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REINFORCED CONCRETE

VOL. I

[ ELEMENTRY REINFORCED C O N C R E T E ]

By Dr. H. J. Shah

Edition ISBN Size Binding Pages : 9th Edition: 2012 : 978-93-80358-47-5 : 170 mm × 240 mm : Paperback with 4 color Jacket Cover : 928 + 16

Charotar

` 300.00 CoNteNt

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : INTRODUCTION PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS STRUCTURAL CONCRETE DESIGN FOR FLEXURE : FUNDAMENTALS DESIGN FOR FLEXURE : WORKING STRESS METHOD LIMIT STATE METHOD SHEAR AND DEVELOPMENT LENGTH DEFLECTION AND CRACKING SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND CANTILEVER BEAMS SIMPLE SUPPORTED AND CANTILEVER SLABS CONTINUOUS BEAMS AND SLABS TORSION STAIRS LOAD CALCULATIONS - 1 SIMPLE DESIGNS FRAMED BEAMS COLUMNS DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS : FUNDAMENTALS ISOLATED FOOTINGS COMBINED FOOTINSS PILE FOUNDATIONS RETAINING WALLS FORM WORK DETAILING OF REINFORCEMENT APPENDICIES APPENDIX A SHORT QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS APPENDIX B USEFUL TABLES

This Volume I elucidates the basic principles involved in the analysis and design of Elementary Reinforced Concrete Structures. The book begins with an introduction to concrete technology and continues with chapters on design of beams, slabs, columns, foundations, retaining walls, etc. These chapters are based on the Limit State Method following IS : 456-2000. A few computer programmes to design a section for flexure are introduced. It also includes chapters on formwork and detailing of reinforcements. The salient features of the book are: * Simple, lucid and easy language * Step-by-step treatment * Exposition to practical problems This book in its 24 chapters now contains: * 500 * 228 * 257 * 150 * 9 * 235 Self explanatory and neat diagrams with excellent detailing Fully-solved examples Unsolved examples with answers and questions at the end of chapters Useful tables Computer programmes Short questions with answers is given in Appendix A.

About the book

It is hoped that the book should be extremely useful to the Civil Engineering and Architecture students preparing for Degree Examinations of all the Indian Universities, Diploma Examinations conducted by various Boards of Technical Education, Certificate Courses, as well as for the A.M.I.E., U.P.S.C., G.A.T.E. and other similar competitive and professional Examinations.

Checklist

Charotar Publishing House Pvt. Ltd. Opposite Amul Dairy, Civil Court Road, Post Box No.65, ANAND 388 0 01 India Back Telephone: (02692) 256237, Fax: (02692) 240 089, e-mail: [email protected], Website: www.cphbooks.com

Chapter 1 : INTRODUCTION 1-1 Structural design -- Role of a structural engineer 1-2 Reinforced concrete 1-3 Structural elements (1) Slabs (3) Columns (2) Beaams (4) Foundations 1-4 Loads on structure (1) Dead loads (4) Wind loads (2) Live loads (5) Earthquake loads (3) Impact loads (6) Longitudinal loads 1-5 Ductility versus brittleness 1-6 Strength and serviceability 1-7 Methods of design (1) Working stress method (2) Limit state method 1-8 Codes of practice 1-9 Adaptation of SI units Questions Chapter 2 : PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS 2-1 Constituents of concrete Cement 2-2 General 2-3 Manufacture of Portland cement 2-4 Basic chemistry of cement 2-5 Chemical properties of cement:BIS requirements 2-6 Hydration of cement 2-7 Types of cement 2-8 Selection of cement for production of concrete 2-9 Tests for cement 2-10 Fineness test 2-11 Consistency of standard cement paste Procedure 2-12 Test for setting times, Procedure, False set 2-13 Soundness test, Procedure 2-14 Autoclave expansion, Procedure 2-15 Density test, Apparatus, Materials, Procedure, Calculation 2-16 Test for compressive strength 2-17 Heat of hydration test 2-18 Storing of cement, Aggretages 2-19 Introductory 2-20 Aggregate size 2-21 Fine and coarse aggregate 2-22 Particle shape 2-23 Surface texture 2-24 Strength of aggregate 2-25 Specific gravity 2-26 Bulk density 2-27 Water absorption and surface moisture 2-28 Bulking of sand 2-29 Deleterious substances in aggregates 2-30 Soundness of aggregate 2-31 Alkali-aggregate reaction 2-32 Sieve analysis, Fineness modulus 2-33 Standard grading 2-34 Use of grading curves 2-35 Water for mixing concrete, chemical Admixtures 2-36 Admixtures 2-37 Steel as reinforcement 2-38 Types of reinforcement 2-39 Mild steel bars 2-40 Cold Twisted Deformed (CTD) bars 2-41 Thermo - mechanically treated (TMT) bars 2-42 Corrosion­resistant steel 2-43 Hard-drawn steel wire fabric 2-44 Bending and fixing of bars 2-45 Requirements for reinforcing bars 2-46 Welding of reinforcement 2-47 General notes for site engineers Questions Examples

