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Glossary of terms in Acupuncture

Chinese (pinyin)

(Nei) San Jiao ()



Alternative names and notes

Wai San Jiao

San Jiao ( ): production of Ying qi( ) and Wei qi( ) Three burners Les trois foyers 3 physical body zones: · Upper burner · foyer supérieur upper part of thorax, middle of abdomen · Middle burner · foyer médian (just below the ribs) and lower abdomen, · Lower burner · foyer inférieur including the organs and viscera they contain (Zang and Fu). The three burners ensure the functioning of the Pathway of water and cereals. Three warmers Les trois These ensure the pre-processing of · Upper warmer réchauffeurs energies and substances received and · Middle warmer · réch. supérieur, maintenance of the energetic and · Lower warmer · réch. médian physiological integrity of the organism. In · réch. inférieur, this they are supported by two structures: · An anatomical structure: three "upper tracts or external organs": o upper respiratory tracts (nose and sinuses + bronchi), o upper digestive tracts. (mouth + esophagus) o sexual and urinary tracts · An energetic structure: the twelve channels, antennae of the corresponding organs and viscera in the three burners. These twelve channels then function in accordance with the six phases of Shang Han Lun.

San Jiao : Utilization of Ying qi and Wei qi, in the form of Blood and Energy (Xue and Qi) Nei San Jiao Triple Burner Le Triple foyer Viscus (fu): energetic function corresponding to the totality of the three burner organs, in particular the exocrine Gu Fu pancreas. The Triple Burner participates in the functions of the 5 Earth elements in the form of Yang Minister Fire. Also known as "lone viscus" (Gu Fu) Shou shao yang Triple Warmer channel Le méridien du One of the 12 channels: the peripheral san jiao jing Triple réchauffeur energetic channel associated with the Triple Burner function. As a channel, it participates in the 6 phases of Shang Han Lun.


Zang Fu Qi heng zhi fu Qi Xue Sui Jinye Tanyin You Xing Zhi Tan Wu Xing Zhi Tan

Organ(s) Viscus, viscera Extraordinary organs Qi, Energy Blood Marrows Body fluids Mucus, Phlegm Substantial phlegm

Organe(s) Viscère(s) ou entraille(s) Entrailles curieuses Energie Sang Moëlles Liquides organiques - fluides (jin) et épais (ye) Glaires

Solid, yin (liver, heart, spleen, lung, kidneys) Hollow, yang (gallbladder, small intestine, stomach, large intestine, urinary bladder, triple burner) Gallblader, marrows, brain, uterus

Includes the bone marrow as well as the spinal cord and the brain.

Glaires matérielles Mucus, phlegm, spittle, nasal mucus, etc.

Insubtantial phlegm

Glaires immatérielles

An "immaterial" pathogenic factor that can disturb consciousness and become condensed to form nodules, cysts, etc.

Qi jing ba mai Eight extra(ordinary) channels, 8 wondrous vessels Chong mai CV- Chong Vessel Penetrating vessel Yin wei mai yWM - yin wei mai Yin linking vessel Yin qiao mai yQM - yin qiao mai Yin heel vessel / Yin motility vessel Ren mai RM - ren mai Conception vessel

Huit merveilleux vaisseaux Chong mai Yin wei mai Yin qiao mai Ren mai The WHO nomenclature of acupuncture points indicates CV (Conception Vessel) as standard abreviations. This Guide uses RM to avoid confusion with the Chong Vessel (which is not mentioned in the WHO nomenclature) Governor vessel ­ GV WHO standard abreviation, see above.

