 1760 2130 2290 X70 1320 1730 1980 2230 2470 2730 2980 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1520 1900 2290 2470 X80 1500 1970 2260 2550 2830 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1740 2170 2620 2820

mm 2.1 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 11.0 12.7 14.3 15.9 18.3 19.1 21.9 22.2 3.2 4.0 4.8 5.2

kg/m 8.61 11.43 13.03 14.62 16.21 17.78 19.35 20.91 22.47 25.55 28.22 31.25 34.24 37.20 42.67 48.73 54.31 59.76 67.69 70.27 79.10 79.98 17.04 21.22 25.37 27.43

PIPES

40

80 (XS) 120 160

(XXS) 8 5/8 219.1

160

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

PIPES

158

Size OD inch mm 8 5/8 219.1

Wall thickness Sch. No. (Class) 20 30 40 t mm 5.6 6.4 7.0 7.9 8.2 8.7 9.5 10.3 11.1 12.7 14.3 15.1 15.9 18.3 19.1 20.6 22.2 23.0 25.4 4.0 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.4 7.1 7.8 8.7 9.3 11.1 12.7 14.3 15.1 15.9 18.3 20.6 21.4 22.2 23.8 25.4 28.6 31.8 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.4 8.7 9.5 10.3

Unit weight kg/m 29.48 33.57 36.61 41.14 42.65 45.14 49.10 53.03 56.94 64.64 72.22 75.81 79.67 90.62 94.20 100.84 107.79 111.14 121.32 26.54 31.76 34.35 36.94 42.09 46.57 51.03 56.72 60.50 71.72 81.55 91.26 95.87 100.85 114.99 128.27 132.86 137.36 146.30 155.10 172.25 188.75 34.67 37.77 40.87 43.59 50.11 55.47 61.56 65.35 67.62 73.65 79.65

ID mm 207.9 206.3 205.1 203.3 202.7 201.7 200.1 198.5 196.9 193.7 190.5 188.9 187.3 182.5 180.9 177.9 174.7 173.1 168.3 265.1 263.5 262.7 261.9 260.3 258.9 257.5 255.7 254.5 250.9 247.7 244.5 242.9 241.3 236.5 231.9 230.2 228.7 225.5 222.3 172.1 209.5 315.1 314.3 313.5 312.7 311.1 309.7 308.1 307.1 306.5 304.9 303.3 A Std. 910 1040 1160 1300 1340 1440 1570 1700 1830 2090 2350 2500 2610 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 520 630 680 730 840 930 1030 1150 1220 1470 1670 1880 1990 2090 2410 2720 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 490 530 570 620 710 790 880 930 970 1060 1150 Alt. 1140 1300 1450 1630 1680 1790 1960 2290 2610 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 650 790 850 920 1050 1170 1290 1440 1530 1830 2090 2350 2620 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 610 660 720 770 880 990 1100 1160 1210 1320 1430 B Std. 1070 1220 1350 1520 1570 1680 1830 2000 2130 2430 2740 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 610 730 790 860 980 1090 1200 1340 1430 1710 1950 2200 2320 2440 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 570 620 670 720 820 930 1030 1090 1130 1240 1340

Hydrostatic test pressure Values given in (psi). 1psi = 6.895MPa. Alt. 1330 1520 1690 1900 1960 2090 2280 2670 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 760 920 990 1070 1220 1360 1500 1680 1780 2140 2440 2740 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 710 770 840 900 1030 1160 1280 1360 1420 1540 1670 X42 1600 1830 2020 2280 2350 2510 2740 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1040 1250 1350 1450 1660 1850 2040 2280 2420 2910 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 960 1050 1140 1230 1400 1570 1750 1850 1930 2100 2270 X46 1750 2000 2220 2500 2580 2750 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1130 1370 1480 1590 1820 2030 2230 2500 2660 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1050 1150 1250 1340 1530 1720 1910 2020 2110 2300 2490 X52 1980 2260 2510 2820 2910 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1280 1550 1670 1800 2060 2290 2520 2830 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1190 1300 1410 1520 1730 1950 2160 2290 2390 2600 2810 X56 2130 2430 2700 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1380 1660 1800 1940 2210 2470 2720 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1280 1400 1520 1640 1870 2100 2330 2460 2570 2800 3000 X60 2290 2610 2890 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1480 1780 1930 2080 2370 2650 2910 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1380 1500 1620 1750 2000 2250 2500 2640 2750 3000 3000 X65 2480 2830 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1600 1930 2090 2250 2570 2870 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1490 1630 1760 1900 2170 2440 2700 2860 2980 3000 3000 X70 2670 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1730 2080 2250 2420 2770 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1610 1750 1890 2040 2330 2620 2910 3000 3000 3000 3000 X80 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1970 2380 2570 2770 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1830 2010 2170 2340 2670 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000

60 80 (XS) 100 120 140 (XXS) 160 10 3/4 273.1

20 30 40 10 3/4 273.1 60 (XS) 80 100 120

140 160 12 3/4 323.9

20

30 (Std) 40

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

161

PIPES

PIPES

159

Size OD inch mm 12 3/4 323.9

Wall thickness Sch. No. (Class) (XS) 60 80 t mm 11.1 12.7 14.3 15.9 17.5 19.1 20.6 21.4 22.2 23.8 25.4 27.0 28.6 31.8 33.3 4.8 5.2 5.3 5.6 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7 14.3 15.1 15.9 17.5 19.1 20.6 22.2 23.8 25.4 27.0 27.8 28.6 31.8 35.7 50.8 54.0 55.9 63.5 4.8 5.2 5.6 6.4 7.1 7.9

Unit Weight kg/m 85.62 97.46 109.18 120.76 132.23 143.56 154.08 159.69 165.17 176.13 186.91 197.68 208.27 229.06 238.48 41.52 44.93 45.78 48.33 55.11 61.02 67.74 74.42 81.08 87.71 94.30 100.86 107.39 120.36 126.55 133.19 145.91 158.49 170.18 182.52 194.74 206.83 218.79 224.64 230.63 253.31 281.40 381.40 401.03 412.56 456.89 47.54 51.45 55.35 63.13 69.91 77.63

