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2011 Regular Session of the Louisiana Legislature

PK-12 Public Education in Louisiana

April 2011

The Scott S. Cowen Institute for Public Education Initiatives at Tulane University

The Cowen Institute is an action-oriented think tank that informs and advances solutions ­ through policies, programs, and partnerships ­ to eliminate the challenges impeding the success of K-12 education in New Orleans and beyond. It also serves as a clearinghouse for K-12 public schools in New Orleans to directly access the myriad of experts and resources available at Tulane University. Our work is in the following key areas:

Applied Research Public Policy University-Based Initiatives College Readiness Programs

Scott S. Cowen Institute for Public Education Initiatives Tulane University 200 Broadway Street, Suite 108 New Orleans, LA 70118 504.274.3690 http://education.tulane.edu

Table of Contents

1 2 3 4 5 6 Louisiana PK-12 Education: Governance, Demographics, and Enrollment . . . . . 1 Public School Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Public School Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Recovery School District . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Charter Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Public School Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

PK-12 Public Education in Louisiana April 2011

2011 Regular Session of the Louisiana Legislature

Governance, Demographics and Enrollment

April 2011

Louisiana PK-12 Education: Governance, Demographics, and Enrollment

Local & State Governance Organization Chart

Louisiana Legislature

­ Drafts and passes laws related to public education in the areas of accountability, curriculum, and school district employment requirements ­ Gives corporate power to local school boards and grants them the right to levy taxes ­ Appropriates money for the Minimum Foundation Program (MFP) to fund K-12 public education across the state

Basic Facts About Louisiana Public Schools

l Student Enrollment: 702,480 l Number of Schools: 1,427 l Grades Served: PK­12 l Percent Receiving Free or

Reduced Lunch: 66%

l Charter School Enrollment: 37,030

State Board of Elementary & Secondary Education (BESE)

­ Established by the Louisiana Legislature at the Constitutional Convention of 1973 ­ Acts as administrative policymaking body for elementary and secondary public schools ­ Comprised of eleven members, eight elected from single-member districts and three appointed by the Governor ­ Responsible for preparing the MFP, approving teacher certification, adopting policies for student assessment, and adopting operating standards for schools ­ Authority to grant charters to schools throughout the state

Local School Boards

­ Created by the Louisiana Legislature pursuant to the Louisiana Constitution ­ Governing bodies of the school district ­ Able to levy local taxes to fund schools ­ Bound by policies set by BESE, including mandatory participation in the Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP) ­ Policy-setting bodies for local school districts ­ Elected by citizens of the district ­ Authority to grant charters to school operators in their district

State Superintendent of Education

­ Appointed by BESE ­ Mission is to recommend and implement policy in accordance with applicable legislation, the Louisiana Constitution, and the policy set forth by BESE ­ Responsible for directing and overseeing the Louisiana Department of Education

Local School District Superintendents

­ Hired by local school boards to oversee the administration and operation of districts ­ Responsible for implementing the policy set by the board(s) ­ Subject to qualifications set by BESE

Louisiana Department of Education

­ Manages, budgets, and allocates funds from federal appropriation and the MFP to districts and programs ­ Provides ancillary educational services, such as those related to nutrition, drug-free schools, transportation, and adult education ­ Establishes a statewide curriculum and standards and administers the student assessment and school accountability system

The Scott S. Cowen Institute for Public Education Initiatives at Tulane University is an action-oriented think tank creating and advancing solutions to the issues impeding student achievement in New Orleans and beyond. Areas of concentration include Applied Research, Public Policy, University-Based Initiatives, and College Readiness Programs. Additional information can be found online at http://education.tulane.edu.

1

Governance, Demographics and Enrollment

2010-2011 Student Demographics

(for the United States, Louisiana, and the five largest local school districts)

Percentage of Students by Ethnicity

While ethnic minorities make up less than 50% of public school students across the U.S., they are the overwhelming majority in most of the largest local school districts in Louisiana.

Data on Louisiana students taken from the October 2010 state enrollment counts. National data from the 2008-2009 school year from the National Center on Education Statistics, Common Core of Data. Data on Orleans Parish includes Orleans Parish School Board, Recovery School District district-run and charter schools, and Board of Elementary and Secondary Education Type 2 charter schools.

100% 90% 80% 70%

Other Asian African American Hispanic White

PERCENTAGE

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

U.S.

Louisiana Statewide

Jefferson Parish

East Baton Rouge Parish

Caddo Parish

Orleans Parish

St. Tammany Parish

Percentage of Students by Free and Reduced Lunch Eligibility

Nationally, 45% of public school students are eligible for free and reduced lunch. Across Louisiana and most of the state's largest school districts, this percentage is considerably higher.

Data on Louisiana students taken from the October 2010 state enrollment counts. National data from the 2008-2009 school year from the Institute of Education Sciences, National Center on Education Statistics. Data on Orleans Parish includes Orleans Parish School Board, Recovery School District district-run and charter schools, and Board of Elementary and Secondary Education Type 2 charter schools.

100% 90% 80% 70%

Not Eligible Total Free and Reduced Lunch

PERCENTAGE

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

U.S.