Du mai Yang qiao mai Yang wei mai

DM - du mai Governor vessel YQM - yang qiao mai Yang heel vessel / Yang motility vessel YWM - yang wei mai Yang linking vessel

Du mai Yang qiao mai Yang wei mai


Dai mai

DM - dai mai Belt vessel Girdle vessel Main channels

Dai mai vaisseau ceinture

Various types of channels

Jing mai Zheng Jing Liu Da Jing 6 (paired) channels · Tai Yang · Yang Ming · Shao Yang · Tai Yin · Shao Yin · Jue Yin LU ­ Lung channel LI ­ Large Intestine channel 6 grands méridiens · Tai Yang · Yang Ming · Shao Yang · Tai Yin · Shao Yin · Jiu Yin P - poumon GI ­ gros intestin Each paired channel divides into a "hand" channel and a "foot" channel, e.g. the Yang Ming paired channel comprises Shou Yang Ming (large instestine channel) and Zu Yang Ming (stomach channel) Méridiens principaux

Shou tai yin Shou yang ming Zu yang ming Zu tai yin Shou shao yin Shou tai yang Zu tai yang

ST ­ Stomach channel E - estomac SP ­ Spleen channel HT ­ Heart channel SI ­ Small Intestine channel UB ­ Urinary Bladder channel · Inner pathway · Outer pathway Rt - rate C ­ coeur IG ­ intestin grêle V ­ vessie · 1ère chaîne de V. · 2ème chaîne de V. R - rein MC ­ maître du coeur et de la sexualité ou péricarde ou enveloppe du coeur TR ­ Triple réchauffeur VB ­ vésicule billiaire F - foie The Pericardium as a function is known as xin bao luo in Chinese, while the Pericardium meridian or channel is xin bao jing

Zu tai yin Shou jue yin Xin bao jing / luo / Shou shao yang Zu shao yang Zu jue yin

KI ­Kidney channel PC ­ Pericardium channel

TW ­ Triple Warmer channel GB ­ Gall Bladder channel LV ­ Liver channel


Luo mai Bie luo

1. Luo channels 1. Les luo / lo; Luo-connecting les vaisseaux channels; luo / lo. connecting channels; collaterals 2. 12 Transversal Luo vessels

1. Be sure not to confuse these collaterals with jing bie, the "divergent channels". (In French, the term "collatéraux"is used for jing bie!).

Zong Luo

Fu Luo, Sun Luo, Xue Luo Jing Bie Bie Mai Jing jin

Tong Dao Xu Li Da Bao (Pi zhi da luo) ( ) Beishu Xue

2. The 12 Transversal Luo-connecting 2. Vaisseaux luo / Vessels are short vessels that connect lo transversaux. the Main Channel of a Zang (Yin solid organ) with its coupled Fu (Yang hollow bowel). 16 Longitudinal Luo Vaisseaux luo / lo The 16 Longitudinal Luo-connecting Vessels longitudinaux vessels originate at the Luo points on the extremities and have a distinct symptomatology. Fu Luo, Sun Luo, Xue Vaisseaux luo / lo, Smaller luo vessels branching off the main luo (capillaries) fu luo, sun luo, luo vessels, similar to capillary blood xue luo vessels. (capillaires) Jing Bie Jing Bie Terminology can be confusing in Chinese Divergent Channels Vaisseaux (not to mention English and French) as collatéraux divergent vessels appear under different names in the Classics at different epochs. Jing Jin Jing Jin Muscle channels Méridiens tendinoJing jin-sinew channels musculaires Ligamentary channels Vaisseaux Musculotendinous ligamentaires channels Pathway Trajectoire / trajet Pathway of a channel or an extraordinary vessel Xu Li Xu Li Great Luo of stomach Da Bao Da Bao Great Luo of spleen

Different types of points

Back-Shu points Back transporting points Front-Mu points Front collecting points Alarm points Xi-cleft points Acumulating points Points Shu Points assentiment Points Mu Points héraut Points Xi Points d'accumulation

Mu Xue Xi Xue


Luo Xue Zu Luo Xue

Luo-connecting points Points Luo Group Luo points Points Luo de groupe Points Shu antiques Point Jîng Point Rong Point Ying Point Shu Point Yuan Point Source Point Jing On the yang channels only The group Luo points act on three channels at the same time. For example, SP 6 acts on the spleen, liver and kidney channels. Points corresponding to the five elements on each of the channels

Wu Shu Xue Jîng Xue Rong / Ying Xue / Shu Xue Yuan Xue Jing / Xing Xue He Xue 4 Hai Xue Xia He Xue Ba Mai Jiao Hui Xue Jiao Hui Xue Dui Xue

(Five) Shu points transporting points antique points Jîng-Well point Ying-Spring point