ID mm 301.7 298.5 295.3 292.1 288.9 285.7 282.7 281.0 279.5 276.3 273.1 269.9 266.7 260.3 257.2 346.0 345.2 345.0 344.4 342.8 341.4 339.8 338.2 336.6 335.0 333.4 331.8 330.2 327.0 325.4 323.8 320.6 317.4 314.4 311.2 308.0 304.8 301.6 300.0 298.4 292.1 284.2 254.0 247.7 243.8 228.6 396.8 396.0 395.2 393.6 392.2 390.6 A Std. 1240 1410 1590 1760 1940 2120 2290 2390 2470 2650 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 480 520 540 560 640 720 800 880 960 1040 1130 1210 1290 1450 1530 1610 1770 1930 2090 2250 2410 2570 2730 2740 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 420 460 490 560 630 700 Alt. 1550 1760 1980 2210 2430 2650 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 600 650 680 700 800 900 1000 1110 1210 1310 1410 1510 1610 1810 2010 2210 2410 2610 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 530 570 620 700 790 880 B Std. 1440 1650 1850 2060 2270 2470 2670 2780 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 560 610 630 660 750 840 940 1030 1120 1220 1310 1410 1500 1690 1780 1880 2060 2250 2440 2620 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 490 530 570 660 740 820

Hydrostatic test pressure Values given in (psi). 1psi = 6.895MPa. Alt. 1800 2060 2310 2570 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 700 760 790 820 940 1050 1170 1290 1410 1520 1640 1760 1880 2110 2340 2580 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 620 670 720 820 920 1020 X42 2450 2800 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 960 1040 1070 1120 1280 1430 1590 1750 1910 2070 2230 2390 2550 2870 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 840 910 980 1120 1250 1390 X46 2690 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1050 1140 1170 1220 1400 1570 1740 1920 2090 2270 2450 2620 2790 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 920 990 1070 1220 1370 1520 X52 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1190 1290 1330 1380 1580 1770 1970 2170 2370 2560 2770 2960 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1040 1120 1210 1380 1550 1720 X56 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1280 1390 1430 1490 1700 1910 2120 2340 2550 2760 2980 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1120 1210 1300 1490 1670 1860 X60 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1370 1480 1530 1600 1820 2050 2270 2510 2730 2960 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1200 1290 1400 1590 1790 1990 X65 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1480 1600 1660 1730 1970 2220 2460 2720 2960 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1300 1400 1510 1730 1940 2150 X70 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1600 1730 1790 1860 2130 2390 2650 2920 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1400 1510 1630 1860 2090 2320 X80 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1830 1970 2040 2130 2430 2730 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1600 1730 1860 2130 2390 2650

100

120(XXS) 140 160 14 355.6 10

20 30(Std) 40 (XS) 60

80

PIPES

100

120 140 160

16 406.4 10 20

162

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

PIPES

160

Size OD inch mm 16 406.4

Wall thickness Sch. No. (Class) 30(Std) t mm 8.7 9.5 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7 14.3 15.9 16.7 17.5 19.1 20.6 21.4 22.2 23.8 25.4 26.2 27.0 28.6 30.2 31.0 31.8 36.5 40.5 4.8 5.6 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7 14.3 15.9 17.5 19.1 20.6 22.2 23.8 25.4 27.0 28.6 29.4 30.2 31.8 34.9 39.7 45.2

Unit weight kg/m 85.32 92.98 100.61 108.20 115.77 123.30 138.27 153.14 159.96 167.83 182.42 195.98 203.29 210.33 224.55 238.64 245.25 252.61 266.45 280.17 286.33 293.76 333.35 364.93 53.53 62.34 71.12 78.77 87.49 96.18 104.84 113.46 122.05 130.62 139.15 156.11 172.95 189.67 206.25 221.69 238.03 254.25 270.34 286.30 302.14 309.41 317.85 333.44 363.28 408.04 459.05

ID mm 389.0 387.4 385.8 384.2 382.6 381.0 377.8 374.6 373.1 371.4 368.2 365.2 363.5 362.0 358.8 355.6 354.0 352.4 349.2 346.0 344.5 342.8 332.8 325.4 447.4 445.8 444.2 442.8 441.2 439.6 438.0 436.4 434.8 433.2 431.6 428.4 425.2 422.0 418.8 415.8 412.6 409.4 406.2 40.30 399.8 398.5 396.6 393.4 387.4 377.9 366.7 A Std. 770 840 910 990 1060 1120 1260 1410 1480 1550 1690 1830 1900 1970 2110 2250 2320 2390 2530 2670 2740 2800 2800 2800 380 440 500 560 620 690 750 810 880 940 1000 1120 1250 1380 1500 1620 1750 1880 2000 2120 2250 2310 2370 2500 2750 2800 2800 Alt. 970 1050 1110 1230 1320 1410 1580 1760 1940 2110 2280 2460 2640 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 470 550 620 700 780 860 940 1020 1100 1170 1250 1400 1560 1720 1880 2030 2190 2340 2500 2660 2800 2800 2800 B Std. 900 980 1070 1150 1230 1310 1480 1640 1720 1810 1970 2130 2220 2300 2460 2620 2710 2790 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 440 510 580 660 730 800 880 950 1020 1090 1170 1310 1460 1610 1750 1890 2040 2190 2330 2480 2620 2700 2770 2800 2800 2800 2800

Hydrostatic test pressure Values given in (psi). 1psi = 6.895MPa. Alt. 1130 1230 1330 1440 1540 1640 1840 2050 2260 2460 2660 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 550 640 730 820 910 1000 1090 1180 1280 1370 1460 1640 1820 2010 2190 2370 2550 2740 2800 2800 2800 2800 2800 X42 1540 1670 1810 1950 2090 2230 2510 2790 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 750 870 990 1110 1240 1360 1490 1610 1740 1860 1980 2230 2480 2730 2980 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X46 1680 1830 1980 2140 2290 2440 2750 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 820 950 1090 1220 1360 1490 1630 1760 1900 2040 2170 2440 2720 2990 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X52 1900 2070 2240 2420 2590 2760 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 920 1080 1230 1380 1530 1690 1840 1990 2150 2300 2460 2760 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X56 2050 2230 2420 2610 2790 2980 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 990 1160 1320 1490 1650 1820 1980 2150 2320 2480 2640 2970 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X60 2190 2390 2590 2790 2990 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1070 1240 1420 1590 1770 1950 2120 2300 2480 2660 2830 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X65 2380 2590 2800 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1150 1340 1530 1730 1920 2110 2300 2490 2690 2880 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X70 2560 2790 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1240 1450 1650 1860 2060 2270 2480 2680 2900 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X80 2920 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1420 1650 1890 2120 2350 2600 2830 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 -