Louisiana Statewide

Jefferson Parish

East Baton Rouge Parish

Caddo Parish

Orleans Parish

St. Tammany Parish

2

Louisiana PK-12 Education: Governance, Demographics, and Enrollment

2010-2011 Student Enrollment

(for the United States, Louisiana, and the five largest local school districts)

Charter School Enrollment

Percentage of Public School Students Enrolled in Charter Schools Versus Traditional Public Schools

Nationally and statewide only a small percentage of public school students attend charter schools. However, Orleans Parish has the highest rate of charter attendance of any district in the nation at 71%.

Data on Louisiana students taken from the October 2010 state enrollment counts. National data from the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools for the 2009-2010 school year. Data on Orleans Parish includes Orleans Parish School Board, Recovery School District district-run and charter schools, and Board of Elementary and Secondary Education Type 2 charter schools.

100% 90% 80% 70%

Students in Traditional Public Schools Students in Public Charter Schools

PERCENTAGE

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

U.S.

Louisiana

Jefferson Parish

East Baton Rouge Parish

Caddo Parish

Orleans Parish

St. Tammany Parish

Districts with the Largest Proportion of Public School Students Enrolled in Charter Schools

1. New Orleans, LA 2. Washington, DC 71% 36% 3. Detroit, MI 4. Kansas City, MO 32% 29% 5. Dayton, OH 6. Youngstown, OH 27% 26%

Source: New Orleans data from the Louisiana Department of Education, 2010. National data from the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2008.

Private and Parochial School Enrollment

Private and Parochial School Enrollment as a Percentage of Total K-12 Enrollment

Nationwide, private school enrollment is approximately 11% of total K-12 enrollment, while in Louisiana it is nearly 15%. In Orleans and Jefferson Parishes, more than 30% of PK-12 students are enrolled in private schools.

Data on Louisiana students from the Louisiana Department of Education, 2010. National data from the 2007-2008 school year from www.schooldatadirect.org. Data on Orleans Parish includes Orleans Parish School Board, Recovery School District district-run and charter schools, and Board of Elementary and Secondary Education Type 2 charter schools.

100% 90% 80% 70%

Public School Enrollment Private School Enrollment

PERCENTAGE

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

U.S.

Louisiana

Jefferson Parish

East Baton Rouge Parish

Caddo Parish

Orleans Parish

St. Tammany Parish

Louisiana PK-12 Education: Governance, Demographics, and Enrollment

3

Public Education Governance in Orleans Parish

2010-2011 Governance Structure

TOTAL: 88 Schools & 38,000 Students

Public School Governance in New Orleans Total: 88* Schools & 39,877 Students

Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE) & Louisiana Department of Education State Superintendent: Paul Pastorek

Recovery School District Superintendent: Paul Vallas 23 Schools

BESE Authorized Charters 49 Schools

Orleans Parish School Board Superintendent: Darryl Kilbert 16 Schools

3 Type 2 Charters 4 OPSB-run Schools 23 RSD-run Schools 12 OPSB Charters

46 Type 5 RSD Charters

* This number does not include alternative and juvenile detention schools. Source: Louisiana Department of Education, October 2010

Source: Louisiana Department of Education, Oct 2009

4

Louisiana PK-12 Education: Governance, Demographics, and Enrollment

April 2011

Public School Funding in Louisiana

Public School Funding

Minimum Foundation Program (MFP)

l The primary source of state and local funding for l The MFP formula also includes factors that provide more

schools in Louisiana is the Minimum Foundation Program (MFP).

l The Louisiana Constitution requires the State Board of

funding for special classes of students (e.g., at-risk and special education students).

l State law requires that 70% of MFP revenues be spent

Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE) to annually develop and adopt a formula which determines the cost of a minimum foundation program of education in all public elementary and secondary schools as well as to equitably allocate the funds to parish and city school systems. Once BESE adopts the formula, the Legislature passes it by Concurrent Resolution without making changes to the formula.

for instructional purposes.

MFP Per Pupil by Parish

The map represents the per pupil funding from local and state sources for each parish in the state. Parishes receive varying levels of funding based on student population needs and local tax revenue.

Per Pupil Funding under the Minimum Foundation Program (2010-2011)

Bottom fifth: $6,729 - $8,159 2nd fifth: $8,167 - $8,490 3rd fifth: $8,507 - $8,938 4th fifth: $8,954 - $9,247 Top fifth: $9,350 - $10,474

The Scott S. Cowen Institute for Public Education Initiatives at Tulane University is an action-oriented think tank creating and advancing solutions to the issues impeding student achievement in New Orleans and beyond. Areas of concentration include Applied Research, Public Policy, University-Based Initiatives, and College Readiness Programs. Additional information can be found online at http://education.tulane.edu.

5

Traditional Funding Structure for Louisiana Public Schools

Public schools in Louisiana receive funding from local, state, federal, and private sources.

l The local funding in the Minimum Foundation Program (MFP) consists of property and sales taxes

Public School Funding

levied by the local school boards.

l The state funding in the MFP comes from an appropriation by the State Legislature. l Federal funding comes from Titles I, II, III, IV, and V*, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act,

National School Lunch Program, and Public Charter Schools Federal Grant Program, among others.

l Once received by the local school district, it is up to the district to distribute funds to their

individual schools based on a district determined formula.

