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Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10

Summary In this unit students will learn five additional vowel sounds, typically referred to as the long vowel sounds, and the most common (or least ambiguous) spelling for each sound: /ee/ spelled `ee' as in sheep, /ae/ spelled `a_e' as in snake, /ie/ spelled `i_e' as in lime, /oe/ spelled `o_e' as in home, and /ue/ spelled `u_e' as in cute. They will also learn eleven additional tricky words, most of which contain one of the sounds taught in this unit written with a different spelling, and they will continue to practice reading decodable stories. Language Arts Objectives Core Knowledge READING FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS Print Awareness Demonstrate understanding that what is said can be written and that the writing system is a way of writing down sounds. Demonstrate understanding of directionality (left to right, return sweep, top to bottom, front to back). Identify the parts of books and function of each part (front cover, back cover, title page, table of contents). Demonstrate correct book orientation by holding book correctly and turning pages. Recognize that sentences in print are made up of separate words. Understand that words are separated by spaces. Demonstrate understanding of basic print conventions by tracking and following print word for word when listening to text read aloud. Demonstrate understanding that the sequence of letters in a written word represents the sequence of sounds in the spoken word. Recognize and name the 26 letters of the alphabet in their lower-case forms. Say the letters of the alphabet in order, either in song or recitation. Phonological and Phonemic Awareness Demonstrate understanding that words are made up of sequences of sounds. Identify whether pairs of phonemes are the same or different, including pairs that differ only in voicing, e.g., /b/ and /p/. Orally blend two to three sounds to form a word, e.g., given the sounds /k/... /a/... /t/, blend to make cat. Phonics: Decoding and Encoding Demonstrate understanding that a systematic, predictable relationship exists between written letters (graphemes) and spoken sounds (phonemes). Blend individual phonemes to pronounce printed words. Read and write any CVC word, e.g., sit or cat. Print Concepts RF.K.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. a. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page. b. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters. c. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print. d. Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. Phonological Awareness RF.K.2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). a. Recognize and produce rhyming words. b. Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words. c. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of singlesyllable spoken words. d. Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words.(This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.) e. Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words. Phonics and Word Recognition RF.K.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. a. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one lettersound correspondences by producing the primary or many of the most frequent sound for each consonant. b. Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels. c. Read common high-frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does). d. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.

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CCSS ELA READING FOUNDATIONAL SKILLS

Copyright © 2010 by the Core Knowledge Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All Rights Reserved.

Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10

Core Knowledge Read and write words containing separated vowel graphemes, such as late, bite, note, cute. Read and write one-syllable words containing common initial and final consonant clusters such as tr-, fl-, dr-, sp-, etc. Read tricky spellings that can be sounded two ways, e.g., the letter `s' sounded /s/ as in cats and /z/ as in dogs. Read and write chains of one-syllable words in which one sound is added, substituted, or omitted, e.g., read at > cat > bat > bad > bid. Recognize and produce rhyming words. Read at least 15 words generally identified as very high frequency words. Oral Reading and Fluency Read decodable stories that incorporate the specific code knowledge that has been taught. Use phonics skills in conjunction with context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. Demonstrate understanding of and use commas and end punctuation while reading orally. Read aloud, alone, or with a partner at least 15 minutes each day. READING COMPREHENSION ­ ALL TEXTS Key Ideas and Details Demonstrate understanding of simple decodable text after reading independently. Answer questions requiring literal recall and understanding of the details and/or facts (i.e., who, what, where, when, etc.) about a text that has been read independently. Use narrative language to describe people, places, things, locations, events, actions, a scene, or facts from a text that has been read independently. Understand and use words and phrases from a text that has been read independently. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas Use pictures accompanying the written text to check and support understanding. LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS Form letters, words, phrases and sentences to communicate thoughts and ideas. Apply basic spelling conventions. Capitalize the first word in a sentence, the pronoun I. Identify and use end punctuation, including periods, question marks, and exclamation points.

