Read HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 1 Introduction to Hematology text version

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 1 Introduction to Hematology Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Compare the reference ranges for hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocytes and leukocytes in infants, children and adults. 2. Identify the function of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets. 3. Describe the composition of blood and of plasma. Key Terms: CBC Complete blood count Hematocrit Erythrocyte Hematology Hemostasis Leukocytes Platelets RBC indices Thrombocytes

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 3 Hematopoietic Organs Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Explain the difference between primary and secondary lymphoid tissue. 2. Describe the function of bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus. 3. Describe the structure of bone marrow, spleen , lymph nodes, and thymus. Key Terms Adipocyte Hyperplasia Osteoblast Osteoclast

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 4: Erythrocyte

Part One

Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________

1. List the stages of erythrocyte maturation I the marrow from youngest to most mature cell and describe each stage. 2. Explain the maturation process of reticulocytes and the cellular changes that take place. 3. Identify the normal range for reticulocytes. 4. Explain the function of erythropoietin, include the origin of production, bone marrow effects and normal values. 5. Describe the function of the erythrocyte membrane. 6. Name the sole energy substrate of the erythrocyte. Key Terms Bilirubin Cyanosis Erythropoiesis Haptoglobin Heinz Bodies Hemosiderin Hemosiderinuria Normoblast Reticulocyte Polychromatophilic erythrocyte

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 4: Erythrocyte

Part Two

Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Diagram the mechanism of extravascular erythrocyte destruction and hemoglobin catabolism. 2. Diagram the mechanism of intravascular erythrocyte destruction and hemoglobin catabolism. 3. State the average dimensions and life span of the normal erythrocyte. 4. Describe the function of 2,3 DPG and its relationship to the erythrocyte.

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 5: Hemoglobin Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Diagram the quaternary structure of a molecule of hemoglobin, identifying the heme ring, globin chains and iron. 2. List the types of hemoglobin normally found in adults and newborns and give their approximate concentration. 3. Summarize hemoglobin's function in gaseous transport. 4. Define Normal hemoglobin values. Key terms Deoxyhemoglobin Hypoxia Oxyhemoglobin Methemoglobin Sulhemoglobin Heme Glycosylated hemoglobin

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 6: The Leukocytes. Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Compare and contrast the morphologic and other distinguishing cell features of each of the leukocytes found in the peripheral blood.

2. Compare and contrast the function of each of the leukocytes found in the peripheral blood. 3.List the adult reference ranges for leukocytes found in the peripheral blood. 4. List causes / conditions that increase or decrease absolute numbers of individual leukocytes found in the peripheral blood. 5.Summarize the process of neutrophil migration and phagocytosis. 6. Compare and contrast the development, including distinguishing maturation and cell features of the granulocytic, monocytic-macrophage, and the lymphocytic cell lines. Key Terms Agranulocytes Azurophilic granules Granulocytosis Leukocytosis Leukopenia Plasma Cell Reactive lymphocyte Neutrophilia

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 7: Routine Hematology Procedures Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Identify the three anticoagulants used in the hematology laboratory and give examples. 2. Explain the mechanisms of preventing coagulation for each anticoagulant. 3. List factors affecting the collection of a blood specimen. 4. Correlate the collection technique of a blood specimen with potential problems in specimen analysis. Key Terms Anticoagulant Hemoconcentration Mean Cell Hemoglobin ( MCH) Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) Mean cell volume (MCV)

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 7: Routine Hematology Procedures

Part two

Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Calculate the erythrocyte indices. 2. Correlate erythrocyte indices with CBC data and peripheral blood smear examination. 3. Identify reference ranges for each test in terms of gender and age for a routine CBC.

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 8: Peripheral Blood Smear Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Describe the peripheral blood smear preparation methods. 2. Identify the characteristics of an optimally prepared peripheral blood smear. 3. Recognize characteristics of a properly stained peripheral blood smear. 4. Discuss potential causes of improperly stained peripheral blood smear. 5. List the components of a complete peripheral blood smear examination. 6. Correlate RBC indices, WBC count and platelet count with peripheral blood smear observations. 7. Determine the corrected WBC count based on the presence of nucleated erythrocytes. Key Terms Anemia Polycythemia Rouleaux Smudge Cell Wedge smear

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 8: Bone Marrow Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Identify the sites for obtaining bone marrow samples. 2. List indications for performing bone marrow studies. 3. Define the M:E ratio and describe what can cause an increase or decrease. 4. Describe how bone marrow cellularity and iron stores are estimated. 5. List the reasons why special stains are performed on bone marrow specimens. Key Terms: Granulomatous Ringed sideroblasts Immunohistochemical stains

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 11. Anemias of Disordered Iron Metabolism Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Diagram the transport of iron from ingestion to incorporation into heme.