Chapter 3 : STRUCTURAL CONCRETE General 3-1 Proportioning of ingredients (1) Design mix concrete (2) Nominal mix concrete 3-2 Measurement of materials (1) Mass-batching (2) Volume-batching 3-3 Mixing and placing of concrete 3-4 Compaction 3-5 Curing (1) Moist curing (3) Steam curing (2) Membrane curing 3-6 Formwork for R.C.C. members 3-7 Workability (1) Slump test (3) Vee-Bee test (2) Compacting factor test 3-8 Factors influencing workability 3-9 Strength of concrete and water-cement ratio (1) Compaction (4) Fatigue and impact (2) Curing (5) Age (3) Fineness of aggregate 3-10 Compressive strength of concrete (1) Object (4) Capping (2) Equipments (5) Testing (3) Preparation (6) Results 3-11 Tensile strength of concrete (1) Split cylinder test (2) Standard beam test-modulus of rupture test 3-12 Non-destructive tests (1) Rebound hardness test (2) Ultrasonic pulse velocity test 3-13 Stress-strain behaviour of concrete under short term loads 3-14 Short term static modulus of elasticity 3-15 Shrinkage 3-16 Creep 3-17 Durability of concrete 3-18 Temperature change 3-19 Concrete quality control 3-20 Sampling and strength tests of concrete, Sampling Strength tests 3-21 Statistical analysis of test results (1) Density function (3) Mean (2) Normal distribution (4) Standard deviation 3-22 Standard deviation (1) Standard deviation based on test strength of sample (2) Assumed standard deviation 3-23 Acceptance criteria questions Examples Chapter 4 : DESIGN FOR FLEXURE FUNDAMENTALS 4-1 Introductory 4-2 Review of theory of simple bending 4-3 Practical requirements of an R.C.C. beam 4-4 Size of the beam 4-5 Cover to the reinforcement Cover, Effective depth 4-6 Spacing of bars 4-7 Design requirements of a beam 4-8 Classification of beams (1) Singly reinforced and doubly reinforced beam (2) Rectangular and flanged beams 4-9 Effective width of a flanged beam 4-10 Balanced, Under-reinforced and Over-reinforced design (1) Balanced design (3) Over-reinforced design (2) Under-reinforced design 4-11 Cracking moment 4-12 Bending of an R.C.C. beam (1) Uncracked concrete stage (3) Ultimate strength stage (2) Concrete cracked-elastic stresses stage 4-13 Design methods