Copyright © 2010 by the Core Knowledge Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All Rights Reserved.

CCSS ELA Fluency RF.K.4. Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding. READING STANDARDS FOR LITERATURE Key Ideas and Details RL.K.1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. RL.K.2. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas RL.K.7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts). Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity RL.K.10. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. LANGUAGE STANDARDS L.K.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a. Print many upper- and lowercase letters. c. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes). d. Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how). L. K. 2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. a. Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I. b. Recognize and name end punctuation. c. Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes). d. Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships. L.K.6. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.

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Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10

Core Knowledge Handwriting and Spelling Trace, copy, and print from memory the letters of the alphabet accurately in their lower-case and upper-case forms. Write from left to right, leaving spaces between words, and top to bottom using return sweep. Begin to write phonemically plausible spellings for words that cannot be spelled correctly with current code knowledge, e.g., write bote for boat, sum for some, hunee for honey. Write words and phrases from dictation, applying phonics knowledge Form regular plural nouns by adding `s' or `es', i.e., dog, dogs, wish, wishes.

CCSS ELA

Copyright © 2010 by the Core Knowledge Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All Rights Reserved.

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Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10 Day-by-Day Lessons

Day-by-Day Lessons Prerequisite Skills for This Unit Understand that what is said can be written down and that the writing system is a way of writing down sounds. Understand directionality (left to right, return sweep, top to bottom, front to back). Identify the parts of books and function of each part. Hold a book correctly and turn pages. Recognize that sentences in print are made up of separate words. Understand that words are separated by spaces. Demonstrate understanding of basic print conventions by tracking and following print word for word when listening to text read aloud. Understand that a sequence of letters in a written word represents the sequence of sounds in the spoken word. Segment oral sentences into discrete words. Understand that words are made up of sequences of sounds. Understand that vowel sounds are produced with the mouth open and airflow unobstructed, whereas consonant sounds involve closing parts of the mouth and blocking the air flow. Supply words that begin with a target sound during riddle games. Indicate whether a target phoneme is or is not present in the initial/medial/final position of a spoken word. Listen to one-syllable words and tell the beginning or ending sound. Recognize the same phoneme in different spoken words. Identify whether pairs of phonemes are the same or different, including pairs that differ only in voicing. Orally blend two or three sounds to form a word. Segment a spoken word into phonemes. Identify the number of syllables in a spoken word. Understand that a systematic, predictable relationship exists between written letters (graphemes) and spoken sounds (phonemes). Blend individual phonemes to pronounce printed words. Read and write some CVC word. Read and write chains of one-syllable words in which one sound is added, substituted, or omitted. Read at least 15 words generally identified as very high frequency words. Ability to read and write /m/ spelled `m' and `mm'; /a/ spelled `a'; /t/ spelled `t' and `tt'; /d/ spelled `d' and `dd'; /o/ spelled `o'; /k/ spelled `c' and `k'; /g/ spelled `g' and `gg'; /i/ spelled `i'; /n/ spelled `n'; /h/ spelled `h'; /s/ spelled `s' and `ss'; /f/ spelled `f' and `ff'; /v/ spelled `v'; /z/ spelled 'z', `zz', and `s'; /p/ spelled `p' and `pp'; /e/ spelled `e'; /b/ spelled `b' and `bb'; /l/ spelled `l' and `ll'; /r/ spelled `r' and `rr'; /u/ spelled `u'; /w/ spelled `w'; /j/ spelled `j'; /y/ spelled `y'; /x/ spelled `x'; /ch/ spelled `ch'; /sh/ spelled `sh'; /th/ spelled `th'; /th/ spelled `th'; /qu/ spelled `qu'; and /ng/ spelled `ng'. Read decodable stories that incorporate the specific code knowledge that has been taught. Understand and use commas and end punctuation while reading orally. Understand simple decodable text after reading independently. Answer questions requiring literal recall and understanding of the details and/or facts about a text that has been read independently. Use pictures accompanying written text to check and support understanding. Use narrative language to describe people, places, things, locations, events, actions, a scene, or facts from a text that has been read independently. Hold a writing utensil and make marks on paper. Write own name. Copy lines and shapes independently.