2. Describe the physiologic factors that affect the amount of iron needed by the body. 3. Explain the etiology and pathophysiology of iron deficiency anemia, anemias of chronic disease and sideroblastic anemia. 4. List the three stages of iron deficiency, and define characteristic RBC morphology of each stage. 5. Describe the following terms and explain their role in iron metabolism: transferring, hemosiderin, ferritin, TIBC.

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 10: Introduction to Anemia Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Describe the terms poikilocytes, and anisocytes. 2. Classify erythrocytes based on erythrocyte indices. 3. Describe and identify erythrocyte inclusions. 4. Given CBC results, categorize n anemia according to morphologic classification. Key Terms Acanthocyte Anisocytosis Basophilic stippling Cabot rings Elliptocytes Howell-Jolly Bodies Helmut cells Heinz bodies Pancytopenia Pappenheimer bodies Poikilocytosis Sickle cells Spherocytes Stomatocytes Target cells Microcytes Macrocytes Megaloblastic

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 12: Hemoglobinopathies Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Define hemoglobinopathy. 2. Explain the basic defect resulting in the production of abnormal hemoglobins. 3. Explain the basis of the hemoglobin electrophoresis method in identifying abnormal hemoglobins. 4. Describe the epidemiology of sickle cell anemia (SCA). 5. Identify the globin chain defects causing SCA and hemoglobin C disease. Key Terms Autosplenectomy Hemoglobin electrophoresis Thalassemias

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 13 Thalassemia Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Define thalassemia. 2. Differentiate thalassemias from hemoglobinopathies based on definition and basic pathophysiology. 3. Describe the typical peripheral blood morphology associated with thalassemia. 4. Compare and contrast the etiology of alpha- and beta- thalassemia. 5. a. b. c. d. e. For each of the four genotypes of alpha-thalassemia, describe: Number of affected alleles. Individuals affected Basic pathophysiology Symptoms Laboratory results, including blood cell morphology and hemoglobin electrophoresis. For each of the genotypes of beta-thalassemia, describe: Number of affected alleles. Individuals affected Basic pathophysiology Symptoms Laboratory results, including blood cell morphology and hemoglobin electrophoresis.

6. a. b. c. d. e.

Key Terms Allele Congenital Diploid Haploid Heterozygous Homozygous Phenotype Genotype

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 14: Megaloblastic and Nonmegaloblastic Macrocytic Anemias Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Describe the requirements for vitamin B 12 and folate. 2. Recognize the six most common disorders that result in a macrocytic anemia. 3. Differentiate the pathophysiology and peripheral blood findings of nonmegaloblastic anemia from those of megaloblastic enemias. 4. Describe the etiology of pernicious anemia, including major cause of the defect, clinical symptoms and physiological causes or clinical subtypes. 5. Name three causes of a folate deficiency, and give two distinguishing cliical or laboratory characteristics of each. 6. Name four causes of a vitamin B12 deficiency and give two distinguishing clinical or laboratory characteristics of each. Key Terms: Schilling test Dyspepsia Megaloblastic Pernicious anemia (PA)

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 15 Hypoproliferative Anemias Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Define hypoproliferative anemia 2. Cite the diagnostic criteria for Aplastic anemia. 3. List the major clinical and laboratory characteristics of Aplastic anemias. Key Terms Aplasia Aplastic anemia Fanconi's anemia (FA) Hypocellularity Idiopathic