State and local funding are combined under the Minimum Foundation Program Local

Local funding from property and sales taxes

State

State funding appropriated by the State Legislature through the Minimum Foundation Program formula

Federal

Federal funding generally targeted to specific populations (such as at-risk students) or programs (such as training for teachers)

Local School District

Local school districts develop their own formulas to distribute funds among schools

* Title I ­ Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged; Title II ­ Preparing, Training, and Recruiting High Quality Teachers and Principals; Title III ­ Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient and Immigrant Students; Title IV ­ Safe and Drug Free Schools; and Title V ­ Innovative Education Program Strategies

6

Public School Funding

Recovery School District Funding Structure

While the sources of funding are the same for the Recovery School District (RSD), the funding flows differently from local school districts across the state. The local property and sales taxes levied by the local school board flow through the board to the RSD in proportion to the number of students enrolled in RSD schools in that district, district-run and charter. Additionally, because many of the RSD charter schools are their own local education agency (LEA), state and federal education funds flow directly to those charter schools.

Federal education funds

Local property & sales taxes

Louisiana Department of Education

State & federal education funds

Local School Board Share of local taxes

Recovery School District

Local Schools District Run

RSD-run Schools

Charter Schools (if applicable)

Charter Schools

Public School Funding

7

A Closer Look at School Funding in Louisiana

Variation in Funding and Spending Across Districts

MFP Funding

MFP funding varies greatly across districts. The Louisiana school district that is at the 95th percentile receives 39% more funding than the district at the 5th percentile.

Source: Louisiana Department of Education, 2010-2011 MFP Budget Letter

39% MORE FUNDING

5th Percentile less funding ALL LOUISIANA DISTRICTS

95th Percentile more funding

All Operating Expenditures (from all funding sources)

When revenue from all sources is considered, the variation across districts is even greater. The Louisiana school district that is at the 95th percentile spends 60% more than the district at the 5th percentile.

Source: Louisiana Department of Education, 2008-2009 Resource Allocation data

SPEND 60% MORE

5th Percentile less spending ALL LOUISIANA DISTRICTS

95th Percentile more spending

Louisiana Compared to the U.S.

Two national reports comparing school financing in states throughout the U.S. have been released recently. The major findings are below.

Education Week Quality Counts 2011

· Everyyear,EducationWeek(EdWeek)publishesthis report,whichfocusesoneducationpoliciesofstates. Asectionofthereportisdedicatedtoschoolfinances. · Onschoolfinances,EdWeekgivesLouisianaaC-. TheU.S.averageisaC. · Thereportlooksatfourmeasuresoffundingequityand fourmeasuresofspending.Louisiana'srankingonthe differentmeasuresvariessignificantly. · Forexample,thereportstatesthattheaverageperpupil expenditureinLouisianaisabovethenationalaverage (adjustedforregionalcostdifferencesandweightedfor studentneeds).However,whenindividualdistrictsare considered,only28percentofLouisianadistrictsare abovethenationalaverage.

Is School Funding Fair? A National Report Card

· ThenationalreportcardwasreleasedbytheEducation LawCenterinSeptember2010. · Thisreportevaluatesonlystatefundingformulasfor distributinglocalandstaterevenue. · Thereportcardgradesstates'fundingformulasonfour measuresoffairness:fundinglevel,fundingdistribution, effort,andcoverage. · Louisianawasoneoffourstatesthatscoredbelow averageonallfourmeasuresoffundingfairness.

8

Public School Funding

April 2011

Public School Performance

PK-12 public schools in Louisiana receive a School Performance Score (SPS) based primarily on how well each student performs on the state's standardized tests (LEAP, iLEAP, and GEE), as well as on drop-out rates and attendance. The scores range from 0.0 to either 236.4 or 266.7 depending on a school's grade configuration.

Louisiana's goal is that all schools have a school performance score of 120 or higher by 2014. In the 2010 legislative session, the Louisiana Legislature passed Act 718, which provided for BESE to assign letter grades from A to F to schools and school districts to rate their performance. Schools that meet their growth target will receive a "+" in addition to their letter grade, while schools that decline in SPS will receive a "-." The threshhold between "D" and "F" will be increased to 75 for the 20112012 school year to conform with the raising of the Academically Unacceptable standard up to 75 for that year.

BESE School Performance Score (SPS) Letter-Grade Scale

A: B: C: D: F:

120 ­ 200 105.0 ­ 119.9 90.0 ­ 104.9 65.0 ­ 89.9 0 ­ 64.9

Public School Performance

2009 and 2010 School Performance Labels for Louisiana

Fewer schools were Academically Unacceptable and many more schools earned three

Number of Schools

500 600

501 496

stars or higher in 2010 compared to 2009.

400

356 317 312

349

300

200

2009 Scores 2010 Scores

100

55

43

36

54 13

20

0

Academically Unacceptable (59.9 or below)

1 Star (60-79.9)

2 Stars (80.0-99.9)

3 Stars (100.0-119.9)

4 Stars (120.0-139.9)

5 Stars (140 or above)

The Scott S. Cowen Institute for Public Education Initiatives at Tulane University is an action-oriented think tank creating and advancing solutions to the issues impeding student achievement in New Orleans and beyond. Areas of concentration include Applied Research, Public Policy, University-Based Initiatives, and College Readiness Programs. Additional information can be found online at http://education.tulane.edu.