40(XS)

60

80

100

120 140 160 18 457.2 10 20 (Std) 30 (XS) 40

60

80

100

120 140 160

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

163

PIPES

PIPES

161

Size OD inch mm 20 508.0

Wall thickness Sch. No. (Class) 10 t mm 5.6 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7 14.3 15.1 15.9 17.5 19.1 20.6 22.2 23.8 25.4 26.2 27.0 28.6 30.2 31.8 32.5 33.3 34.9 38.1 44.5 50.0 5.6 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7 14.3 15.9 17.5 19.1 20.6 22.2 23.8 25.4 27.0 28.6 30.2 31.8

Unit weight kg/m 69.38 79.16 87.70 97.43 107.12 116.78 126.41 136.01 145.58 155.12 174.10 183.19 192.95 211.68 230.27 247.60 265.95 284.18 302.28 310.80 320.26 338.11 355.83 373.43 381.07 389.81 407.17 440.99 507.56 564.10 76.42 87.21 96.63 107.36 118.06 128.73 139.37 149.97 160.55 171.09 192.08 212.95 233.68 254.30 273.51 293.87 314.11 334.23 354.22 374.08 393.81 413.42 ID mm 496.8 495.2 493.8 492.2 490.6 489.0 487.4 485.8 484.2 482.6 479.4 477.8 476.2 473.0 469.8 466.8 463.6 460.4 457.2 455.6 454.0 450.8 447.6 444.4 442.9 441.4 438.2 431.8 419.1 408.0 547.8 546.2 544.8 543.2 541.6 540.0 538.4 536.8 535.2 533.6 530.4 527.2 524.0 520.8 517.8 514.6 511.4 508.2 505.0 501.8 498.6 495.4 A Std. 390 450 510 560 620 680 730 790 840 900 1010 1170 1120 1240 1350 1460 1580 1690 1800 1860 1910 2020 2140 2250 2310 2360 2480 2700 2800 2800 360 410 460 510 560 610 660 720 770 820 920 1020 1130 1230 1330 1430 1530 1640 1740 1840 1940 2050 Alt. 490 560 630 700 770 840 910 990 1060 1120 1260 1410 1550 1690 1830 1970 2110 2250 2390 2530 2670 2750 2750 2750 450 510 570 640 700 770 830 900 960 1020 1150 1280 1410 1530 1660 1790 1920 2050 2170 2300 2430 2500 B Std. 460 520 590 660 720 790 850 920 980 1050 1180 1250 1310 1440 1580 1710 1840 1970 2100 2170 2230 2360 2490 2620 2690 2750 2750 2800 2800 2800 420 480 540 600 660 720 780 840 900 950 1070 1190 1310 1430 1550 1670 1790 1910 2030 2150 2270 2390

Hydrostatic test pressure Values given in (psi). 1psi = 6.895MPa. Alt. 570 660 740 820 900 980 1070 1150 1230 1310 1480 1640 1810 1970 2130 2300 2460 2620 2750 2750 2750 2750 2750 2750 520 600 670 740 820 890 970 1050 1120 1190 1340 1490 1640 1790 1940 2090 2240 2390 2500 2500 2500 2500 X42 830 950 1060 1180 1300 1420 1530 1660 1770 1890 2120 2360 2600 2840 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 750 860 970 1070 1180 1290 1400 1510 1610 1720 1930 2150 2360 2580 2790 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X46 910 1040 1160 1290 1420 1550 1680 1810 1940 2070 2330 2590 2850 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 820 940 1060 1170 1290 1410 1530 1650 1770 1880 2120 2350 2590 2820 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X52 1020 1170 1320 1460 1610 1760 1900 2050 2190 2340 2630 2930 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 930 1060 1200 1330 1460 1600 1730 1860 2000 2130 2390 2660 2930 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X56 1100 1260 1420 1570 1730 1890 2050 2210 2360 2520 2830 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1000 1150 1290 1430 1580 1720 1860 2010 2150 2290 2570 2860 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X60 1180 1350 1520 1680 1860 2030 2190 2370 2530 2700 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1080 1230 1380 1530 1690 1840 1990 2150 2300 2450 2760 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X65 1280 1460 1640 1830 2010 2190 2380 2560 2740 2930 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1160 1330 1490 1660 1830 1990 2160 2330 2490 2660 2990 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X70 1380 1580 1770 1970 2170 2360 2560 2760 2950 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1250 1430 1610 1790 1970 2150 2330 2510 2690 2860 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X80 1580 1800 2020 2250 2480 2700 2920 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1430 1640 1840 2040 2250 2450 2660 2870 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000

20(Std)

30(XS) 40

60

80

100

120 140 160 22 558.8

PIPES

10

20

30 40

164

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162

Size OD inch mm 22 558.8

Wall thickness Sch. No. (Class) t mm 33.3 34.9 36.5 38.1 10 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7 14.3 15.9 17.5 19.1 20.6 22.2 23.8 24.6 25.4 27.0 28.6 30.2 31.0 31.8 33.3 34.9 36.5 38.1 38.9 39.7 46.0 52.4 59.5 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7 14.3 15.9 17.5 19.1 20.6 22.2 23.8 25.4

Unit weight kg/m 431.69 451.06 470.30 489.41 95.26 105.56 117.30 129.00 140.68 152.32 163.93 175.51 187.06 210.07 232.94 255.69 278.32 299.41 321.79 344.05 355.41 366.17 388.17 410.05 431.80 441.31 453.42 473.57 494.95 516.20 537.33 546.68 558.32 638.93 718.88 806.75 103.15 114.31 127.04 139.73 152.39 165.02 177.62 190.19 202.72 227.70 252.55 277.27 301.87 324.81 349.16 373.39 397.49