HEMATOLOGY:Chapter 16 Introduction to Hemolytic Anemias Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. List the laboratory tests that can be used to assess a hemolytic anemia. 2. Assess laboratory results in intravascular and extravascular hemolysis 3. Summarize the clinical findings associated with a hemolytic anemia. 4. Explain the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic erythrocyte defects and give an example of each. 5. Identify the two main pathways by which erythrocytes catabolize glucose. 6. Identify the most common erythrocyte enzyme deficiency. Key Terms; Membrane defects Osmotic fragility test Hemolytic Anemia: Enzyme deficiencies Hemolytic Anemia: Immune anemais Hemolytic Anemia: Nonimmune defects G6PD

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 21 Nonmalignant Granulocyte and Monocyte Disorders Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Identify immature granulocytes and morphologic changes ( Toxic granulation, Dohle bodies, intracellular organisms, and vacuoles) often seen in reactive neutrophilia. 2. List the common disorders associated with neutropenia. 3. Identify neutrophil nuclear alterations, including Pelger-Heut, hypersegmentation, and pyknotic forms. 4. State the common conditions associated with abnormal eosinophil, basophil, and monocyte counts. 5. Recognize rare or unusual cytoplasmic abnormalities such as Alder-Reilly granules or Chediak-Higashi inclusions. Key Terms Morulae Toxic granules Shift to the left Shift neutrophilia Reactive neutrophilia

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 22: Nonmalignant Lymphocyte Disorders Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Identify the infectious agent and describe the clinical symptoms and corresponding leukocyte differential in infectious mononucleosis. 2. Identify reactive cell morphology associated with viral infections and compare with normal lymphocyte morphology. 3.Describe the adnomral hematological findings associated with AIDS. 4. Identify conditions associated with lymphocytopenia. 5. State the complications associated with CMV infections. Key Terms Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Epstein_Barr Virus (EBV) Heterophil antibodies

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 26 Introduction to Hematopoietic Neoplasms. Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Compare and contrast the general characteristics of the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) and acute and chronic leukemia. 2. Name and describe the classification of MDS, MPD and the leukemias. 3. List the various methods used for categorizing the leukemias. 4. Compare and contrast the laboratory findings of the acute and chronic leukemias. Key Terms (ALL) Acute lymphocytic leukemia (AML) Acute myelocytic leukemia Auer rods (CLL) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (AML) Chronic myelocytic leukemia (FAB) French-American-British Lymphoma (LAP) Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase

HEMATOLOGY:Chapter 27 Myeloproliferative Disorders Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Identify the major cell lines involved with the various myeloproliferative disorders chronic myelocytic leukemia, polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. (CMI, PV,ET,MMM). 2. Recognize abnormal CBC results that are suggestive of an MPD. 3. Explain the diagnostic chromosome abnormality associated with CML. 4. Describe and recognize the peripheral blood findings in CML patients. 5. List and recognize laboratory findings typically associated with MMM.

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 28, Myelodysplastic Syndromes Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Define myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and list general characteristics. 2. List the five subgroups of MDS recognized by the French-American-British Cooperative group and identify key morphological criteria that distinguish each group. 3. Describe laboratory findings and recognize changes in morphology that are characteristic of this group of disorders.

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 29, Acute Myelogenous Leukemia Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Define acute leukemia and explain the difference between acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) 2. Describe and recognize the typical peripheral blood picture ( erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes) seen in AML. 3. Describe the M:E ratio in bone marrow in acute leukemia. 4. Differentiate Type I,II,III blasts found in hematopoietic neoplasms. 5. Give the typical results of cytochemical tains in AML. Key Terms Auer Rods Type I myeloblasts Type II myeloblasts Type III myeloblasts

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 30, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Define acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and differentiate it from acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). 2. Describe and recognize the typical peripheral blood picture (erythrocytes, leukocytes and thrombocytes) seen in ALL. 3. Give the typical results of cytochemical stains in ALL. 4. Summarize the clinical signs and symptoms associated with ALL.

Key Terms Burkitt cell

HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 31, Lymphoid Malignancies Homework Assignment: Student's Name: _________________________________ 1. Describe how the diagnosis of lymphoid malignancy is made. 2. Differentiate between CLL, lymphoma and multiple myeloma based on peripheral blood findings and ancillary studies. 3. Describe the histology of a normal lymph node. 4. List the chronic, leukemic and lymphoproliferative disorders. Key Terms Bench ­Jones proteinuria Hairy cell Lymphoma

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HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 1 Introduction to Hematology

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HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 1 Introduction to Hematology