9

How Louisiana Compares

Academic Watch

Beginning in the 2011-2012 school year, schools with an SPS below 64.9 will be deemed Academically Unacceptable. In the 2012-2013 school year, the bar will go up to 74.9. For the 2009-2010 school year, the state gave schools with an SPS between 60.0 and 74.9 the label Academic Watch.

Performance Labels for Schools Across Louisiana

196 (15%) schools are only one or two years away from becoming Academically Unacceptable if they do not rapidly improve

Public School Performance

Number of Schools

400 500 600

501 496

356 312

349

300

ORLEANS VS LA

2009 Scores 2010 Scores

200

196 121

100

55

43

36

54 13

20

0

Academically Academic 1 Star 2 Stars 3 Stars 4 Stars 5 Stars Unacceptable Watch (75.0 -79.9) (80.0-99.9) (100.0-119.9) (120.0-139.9) (140 or above) (59.9 or below) (60.0-74.9)

A Low National Ranking

Louisiana continues to rank between 44th and 50th in 4th and 8th grade English and Math on national tests of student achievement. 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 4th GRaDe ReaDinG

Rank

1 2 3

4th GRaDe Math

Score

234 229 229 210 208 208 202

District

Massachusetts New Jersey New Hampshire California New Mexico Louisiana District of Columbia

Rank

1 2 3 48 49 50 51

District

Massachusetts New Hampshire Minnesota Louisiana Alabama Mississippi District of Columbia

Score

252 251 250 229 228 227 219

LOUISIANA VS USA

48 49 50 51

8th GRaDe ReaDinG

Rank

1 2 3 Source: US Department of Education, National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2009. 48 49 50 51

8th GRaDe Math

Score

274 273 272 253 253 251 243

District

Massachusetts New Jersey Vermont Louisiana California Mississippi District of Columbia

Rank

1 2 3 44 45 46 47

District

Massachusetts Minnesota Vermont Hawaii Louisiana California West Virginia

Score

299 294 293 274 272 270 270

10

USA VS WORLD School Performance Public

Achievement Gaps in Louisiana

Though the performance gap between White and African-American students has declined over the past decade, a significant achievement gap still exists in Louisiana.

Percentage of Students Scoring Basic or Above in English/Language Arts

The percentage of all students performing at the Basic or above level in all English/Language Arts standardized tests (LEAP and GEE) has increased from 50% to 67% between 1999 and 2010. In the same period, the difference between the percentage of White students and African-American students achieving at the Basic and above level declined from 34 to 23 percentage points.

100% 80%

78%

All Students White Students Economically Disadvantaged Students African-American Students

55%

PERCENT OF STUDENTS SCORING BASIC & ABOVE

70%

66%

67% 60%

60%

50%

50%

39%

40%

32%

30% 20%

10% 0%

Source: Louisiana Department of Education, 2010

1999

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Percent of Students Scoring Basic or Above in Math

The percentage of all students performing at the Basic or above level in Math on all standardized tests (LEAP and GEE)has increased from 41% to 68% between 1999 and 2010. In the same period, the difference between the percentage of White students and African-American students achieving at the Basic and above level declined from 38 to 27 percentage points.

100% 80%

All Students

80% 67% 60%

PERCENT OF STUDENTS SCORING BASIC & ABOVE

White Students Economically Disadvantaged Students African-American Students

70% 60%

58%

50%

41%

53%

40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

27%

20%

Source: Louisiana Department of Education, 2010

1999

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Public School Performance

11

Poverty and Student Achievement in Louisiana

Student poverty remains an important factor in student achievement. While it is not insurmountable, students from low income households may require additional effort and resources to achieve at the level of peers who are not low income.

2009-2010 Poverty Levels and School Performance in Louisiana

The relationship between free lunch eligibility and school performance scores in Louisiana K­8 schools

AVERAGE SCHOOL PERFORMANCE SCORE (SPS)

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

130.0 110.9 99.5 87.7 74.9

0%-20%

20%-40%

40%-60%

60%-80%

80%-100%

PERCENT OF A SCHOOL'S STUDENTS ELIGIBLE FOR FREE LUNCH

Source: Louisiana Department of Education, 2010

12

Public School Performance

April 2011

Recovery School District

What is the RSD?

l During the 2003 Regular Legislative Session, the

School Districts Represented in the RSD

The RSD is comprised of schools from Caddo, East Baton Rouge, Orleans, Point Coupée, and St. Helena Parishes

Louisiana Legislature passed Act 9 to create the Recovery School District (RSD). Following Hurricane Katrina, the Louisiana Legislature passed Act 35 to allow the RSD to more easily takeover schools in failing districts.

l The RSD is a school district administered by the

1.2%

1.2% 2.4% 13.1%

Caddo East Baton Rouge Orleans Pointe Coupée

Louisiana Department of Education (LDE) and is designed to take over academically failing schools and turn them into successful schools.

l An academically failing school is determined by

82.1%

St. Helena

Louisiana's statewide program of school accountability adopted by the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE). School accountability in Louisiana is based on the Louisiana Educational Assessment Program (LEAP).

l Schools that do not meet the minimum academic

Recovery School District

RSD and Local District Schools by Parish

The graph represents the number of schools under the RSD and under the control of the local school board within each parish.