ID mm 492.4 489.2 486.0 482.8 597.2 595.8 594.2 592.6 591.0 589.4 587.8 586.2 584.6 581.4 578.2 575.0 571.8 568.8 565.6 562.4 560.4 559.2 556.0 552.8 549.6 547.7 546.4 543.4 540.2 537.0 533.8 531.8 530.6 517.6 504.9 490.5 647.2 645.8 644.2 642.6 641.0 639.4 637.8 636.2 634.6 631.4 628.2 625.0 621.8 618.8 615.6 612.4 609.2 A Std. 2150 2250 2350 2450 380 420 470 520 560 610 660 700 750 840 940 1030 1120 1220 1310 1410 1450 1500 1590 1690 1780 1830 1880 1970 2060 2160 2250 2300 2300 2720 2800 2800 350 390 430 480 520 560 610 650 690 780 870 950 1040 1120 1210 1300 1380 Alt. 2500 2500 2500 2500 470 530 580 640 700 760 820 880 940 1050 1170 1290 1410 1520 1640 1760 1880 1990 2110 2230 2300 2300 2300 2300 2300 2300 430 490 540 600 650 700 760 810 870 970 1080 1190 1300 1410 1510 1620 1730 B Std. 2500 2500 2500 2500 440 490 550 600 660 710 770 820 880 980 1090 1200 1310 1420 1530 1640 1700 1750 1860 1970 2080 2130 2190 2300 2300 2300 2300 2680 2300 2800 2800 2800 400 450 500 560 610 660 710 760 810 910 1010 1110 1210 1310 1410 1520 1620

Hydrostatic test pressure Values given in (psi). 1psi = 6.895MPa. Alt. 2500 2500 2500 2500 550 610 680 750 820 890 960 1030 1090 1230 1370 1500 1640 1780 1910 2050 2190 2300 2300 2300 2300 2300 2300 2300 2300 2300 500 570 630 690 760 820 880 950 1010 1130 1260 1390 1510 1640 1770 1890 2000 X42 3000 3000 3000 3000 790 890 980 1080 1180 1280 1380 1480 1580 1770 1970 2170 2360 2560 2760 2950 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 730 820 910 1000 1090 1180 1270 1360 1450 1630 1820 2000 2180 2360 2540 2730 2910 X46 3000 3000 3000 3000 860 970 1080 1190 1290 1400 1510 1620 1730 1940 2160 2370 2590 2800 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 800 890 990 1100 1190 1290 1390 1490 1590 1790 1990 2190 2390 2590 2790 2990 3000 X52 3000 3000 3000 3000 980 1100 1220 1340 1460 1580 1710 1830 1950 2190 2440 2680 2930 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 900 1010 1120 1240 1350 1460 1580 1690 1800 2020 2250 2480 2700 2920 3000 3000 3000 X56 3000 3000 3000 3000 1050 1180 1310 1440 1580 1710 1840 1970 2100 2360 2630 2890 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 970 1090 1210 1330 1450 1570 1700 1820 1940 2180 2420 2670 2910 3000 3000 3000 3000 X60 3000 3000 3000 3000 1130 1260 1400 1550 1690 1830 1970 2110 2250 2530 2810 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1040 1170 1300 1430 1560 1690 1820 1950 2080 2330 2600 2860 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X65 3000 3000 3000 3000 1220 1370 1520 1680 1830 1980 2140 2290 2440 2740 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1130 1260 1400 1550 1690 1830 1970 2110 2250 2530 2810 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X70 3000 3000 3000 3000 1310 1480 1640 1810 1970 2130 2300 2460 2630 2950 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1210 1360 1510 1670 1820 1970 2120 2270 2420 2720 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X80 3000 3000 3000 3000 1500 1690 1870 2060 2250 2440 2630 2810 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1380 1560 1730 1910 2080 2250 2430 2600 2770 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000

24 609.6

20(Std)

(XS) 30 40

60

80

100 120 140 160 26 660.0 10 (Std)

20(XS)

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Size OD inch mm 28 711.0

Wall thickness Sch. No. (Class) t mm 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7 14.3 15.9 17.5 19.1 20.6 22.2 23.8 25.4 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7 14.3 15.9 17.5 19.1 20.6 22.2 23.8 25.4 27.0 28.6 30.2 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7 14.3 15.9 17.5 19.1 20.6 22.2 23.8

Unit weight kg/m 111.20 123.24 136.97 150.67 164.34 177.98 191.58 205.15 218.69 245.68 272.54 299.28 325.89 350.72 377.08 403.32 429.44 119.25 132.17 146.91 161.61 176.29 190.93 205.54 220.12 234.67 263.67 292.54 321.29 349.91 376.63 405.00 433.26 461.38 489.38 517.25 544.99 127.30 141.10 156.84 172.56 188.24 203.88 219.50 235.09 250.64 281.65 312.54 343.30 373.93 402.54 432.93 463.19 ID mm 698.2 696.8 695.2 693.6 692.0 690.4 688.8 687.2 685.6 682.4 679.2 676.0 672.8 669.8 666.6 663.4 660.2 749.2 747.8 746.2 744.6 743.0 741.4 739.8 738.2 736.6 733.4 730.2 727.0 723.8 720.8 717.6 714.4 711.2 708.0 704.8 701.6 800.2 798.8 797.2 795.6 794.0 792.4 790.8 789.2 787.6 784.4 781.2 778.0 774.8 771.8 768.6 765.4 A Std. 320 360 400 440 480 520 560 600 640 720 800 880 960 1040 1120 1210 1290 300 340 370 410 450 490 530 560 600 670 750 830 900 970 1050 1130 1200 1270 1350 1430 280 320 350 390 420 460 490 530 560 630 700 770 840 910 980 1060 Alt. 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 900 1000 1110 1210 1300 1410 1510 1610 370 420 470 520 560 610 660 700 750 840 940 1030 1120 1220 1310 1410 1500 1590 1690 1780 350 400 440 480 530 570 620 660 700 790 880 970 1050 1140 1230 1320 B Std. 370 420 470 520 560 610 660 700 750 840 940 1030 1120 1220 1310 1410 1500 350 390 440 480 520 590 610 660 700 790 880 960 1050 1140 1220 1310 1400 1490 1580 1660 330 370 410 450 490 530 570 620 660 740 820 900 980 1070 1150 1230