Copyright © 2010 by the Core Knowledge Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All Rights Reserved.

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Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10 Day-by-Day Lessons

Vowel Sounds and Spellings Taught in Unit 10 /ae/ spelled `a_e' as in cake /ee/ spelled `ee' as in bee /ie/ spelled `i_e' as in bike /oe/ spelled `o_e' as in note /ue/ spelled `u_e' as in cute Notes on Unit 10 Warm-Up We recommend a two-part warm-up for this unit. In the first part of the warm-up, the students should practice blending two-syllable words. This will increase the students' attention span for sounds and help them develop chunking skills. In the second part of the warm-up, the students should practice letter-sound correspondences for sounds and spellings taught. Long Vowels and Separated Digraphs The vowel sounds /ae/, /ee/, /ie/, /oe/, and /ue/ have traditionally been called the "long" vowels. There is some debate about whether this is an entirely suitable term, but it is at least useful for referring to these five sounds as a group. These five sounds are also the only sounds in the language that are also letter names: /ae/ = `a', /ee/ = `e', /ie/ = `i', /oe/ = `o', /ue/ = `u'. Each sound can be spelled with the matching letter name, as in range, Egypt, item, go, and union. However, you will note that these single-letter spellings are not taught as the basic code spellings for these sounds. The avoidance of the single-letter spellings `a', `e', `i', `o', and `u' as spellings for the "long" vowel sounds is deliberate. We want the students to begin reading in a world where `a' is reliably pronounced /a/ and `o' is reliably pronounced /o/. Later in this program, the students will learn that these letters can stand for more than one sound; they can be pronounced "short" or "long." The `ee' spelling for /ee/ is a vowel digraph analogous to the consonant digraphs the students have already learned, e.g., `ch', `sh', `ng', etc. The spellings for the sounds /ae/, /ie/, /oe/, and /ue/ are also digraphs, but they are digraphs of a different sort. They are separated digraphs. The two letters work together to stand for a single sound, but the letters no longer sit next to each other. Instead, they are separated from each other by another spelling. This intervening spelling will always be a consonant spelling and it will usually be a single-letter spelling. For example, in words like tame, tide, tone, and cute a single letter stands between the two letters of the vowel digraph. There are a few words in English where a consonant digraph stands between the two letters of a separated vowel digraph; ache is one example. Kindergarten students will not encounter words of this sort. It is important that the students understand that two letters can work together to represent a single sound--even if the letters are separated. This is likely to be difficult for some students to grasp, and even those who grasp the idea quickly may need time to automatize the procedure during reading, for it involves a significant departure from the left-to-right decoding they have been doing up to this point. The students have been taught to read from left to right, but in order to read words with separated digraphs they need to begin scanning to the right and then glancing back again to the left. To get a sense of how the complexity of the mental operations involved in reading is increasing as the sequence of instruction progresses, consider what is involved in reading the following three words: ham, sham, shame. To read ham, the reader needs to inspect each letter, remember which sound each letter stands for, and then blend the three sounds together. To read sham, the reader must do all of these things but must also recognize that `s' and `h' are a letter-team. The reader may need to discard a first impression that the word begins with two consonant sounds, /s/ followed by /h/. To read shame, the reader must perform all of the above mentioned tasks while also scanning ahead, spotting the letter `e', connecting the letter `e' to the letter `a', and remembering that these letters stand for the /ae/ sound. When you add all of these things together, you have a rather complicated procedure, one that takes lots of practice to automatize.

Copyright © 2010 by the Core Knowledge Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All Rights Reserved.