100 86 80 71 NUMBER OF SCHOOLS 69

standards for at least four consecutive years are eligible for state takeover. A school must have a School Performance Score (SPS) below 65 for the 2010-2011 school year and below a 75 for the 20112012 school year.

l Schools that are placed in the RSD must remain

there for a minimum of five years. This length of time is meant to allow the schools to fully establish the instructional practices and expectations necessary for success prior to returning to the control of the local school board. All New Orleans schools in the RSD are currently in their fifth year.

l Currently there are 84 schools open under the RSD

60

40

20 11 0 2

16 5

statewide. 69 of those schools are in Orleans Parish.

1

1

2

Caddo

East Baton Rouge

Orleans

Pointe Coupée

St. Helena

RSD Schools

Non-RSD Schools

The Scott S. Cowen Institute for Public Education Initiatives at Tulane University is an action-oriented think tank creating and advancing solutions to the issues impeding student achievement in New Orleans and beyond. Areas of concentration include Applied Research, Public Policy, University-Based Initiatives, and College Readiness Programs. Additional information can be found online at http://education.tulane.edu.

13

Timeline of the Recovery School District

Timeline Highlights

2004

TheRSDtakesoveritsfirst school(OrleansParish).

2005

Act35raisedtheminimum SPSnecessaryfortheRSD totakeoverfailingschools. Subsequently,over 100schoolsinOrleansParish weretakenoverintheaftermath ofHurricaneKatrina.

2005 through 2010

TheRSDreopenedaportionof theseschools,someascharters andsomeasdistrict-runschools. TheRSDcontinuedto takeoverfailingschoolsaround the state.

2010

BESEadoptstheRSD'splan forschoolsreachingtheendof theirinitialfiveyearperiodinthe RSD,beginningwithOrleans Parishschools;includesa policyallowingeligibleschools tochoosegoverningauthority andincludesroadmapfor possiblereturntolocalcontrol.

2003-04

May 2003

Legislature passes Act 9 creating the RSD.

2005

May

4 schools are transferred to RSD. (Orleans)

2006

September

RSD operates first full school year after Hurricane Katrina, led by Superintendent Robin Jarvis.

2007

July

Paul Vallas begins as RSD Superintendent.

2008

February

5 schools are transferred to RSD. (East Baton Rouge and Pointe Coupée)

2009

July

10 schools are transferred to RSD. (East Baton Rouge and Caddo)

2010

January

BESE votes to raise the minimum SPS to 65 for the 2010-2011 school year and 75 for the 2011-2012 school year.

2011

September

Louisiana Department of Education issues first list of schools eligible to transfer out of RSD. (Orleans)

2012

July

Schools eligible to choose either transfer or remain in the RSD.

July 2004

1 school is transferred to RSD. (Orleans)

August

Hurricane Katrina strikes the Gulf Coast.

May

1 school is transferred to the RSD. (St. Helena)

November

Louisiana legislature passes Act 35 during an extraordinary session.

December

BESE adopts policy for RSD schools concluding their initial five year placement. All RSD-New Orleans schools initially remain in RSD, subject to the new policy: Non-failing schools meeting performance benchmarks will be eligible to choose to stay in RSD or return to local control beginning with the 2012-2013 school year. Failing schools remain in RSD, which must present an improvement plan for each or allow charters and local districts to apply to run the schools.

Recovery School District

Over 100 schools are transferred to RSD. (Orleans)

Parishes with Schools in the RSD

As of January 2011 the RSD has taken over more than 120 schools in four parishes ­ Caddo, East Baton Rouge, Orleans, Point Coupée and St. Helena.

Parish with schools in RSD

14

Recovery School District

Transfer of Schools After Initial RSD Placement

A school transferred into the RSD must remain there for an initial period of five years, at the end of which BESE must decide whether the school will remain in the RSD, be returned to the transferring district, or closed. In December 2010, BESE adopted a policy to govern the possible return of schools to local control.

l Underthenewpolicy,RSDschools(bothdirect-runand

butmaystayintheRSD,andcertainschoolswillnotbe eligibletochooseandwillremainintheRSD.

l Forthelow-performingschoolsthatremainintheRSD,

charter)thathaveanSPSofatleast80(oratleast5 pointsabovetheAUSlevelifthatlevelisraisedabove 75)fortwoconsecutiveyears,beginningwiththe20092010and2010-2011schoolyears,willbeeligibleto choosewhethertostayintheRSDorreturntoalocal governingauthority.Schoolsthatdonotmeetthe performancebenchmarkwillremainintheRSD.

l Thispolicywillenableagradualreductionofthenumber

failingcharterschoolsmaybesubjecttonon-renewal, andfailingdirect-runschoolsmayberetainedwitha newturnaroundplan,phasedout,ortransferredtoa newoperator(charterorlocaldistrict),whomustapply toandbeapprovedbyBESE.

l Attheendofeachfiveyearterm,BESEmustreconsider

ofschoolsintheRSDastheyreturntolocalcontrol. DuringeachyearfromYear5toYear10intheRSD, certainschoolswillbeeligibletochoseandmayreturn tolocalcontrol,certainschoolswillbeeligibletochoose

thestatusandgovernanceofeachschoolremainingin theRSDatthatpoint.