Shu-Stream point Yuan-source point Jing-River point

He-Sea point He-Sea point Lower He-Sea 8 Hui-converging points 8 master points Hui-meeting points Hui-gathering points Intersection points Coupled points

Point He Points mer Point He secondaire Points maîtres (des merveilleux vaisseaux) Points réunion Points croisement Points CRX Points couplés

Uniting point Sea points of the blood, qi, water and cereals, marrows

Always used in relation with an extraordinary vessel Points common to channels and extraordinary vessels Refers to the 8 Master points of the extraordinary Channels, which are always used in pairs, for exemple SP 6 with PC 6 Meeting points of the blood, qi, bones, muscles and ligaments, marrows, vessels and arteries, veins, organs, viscera, etc. Points on the neck or head where the Jing Bie meet two by two (a yin coupled with a yang)

Hui Xue Hui He Xue

8 Hui-influential points Points réunion Jing Bie meeting points Windows of the sky points Points de reunion des Jing Bie Points fenêtres du ciel

Tian you Tian chuang Xue /


Gui Xue Ru, Chu Xue / Hui He Xue

13 ghost points Entry and exit points Jing Jin convergence points Guan points Barrier points

13 points gui Points d'entrée et de sortie Points de réunion des méridiens tendinomusculaires Points Guan Points barrières

Points indicated by Sun Si-Miao In general, the first and last points on a channel Points at which the tendino-muscular channels converge three by three Points Koann

Guan Xue

Principles and theory

Da xunhuan zi wu liu zhu Horary cycle Grande circulation Circulation of Qi in the 12 channels, at 2hourly intervals. Worsley (Five Element School) and Lavier call this "Wei Circulation". (Loi, relation) Midi-minuit

Midnight-noon ebb flow Wu Ye (zi-wu ) Midday-midnight rule ( ) Fu Qi Husband and Wife rule Loi époux-épouse Biao ben Gen Bu Xue / Gen Xie Xue / Bi Zheng Root/branch treatment Root treatment tonification / dispersion point Bi (syndrome)

Traitement des Racines / branches Point racine de tonification / de dispersion Bi Seasonal attack

8 gang yin / yang / biao / li / han / re / shi / xu /

8 Principles Yin / Yang Interior / exterior Cold / heat Deficiency / excess

8 Principes Yin / Yang Avers / revers Froid / chaleur Vide / plénitude Also surface/depth or outside/lining

Movements of Qi Qi Xu Qi Xian Qi deficiency Qi sinking

Mouvements du Qi Vide d'énergie Energie rentrante


Qi Yu Qi Ni Xue Xu Xue Yu Xue Re

Qi stagnation Qi counterflow Blood deficiency Blood stasis Blood heat

Stagnation d'énergie Energie à contrecourant Vide de sang Stagnation de sang, stase sanguine Chaleur du sang

Liu Jing Zhuan Six stages Bian

Six phases

After Shang Han Lun (On Cold Damage)

Wu Xing Mu Huo Tu Jin Shui

5 elements Wood Fire Earth Metal Water

5 éléments Bois Feu Terre Métal Eau

Tu Huo

Earth fire

Feu de la Terre

Xiang Huo Jun Huo Xiang Sheng Xiang Ke Xiang Cheng Bei Ke

Minister fire Emperor fire Sheng cycle Engendering cycle Ke cycle Control cycle Restraining cycle Overwhelming cycle

Deuxième feu Feu ministre Feu empereur Cycle Sheng Cycle Ke Cycle d'insulte

Concerns the Pericardium and the Triple Burner when they dynamize the "transport-transformation" function of the Earth In the Five Elements, concerns the Pericardium (yin Minister Fire) and the Triple Burner (yang Minister Fire) Concerns the Heart as Emperor Sheng cycle,also birth or production cycle (a physiological cycle) ( physiological cycle) This is a pathological exacerbation of the Ke cycle ­ the dominated element is "crushed"


Xiang Wu Fan ke

Reverse Ke cycle Rebellion cycle

Cycle Ke inversé

The reverse Ke cycle is another pathological cycle

Liu qi

Heavenly « 6 environmental phenomena »

6 qualités du ciel

Liu yin Liu xie Wai xie Han Huo Shu

Six climatic pathogens Six facteurs 6 excesses pathogènes Exogenous evils Exogenous pathogens Cold Fire Summer heat Maux extérieurs Energies perverses Froid Feu Chaleur (de l'été)

When the "environmental phenomena" become excessive or abnormal

"Hot" or "radiating" fire Atmospheric depression. A climatic factor, not to be confused with heat (Re ), e.g. inner heat Atmospheric pressure. A climatic factor, not to be confused with inner wind.