Hydrostatic test pressure Values given in (psi). 1psi = 6.895MPa. Alt. 470 530 580 650 700 760 820 880 940 1050 1170 1290 1410 1520 1640 1760 1880 440 490 550 600 660 710 770 820 880 980 1090 1200 1310 1420 1530 1640 1750 1860 1970 2080 410 460 510 560 620 670 720 770 820 920 1030 1130 1230 1330 1440 1540 X42 680 760 840 930 1010 1100 1180 1270 1350 1520 1690 1860 2020 2190 2360 2530 2700 630 710 790 870 940 1020 1100 1180 1260 1420 1580 1730 1890 2050 2200 2360 2520 2680 2840 2990 590 660 740 810 890 960 1030 1110 1180 1330 1480 1630 1770 1920 2070 2220 X46 740 830 920 1020 1110 1200 1300 1390 1480 1660 1850 2030 2220 2400 2590 2770 2960 690 780 860 950 1040 1120 1210 1290 1380 1550 1720 1900 2070 2240 2420 2590 2760 2930 3000 3000 650 730 810 890 970 1050 1130 1210 1290 1450 1620 1780 1940 2100 2260 2430 X52 840 940 1040 1150 1250 1360 1460 1570 1670 1880 2090 2300 2510 2710 2920 3000 3000 780 880 970 1070 1170 1270 1370 1460 1560 1750 1950 2150 2340 2530 2730 2930 3000 3000 3000 3000 730 820 910 1010 1100 1190 1280 1370 1460 1640 1830 2010 2190 2380 2560 2740 X56 900 1010 1120 1240 1350 1460 1580 1690 1800 2020 2250 2480 2700 2920 3000 3000 3000 840 940 1050 1160 1260 1360 1470 1580 1680 1890 2100 2310 2520 2730 2940 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 790 890 980 1080 1180 1280 1380 1480 1580 1770 1970 2170 2360 2560 2760 2950 X60 960 1080 1200 1330 1450 1570 1690 1810 1930 2170 2410 2650 2890 3000 3000 3000 3000 900 1010 1120 1240 1350 1460 1580 1690 1800 2020 2250 2480 2700 2920 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 840 950 1050 1160 1270 1370 1480 1580 1690 1900 2110 2320 2530 2740 2950 3000 X65 1040 1170 1300 1440 1570 1700 1830 1960 2090 2350 2610 2870 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 980 1100 1220 1340 1460 1580 1710 1830 1950 2190 2440 2680 2920 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 910 1030 1140 1260 1370 1480 1600 1710 1830 2050 2290 2520 2740 2970 3000 3000 X70 1130 1260 1400 1550 1690 1830 1970 2110 2250 2530 2810 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1050 1180 1310 1440 1580 1710 1840 1970 2100 2360 2630 2890 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 980 1110 1230 1350 1480 1600 1720 1850 1970 2210 2460 2710 2950 3000 3000 3000 X80 1290 1450 1600 1770 1930 2090 2250 2410 2570 2890 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1210 1360 1510 1660 1810 1960 2110 2260 2410 2700 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1130 1270 1410 1550 1690 1830 1970 2110 2250 2520 2800 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000

10

20 30

30 762.0 10

20 30

PIPES

32 813.0 10

20 30 40

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Size OD inch mm 32 813.0

Wall thickness Sch. No. (Class) t mm 25.4 27.0 28.6 30.2 31.8 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7 14.3 15.9 17.5 19.1 20.6 22.2 23.8 25.4 27.0 28.6 30.2 31.8 6.4 7.1 7.9 8.7 9.5 10.3 11.1 11.9 12.7 14.3 15.9 17.5 19.1 20.6 22.2 23.8 25.4 27.0 28.6 30.2 31.8

Unit weight kg/m 493.32 523.33 553.22 582.98 612.61 135.35 150.03 166.78 183.50 200.18 216.84 233.46 250.05 266.61 299.64 332.53 365.31 397.95 428.44 460.85 493.12 525.27 557.29 589.19 620.96 652.60 143.24 158.79 176.52 194.22 211.90 229.54 247.15 264.72 282.27 317.27 352.14 386.88 421.50 453.84 488.22 522.47 556.59 590.58 624.45 658.19 691.81 ID mm 762.2 759.0 755.8 752.6 749.4 851.2 849.8 848.2 846.6 845.0 843.4 841.8 840.2 838.6 835.4 832.2 829.0 825.8 822.8 819.6 816.4 813.2 810.0 806.8 803.6 800.4 901.2 899.8 898.2 896.6 895.0 893.4 891.8 890.2 888.6 885.4 882.2 879.0 875.8 872.8 869.6 866.4 863.2 860.0 856.8 853.6 850.4 A Std. 1120 1190 1270 1340 1410 260 300 330 360 400 430 460 500 530 600 660 730 790 860 930 990 1060 1120 1190 1260 1320 250 280 310 340 380 410 440 470 500 560 620 690 750 810 880 940 1000 1060 1130 1190 1250 Alt. 1410 1490 1580 1670 1760 330 370 410 460 500 540 580 620 660 740 830 910 990 1070 1160 1240 1320 1410 1490 1570 1650 310 350 390 430 470 510 550 590 620 700 780 860 940 1020 1090 1170 1250 1330 1410 1480 1560 B Std. 1310 1390 1480 1560 1640 310 350 390 420 460 500 540 580 620 690 770 850 930 1000 1080 1160 1240 1310 1390 1470 1540 290 330 360 400 440 470 510 550 580 660 730 800 880 950 1020 1090 1170 1240 1310 1390 1460