Timeline for RSD Schools

RSDschoolsinparishesthatwillreachthefifthyearoftheirinitialtermsintheRSDinthefollowingschoolyears:

2010-2011

Orleans 25 Schools

2012-2013

East Baton Rouge 4 Schools Point Coupée 1 School

2013-2014

Caddo 2 Schools East Baton Rouge 8 Schools

2014-2015

St. Helena 1 School

Recovery School District

15

School Performance Scores of Schools Under RSD Intervention

RSD Performance in New Orleans

l RSD direct run schools and RSD charter schools

120

(authorized by BESE) have shown consistent improvement in School Performance Scores since 2007.

l Under Act 35, the RSD was allowed to take over

SCHOOL PERFORMANCE SCORE 100

2007 2008 2009

75.4

schools that fell below the state average (86.2) and not just below 60. Thus, some RSD schools had a pre-takeover SPS above 60.

l Collectively, RSD schools in New Orleans grew from

80

2010

65.6

60

70.2

52.3

42.7 43.5 29.8

48.2

an SPS of 54.4 in 2009 to 60.6 in 2010. This increase of 6.2 points represented the second-best SPS growth in the state. The state average was 3.1.

l The values represented in the graph are average

40

20

scores for the RSD charters and RSD-run schools.

0

RSD Charter Schools

RSD Operated Schools

Future Governance of New Orleans Schools

Recent public debate in New Orleans over the possible transfer or RSD schools to local control has also raised a discussion over possible changes to the structure of local control. A recent Cowen Institute commissioned public opinion poll revealed the complex feelings and desires of the New Orleans community. The survey's findings included:

l 58% of New Orleans voters support the state's decision to take over most

New Orleans schools after Hurricane Katrina

l 47% of New Orleans voters oppose giving all schools to the RSD l 70% of New Orleans voters oppose placing schools under mayoral control l 59% of New Orleans voters oppose giving all schools back to the OPSB l 70% of New Orleans voters support a new board that is elected citywide

Source: Cowen Institute, K-12 Public Education through the Public's Eye: A Survey of the New Orleans Community, November 2010

16

Recovery School District

April 2011

Charter Schools

What is a Charter School?

l Charter schools are public schools operated by

Charter School Governance

Charter School Authorizer

The authorizer is the entity that enters into a contract with the charter school operator. In Louisiana, only BESE and local school boards are able to authorize charter schools. Authorizers approve charters, monitor and hold schools accountable, and renew or end charters based on school performance and other factors (financials, legal).

a non-profit organization under an initial five year contract (or "charter") with either a local school board or the state Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE). The non-profit organization may contract with a for-profit organization for day-to-day operations of the school.

l Charter schools are required to participate in the

state accountability program and must meet certain achievement results in order to keep their charter.

l Charter schools are free from many of the rules and

regulations that traditional public schools are subject to and have significant flexibility in the areas of hiring, budgeting, and instruction.

l Charter schools are subject to a 3-year review by

Charter School Operator

The charter school operator is the organization that oversees the operation, finances, and administration of the charter school. It is generally led by a board which sets policy and hires a school leader to implement its policy and handle school operations.

their authorizer and a 5-year review to determine whether the charter will be renewed or revoked.

Number of Charter Schools by Authorizer in Louisiana

6 10 2

BESE

Charter Schools

Orleans Parish School Board E. Baton Rouge School Board

Charter School Leader

The charter school leader is hired by the school's operator to oversee the daily operations of the school, including budgeting, personnel, and curriculum decisions. The school leader may or may not also fill the role of principal.

72

Jefferson Parish School Board

The Scott S. Cowen Institute for Public Education Initiatives at Tulane University is an action-oriented think tank creating and advancing solutions to the issues impeding student achievement in New Orleans and beyond. Areas of concentration include Applied Research, Public Policy, University-Based Initiatives, and College Readiness Programs. Additional information can be found online at http://education.tulane.edu.

17

Charter School Student Demographics

Percentage of Students by Ethnicity

The ethnicity of students in Louisiana charter schools is different from the ethnicity of students in charter schools nationally. However, students in Louisiana charter schools have ethnicities similar to the large urban districts where most are located.

Data on Louisiana students taken from the October 2010 state enrollment counts. National data from the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2009-2010

100% 90% 80% PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

American Indian Asian Hispanic African-American White Other

All Louisiana Charter Schools

National Charter Schools

Percentage of Students Eligible for Free and Reduced Lunch

Nationwide and in Louisiana, students in charter schools are eligible for free and reduced lunch at a rate slightly higher than the general student population in traditionally operated schools.