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Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10 Day-by-Day Lessons

Notes on Unit 10 continued... As adults and skilled readers, it is very hard for us to think ourselves back into the mindset of the young learner. To get a sense of what reading must be like for a beginning reader, write the word shine on a piece of paper and cover it with a second sheet. Pretend that you do not already know what word the slip of paper is concealing. Slowly slide the paper to the right, revealing one letter at a time. If you think out loud, your thinking might sound something like this: "The first sound is /s/. The next sound is /h/. No wait, those two letters stand for just one sound: /sh/. The next sound is /i/: /sh/ /i/. The next sound is /n/: so that makes /sh/ /i/ /n/. The last sound is /e/: /sh/ /i/ /n/ /e/. But wait, Shinn-eh isn't a word. Oh, I see: the letter `i' and the letter `e' are working together to stand for the /ie/ sound. The word is /sh/ /ie/ /n/!" As they encounter new words, students are performing a set of mental actions very much like these. They are segmenting the written symbols into chunks, trying to match those chunks to sounds, blending, correcting initial assumptions, connecting separated digraphs, and scanning forward and backward as needed. All of this requires a lot of mental energy--especially for readers who are just learning to crack the alphabet code. To support the students in this difficult process, the pace of introducing new code knowledge should be slowed in this unit. Several days should be spent on each new spelling pattern. Silent `e' and Magic `e' In Core Knowledge Reading we refer to spellings like `a_e' and `i_e' as separated digraphs. You can also use the term split digraph if you prefer. In years past you may have spoken of the `e' in words like name or note as silent `e'. Or you may have used the phrase magic `e'. Of these two phrases, we very much prefer magic `e'. There are some problems with telling students that some letters are silent. The phrase "silent letter" may lead some students to believe that only some letters in a word matter as far as determining the pronunciation of the word; while others have no purpose. In fact, the `e' in kite is every bit as important in terms of determining pronunciation as the `i'. Without the `e', the word would be pronounced kit. All in all, magic `e' seems to be a better way of capturing what the `e' is doing in these spellings than silent `e'. We therefore encourage you to avoid teaching the concept of silent `e' in this unit and silent letters in general. In most cases it is more useful to think of all of the letters in a word as representing a sound, either singly or in tandem with other letters. For example, in the word light, it is more useful to think of `igh' as standing for /ie/ than to think of `i' as standing for /ie/ and `gh' as being "silent." Tricky Words In this unit, you should introduce eleven more tricky words. The tricky words are: he, she, we, be, me, they, their, my, by, you, and your. All of these words are high-frequency words that cannot be pronounced accurately using blending and the letter-sound correspondences taught so far. Most of the words taught are exceptions to the general spelling patterns students are learning in this unit. For example, he, she, we, be, and me are all words that have an /ee/ sound that is not spelled with the basic code spelling `ee'. Likewise my and by are words that have the /ie/ sound but not the `i_e' spelling. Only a few of these tricky words are completely irregular. Most of them have some parts that are pronounced and written just as one would expect. With each word, we encourage you to make an effort to show which parts are regular and can be blended and which parts are not regular and must simply be remembered. LESSON 1 Sound /ee/ Spelled `ee' Sample Decodable Words free cheek feet green keep feel meet seed sleep three week need tree street sweet queen

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Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10 Day-by-Day Lessons

LESSON 2 Tricky Words he, she, and we LESSON 3 Tricky Words me and be LESSON 4 Sound /ae/ Spelled `a_e' Sample Decodable Words cake lake make made brave name Sample Decodable Story Kate Bakes a Cake Kate is Scott's best pal. "I will make a cake," says Kate. "I will make a cake and take it to Scott." Kate bakes a cake and takes it to Scott. But Scott says, "I hate cake, Kate! I wish to munch on grapes!" Kate hands Scott the plate of cake. Then she runs to a shop and gets grapes. When Kate get back, the kids munch and munch! Kate ate all of the cake and Scott ate all of the grapes! Discussion Questions Who is Kate? What does Scott want to eat? Where does Kate get the grapes? Which you prefer to eat ­ cake or grapes? LESSON 5 Tricky Words they and their LESSON 6 Review LESSON 7 Sound /ie/ Spelled `i_e' Sample Decodable Words time like life side line quite