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: DESIGN FOR FLEXURE : WORKING STRESS METHOD 5-1 Permissible stresses, Increase in permissible stresses 5-2 Modular ratio 5-3 Design for flexure­assumptions, Singly Reinforced beams 5-4 Derivation of formulae for balanced design, To find neutral axis To find lever arm, To find total forces, To find moment of resistence of section To design balanced section 5-5 Transformed area method 5-6 Types of problems 5-7 Analysis of the section Type 1 To find out the depth of neutral axis for a given section and specifying the type of beam Type 2 To find the moment of resistance for a given section Type 3 For the given moment and section of beam, to check the stresses 5-8 Design of the section (1) Dimensions not given (2) Dimensions are given 5-9 Use of design aids, Doubly Reinforced Beams 5-10 Introductory 5-11 Derivation of formulae for balanced design 5-12 Transformed area method 5-13 Types of problems Type 1 To find out the depth of neutral axis for a given section and specifying the type of beam Type 2 For the given moment and section of beam, to check the stresses Type 3 To find out the moment of resistance of the given section Type 4 To design the section 5-14 Use of design aids, Flanged beams 5-15 Moment of resistance of a singly reinforced flanged beam (1) Neutral axis lies in flange (2) Neutral axis lies in web 5-16 Types of problems Type 1 To find out the neutral axis Type 2 To find out the moment of resistance of given section Type 3 For the given moment and section of beam, to check the stresses Type 4 To design singly reinforced T/L beam for a given moment 5-17 Doubly reinforced flanged beams Type 1 To determine the depth of N.A. and decide type of the beam Type 2 To determine the M.R. of the section Type 3 To determine the stresses in the materials Type 4 To design the beam 5-18 Slabs Examples Chapter 6 : LIMIT STATE METHOD 6-1 Inelastic behaviour of materials 6-2 Ultimate load theory (1) By fixing maximum stress in extreme compression fibre in concrete (2) By fixing maximum strain in extreme compression fibre in concrete 6-3 Limit state method 6-4 Limit state of collapse 6-5 Limit state of serviceability, Deflection, Cracking 6-6 Characteristic and design values and partial safety factors (1) Characterstic strength of materials (2) Characterstic loads (3) Partial safety factors (4) Design values 6-7 Limit state of collapse: Flexure, Assumptions SINGLY REINFORCED RECTANGULAR BEAMS 6-8 Derivation of formulae 6-9 General values

Chapter 5

6-10 Types of problems Type 1 To find out the depth of neutral axis and specifying the type of beam Type 2 To find out moment of resistance for a given section Type 3 To design a singly reinforced rectangular section for given width and applied factored moment Type 4 To find the steel area for a given factore moment 6-11 Failure of R.C.C. beam in flexure Case 1 Over-reinforced beam: compression failure Case 2 Under-reinforced beam: tension failure Case 3 Beam with very small amount of steel 6-12 Code provisions to prevent the brittle failure 6-13 Computer programmes, Doubly Reinforced beams 6-14 Derivation of formulae 6-15 Types of problems Type 1 To find out the moment of resistance of a given section Type 2 To find out reinforcement for a given section and factored moment 6-16 Use of design aids 6-17 Computer programmes for doubly reinforced rectangula sections FLANGED BEAMS 6-18 Introductory 6-19 Position of neutral axis 6-20 Derivation of formulae Case 1 Neutral axis lies in flange Case 2 Neutral axis lies in web (xu > Df) : the section bal anced (limitingvalue of the moment of resistance) Case 3 Neutral axis lies in the web,section is under-reinforced Case 4 Neutral axis lies in the web and the section is over-reinforced 6-21 Use of design aids 6-22 Doubly reinforced flanged beams 6-23 Sections subjected to reversal of moments 6-24 Computer programmes for flanged sections Examples Chapter 7 : SHEAR AND DEVELOPMENT LENGTH 7-1 Shear in structural members 7-2 Flexure and shear in homogeneous beam 7-3 Shear in reinforced concrete beams ­ Elastic theory 7-4 Diagonal tension and diagonal compression 7-5 Limit state theory 7-6 Design shear strength of concrete 7-7 Design for shear 7-8 Shear reinforcement in beams (1) Vertical stirrups (2) Inclined stirrups 7-9 Practical considerations (1) Distance of first bent bar from support (2) Maximum spacing (3) Minimum shear reinforcement 7-10 Critical sections for shear (1) Tension in end region of a member (2) Compression on end region of a member 7-11 Design of a complete beam for shearSupplementary notes 7-12 Use of design aids 7-13 Shear design of beams with variable depth, Development Length 7-14 Introductory 7-15 Development length : Pull out test 7-16 Code provision 7-17 Use of bundled bars 7-18 Anchoring reinforcements 7-19 Bearing stresses at bends 7-20 Reinforcement splicing Examples