Hydrostatic test pressure Values given in (psi). 1psi = 6.895MPa. Alt. 1640 1740 1850 1950 2050 390 430 480 530 580 630 680 720 770 870 970 1060 1160 1250 1350 1450 1540 1640 1740 1830 1930 360 410 450 500 550 590 640 680 730 820 910 1000 1090 1180 1280 1370 1460 1550 1640 1730 1820 X42 2360 2510 2660 2810 2950 560 620 690 760 830 900 970 1040 1110 1250 1390 1530 1670 1810 1950 2090 2220 2360 2500 2640 2780 520 590 660 720 790 850 920 980 1050 1180 1310 1440 1580 1710 1840 1970 2100 2230 2360 2490 2630 X46 2590 2750 2910 3000 3000 610 680 760 840 910 990 1070 1140 1220 1370 1520 1680 1830 1980 2130 2280 2440 2590 2740 2890 3000 580 650 720 790 860 930 1010 1080 1150 1290 1440 1580 1720 1870 2010 2160 2300 2440 2590 2730 2870 X52 2920 3000 3000 3000 3000 690 770 860 950 1030 1120 1210 1290 1380 1550 1720 1890 2060 2240 2410 2580 2750 2920 3000 3000 3000 650 730 810 890 980 1060 1140 1220 1300 1460 1620 1790 1950 2110 2280 2440 2600 2760 2930 3000 3000 X56 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 740 830 920 1020 1110 1200 1300 1390 1480 1670 1850 2040 2220 2410 2590 2780 2960 3000 3000 3000 3000 700 790 870 960 1050 1140 1230 1310 1400 1570 1750 1930 2100 2270 2450 2630 2800 2970 3000 3000 3000 X60 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 790 890 990 1090 1190 1290 1390 1490 1590 1790 1990 2190 2380 2580 2780 2980 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 750 840 940 1030 1120 1220 1310 1410 1500 1690 1880 2060 2250 2440 2620 2810 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X65 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 860 970 1070 1180 1290 1400 1510 1610 1720 1930 2150 2370 2580 2790 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 810 910 1010 1120 1220 1320 1420 1520 1620 1820 2030 2240 2440 2640 2840 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X70 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 930 1040 1160 1270 1390 1500 1620 1740 1850 2080 2320 2550 2780 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 880 980 1090 1200 1310 1420 1530 1640 1750 1970 2190 2410 2630 2840 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 X80 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1060 1190 1330 1460 1590 1720 1860 1990 2130 2380 2650 2910 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 1000 1120 1250 1380 1500 1620 1750 1880 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000 3000

34 864.0 10

30 40

36 914.0 10

20 30 40

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

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Steel Sheet Piles

PU Steel Sheet Piles

Mechanical properties

PU steel sheet piles can be supplied in grades up to yield strength of 430 N/mm2.

Dimensions and sectional properties

The PU steel sheet piles are available in the following sizes:

d y' 2xh y y" f 2xb Cy" Cy' y y" t y'

Figure 11 ­ PU Steel Sheet Piles: Dimensions

Flat of Thickness Section h mm PU 6 PU 8 PU 12 PU 16 PU 20 PU 25 PU 32 per pile per m wall per pile per m wall per pile per m wall per pile per m wall per pile per m wall per pile per m wall per pile per m wall 226 600 341 19.5 11.0 148.6 49.5 226 600 339 14.2 10.0 142.1 47.4 200 600 365 12.4 9.7 125.3 41.8 190 600 303 12.0 9.0 115.8 38.6 180 600 257 9.8 9.0 100.4 33.5 140 600 317 8.0 8.0 81.5 27.2 113 b mm 600 pan f mm 330 mm 7.5 of pan web mm 6.4 Cy' mm 68.9 Cy" Mm 23.0 kg/m 45.3 75.0 54.5 91.0 65.9 110 74.7 124 84.7 141 94.1 157 114.6 191 Mass Section Section per m area A cm

2

Moment Of Inertia Iy Iz

4

Radius of gyration r

4

Modulus Zy cm

3

cm

cm -

cm 4.73 8.36 5.82 10.02 7.28 12.41 7.64 13.87 8.1 14.92 8.98 16.81 8.72 17.23

STEEL SHEET PILES

57.7 96.0 69.5 116.0 84.0 140.0 95.2 159.0 107.9 180.0 119.9 200.0 146.0 243.0

146 600 232 830 366 1,200 405 1600 480 2000 588 2,500 645 3,200

1,290 6,720 2,360 11,610 4,450 21,550 5,560 30,520 7,080 39,970 9,670 56,500 11,100 72,260

23,900 30,062 34,937 38,037 46,021 49,089 55,134 -

Table 30 ­ PU Steel Sheet Piles: Section sizes

The PU sheet piles can be delivered in material according to British BS-standards, American ASTM-standards, Euronorms, and Japanese JIS-standards.

Continental Steel Pte Ltd

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STEEL SHEET PILES

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Interlocking options

Section PU 6 PU 8 PU 12 PU 16 PU 20 PU 25 PU 32 Interlocking possible On request (require in advance indicating length of piles) PU 6 PU 8 PU 12 PU 16 PU 20 PU 25 PU 32

Table 31 ­ PU Steel Sheet Piles: Interlocking options

Dimensional tolerances

Width Thickness of Pan 12<e 18 ±0.8mm e>18mm ±1.2mm Weight

1)

Length

Squareness of ends

2)

Straightness

3)

single pile interlocked e 8mm 8<e 12 piles ± 2% Notes: ± 3% ±0.5mm ±0.6mm

± 4%

± 200mm

10mm

0.2%

1) Of total mass of the complete order. 2) Of the distance between 2 points of the cross-section. 3) Maximum deflection on the length of the pile.

Table 32 ­ PU Steel Sheet Piles: Dimensional tolerances

The maximum length for this U-type pile is usually between 25 to 31 metres, but longer lengths can be supplied.

Handling holes and double piles

The piles can on request be delivered with flame cut handling holes, 50mm diameter, located in the centre of the pan at 200-250 mm from the end. Piles can also be fastened together to form double piles by pressing or welding the interlocks. Two to six pressing points per meter can be applied according to design requirements. A minimum shear force of 80 kN per one crimping point is admitted.

STEEL SHEET PILES

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KSP Steel Sheet Piles

Mechanical properties

KSP steel sheet piles are manufactured according to JIS 5528 "Hot Rolled Steel Sheet Piles" (1988).

Designation JIS A 5528 Steel Name SY295 SY390 Min. Yield Strength R eH N/mm 295 390

2

Min. Tensile Strength R m N/mm 490 540

2

Min. Elongation % 17 15

Table 33 ­ KSP Steel Sheet Piles: Mechanical properties

Dimensions and sectional properties

The KSP steel sheet piles are available in the sizes shown in Table 35 under. Note the three new sizes KSP IIW, KSP IIIW and KSP IVW, which are extra wide sections.