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came ape bake wake take

gave late shape wave state

five hide wide drive ride

nine smile rise pile bike

Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10 Day-by-Day Lessons

LESSON 7 continued... Sample Decodable Story A Fine Hike Scott, his pal Mike, and Mike's dad are on a hike. They hike to the top of a big hill. Mike's dad says, "This is the site where we will camp." Then he drops his pack on the grass. Scott and Mike help set up the tent. At five, Scott and Mike hike to the lake to fish. Scott gets five fish and Mike gets six! The scales on the fish shine in the sun. At dusk, Scott and Mike hike back to camp. Mike's dad makes a fire next to a pine tree and they munch on a hot snack. Then they get in their tent. They smile as they drift off to sleep. What a fine hike! Discussion Questions Where do Scott, Mike and Mike's dad decide to set up the tent? What do Mike and Scott do after they set up the tent? Who catches the most fish? Why are Scott and Mike smiling as they fall asleep? LESSON 8 Tricky Word my LESSON 9 Tricky Word by LESSON 10 Sound /oe/ Spelled `o_e' Sample Decodable Words those home close stone hope rose LESSON 11 Review LESSON 12 Review LESSON 13 Sound /ue/ Spelled `u_e' Sample Decodable Words used use mule LESSON 14 Tricky Words you and your LESSON 15 Review LESSON 16 Review and Assessment

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bone nose note hole spoke

Smoke broke role rope rode

fuse fumes cube

cute mute

Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10 Day-by-Day Lessons

LESSON 17 Review and Assessment LESSON 18 Review and Assessment LESSON 19 Review and Assessment Pausing Point Sample Exercises and Assessments Alphabet/Letter Names Tell the students that the sound pictures they have been learning are also called letters. Letters are listed and memorized in a special order, called "alphabetical order." Tell the students that you are going to teach them the letter names. Post a lowercase alphabet strip or write the lowercase letters on the board and say each letter's name as you point to it. Repeat twice and have the students repeat after you. The Alphabet Song Remind the students that the sound pictures they have been using are also called letters and that people have arranged them in a special order called "alphabetical order." Post a lowercase alphabet strip or write the lowercase letters on the board, and say each letter's name as you point to it. Tell the students you are going to sing a song that will help them learn the letter names. It is called, "The Alphabet Song." Explain that the alphabet is what we call the set of letters we use to write down the sounds of English. Sing the alphabet song slowly, pointing to each letter as you sing its name. Be careful to enunciate each letter name. Say, "el, em, en, oh, pee"--not "elemenohpee"--as some students may think that it is one letter name. Repeat the song, inviting the students to sing along. Alphabet Soup Place small cards for the 26 letters of the alphabet in a bowl or a hat. Have a student pull out a card, show it to the class, and say the name of the letter printed on the card and the sound or sounds that the letter stands for. Repeat with the remaining cards. Alphabet Walk Write each letter of the alphabet on its own sheet of paper. Tape the sheets of paper to the floor to make a path. Have the students step from sheet to sheet, saying the letter names as they step on the letters.

Copyright © 2010 by the Core Knowledge Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All Rights Reserved.