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: DEFLECTION AND CRACKING DEFLECTION 8-1 Introductory 8-2 Span/effective depth ratio 8-3 Control of deflection on site (1) Cambering (3) Removal of forms (2) Controlling concrete work (4) Controlling temporary loads 8-4 Deflection calculations 8-5 Short term deflections 8-6 Long term deflections (1) Deflection due to shrinkage (2) Deflection due of creep cracking 8-7 Introductory (1) Bar spacing controls (2) Crack width calculations 8-8 Bar spacing controls (1) Beams (2) Slabs 8-9 Calculation of crack width Calculation of average strain Em (1) Assumption (2) Approximate method Examples Chapter 9 : SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND CANTILEVER BEAMS 9-1 Design procedure (1) Estimation of loads (2) Analysis (3) Design 9-2 Anchorage of bars: Check for development length 9-3 Reinforcement requirements (1) Tension reinforcement (2) Compression reinforcement (3) Cover to the reinforcement 9-4 Slenderness limits for beams to ensure lateral stability SIMPLY SUPPORTED BEAMS 9-5 Introductory 9-6 Design S.F. diagram 9-7 Curtailment of bars, Comment 9-8 Design of a template 9-9 Design of a lintel, Loads, Size, Cover, Cantilever Beams 9-10 Design considerations Effective span Examples Chapter 10 : SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND CANTILEVER SLABS 10-1 Introductory (1) One-way spanning slabs (4) Grid slabs (2) Two-way spanning slabs (5) Circular slabs (3) Flat slabs (6) Ribbed and waffle slabs 10-2 Analysis (1) Elastic analysis (3) Yield line method (2) Using coefficients 10-3 One-way spanning slabs (1) Effective span (5) Deflection (2) General (6) Cracking (3) Reinforcement requirements (7) Cover (4) Shear stress (8) Development length 10-4 Simply supported one-way slab 10-5 Detailing of slabs 10-6 Inclined slabs (1) Slabs spanning perpendicular to the slope (2) Slabs spanning parallel to the slope 10-7 Straight slabs having a small length inclined along the span 10-8 Cantilever slab 10-9 Concentrated load on slabs 10-10 Two-way slabs 10-11 Simply supported two-way slabs Examples

Chapter 8

Chapter 11 : CONTINUOUS BEAMS AND SLABS CONTINIOUS BEAMS 11-1 Introductory 11-2 Analysis parameters (1) Effective span (2) Stiffness 11-3 Live load arrangements 11-4 Redistribution of moment, Plastic hinge, Fixed beam Code requirements 11-5 Reinforcement requirements 11-6 Typical continuous beam details 11-7 Flexure design considerations 11-8 Simplified analysis for uniform loads 11-9 Moment and shear coefficients for continuous beams CONTINUOUS SLABS 11-10 Continuous one-way slab 11-11 Restrained two-way slabs Examples Chapter 12 : TORSION 12-1 General 12-2 Effect of torsion : Provision of reinforcement 12-3 Code provisions General Design rules (1) Shear and torsion-equivalent shear (2) Longitudinal reinforcement (3) Transverse reinforcement 12-4 General cases of torsion (1) Cantilever slab inducing torsion in supporting beam (2) Cantilever beam inducing torsion in supporting beam Examples Chapter 13 : STAIRS 13-1 Stair slabs 13-2 Classification of stairs (1) Straight stair (2) Dog-legged stair (3) Open well stair 13-3 Design requirements for stair (1) Live loads on stair (2) Effective span of stair (3) Distribution of loading on stairs (4) Depth of section 13-4 Reducing the span 13-5 Tread-riser staircase 13-6 Closure Examples Chapter 14 : LOAD CALCULATIONS - 1 14-1 Introductory 14-2 Loads on slabs (1) Self weight of the slab (2) Floor finish (3) Live loads (4) Any other loads 14-3 Loading on beams from one-way slabs (1) Beam B3 (2) Beam B1 14-4 Wall loads and self weight of beams 14-5 Loading on beams from two-way slabs 14-6 Unit loads Examples Chapter 15 : SIMPLE DESIGN 15-1 Introductory 15-2 Design S.F. diagram 15-3 Loads from two-way slabs Examples