Feng Zao Shi Gen jie

Wind Dryness Dampness Roots and knots

Vent Sécheresse Humidité Noeuds et racines

Treatment of the six pathogenic factors

Qi Qing Xi Nu You Si Bei Kong Jing

Seven emotions Joy Anger Worry Pensiveness Sadness Fear Fright

Sept sentiments Joie Colère Souci Réflexion Tristesse Peur Choc Anxiety


Xian tian Hou tian

Earlier heaven Later heaven

Ciel antérieur Ciel postérieur

Shui gu tong dao

Pathway of water (or liquids) and cereals

Voie de l'eau et des céréales

From Nanjing, chapter 25

Bu Xie Gu qi Qing Qi Yang qi Ying qi Wei Qi Qi Xue Ba gua Kun Zhen Dui Xun Li Kan Gen Qian

Tonify Drain / disperse

Tonifier Disperser


Pump in energy so as to increase it Close a point Drain or eliminate energy Open a point


Gu qi Respiratory energy Gu qi Energie respiratoire Food (alimentary) energy Qing Qi is the term used in medical classics to designate respiratory energy, the energy of the air. Modern TCM texts call it Yang Qi (litterally "oxygene"). Blood (Xue) Energy (Qi) Energy Blood

Nourishing or nutritive Qi nourricier energy Defensive energy Énergie Wei Energy Blood Trigrams Earth Thunder Lake Wind Fire Water Mountain Heaven Energie Sang Trigrammes Terre Tonnerre Lac Vent Feu Eau Montagne Ciel

Also lightning Or Marsh


Tian Gan Di Zhi

Heavenly stems Earthly branches

Troncs célestes Branches terrestres Pouls

Cun Guan Chi

Cun Guan Chi

Pouce Barrière Pied Pouls de Wang Shu-He Long Profond Lent Précipité Grand Intermittent Remuant Court Flottant Caché En peau de tambour Vaste Glissant Paisible Hâtif Noué

Pulse position I Pulse position II Pulse position III 28 types of pulse: the 24 classic Wang Shu-He pulses (Mai Jing ­ pulse classic) +4 Beyond the pulse location

Wang Shu He Wang Shu-He's Mai Xiang pulses Chang Chen Chi Cu Da Dai Dong Duan Fu Fu Ge Hong Hua Huan Mai Ji Jie Long Sinking, deep Slow Hurried Large Interrupted Moving Short Floating Hidden Leather Flooding Slippery Moderate Lax Urgent Knotty

Irregular, periodical Disturbed Not reaching the pulse location Superficial

Less than 5 pulsations per breath


Jin Kou Lao mai Ru mai Ruo San mai Se Shi Shu Wei mai Xi, Xiao Xian Xu

Tight Hollow Confined Soggy Weak Scattered Choppy Full Rapid Faint Thin, thready Wiry, stringlike Empty

Serré Creux Fixé Mou Faible Dispersé Rugueux Plein Rapide Ténu Fin, petit En corde Vide More than 5 pulsations per breath

Wu Xing Mai Xiang Xian Man Huan Fu Chen

5 Element pulses

Pouls des 5 éléments Tendu, en corde Ample Moyen Flottant Wood Fire Earth Metal

Wiry Full Moderate Floating Deep, like a stone

San Bu Jiu Hou Alternative pulses (carotid pulse and pulses along the channels)

Profond, comme Water un caillou Pouls révélateurs The carotid pulse is mentioned in Zhen Jiu Da Cheng - VIII; the pulses along the channels in Yi Xue Ru Men - I) Also in Nei Jing, Chapter 20 "San bu jiu hou lun"



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