Coupling Thickness

Effective height

Full height

Effective width Full width

Coupling

Figure 12 ­ KSP Steel Sheet Piles: Dimensions

Section width w mm KSP IA KSP II KSP IIA KSP III KSP IIIA KSP IV KSP IV A KSP V L KSP VIL KSP IIW KSP IIIW KSP IV W Note: 400 400 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 600 600 600 Dimensions height h mm 85 100 120 130 150 170 185 200 225 130 180 210 thickness t mm 8.0 10.5 9.2 13.0 13.1 15.5 16.1 24.3 27.6 10.3 13.4 18.0 A cm

2

Section Area A/m cm /m 113.0 153.0 137.5 191.0 186.0 242.5 235.5 267.6 306.0 131.2 173.2 225.5

2

Unit weight M kg/m 35.5 48.0 43.2 60.0 58.4 76.1 74.0 105 120 61.8 81.6 106 M/m kg/m 120 108 150 146 190 185 210 240 103 136 177

2

Moment of Inertia I cm

4

Modulus of section Zy cm

3

I/m cm /m 4,500 8,740 10,600 17,400 22,800 38,600 41,600 63,000 86,000 13,000 32,400 56,700

4

Zy/m cm /m 529 874 880 1,340 1,520 2,270 2,250 3,150 3,820 1,000 1,800 2,700

STEEL SHEET PILES

3

45.21 61.18 55.01 76.42 74.40 96.99 94.21 133.8 153.0 78.70 103.9 135.3

88.8

598 1,240 1,450 2,320 2,840 4,670 5,300 7,960 11,400 2,110 5,220 8,630

88 152 162 232 253 362 400 520 680 203 376 539

The sizes are also available in FSP sheet piles. Sectional properties given per single pile, and per linear metre wall.

Table 34 ­ KSP Steel Sheet Piles: Section sizes and properties

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STEEL SHEET PILES

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Interlocking options

The sections can be interlocked with each other as shown in Table 36.

Section KSP IA KSP II KSP IIA KSP III KSP IIIA KSP IV KSP IV A KSP V L KSP VIL KSP IIW KSP IIIW KSP IV W KSP IA KSP II KSP IIA KSP III KSP IIIA KSP IV KSP IV A KSP VL KSP VIL KSP IIW KSP IIIW KSP IVW

Table 35 ­ KSP Steel Sheet Piles: Interlocking options 33

The sheet piles can also be welded together to form box piles, as shown in section "Other section types" under the chapter "Steel sheet piles according to EN 10248:1996".

Dimensional tolerances

Full width Traditional Single pile W x ± 1% Wider width Single pile + 6mm - 5mm Effective width Traditional Single pile Wider width Single pile Thickness of Section <10mm + 1.0mm - 0.3mm 10mm <16mm + 1.2mm - 0.3mm 16mm + 1.5mm - 0.3mm

Per meter wall width: Max 4mm deviation.

Full height ± 4% Notes:

Length

Deflection of full length L 10m L>10m L x 0.10%

Camber of full length L 10m L x 0.25% max. L>10m L x 0.20% + 25mm max.

Difference in vertically cut sections Within 4% of width

- 0mm

L x 0.12%

The deflection shall be in the direction parallel to the sheet pile wall and the camber shall be in the direction vertical to the sheet pile wall.

Table 36 ­ KSP Steel Sheet Piles: Dimensional tolerances

STEEL SHEET PILES

Recommended maximum lengths for driving

The recommended driving length for KSP steel sheet piles is maximum 30metres.

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STEEL SHEET PILES

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KSP Straight Web Sections

Mechanical properties

KSP straight web sections are manufactured according to JIS 5528 "Hot Rolled Steel Sheet Piles" (1988).

Designation JIS A 5528 Steel Name SY295 SY390 Min. Yield Strength R eH N/mm 295 390

2

Min. Tensile Strength R m N/mm 490 540

2

Min. Elongation % 17 15

Table 37 ­ KSP Straight Web Sections: Mechanical properties 38

Dimensions and sectional properties

The KSP straight web sections are available in the following sizes:

Thickness Coupling Effective height Effective width Full width

Figure 13 ­ KSP Straight Web Sections: Dimensions

Section width mm KSP FL KSP FXL 500 500

Dimensions height mm 44.5 47.0 thickness mm 9.5 12.7

Section area Per pile cm

2

Unit weight Per wall Per pile kg/m 61.7 77.2 width kg/m 123 154

2

Moment of Inertia Per wall Per pile cm

4

Modulus of section Per wall Per pile cm

3

width cm /m 396 570

4

width cm /m 89 121

3

78.57 98.36

184 245

45.7 60.3

Table 38 ­ KSP Straight Web Sections: Section sizes and properties

Standard specification JIS A 5528 SY295

Section size KSP FL KSP FXL

Interlocking strength 4 6

STEEL SHEET PILES

MN/m

Table 39 ­ KSP Straight Web Sections: Interlocking strength

The two sections can be interlocked with each other.

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STEEL SHEET PILES

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Dimensional tolerances

Full width Single pile ± 4mm + 1.5mm - 0.7mm Full height Thickness of Section <10mm 10mm <16mm + 1.5mm - 0.7mm + not specified - 0 mm 16mm Length

Deflection of full length L 10m L x 0.15% max. Notes: L>10m (L-10m) x 0.10% + 15mm max.

Camber of full length L 10m L x 0.20% max. L>10m (L-10m) x 0.10% + 20mm max.

Difference in vertically cut sections Within 4% of width

The deflection shall be in the direction parallel to the sheet pile wall and the camber shall be in the direction vertical to the sheet pile wall.

Table 40 ­ KSP Straight Web Sections: Dimensional tolerances

STEEL SHEET PILES

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GRATINGS

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Gratings

General

· Process Steel gratings are manufactured using a simultaneous application of heat and pressure on the load bar and cross bar at their intersection points, welding them together.

· Applications Stairways, walkways, catwalks, pedestrian ramp, machine access platform, etc.

