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1/13/2007

English Spelling is NOT Crazy

Louisa C. Moats, Ed.D. 2006

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Why Is Spelling Instruction Important?

· Learning to spell is not natural · Better spelling enables better writing (Berninger, Graham, et al.) · Spelling instruction can improve phonological awareness, word recognition, and vocabulary · Spelling is interesting!

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Take This Spelling Test

______________________? ______________________? ______________________?

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Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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Spelling is Language Representation

What do the National Spelling Bee champions ask about words?

­ Their pronunciation. ­ Their meaning. ­ Their language of origin.

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Four Processing Systems

background information, sentence context

Context Processor

vocabulary, morphology

Meaning Processor

speech sound system Phonological Processor speech output

phonics

letter memory Orthographic Processor reading input

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writing output

Sounds and Symbols: Basic Building Blocks

Each layer builds on the others as decoding is learned.

derivational morphemes syllable spellings inflectional morphemes

grapheme units and sequences phonemes and sound patterns

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Student Writing Sample A

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Student Writing Sample B

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Student Writing Sample C

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"...phonology, although important for all aspects of literacy learning, is even more critical in learning to spell than in learning to read. Orthographic knowledge is laid over a phonological foundation. If that phonological foundation is weak, orthographic skills cannot develop sufficiently to support good spelling and compensate for the underdeveloped phonological skills." --Cassar, Treiman, Moats, et al. R & W (2006).

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Do Dyslexic Students Make Different Types of Errors?

"...the linguistic difficulties that are beginning to be understood among children who are making normal progress...are also found among children making extremely slow progress. ...What we learn...should apply to all children."

- Cassar, Treiman, Moats et al. (206)

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Most Common Problems

· · · · · · · Consonant blends Short vowel representation Vowel + r, vowel + l Nasal sounds after vowels Inflectional endings and ending rules Spelling of unaccented syllables Oddities ­ words without families

­ (Moats, 1996; Treiman & Bourassa, 2001)

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Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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Student Writing Sample ­ Third Grader

(basement)

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(expression)

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What Should Be Taught?

1. Speech sound segmentation and identity (phoneme awareness) 2. Phoneme-grapheme mapping 3. Letter sequences, syllable patterns 4. Morphology and word origin 5. Syntactic context, part of speech 6. Proofreading, self-correction

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Consonant Phoneme Chart

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Teach All the Vowel Sounds

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Vowel Chart

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Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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Before Spelling: Phoneme Identity and Segmentation

How many speech sounds in each word? string _______ quite _____ high ______ sax _______ rink ______ match ____ though ______ snow ______

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Phoneme Substitution

shop /sh/ /ch/ them /th/ /h/ thick /k/ /n/ crush /u/ /a/ chin /ch/ /f/ shack /sh/ /h/ thus /th/ /f/ shack /a/ /o/

thrash /th/ /k/ thank /a/ /i/

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Word Chains With Colored Blocks

· Show me "shop". · Now show me "chop". · Now show me "chip".

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Spelling Principle I

Phonemes are represented by graphemes.

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Graphemes

Letters or letter groups that correspond to a speech sound. sh i n i ng /sh/ /i/ /n/ /i/ /ng/ a l th ough /au/ /l/ /th/ /o/

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Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping (K. Grace, 2006)

j j s j j j u u l i ai u s dge u n l n e dge

X

t

· Use this grid to map phonemes to graphemes. · Each square is one phoneme.

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Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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Build Words With Graphemes

o

i -ck

r d m s -ll -ng

sh

a) Say a word; students build the word. b) Students make as many words as they can, working in teams.

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Spelling Principle II

Spellings are often determined by sound patterns and the position of a sound in a word.

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The -Ff, -Ll, -Ss Doubling Rule

-ff puff stuff gruff off stiff fluff whiff

Exceptions: if of

-ll will spell doll still fell shell dull

Exceptions: gal pal

-ss dress grass fuss miss class floss press

Exceptions: yes bus gas Words ending in /z/ (is, has, his, ...)