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Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10 Day-by-Day Lessons

Letter Name Bingo Note: This game is best played in small groups or in centers. Make bingo cards with letters. Write the 26 letters on small paper slips and place them in a box. Give each student a bingo card and playing pieces. Explain that you will pull letters from the box and you want the students to put a playing piece on top of that letter if it is on their bingo cards. Explain that the students should say, "Bingo!" once all of the spellings are covered. Who Can Show Me? Write the uppercase and lowercase letters A­H out of order on opposite sides of the board. Ask the class who can show you the uppercase `H'. Then ask the class who can show you the lowercase `h'. Have a student draw a connecting line from the uppercase to the lowercase letter. Work through the remaining letters. Review with the students when we use uppercase letters. Body Alphabet Have students lie on the floor to make the shapes of uppercase and/or lowercase letters with their bodies. Another student can direct the group in forming the correct letter. Note: For this exercise, it would be helpful to have the uppercase and lowercase letters displayed in the room for the students' reference. Sound Dictation with Uppercase Letters Write the uppercase letters of the alphabet on large cards, one letter per card. Distribute paper, pencils, and the large cards with the uppercase letters. Say a sound and tell the students that whoever is holding the large card for that sound should stand up. Remind the students how to draw the letter, and encourage them to draw it in the air. Have the seated students draw the sound picture. Repeat for the remaining sounds. Name Game On the board, write the alphabet in uppercase letters in one line. Write or have the students write their first names on a card. Make sure the names are written in uppercase letters. Have each student place his or her name card underneath the letter for the first letter of the student's name. Have the students take turns and say, "My name is _______ and my name starts with the letter _______." Then have the students place their name cards underneath the last letter in their names. Let students take turns saying, "My name is ____________ and my name ends with the letter ________."

Copyright © 2010 by the Core Knowledge Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All Rights Reserved.

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Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10 Day-by-Day Lessons

Alphabet Class Book Have the students label the pages in an empty notebook with the letters of the alphabet, one letter per page. Have them write both the uppercase and matching lowercase letter together on the page. The upper right-hand or left-hand corner would be the best place. Ask the students to think of objects or items that begin with each of the letters. Have the students draw pictures of these objects on the corresponding pages in the notebook. Tricky Word Beanbag Toss Note: This game is best played in small groups or in centers. Write the tricky words taught in this unit on large cards. Place them face up on the floor. Hand a beanbag to the first student and explain that he or she should toss the beanbag towards the cards. Have the student read the tricky word card that the beanbag hits or lands closest to. Continue until all of your students have had their turn. Tricky Word Search Note: This game is best played in small groups or in centers. On a sheet of paper, create a large grid about six squares across and ten squares down. Choose a few of the tricky words taught in this unit and write them on the grid, one letter per square. Write the words horizontally. Fill in the rest of the squares with random letters. Copy the worksheet for your students and have them circle the tricky words that they find in the maze of letters. Extension: Have the students copy the tricky words they found on paper. Tricky Word Clues On the board, write three to six tricky words that have been taught so far. Choose one word and then give the students clues about that word. Clues could include the number of letters in the word, what the first and/or last letter in the word is, and what part of the word is tricky. Once the students have found the right word, ask them to use it in a sentence. Tricky Word Practice Tell the students that they will practice writing tricky words. Have the students take out a pencil and a piece of paper. Have the students draw a line down the center of their paper, from top to bottom. Write the on the board and have the students read it. Have the students copy the onto the left side of their sheet of paper. They should say the name of each letter as they copy the word. Erase the word the from the board. Have the students fold their paper along the line they drew earlier and position it so that the word they copied is facing the desk. Have the students write the from memory on their paper. They should say the name of each letter as they write the word. Tell the students to compare the word they just wrote with the word they copied earlier. Have the students correct the word if they misspelled it. Repeat these steps with additional tricky words.

Copyright © 2010 by the Core Knowledge Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All Rights Reserved.