Data on Louisiana students taken from the October 2010 state enrollment counts. National data from the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2009-2010

100% 90% 80% PERCENTAGE OF STUDENTS 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10%

Not Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch Eligible for Free or Reduced Price Lunch

Charter Schools

All Louisiana Charter Schools

National Charter Schools

18

Charter Schools

Charter School Types

Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE)

Local School Boards

Recovery School District (RSD)

Type 1 Charters

­ Have a charter with a local school board ­ Are new start-up schools ­ Can only be operated by a non-profit entity ­ May enroll students from anywhere in the district ­ Receive funding through the MFP ­ May have admissions requirements consistent with the school's role, scope, and mission

Type 2 Charters

­ Have a charter with BESE ­ Can be conversion or start-up schools ­ Can only be operated by a non-profit entity ­ May enroll students from anywhere in the state ­ Receive funding through a general fund appropriation or through the MFP ­ Do not receive any local funding ­ May have admissions requirements consistent with the school's role, scope, and mission

Type 5 Charters

­ Have a charter with BESE ­ Are conversion schools ­ Can only be operated by a non-profit entity ­ May enroll students from anywhere in the district ­ Receive funding through the MFP ­ May not have any admissions requirements

Type 3 Charters

­ Have a charter with a local school board ­ Are conversion schools ­ Can only be operated by a non-profit entity ­ May enroll students from anywhere in the district ­ Receive funding through the MFP ­ May have admissions requirements consistent with the school's role, scope, and mission

Number of Charter Schools by Type in Louisiana

9 12 56 4 9

Type 1 Type 2 Type 3

Type 4 Charters

­ Have a charter between a local school board and BESE ­ Can be conversion or start-up schools ­ Can be operated by a for-profit entity ­ May enroll students from anywhere in the district ­ Receive funding through the MFP ­ May have admissions requirements consistent with the school's role, scope, and mission

Type 4 Type 5

Source: Louisiana Department of Education, 2010

Charter Schools

19

Location of Louisiana Charter Schools Charter School Locations, 2010-2011

Number of Charter Schools by City

Farmerville Shreveport Monroe Delhi

1-2 Schools 16 Schools 61 Schools

Mansura Bunkie

Morganza

Lafayette

Baton Rouge Jefferson Parish Franklin Thibodaux

New Orleans

Belle Chasse

Recently Approved Charter Schools

BESErecentlyapproved11newcharterschoolsfor openinginthe2011-2012schoolyear.Allbutone oftheseschools,LakeCharlesCharterAcademyin CalcasieuParish,areinEastBatonRougeorOrleans Parishes.Twooftheseschoolsarevirtualschools.

Source: Louisiana Department of Education, 2010

20

Charter Schools

April 2011

Public School Facilities

Basic Facts About Louisiana Public School Facilities

l Number of Public Schools in Louisiana: 1,427 l Total State Public School Enrollment: 702,480 l State Funding Allocated for School Facilities: $0 l Louisiana School Facilities Assessment Conducted: none

Facilities Construction Expenditures Per Student

Construction Expenditures per Student Lessthan$500 $500-$999 $1,000-$1,499 $1,500-$1,999 $2,000ormore

l Louisiana ranks among the states putting

the least amount of funding into school facilities. In fact, Louisiana is one of only seven states in the country that does not dedicate state funding for public school maintenance, repair, or construction.

l On average, 88% of schools in Louisiana

report a need to upgrade or repair buildings.

l Thirty-nine percent of schools in the state

National Average per student (2005 - 2008)

$1,086

have at least one inadequate building and 50 percent of schools have at least one inadequate feature, e.g., roof, plumbing, HVAC.

Source: State Capital Spending on PK-12 Facilities, 21st Century School Fund, November 2010 Source: Government Accountability Office ­ School Facilities: State Profiles, 2005

State Capital Spending on Pk-12 Facilities

l Facilities spending in Louisiana was only 60% of the

$2,000

l In the decade before Hurricanes Katrina and Rita,

Facilities Spending Per Pupil (2005-2008)

national average and trailed all other states in the region except for Mississippi. spending was even lower at 46% of the national average. Since then, federal recovery funds have enabled hurricane-impacted areas to increase facilities spending, but in other areas of Louisiana it is still very low.

l Funds provided by FEMA to most hurricane-impacted

$1,500

$1,000

areas were only sufficient to bring schools up to predisaster levels, which is inadequate for Louisiana schools that were entirely substandard before the disasters.

$500

$0

Flo

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as

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Public School Facilities

Source: State Capital Spending on PK-12 Facilities, 21st Century School Fund, November 2010 The Scott S. Cowen Institute for Public Education Initiatives at Tulane University is an action-oriented think tank creating and advancing solutions to the issues impeding student achievement in New Orleans and beyond. Areas of concentration include Applied Research, Public Policy, University-Based Initiatives, and College Readiness Programs. Additional information can be found online at http://education.tulane.edu.

21

Why Are School Facilities Important?

Our educational facilities are an important investment because our children and teachers spend most of their day inside these buildings. Many research studies have shown that school facilities affect the outcome of student performance.

l Teacher

Retention: Poor building conditions greatly increase the likelihood that teachers will leave their school ­ a troubling fact given the need for more and better teachers in most disadvantaged schools. Abilities: Cognitive requirements for learning ­ motivation, energy, attention, hearing, and seeing ­ are affected by the physical surroundings where they take place.

lAbsenteeism:

Overcrowded schools lead to higher absenteeism for both students and teachers and have detrimental effects on children's ability to learn and perform well. Environment: The amount of natural light, the indoor air quality, the temperature, and the cleanliness of schools and classrooms all impact student learning.

l Cognitive

l Classroom

Source: Do School Facilities Affect Academic Outcomes? National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2002

Does the MFP Provide Funding for Facilities?