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Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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Understanding Grapheme Patterns ("Choice" Spellings)

/k/ cabbage kitten package school question /f/ sphere cough fluff foggy

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Word Sorting: /k/, /c/, /ck/

cactus cost cusp kite kennel skill napkin stock fleck buckskin blacktop milk stink jerk

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Soft and Hard C

/s/ Soft c /k/ Hard c

city cent certain fancy once

color candy curtain crash clown

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Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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Vowel Spelling Patterns "Oyster Hoister"

Sort these words by their spelling for /oy/:

oil joy join decoy boiler soybean voice royal moist destroy noise spoiled

How does the position of the vowel sound in a syllable determine which grapheme is used?

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Speed Read: Oyster Hoister

Roy Doyle was an oyster hoister employed by the Royal Oyster and Cracker Crumb Company. In his oilcloth slicker and soiled boots, Doyle toiled in the moist mud flats of Troy. There he foisted himself upon countless oysters that he annoyed and destroyed as he hoisted them from their warm and oozy beds. Doyle enjoyed hoisting oysters from the moist mud of Troy.

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Syllable Spelling Conventions

Closed dap con bot Vowel Team tain geal rain Open ma wri bu Vowel-R var ter dor VCe trite bune tane -Cle -gle -tle -ple

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Sort These Syllables

cab ace wait jerk table baby me path pipe sea idle firm sit rope go boat gurgle crush oil tart unit cute ripple Closed Vowel Team Open Vowel-R VCe -Cle

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Combine These Syllables

plete vor com con in pre -y ute sa sal view geal

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Spelling Principle III

English orthography has rules about letter combinations, letter sequences, and uses of certain letters.

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Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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The Ending Rules (Silent E Meets Its End)

1) Silent ­e 2) Doubling

use + ed = _______ drip + ing = _________ waste + ful = _____ mat + ed = __________ smoke + less = ____ prep + ed=__________ hope + ed = ______ fill + ed = __________ mope + ing = ______host + ing = ________

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Proofreading for Endings

The Sand Which Was There Thunker was cuting a huge peper and smokeed bovine snout sandwich in half when his cell phone starteed ringging. Thunker startted taping his head, hopping to remember where he last put the phone. Suddennly, Thunker droped his sandwich and went runing upstairs.

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Homophones In a Meaningful Context

Using their, they're, there... "If _______ late again, I will eat my hat," said Ethyl. When we got _____ late, we saw Ethyl eating her hat. " ____ never going home to ____ own house unless we drive them ______."

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Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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Homophone Home

Thunker herd a noise like a grown coming from hi above hymn. He guest that it was coming from the beach tree buy his feat. Thunker staired upward wear he saw something with black fir. "It's a bare up their!" Thunker balled. Now, Thunker had never scene a bare be four and he didn't no what two dew. In his panic, Thunker tried to flea, butt he tripped over a tree route. He landed on his knows which caused him grate pain.

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Spelling Principle IV

English orthography represents meaningful parts of words (morphology).

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Morphology Instruction For Older Students (Grades 4+)

What's a morpheme? A meaningful word part, usually a prefix, root, or suffix, or parts of a compound. pro-ject inter-ject sub-jec-tion in-ject-ed re-ject-ing e-ject

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Classes of Morphemes

Free content function prefixes

base words and compounds

Bound roots suffixes

inflections derivations

grammatical glue words

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Morphology Instruction

The study of morphology: · · stabilizes the "chunks" in words provides word family associations for remembering and spelling longer words enhances vocabulary development

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·

A Suffix Determines A Word's Part of Speech

Noun Suffix Examples -ment (contentment) -tion (injection) -ity (levity) Verb Suffix Examples -ate (suffocate) -ize (randomize) -fy (satisfy) Adjective Suffix Examples -ous (infectious) -al (natural) -ive (persuasive) -ic (genetic) -y (squishy) Adverb Suffix Examples -ly (hesitatingly)