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Chapter 16 : FRAMED BEAMS 16-1 Structural joints 16-2 Fixed, cantilever and framed beams (1) Fixed beams (3) Framed beams (2) Cantilever beam 16-3 Analysis and design of the framed beams 16-4 Single span portal frame 16-5 Substitute frame, Moment of inertia of a framed beam Examples Chapter 17 : COLUMNS 17-1 Introductory 17-2 Braced and Unbraced columns (1) Braced column (2) Unbraced columns 17-3 No ­ Sway and Sway columns 17-4 Tied, Spiral and Composite columns (1) Tied columns (3) Composite columns (2) Spiral columns 17-5 Short and Long columns 17-6 Reinforcement requirements 17-7 Minimum eccentricity 17-8 Assumptions made for design short colums 17-9 Axially loaded tied columns 17-10 Axially loaded spiral columns 17-11 Short eccentrically loaded columns -- uniaxial bending Uniaxial bending 17-12 Modes of failure in combined axial load and uniaxial bending 17-13 Types of problems 17-14 The interaction diagram 17-15 Stress block parameters when N.A. liesutside the section 17-16 Construction of interaction diagrams 17-17 Pure axial load 17-18 Axial load with uniaxial moment 17-19 Neutral axis (N.A.) lies outside the section 17-20 Neutral axis (N.A.) lies inside the section 17-21 Charts for compression with bending 17-22 Tension with bending Case I Pure axial load Case II Compression with bending : N.A. lies outside the section Case III Neutral axis lies inside the section : compression with bending (1) f st = 0 (4) f st = f yd (balanced failure) (2) f st = 0.2 f yd (5) Steel beam (3) f st = 0.8 f yd Case IV Tension with bending: N.A. lies inside the section 17-23 Use of interaction diagram 17-24 Unsymmetrically reinforced columns with uniaxial eccentricity (1) General method (2) Approximate method 17-25 Short eccentrically loaded columns : Biaxial bending SLENDER COLUMNS 17-26 Slender columns (1) Unsupported length (4) Slenderness ratio (S.R.) (2) Effective length (5) Short and long columns (3) Radius of gyration (6) Slenderness limits for columns 17-27 Effective length calculations Method 1 Method 2 17-28 Lengths of column (1) Floor height (H) (2) Length of column (L) (3) Unsupported length of column (I) (4) Effective length of column (I ef) 17-29 Design of slender columns 17-30 Design and detailing of a practical column Examples