There is NO capital funding built into the MFP.

70% of MFP funding is required to be used for instructional purposes

30% 70%

30% of the MFP is used for all other expenses, including utilities, employee and retiree benefits, and student transportation

l The

primary source of school funding is the MFP. MFP formula does not dedicate funds to capital repair and maintenance. districts must use the MFP to cover instructional expenses first. Instructional expenses are related to activities dealing directly with interaction between students and teachers and activities designed to improve teaching and the process of learning.

l All

l The

l School

other expenditures covered by general funds must be paid for out of the remaining 30 percent of funds. This includes, among other things, administration of the school, services provided centrally (such as planning and evaluation), student transportation, and all expenses related to operating and maintaining the physical plant of schools (including repairs of buildings, upkeep of grounds, and security).

Public School Facilities

22

Public School Facilities

Public School Construction

New Construction across the United States

The map below represents the percentage of total public school facilities funds spent on new public school construction in the United States. Louisiana is one of eight states that spent only 13-30% of these funds on new construction. The rest of the country spent between 31-77%.

Percent of Total School Construction Dollars Spent on New Construction 13%-30% 31%-40% 41%-60% 61%-77%

Source: Growth & Disparity: A Decade of US Public School Construction, Building Educational Success Together, BEST­2006

New Orleans Public School Facilities Breakdown by Year of Construction Pre-Katrina

50%

5

New Orleans Public School Facilities Breakdown by Year of Construction Post-Katrina

SubstantialRenovation

4

43%

40%

NewConstruction

Note: This graph includes the following schools: Guste Elementary School, Langston Hughes Elementary School, Andrew Wilson Elementary School, Lake Area High School, L.B. Landry High School and Joseph Craig High School.

Percentage of Total Buildings

Number of Total Buildings

8% 3%

30%

28%

3

20%

18%

2

10%

1

0

0

Pre-1916

1916-1945

1946-1975

1976-1990

1990 +

2008

2009

2010

Source: Louisiana Department of Education, 2006

Source: Recovery School District Program Update, December 2010

l New Orleans offers a good example of the low percentage of

recent school construction in Louisiana. The majority of New Orleans school facilities are 30+ years old. The poor state of facilities in Orleans Parish is not just the result of Hurricane Katrina, but is due to the age of the facilities and a statewide lack of funding to keep them in a suitable state of repair.

l The Recovery School District and Orleans Parish School Board

the school facilities in Orleans Parish. The Master Plan was approved in late 2008 by both the Orleans Parish School Board and the State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education.

l The Master Plan proposes six phases of construction and

developed a School Facilities Master Plan to rebuild or renovate

renovation of schools with a combined cost of approximately $1.8 billion. A total of $1.84 billion has been secured from FEMA funds and 6 schools have been built or renovated thus far.

Public School Facilities

23

Louisiana Facilities Needs: $ Per Pupil

Estimated Amount of Facilities Needs on a Per Pupil Basis

A December 2008 study by the American Federation of Teachers identified the school infrastructure funding needs of states across the nation. Because some states lack statewide facilities assessments, they were matched with similar states that do have a usable assessment. Louisiana is matched with South Carolina because Louisiana has never conducted an assessment of school facilities across the state. Based on this study, Louisiana needs the second highest amount ($10,070) of estimated funding per pupil for facilities in the nation after Hawaii ($18,373).

States

Hawaii Louisiana, South Carolina Arkansas,Iowa,Kansas,Missouri,Nebraska North Carolina, Virginia Alabama,Mississippi Alaska Ohio,Michigan,Pennsylvania,Wisconsin WestVirginia,Idaho,NorthDakota, SouthDakota,Wyoming California Tennessee,Indiana,Oklahoma Georgia,Florida Texas Kentucky

Per Pupil Need

$18,373 $10,070 $9,726 $7,086 $6,943 $5,834 $5,065 $4,257 $3,943 $3,807 $3,365 $2,855 $1,505

Source: Building Minds, Minding Buildings: School Infrastructure Funding Need, American Federation of Teachers (2008)

Inadequate Facilities

In 1996, the Government Accountability Office reported that schools with the greatest number of students qualifying for free or reduced lunch also reported the most inadequate buildings. Schools with 70% or more of their students qualifying for free or reduced lunch reported that 41% of their buildings were inadequate. Schools with fewer than 20% of their students qualifying for free or reduced lunch reported only 25% of their buildings as inadequate.

What is an Inadequate School Building?

Avoyelles High School in Avoyelles Parish and Bernard Terrace Elementary in Baton Rouge both have inadequate school facilities. Seventy-three percent of Avoyelles High students qualify for free or reduced lunch, and 81% of Bernard Terrace students qualify for free or reduced lunch. Their buildings are in severe disrepair. Avoyelles High was built in 1927 and survived the flood of 1928. These schools have overcrowded classrooms, crumbling fixtures, cracked paint, and out-of-date portables that cannot keep students warm in the winter.

Avoyelles High School

Bernard Terrace Elementary

24

Public School Facilities

Scott S. Cowen Institute for Public Education Initiatives 200 Broadway Street, Suite 108 New Orleans, LA 70118 504.274.3690 http://education.tulane.edu

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