Sizes

Panel Size ft Serial Size inch 1'' x 3/16'' 3' x 20' 11/4''x 3/16'' 11/2'' x 3/16'' 2'' x 3/16'' Mass kg/m

2

Pitch mm

Type

28.4 35.4 43.2 53 40 x 100 twisted / straight cross / round bar

Table 41 ­ Gratings: Sizes

Bearing Bars

Cross Bars

100 (pitch) Length

Figure 14 ­ Gratings: Dimensions

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STEEL SHEET PILES

Width

40 (pitch)

STEEL SHEET PILES

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APPENDIX

177

Appendix

Conversion factors

Note: The small sub numerals following a zero indicate that the zero is to be repeated that number of times, thus 0.034 = 0.0004.

Linear measure

Millimetre mm Millimetre (mm) Centimetre (cm) Metre (m) Inch (in) Foot (ft) Yard (yd) Mile (mi) 1 10 1000 25.4 304.8 914.4 1,609,347 Centimetre cm 0.1 1 100 2.54 30.48 91.44 160,935 Metre m 0.001 0.01 1 0.0254 0.3048 0.9144 1,609.35 Inch in 0.03937 0.3937 39.37 1 12 36 63,360 Foot ft 0.00328 0.03280 3.28083 0.0833 1 3 5,280 Yard yd 0.00109 0.01093 1.0936 0.02778 0.3333 1 1,760 Mile mi 0.066214 0.056214 0.036214 0.041578 0.031894 0.035682 1

Square measure

Square millimetre mm

2

Square centimetre cm 1 10,000 6.452 929 8,361

12 2

Square metre m 0.051 0.0001 1 0.036452 0.0929 0.8361

2

Square inch in

2

Square foot ft

2

Square yard yd

2

Square miles mi

2

Square millimetre (mm ) Square centimetre (cm ) Square metre (m ) Square inch (in ) Square foot (ft ) Square yard (yd ) Square miles (mi )

2 2 2 2 2 2

2

1 100 1,000,000 645.16 92,903 836,127 2.59*10

0.01

0.00155 0.154999 1,549.99 1 144 1,296

6

0.0410764 0.0010764 10.7639 0.006944 1 9

9

0.05119599 0.03119599 1.19599 0.037616 0.11111 1

0.012386 0.010386 0.06386 0.09249 0.073587 0.063229

25.9*10

9

2.59*10

4.014*10

27.878*10

6

3.098*10

6

1

Cubic measure

Cubic centimetre cm

3

Cubic metre m 0.051 1 0.041639 0.028317 0.7645

3

Cubic inch in 61,023 1 1,728 46,660

3

Cubic foot ft 35.31 0.035787 1 27

3

Cubic yard yd 1.308 0.042143 0.03704 1

3

Cubic centimetre (cm ) Cubic metre (m ) Cubic inch (in ) Cubic foot (ft ) Cubic yard (yd )

3 3 3 3

3

1 1,000,000 16.39 28,317 764,500

0.06102

0.043531

0.051308

Weight measure

Kilogram kg Kilogram (kg) Pound (lb) Net ton (nt) Gross ton (gt) Metric ton (t) 1 0.45359 907.185 1,016.05 1,000 1 2,000 2,240 2,204.62 Pound lb 2.20462 Net ton nt 0.001102 0.0005 1 1.12 1.10231 Gross ton gt 0.039842 0.034464 0.89286 1 0.98421 0.001 0.034536 0.90719 1.01605 1 Metric ton t

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APPENDIX

APPENDIX

178

APPENDIX

Weight per linear unit

Gram per centimetre g/cm

Kilogram per metre kg/m 0.1 1 17.8579 1.48816 0.49605

Pound per inch lb/in 0.0056 0.056 1 0.08333 0.02778

Pound per foot lb/ft 0.0672 0.67197 12 1 0.3333

Pound per yard lb/yd 0.20165 2.0165 36 3 1

Gram per centimetre (g/cm) Kilogram per metre (kg/m) Pound per inch (lb/in) Pound per foot (lb/ft) Pound per yard (lb/yd)

1 10 178.579 14.8816 4.96054

Weight per unit area

Kilogram per square centimetre kg/cm

2

Kilogram per square metre kg/m 10,000 1 1,000 703.02232 4.8717976

2

Metric ton per square metre t/m 10 0.001 1 0.7030 0.004872

2

Pound per square inch lb/in

2

Pound per square foot lb/ft

2

Kilogram per square centimetre 2 (kg/cm ) Kilogram per square metre (kg/m ) Metric ton per square metre (t/m ) Pound per square inch (lb/in ) Pound per square foot (lb/ft )

2 2 2 2

1 0.0001 0.1 0.0703022 0.000487

14.21945 0.0014219 1.42195 1 0.006944

2047.58498 0.204758 204.75849 144 1

Weight per unit volume

Kilogram per cubic centimetre kg/cm

3

Kilogram per cubic metre kg/m 1,000,000 1 1,000 27,680.4 16.0196

3

Metric ton per cubic metre t/m 1,000 0.001 1 27.6804 0.01602

3

Pound per cubic inch lb/in 36.1193 0.0436117 0.0361175 1 0.0005787

3

Pound per cubic foot lb/ft 62,419 0.062419 62.41857 1,728.011 1

3

Kilogram per cubic centimetre (kg/cm ) Kilogram per cubic metre (kg/m ) Metric ton per cubic metre (t/m ) Pound per cubic inch (lb/in ) Pound per cubic foot (lb/ft )

3 3 3 3

3

1 0.051 0.001 0.02768 0.0416

Tension, pressure

Kilopounds /square inch ksi

Pounds per square foot psf 1,441,379.3 1 1,441.38 2,088.5 2,116.22 20,886

Pounds per square inch psi 1,000 0.000694 1 14.5 14.69 145

Atmospheric pressure bar 68.96 0.0004788 0.06896 1 1.0133 10

Atmospheric pressure atm 68.062 0.000473 0.0681 0.987 1 9.869 Pressure (MPa) 6.896 0.04479 0.006896 0.10 0.10133 1

Kilopounds per square inch (ksi) Pounds per square foot (psf) Pounds per square inch (psi) Atmospheric pressure (bar) Atmospheric pressure (atm) Pressure (MPa)

1 0.07694 0.001 0.0145 0.0147 0.145

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CONTINENTAL STEEL PRODUCTS HANDBOOK

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