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Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10 Day-by-Day Lessons

Colored Flashcards Print decodable words on green flashcards and tricky words on yellow flashcards. Explain to the students that the words printed on green paper are regular and can be read via blending. Green means go! Explain to the students that the words printed on yellow paper are tricky. Yellow means proceed with caution. Shuffle the cards and have the students read them one at a time. Making Phrases Note: This exercise is best done in small groups or in centers. Write decodable nouns and decodable adjectives and the tricky words the, a, of, all, one, from, and was on cards, one word per card. Have the students create phrases or sentences with these cards. Then have the students copy the phrases or sentences on paper. Making Questions, Exclamations, and Statements Note: This game is best played in small groups or in centers. Write decodable nouns, adjectives, and verbs on cards. Write the tricky words when, where, why, what, which, the, a, of, all, one, and was on cards, one word per card. Also, make cards with question marks, exclamation points, and periods. Have the students create questions, exclamations, and statements with these cards. Then have the students copy the phrases or sentences on paper. What's the Question? Note: This is an oral language exercise designed to give students the opportunity to formulate questions with the question words taught in Unit 9. It is open ended and there are many possible questions for each answer. Remind the students of the questions words taught in Unit 9 (what, where, when, which, and why) and write them on the board. In a different color write one-word decodable answers on the board, e.g., cat, legs, milk, etc. Call on a student to read one of the words and formulate a question that uses one of the five question words. For example, if a student reads the word cat, he or she might say "What animal meows?" Continue until questions have been formulated for all of the words on the board Hearing Medial Sounds Tell the students that you are going to say a number of words. Some of the words will have /ee/ as the middle sound and some will not. Have the students close their eyes and listen carefully. Tell the students to raise their hands when they hear a word that contains the /ee/ sound. Say the following words one by one: sheep, shop, feet, meat, bed, team, ship, seat.

Copyright © 2010 by the Core Knowledge Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All Rights Reserved.

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Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10 Day-by-Day Lessons

Sound Off Tell the students that you are going to read a short story that contains a number of examples of the /ee/ sound. Tell the students to touch their noses whenever they hear the /ee/ sound.Read the following story sentence by sentence, making an effort to emphasize the /ee/ sound when you come across it: Once there was an evil queen. She was mean. She lived in a hollow tree by the sea. The mean queen had a sweet son named Dean. He was only thirteen. Sound Riddles Tell the students that you are going to say some riddles, each of which has an answer that contains the /ie/ sound. Say a riddle with an answer that contains the /ie/ sound, e.g., "I'm thinking of something that is very cold and sweet that is very good to eat. It melts when you take it out of the freezer." (ice cream) Tell the students to raise their hands and wait to be called on if they think they know the answer. Repeat with additional riddles: (bike) I'm thinking of something that has two wheels and two pedals that kids like to ride. (pie) I'm thinking of something that is a round dessert that can be made with apples, cherries, or blueberries. (five) I'm thinking of the number that comes after four. (bride) I'm thinking of a woman who wears a white dress at a wedding. (night) I'm thinking of the opposite of day. Pop-Out Chaining Write the spellings `m', `n', `t', `c', `s', `p', `b', `l', `h', `w', `qu', `i', `e', `a', `u', and `o' on large cards (e.g., card stock), one spelling per card. Pass out the cards to your students, reviewing each spelling's sound. Tell the student with the `e' card that he or she is the wielder of the magic letter `e'. Tell the students that if they are holding a card with a picture of a sound that is in cut, they should go to the front of the room and stand in the order that spells cut. Tell the students that you are going to magically change the vowel sound in the word. Then say "Alakazam!" and have your helper add the large card `e' to the end of cut to create cute. Repeat this process with additional word pairs (e.g., cub/cube, hop/hope, slim/slime, etc.). Allow several different students to take a turn playing the magician and the wielder of the magic letter `e'. Variation: Instead of giving a student only the `e' card, have him or her hold both cards that represent the separated digraph. For example, in the word cute one student holds up the `c' card at the beginning of the word and one student holds up the `t' card to the right. The student with the separated digraph stands behind the student with the `t' card and shows the `u' card before the `t' and the `e' after it.

Copyright © 2010 by the Core Knowledge Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All Rights Reserved.