Chapter 18 : DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS : FUNDAMENTALS 18-1 Introductory 18-2 Classification of foundations (1) Flexible and rigid foundations (2) Shallow and deep foundations 18-3 Types of footings (1) Continuous wall footing (5) Strip footing (2) Isolated footing (6) Raft foundation (3) Combined footing (7) Pile foundation (4) Strap footing 18-4 R.C.C. footings 18-5 Aspects of soil design (1) Depth of foundation (6) Plan dimensions (2) Modes of soil failure (7) Upward soil pressure (3) Safe bearing capacity (S.B.C) of soil (4) Safe bearing pressure (S.B.P.) on soil (5) Allowable bearing pressure (A.B.P.) on soil 18-6 General soil design considerations (1) Uniform settlement (3) Non-uniform pressure (2) Uniform pressure 18-7 Footing for eccentrically loaded columns (1) Concentric footing (2) Eccentric footing, Soil design 18-8 General structural design considerations 18-9 Concrete pedestal 18-10 Transfer of load at the base of column Examples Chapter 19 : ISOLATED FOOTINGS 19-1 Introductory 19-2 Wall footings 19-3 Axially loaded pad footing (1) Proportioning the size (7) Cover (2) Bending moment (8) Reinforcement requirements (3) Nominal reinforcement Shear force Development (4) Shear length (5) Development length (9) Weight of the footing (6) Deflection 19-4 Axially loaded sloped footing 19-5 Eccentrically loaded footings (1) Uniaxial moment (2) Biaxial moment 19-6 Fixing up footing dimensions 19-7 Isolated slab and beam type footing 19-8 Resistance to horizontal loads 19-9 Footing for multi-storeyed building columns Examples Chapter 20 : COMBINED FOOTINGS 20-1 Combined footings 20-2 Combined footing for two axially loaded columns 20-3 Strap footings 20-4 Strip footing 20-5 Raft foundation 20-6 Closure Examples Chapter 21 : PILE FOUNDATIONS 21-1 Introductory 21-2 Loads on pile groups (1) Axial loads on a group of vertical piles (2) Moment on a group of vertical piles (3) Horizontal load (4) Design of a pile 21-3 Soil design of a pile 21-4 Structural design of a pile (1) General (4) Ties (2) Handling stresses (5) spreaders (forks) (3) Main reinforcement 21-5 Design of a pile cap General Examples

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Chapter 22 : RETAINING WALLS 22-1 Introductory 22-2 Types of retaining walls (1) Gravity wall (4) Buttress wall (2) Cantilever wall (5) Bridge abutment (3) Counterfort wall (6) Box culvert 22-3 Earth pressure on walls 22-4 Calculation of earth pressure (1) Cohesionless soil (2) Cohesive soil 22-5 Earth pressure of submerged soil 22-6 Earth pressure due to surcharge 22-7 Drainage of retaining walls 22-8 Stability requirements (1) The restoring moment (stabilizing moment) should be more than the overturning moment so as to get a factor of safety not less than 1.55 (2) The vertical pressure on the soil under the base should not exceed the permissible bearing pressure of soil (3) The restoring force against sliding should be more than the sliding force so as to get a factor of safety not less than 1.55 CANTILEVER RETAINING WALL 22-9 Preliminary proportioning of cantilever retaining wall (1) Height of wall (2) Base width and position of stem on the base of footing (3) Thickness of base slab (4) Thickness of stem 22-10 Design of a cantilever retaining wall (1) Design of stem (2) Design of heel (3) Design of toe (4) Base key COUNTERFORT RETAINING WALL 22-11 Counterfort wall 22-12 Stability and design procedure (1) Stability (2) Stem (3) Base (4) Counterforts Examples

Chapter 23 : FORMWORK 23-1 Introductory 23-2 Requirements for good formwork 23-3 Materials for forms (1) Timber (2) Steel 23-4 Choice of formwork 23-5 Loads on formwork 23-6 Permissible stresses for timber 23-7 Design of formwork 23-8 Shuttering for columns 23-9 Shuttering for beam and slab floor 23-10 Practical considerations 23-11 Erection of forms 23-12 Action prior to and during concreting 23-13 Striking of forms Examples Chapter 24 : DETAILING OF REINFORCEMENT 24-1 Introduction 24-2 General informations for drawing 24-3 Drafting 24-4 Columns framing plan and foundation details General notes 24-5 Columns details 24-6 Slabs and beams details 24-7 Closure APPENDIX A SHORT QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS APPENDIX B USEFUL TABLES Table B-1 Areas of bars in slabs (in mm2) Table B-2 Moment and shear coefficients Table B-3 Reinforcement percentage, pt for singly reinforced sections Table B-4 Reinforcement percentages for doubly reinforced sections Table B-5 Limiting moment of resistance factor, Mu, lim, T/ (fckbwd2) for singly rein forced T-beams, N/mm2 Table B-6 Properties of round bars used as reinforcement Table B-7 Design shear strength of concrete tc, N/mm2 Table B-8 Maximum shear stress tc,max N/mm2 Table B-9 Minimum shear reinforcement (two-leggedstirrups) Table B-10 Values of for two-legged stirrups in N/mm

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