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Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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Chameleon Prefixes

Why is there a doubled letter in one word but not the other? aggressive irreplaceable immaterial agreeable iridescence imagine

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Morphological Monstrosities

"When you breath, you inspire. When you do not breath, you expire." "Water is composed of two gins, Oxygin and Hydrogin. Oxygin is pure gin. Hydrogin is gin and water. "Respiration is composed of two acts, first inspiration, and then expectoration." "Equator: A managerie lion running around the Earth through Africa.

-From the World According to Student Bloopers, Richard Lederer, Anquished English

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Spelling Principle V

Spelling in English is determined by the word's language of origin.

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Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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Anglo-Saxon Words

· Are often just one syllable. · Are words for very common things and ideas. · Are the oldest words in English. · Have digraphs, diphthongs, and silent letters.

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French/Romance

· Have spellings such as ou (coupon), -ge for /zh/ (garage), -ette (bagette),and que (boutique). · Are words for food; concepts of social justice and enlightenment (courageous; magnificent). · Have identifiable Latin roots (peace/pacem).

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Direct Latin Borrowings

· Have prefix, root, suffix construction.

­ contradiction, prediction, addiction

· Are built around a root, which is accented (envision). · Have endings -us, -um, -a, -i, -ae. · Use Latin plurals (curricula, data, alumni, alumnae). · Have no th or vowel teams.

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Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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Greek-Derived Words

· Use ph for /f/, ch for /k/, y for /i/. · Use combining forms--morphemes that combine more freely, and in different sequences, than their Latin counterparts. · Are often used for scientific, philosophical, and mathematical terms.

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Many Words for One Idea

water (AS) aquifer (L) aquarium (L) hydraulic (Gr) hydroponic (Gr) change (FR) transformation (L) metamorphosis (Gr)

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The Richness of English

­ He walked slowly around the floor. (AS) ­ The antique vase held a magnificent bouquet. (Fr) ­ The hippopotamus's nocturnal perambulations concerned the zoological society's supervisors. (L) ­ His mild hemiparesis, hyperreflexivity, and dyspraxia suggested a left cerebral lesion. (Gr)

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Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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The Domain of Word Study

LAYERS AngloSaxon French/ Latin Greek

ph, ch, y

Soundsymbol

consonant and vowel graphemes

Syllables

6 syllable types

Morphemes

compounds, inflections, a few suffixes prefixes roots suffixes plurals combining forms, plurals

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Why Dictation ??

Provides the bridge between language study and application to writing. Should use study words, irregular words, and review words. Frequent, distributed practice is best (several sentences a day).

Immediately correct dictated sentences together.

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Spelling Lesson Routines

· Phonemic Awareness · Study of grapheme patterns, syllables, morphemes · Practice: word sorts, word building · Dictation of words and sentences · Speed Drills and Proofreading · Writing!

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Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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Take a Tour of Spelling Territory

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References

Birsh, J. (2nd Ed. In press). Multisensory teaching of basic language skills. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing. Carreker, S. 1994 Scientific Spelling. Neuhaus Center, Houston, TX Cassar, M., Treiman, R., Moats, L., Pollo and Kessler (2006). How do the spellings of children with dyslexia compare with those of nondyslexic children? Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal. Henry, M. 2003 Unlocking literacy. Brookes Publishing. Moats, L. 2000 Speech to Print: Language Essentials for Teachers. Paul Brookes Publishing Moats, L. and Rosow, B. 2001 Spellography. Longmont, CO: Sopris Moats, L.C. 2004 LETRS. Longmont, CO: Sopris West. Schlagal, B. 2001 Traditional, Developmental, and Structured Language Approaches to Spelling: Review and Recommendations, Annals of Dyslexia, 51, 147-176. 59

Louisa Moats, Ed.D., 2007

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