13

Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10 Day-by-Day Lessons

Teacher Chaining · · · · · Write nine on the board. Ask a student to read the word, first in segmented fashion, then blended. Remove the `n' and add `l' to create line. As you make this change, say to the students, "If this is nine, what is this?" Continue with the remaining words: nine > line > lime > time > tame > name > nape > nap > tap > tape cute > cube > cub > cab > cat > hat > hate > date > late > lane line > shine > shin > sheen > teen > ten > men > man > mane > mine pipe > ripe > rip > sip > sick > tick > tim > time > dime > dame base > chase > case >cape > cope > hope > rope > role > hole > pole Wiggle Cards Make a set of large cards with decodable words and phrases written on them. Each word or phrase should describe a motion or activity that the students can act out. Show the students a wiggle card, have them read it, and let them perform the action. Use the wiggle cards during transitions. munch cake chase pals glare at pal ride a bike doze off stand in line slap five run a mile smell a rose hiss like a snake shake hands smile be a plane rub your nose

Spelling Bingo Note: This game is best played in small groups or in centers. Make bingo cards with spellings that have been taught so far. Write the same spellings on paper slips and put them in a box. Give each student a bingo card and playing pieces. Explain that you will pull a spelling from the box and say the sound that it represents. You want the students to put a playing piece on top of the spelling for that sound if it is on their bingo cards. Explain that the students should say, "Bingo!" once all of the spellings on their card are covered. Note: You can substitute words for spellings if you would like. Erase the Words Write three to five words on the board and have the students read them. Say a word and have a student erase it from the board. Start over when all of the words have been erased. Continue until all of the students have had their turn.

Copyright © 2010 by the Core Knowledge Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All Rights Reserved. 14

Tricky Words & Separated Digraphs

Skills Strand: Kindergarten ­ Unit 10 of 10 Day-by-Day Lessons

Dictation with Words Explain that you are going to say a number of words. These words contain the spellings for /ee/, /ae/, /oe/, /ue/, and /ie/ taught in this unit. Tell the students to take out a crayon and a piece of paper. Tell the students to write each word that you say. Say the word pole and hold up one finger for each of the three sounds. Ask your students to count the sounds in the word and then draw a line on their paper for each sound that they hear. Once the students have drawn three lines, remind them that the sound /oe/ is spelled with two letters. Ask the students to add a line to the three lines they have drawn. For the word pole, four lines would be drawn on the paper: __ __ __ __. Then instruct the students to write the word's sound pictures on their respective lines. Finally, ask the students to read the word back to you. Instruct your students to refer to the phoneme posters if they are having difficulty remembering how to write the sound pictures. cube gripe tone nine joke speed trade cheer smile creep speech cute tale free drive use wave Dictation with Sentences Tell the students to take out a pencil and a piece of paper. Explain that you are going to say a number of sentences. There will be statements, questions, and exclamations. Be sure to use the proper intonation when reading the sentences. (Select sentences from the list below.) Tell the students to write each sentence that you say. For each sentence that you say, hold up one finger for each word. Ask your students to count the words and then draw a line on their paper for each word that they hear with a finger space between the lines. Once the students have drawn the lines, ask them to write each word, sound by sound. Finally, ask the students to read the sentence back to you. Instruct your students to refer to the phoneme posters if they are having difficulty remembering how to write the sound pictures. What a cute dog! She sits by Mike. Am I late? He likes their bikes. My mom made me a cake. What time is it? Note: See sample activities in earlier units for additional suggestions for specific sound spelling practice, if needed. Unit Assessment Note: We advise that you date and keep each student's assessment results in an individual portfolio. As additional assessments are administered over the course of the year, they can be added to the portfolios to provide a tangible documentation of each student's progress. Reading Assessment This assessment involves pulling aside each student individually and having him or her read aloud ten words printed on cards. Write the following words on index cards, one word per card: speech, crate, bee, note, prize, smoke, gave, mule, cube, fine. Show the cards to a student one at a time. Note the number of words the student was able to read. Analyze errors to provide specific skills remediation as needed.

Copyright © 2010 by the Core Knowledge Foundation, Charlottesville, VA. All Rights Reserved.

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